Volcano  TECI  Project     Teachers:  Mashawna  Miller  (Student  Teacher);  Cathy  Henrich  (Resident  Teacher)     Content  Area:  Science  -­‐  Earth  Science,  9th  grade     Lesson  Topic:  Types  of  volcanoes  and  their  associated  properties.       California  Teaching  Standards  Earth  Science  grades  9-­‐12:       e. Students  know  there  are  two  kinds  of  volcanoes:  one  kind  with  violent   eruptions  producing  steep  slopes  and  the  other  kind  with  voluminous  lava   flows  producing  gentle  slopes.   f.

Students  know  the  explanation  for  the  location  and  properties  of  volcanoes   that  are  due  to  hot  spots  and  the  explanation  for  those  that  are  due  to   subduction.  

  Lesson  Objective:     1. Students  will  be  able  to  identify  at  least  three  different  types  of  volcanoes  based   on  viscosity  and  gas  pressure  as  well  as  know  each  type  of  volcano’s  eruption   type.     Materials   1. Developing  Hypotheses  Handout   2. Notepaper  and  pen   3. Build  Your  Own  Volcano  student  worksheet   4. Website  http://kids.discovery.com/games/build-­‐play/volcano-­‐explorer   5. Computer  lab  with  enough  stations  for  students  to  work  in  pairs     Into  (Motivation)   1. Teacher  will  review  the  variables  that  affect  what  type  of  eruptions  and  resulting   slopes  that  are  formed  (high/low  gas,  high/medium/low  viscosity).   2. Examples  of  variables  that  effect  type  of  eruptions  will  be  reviewed  with   students     § YouTube  examples   § Hawaii Volcano - 2011 Kamoamoa fissure eruption, six months later   § http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwBVG0Si7rs&feature=related     § Lava  bubble  burst   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbScYCkVCRE&feature=related     § Most  incredible  volcano  footage  ever   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IAxj2ob_JoU&feature=related     § Kalapana  lava  flow   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9iZd6wzlCk&feature=related     3. Google  Earth  examples   1

  Through  (Direct  instruction  and  guided  practice)     1. Teacher  will  review  the  process  of  hypothesis  development  with  students  using   the  Developing  Hypotheses  Handout   2. Students  will  be  guided  in  the  development  of  three  (3)  hypotheses  based  on  the   variables  that  affect  volcanic  eruptions  and  will  record  their  hypothesis  on  the   page  2  of  the  Build  Your  Own  Volcano  handout.   3. Students  will  be  paired  and  will  be  designated  a  computer  station  in  the   computer  lab.  Each  student  will  be  given  a  Build  Your  Own  Volcano  worksheet   4. Instruct  students  that  they  will  be  using  the  site  above  to  build  virtual  volcanoes   and  observe  them  erupt.   5. Students  will  be  instructed  to  fill  out  graphic  organizer  handout  based  on  the   outlined  specifications  and  their  observation  during  the  video.     6. Students  will  notate  whether  their  hypothesis  was  correct  or  incorrect.       Beyond  (Review  and  extension  of  lesson  concepts)   1. In  pairs,  students  will  discuss  what  they  have  learned  from  the  virtual  lab.     2. Each  student  will  then  write  a  five-­‐sentence  summary  on  the  Build  Your  Own   Volcano  worksheet.     Assessments:     1. The  teacher  will  collect  the  worksheets  and  check  students’  answers  for  correct   observations  and  assess  understanding  from  the  students’  conclusions  and   hypotheses.  The  teacher  will  assign  a  point  for  every  correct  observation  and   hypothesis  attempt  as  well  as  credit  students  for  thoroughness  of  conclusions.    

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Developing  Hypotheses   (Accessed  from  http://www.accessexcellence.org/LC/TL/filson/writhypo.php)    

  A  hypothesis  is  a  tentative  statement  that  proposes  a  possible  explanation  to  some   phenomenon  or  event.  A  useful  hypothesis  is  a  testable  statement  that  may  include  a   prediction.  Hypotheses  should  not  be  confused  with  a  theory.  Theories  are  general   explanations  based  on  a  large  amount  of  data.  For  example,  the  theory  of  evolution   applies  to  all  living  things  and  is  based  on  wide  range  of  observations.  However,  there   are  many  things  about  evolution  that  are  not  fully  understood  such  as  gaps  in  the  fossil   record.  Many  hypotheses  have  been  proposed  and  tested.     The  key  word  is  testable.  That  is,  you  will  perform  a  test  of  how  two  variables  might  be   related.  This  is  when  you  are  doing  a  real  experiment.  You  are  testing  variables.  Usually,   a  hypothesis  is  based  on  some  previous  observation  such  as  noticing  that  in  November   many  trees  undergo  color  changes  in  their  leaves  and  the  average  daily  temperatures   are  dropping.  Are  these  two  events  connected?  How?   Any  laboratory  procedure  you  follow  without  a  hypothesis  is  really  not  an  experiment.  It   is  just  an  exercise  or  demonstration  of  what  is  already  known.   How  Are  Hypotheses  Written?   1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Chocolate  may  cause  pimples.     Salt  in  soil  may  affect  plant  growth.     Plant  growth  may  be  affected  by  the  color  of  the  light.     Bacterial  growth  may  be  affected  by  temperature.     Ultra  violet  light  may  cause  skin  cancer.     Temperature  may  cause  leaves  to  change  color.    

All  of  these  are  examples  of  hypotheses  because  they  use  the  tentative  word  "may.".   However,  their  form  is  not  particularly  useful.  Using  the  word  may  does  not  suggest  how   you  would  go  about  proving  it.  If  these  statements  had  not  been  written  carefully,  they   may  not  have  even  been  hypotheses  at  all.  For  example,  if  we  say  "Trees  will  change   color  when  it  gets  cold."  we  are  making  a  prediction.  Or  if  we  write,  "Ultraviolet  light   causes  skin  cancer."  could  be  a  conclusion.  One  way  to  prevent  making  such  easy   mistakes  is  to  formalize  the  form  of  the  hypothesis.     Formalized  Hypotheses  example:  If  skin  cancer  is  related  to  ultraviolet  light  ,  then   people  with  a  high  exposure  to  uv  light  will  have  a  higher  frequency  of  skin  cancer.  

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If  leaf  color  change  is  related  to  temperature  ,  then  exposing  plants  to  low  temperatures   will  result  in  changes  in  leaf  color.   Notice  that  these  statements  contain  the  words  ,  if  and  then.  They  are  necessary  in  a   formalized  hypothesis.  But  not  all  if-­‐then  statements  are  hypotheses.  For  example,  "If  I   play  the  lottery,  then  I  will  get  rich."  This  is  a  simple  prediction.  In  a  formalized   hypothesis,  a  tentative  relationship  is  stated.  For  example,  if  the  frequency  of  winning  is   related  to  frequency  of  buying  lottery  tickets.  "Then"  is  followed  by  a  prediction  of  what   will  happen  if  you  increase  or  decrease  the  frequency  of  buying  lottery  tickets.  If  you   always  ask  yourself  that  if  one  thing  is  related  to  another,  then  you  should  be  able  to   test  it.   Formalized  hypotheses  contain  two  variables.  One  is  "independent"  and  the  other  is   "dependent."  The  independent  variable  is  the  one  you,  the  "scientist"  control  and  the   dependent  variable  is  the  one  that  you  observe  and/or  measure  the  results.  In  the   statements  above  the  dependent  variable  is  blue  and  the  independent  variable  is  red.     The  ultimate  value  of  a  formalized  hypothesis  is  it  forces  us  to  think  about  what  results   we  should  look  for  in  an  experiment.   Rewrite  the  first  four  hypotheses  using  the  formalized  style  shown  above.  Single   underline  the  dependent  variable  and  double  underline  the  independent  variable  in  the   If  clause  of  each  hypothesis.  When  you  are  done,  write  one  more  original  hypothesis  of   your  own  using  this  form.     Hypothesis  1:         Hypothesis  2:         Hypothesis  3:         Hypothesis  4:    

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Volcano TECI Project.pdf

2. Notepaper'and'pen. 3. Build*Your*Own*Volcano student'worksheet. 4. Website'http://kids.discovery.com/games/build9play/volcano9explorer. 5.

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