High Confidence Powertrain Control Software Development Hakan Yazarel, Tomoyuki Kaga, Ken Butts

Prius software error

NEW YORK (CNN/Money) - A software problem is causing some Toyota Prius gaselectric hybrid cars to stall or shut down while driving at highway speeds, according to a published report.

Toyota spokesman Sam Butto told the newspaper the auto manufacturer identified a "programming error" in the computer systems of 23,900 Prius cars last year and sent owners a service notice advising them to bring the cars into dealers for an hour-long software upgrade.

Source: http://money.cnn.com/2005/05/16/Autos/prius_computer/

Large scale control system •Automotive •Automotivecontrol controlsystem systembecame becameaaLarge LargeScale ScaleControl ControlSystem System • •Engine control Engine control • •Traction Tractioncontrol control • •Auto-cruise Auto-cruisecontrol control

Designed by individuals

•Modules •Modulesdesigned designedand andtuned tunedby byindividual individualengineers engineers over the years and integrated to legacy structure over the years and integrated to legacy structure •Lack •Lackofofunderstanding understandingofofwhole wholestructure structure •Lack of predicting the effect of modification •Lack of predicting the effect of modification •Complex •Complexsoftware softwarestructure structure •Hundreds of modules •Hundreds of modulesinteract interactwith witheach eachother other •Many modes of operations e.g. if-else, switch-case •Many modes of operations e.g. if-else, switch-case •Many •Manylookup lookuptables tables •Hybrid nature of •Hybrid nature ofsystem system


Implicit interaction Explicit interaction



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•Number •Numberofoftests testsgrow growexponentially exponentiallyas asnew new functionalities are added functionalities are added Currently •Identifying •Identifyingthe theroot-cause root-causeofofeven evenaaknown knownproblem problem manageable isisvery verytime timeconsuming consuming •Becomes •Becomeschicken-egg chicken-eggproblem problemininclosed-loop closed-loopfeedback feedbackcontrol control

Exponential growth

Limit of heuristic & human intensive countermeasures

N # of logical branches

Summary: Advanced Design and V&V processes should be incorporated 3

Needs for Model Based Development •Currently Simulink/Stateflow •Formally defining multiple layers of abstractions for a control system software that captures component interactions, data-access rules, explicit/implicit dependency structures etc., e.g. AADL •Formally specifying control system properties (designer’s intended behaviour) to help V&V

•Currently, not clear definitions of feature and module •Feature-level (high level components) ¾ Interactions between modules ¾ Time/Event triggered subsystems ¾ Enabled subsystems ¾ If-then-else branches

• Module-Level (low level components) ¾Arithmetic computations ¾If-then-else branches


Needs for Verification & Validation

•V&V tool sets for design steps •Hierarchical verification • Module, feature, system levels •Test generation for closed-loop feedback control system •Assertion based verification •Components of an assertion for a control software •Evaluating compatibility of a modified/new module within the structure

Conclusion The main obstacles to high confidence control system •Lacking a formal hierarchical structure •To build large scale control systems •Easy verification and validation •Incrementally developed legacy structure •Complexity: Mainly due to number of logical decision branches


Verification of Engine Control Software -

NEW YORK (CNN/Money) - A software problem is causing some Toyota Prius gas- electric hybrid cars to stall or shut down while driving at highway speeds, ...

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