Volcano TECI Project Teachers: Mashawna Miller (Student Teacher); Cathy Henrich (Resident Teacher) Content Area: Science -‐ Earth Science, 9th grade Lesson Topic: Types of volcanoes and their associated properties. California Teaching Standards Earth Science grades 9-‐12: e. Students know there are two kinds of volcanoes: one kind with violent eruptions producing steep slopes and the other kind with voluminous lava flows producing gentle slopes. f.
Students know the explanation for the location and properties of volcanoes that are due to hot spots and the explanation for those that are due to subduction.
Lesson Objective: 1. Students will be able to identify at least three different types of volcanoes based on viscosity and gas pressure as well as know each type of volcano’s eruption type. Materials 1. Developing Hypotheses Handout 2. Notepaper and pen 3. Build Your Own Volcano student worksheet 4. Website http://kids.discovery.com/games/build-‐play/volcano-‐explorer 5. Computer lab with enough stations for students to work in pairs Into (Motivation) 1. Teacher will review the variables that affect what type of eruptions and resulting slopes that are formed (high/low gas, high/medium/low viscosity). 2. Examples of variables that effect type of eruptions will be reviewed with students § YouTube examples § Hawaii Volcano - 2011 Kamoamoa fissure eruption, six months later § http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwBVG0Si7rs&feature=related § Lava bubble burst http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbScYCkVCRE&feature=related § Most incredible volcano footage ever http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IAxj2ob_JoU&feature=related § Kalapana lava flow http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9iZd6wzlCk&feature=related 3. Google Earth examples 1
Through (Direct instruction and guided practice) 1. Teacher will review the process of hypothesis development with students using the Developing Hypotheses Handout 2. Students will be guided in the development of three (3) hypotheses based on the variables that affect volcanic eruptions and will record their hypothesis on the page 2 of the Build Your Own Volcano handout. 3. Students will be paired and will be designated a computer station in the computer lab. Each student will be given a Build Your Own Volcano worksheet 4. Instruct students that they will be using the site above to build virtual volcanoes and observe them erupt. 5. Students will be instructed to fill out graphic organizer handout based on the outlined specifications and their observation during the video. 6. Students will notate whether their hypothesis was correct or incorrect. Beyond (Review and extension of lesson concepts) 1. In pairs, students will discuss what they have learned from the virtual lab. 2. Each student will then write a five-‐sentence summary on the Build Your Own Volcano worksheet. Assessments: 1. The teacher will collect the worksheets and check students’ answers for correct observations and assess understanding from the students’ conclusions and hypotheses. The teacher will assign a point for every correct observation and hypothesis attempt as well as credit students for thoroughness of conclusions.
Developing Hypotheses (Accessed from http://www.accessexcellence.org/LC/TL/filson/writhypo.php)
A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event. A useful hypothesis is a testable statement that may include a prediction. Hypotheses should not be confused with a theory. Theories are general explanations based on a large amount of data. For example, the theory of evolution applies to all living things and is based on wide range of observations. However, there are many things about evolution that are not fully understood such as gaps in the fossil record. Many hypotheses have been proposed and tested. The key word is testable. That is, you will perform a test of how two variables might be related. This is when you are doing a real experiment. You are testing variables. Usually, a hypothesis is based on some previous observation such as noticing that in November many trees undergo color changes in their leaves and the average daily temperatures are dropping. Are these two events connected? How? Any laboratory procedure you follow without a hypothesis is really not an experiment. It is just an exercise or demonstration of what is already known. How Are Hypotheses Written? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Chocolate may cause pimples. Salt in soil may affect plant growth. Plant growth may be affected by the color of the light. Bacterial growth may be affected by temperature. Ultra violet light may cause skin cancer. Temperature may cause leaves to change color.
All of these are examples of hypotheses because they use the tentative word "may.". However, their form is not particularly useful. Using the word may does not suggest how you would go about proving it. If these statements had not been written carefully, they may not have even been hypotheses at all. For example, if we say "Trees will change color when it gets cold." we are making a prediction. Or if we write, "Ultraviolet light causes skin cancer." could be a conclusion. One way to prevent making such easy mistakes is to formalize the form of the hypothesis. Formalized Hypotheses example: If skin cancer is related to ultraviolet light , then people with a high exposure to uv light will have a higher frequency of skin cancer.
If leaf color change is related to temperature , then exposing plants to low temperatures will result in changes in leaf color. Notice that these statements contain the words , if and then. They are necessary in a formalized hypothesis. But not all if-‐then statements are hypotheses. For example, "If I play the lottery, then I will get rich." This is a simple prediction. In a formalized hypothesis, a tentative relationship is stated. For example, if the frequency of winning is related to frequency of buying lottery tickets. "Then" is followed by a prediction of what will happen if you increase or decrease the frequency of buying lottery tickets. If you always ask yourself that if one thing is related to another, then you should be able to test it. Formalized hypotheses contain two variables. One is "independent" and the other is "dependent." The independent variable is the one you, the "scientist" control and the dependent variable is the one that you observe and/or measure the results. In the statements above the dependent variable is blue and the independent variable is red. The ultimate value of a formalized hypothesis is it forces us to think about what results we should look for in an experiment. Rewrite the first four hypotheses using the formalized style shown above. Single underline the dependent variable and double underline the independent variable in the If clause of each hypothesis. When you are done, write one more original hypothesis of your own using this form. Hypothesis 1: Hypothesis 2: Hypothesis 3: Hypothesis 4: