B. Tech. (SEM. IV) THEORY EXAMINATION 2010-11 THEORY OF AUTOl\IATA AND FORl\lAL LANGUAGES Note:-

(1) Attempt ALL questions. (2)

All questions carry equal marks.

(3)

Notations/Symbolsl Abbreviations

used have

usual meaning. Make suitable assumptions, wherever required. 1.

Attempt any two parts of the following: (a)

,

Define Nondeterministic finite automata (!'rFA).Design;. a deterministic finite automata (DFA) ov..erL: = ~a,t>} with minimum number of states which accepts aU the strings .

"' ••

-1>.

~

that ends with babb. (b)

Define'Mealy

machine. Convert the following M
machine into equivalent Mealy machine: Present State

!

Next State

Output

Input 0

Input 1

qo

ql

Y

·ql

qz

N

Gz

C4

q3 . qo

q3

ql

qz

N

q4

q3

C4

N

~qo

N

(c)

Write the steps for minimizing the states in a DFA. Minimize the number of states in the following DFA : Present

Next State

State

Input O·

Input 1

ql

q3

qt q2 .

qo

q3

qt

~

q3

qs

qs

~

q3

q3

~qo

qs

qs qs Given that q3 and qs are final stateS. Attempt any four parts of the following: (a)

Write the regular languages:

expression

for the following

(i)

The set of all strings oro's and 1's in which every 0 is followed by 11.

. (ii)

The set of all strings of O's and 1's. in which the number ofO's is even. ., '

.-.

(b)

Obtain the Nl'-A without epsiloil transition corresponding to the follO\ving regular expression: 00(0* + 1*)* 11. Obt?.in the regular expression

for the following finite

automata having Cia and G2 as final states :

r"-- N~!

I

Ill1 n, I

rp;~~ent §t~tf:

p

Input

I

T'-'~~~r~-1 J

;

2

I

b

qo

I

'-h

. qo

I

ql.J

(d)

Prove that if Land

M are regular

languages

then

intersection of Land M is also regular langauge. (e)

Discuss the Chomsky hierarchy of the languages.

(f)

Prove that every language defined by a regular expression is also accepted by some finite automata.

3.

Attempt any two parts of the following: (a)

State the pumping lemma for regular expressions. Use the pumping lemma to prove that the language L is not regular. L is defined as follows:

L == {on Fn I n is nOl~-negative integers}. (b)

Convert the following grammar into Greibach N0TI11al

9 ••. Form

(GNF) : S-+AAjO A-+ SS 11 What do you understand by ambiguous granul1ar ? .

~ t

Show that the following gramma~is mJli2iguous : . S-+S+SIS*Sla (ii)

Simplif)! the following context free granunar to an equivalent context free grammar that do not have

any :;seless symbol, null production production : S -> aSa I bSb

IE

A-~ aBb I bBa

B ~ aB ibB!

E

S is the start symbol.

and unit

4.

Attempt any two pads of the foilowing : (a)

Define Push Do\,:n Automata (PDA). Construct a PDA which accepts the language Lgivell by: L = {am b" mn

(b)

1m

and

11

are non~negativc integer.::}.

Obtain a context free grammar that generates the langauge accepted (by final state) by the NPDAwith following transitions· : B( qo' a, Z) B(qo'

=

{(qo' AZ)}

a, A) = {(qo' !")}

= {(ql' E)} Z) = {(q2' E)}

S(qo' b, A) b(qj'

E,

go is the initial state and q2 is the final state. (c)

(i)

Construct a Push Down Automata that accepts the language generated by the grammar with following productions : S~aSAla A--'jo bB

B~b (ii)

5.

Prove that context free languages are closed under star -c1bsure,

Attempt any two parts of the following: (a)

Define Turing machine. Design a Turing machine that accepts the language L over {a, b, c} defined (,. follows: L= {wcwlw

E

(a+b)*}.

(b)

Discuss various variations of Turing machine.

(c)

(i)

Write short notes on the halting problem of Turing machine.

(ii)

Differentiate between recursive recursively enumerable language.

language

and

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