Tracking Across Nonoverlapping Cameras Based On The Unsupervised Learning Of Camera Link Models Chun-Te Chu, Jenq-Neng Hwang

Jen-Yu Yu, Kual-Zheng Lee

Department of Electrical Engineering, Box 352500 University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA {ctchu, hwang}@uw.edu

Information & Communication Research Lab Industrial Technology Research Institute, HsinChu, Taiwan {kevinyu, kzlee}@itri.org.tw

Abstract—A multiple-camera tracking system that tracks the human across cameras with nonoverlapping views is proposed. The system is divided into two phases. In the training stage, the camera link model, including transition time distribution, brightness transfer function, region mapping matrix, region matching weight, and feature fusion weight, is estimated by an unsupervised learning scheme which tolerates well the presence of outliers in the training data. In the testing stage, besides the temporal and holistic color features, region color and region texture features are considered. The systematically integration of multiple cues enables us to perform the effective re-identification. The camera link model keeps being updated during the tracking in order to adapt the change of the environment. The complete system has been tested in a real-world camera network scenarios. Keywords- multiple-camera tracking; camera link model; nonoverlapping view, unsupervised learning, camera networks

I.

INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, a surveillance system normally consists of several networked cameras covering a range of area. Tracking multiple people across the uncalibrated cameras with disjoint views is still an open problem. Some researchers aim to structure it as a re-identification problem and try to come up with distinctive features of the targets [1][2][3][4][15], such as SIFT, SURF, covariance matrix, etc. The re-identification is done based on the assumption that these kinds of features are invariant under different cameras’ views. However, the ideal features for describing human have not been discovered yet since the human appearance varies dramatically due to different perspectives and illuminations. On the contrary, we focus on solving the tracking problem based on systematically building the links between cameras. If there exists a path allowing people traveling between two cameras without passing through any other cameras, we call they are connected directly. The relationship between each pair of exit/entry zones in two cameras corresponding to the path can be characterized by a camera link model. The model enables us to utilize a particular feature, which may not be invariant, under different cameras. For instance, due to different lighting conditions and camera color responses, the same object may appear in different colors under different views. The brightness transfer function (BTF) [5] stands for the mapping of color models between two cameras. In this paper, several components are included in a camera link model: transition time distribution, brightness transfer function, region mapping matrix, region matching weight, and feature fusion weight. In our proposed system, a camera link model is learned based on an unsupervised scheme [6] in the training stage. The tracking across the cameras and the model update are performed in the testing stage (Fig. 1).

In Gilbert’s work [7], the tracking relied on three cues: color, size, and transition time. The links were learnt based on an incremental scheme. In order to obtain a dependable link model, a large amount of training data was needed. Javed [8] presented a multiple-camera tracking system which combined the temporal and color features. They showed that all BTFs could be derived from a low dimensional subspace learnt by probabilistic principal component analysis. The supervised learning was required in their system. In [9], they incorporated Markov Chain Monte Carlo into the training stage, and the transition time distribution and BTF were employed to perform the re-identification. Although all the above works considered multiple features during the matching, but the cues were integrated either with uniform weights or empirically determined weights. Moreover, since the viewpoints are different in the cameras, the holistic appearance of the target may not be representative enough. In [1][2][3], the human body was divided into several regions where the features were extracted. However, the direct comparison between the features from the corresponding regions in two objects may cause some errors since the corresponding regions may not cover the same area in real world. Therefore, the region mapping matrix and region matching weight are included in our camera link model. Our aim in this paper is to include more components in our camera link model estimation scheme [6], and to apply the models in the real world scenario for tracking across the cameras with nonoverlapping views. More specifically, (1) We include the region mapping matrix and the region matching weight, enabling us to do the effective human body region matching, in the estimation process. (2) The weights for integrating multiple features are systematically determined during the training stage. (3) The complete system is built to track human across the cameras deployed in the real world. This paper is organized as follows: The overall system is introduced in Section II. Section III and IV describe the problem formulation and estimation of the camera link model, respectively. The experimental results are shown in Section V, followed by the conclusion in Section VI. II.

SYSTEM OVERVIEW

The system is shown in Fig. 1: A. Training Stage First of all, the exit/entry observations of a pair of exit/entry zones in two directly-connected cameras can be generated by the single camera tracking system [10]. Each exit/entry observation contains temporal, color and texture features of a person who is leaving/entering the field of view (FOV) of a



1

,



1

(6)

where is the objective function to be minimized. The constraint equations (5) and (6) enforce the one-to-one correspondence (except for the outliers). The problem can be relaxed by substituting constraint (5) with (7) 0 Figure 1. Overall system for tracking across cameras.

particular camera. Afterwards, deterministic annealing is applied to estimate the camera link model including transition time distribution, brightness transfer function (BTF), region mapping matrix, region matching weight, and feature fusion weight. B. Testing Stage 1~ maintains In the testing phase, each camera , an exit list , for each exit/entry zone k. It consists of the observations of the people who have left the FOV from zone k within seconds from now. ,

,

,

,

,



(1)

,

Whenever a person enters a camera’s view, the system finds the best match among the people in the exit lists corresponding to the linked zones of the directly-connected cameras. Based on the camera link model, the matching score between two objects is computed as the weighted sum of negative distances: ∑

_

(2)

is the weight for the distance corresponding to the where feature i. If the highest score is higher than certain threshold, the label handoff is performed; otherwise, we will treat it as a new person within the camera network. The re-identification results are further used to update the camera link model. III.

PROBLEM FORMULATION

Assume we have two sets of observations, and , representing the exit and entry observations, respectively, in the training data. … … , (3) where and are exit and entry observations, and and are the numbers of the observations. Each observation contains the exit or entry time stamp, holistic color, region color and texture features. The goal of the estimation process is to automatically identify the correspondences between two sets, 1 1) correspondence matrix . i.e., to find the The entry in is set to 1 if corresponds to ; otherwise, it is set to 0. The 1 row and the 1 column represent the outliers entries, i.e., an exit observation from one camera never enters in the other, or an entry observation in one camera is not from the other. Note has no , physical meaning, so all the following discussion will exclude it automatically. Hence, the problem can be written as a constrained minimization integer programming problem: arg min s. t.

0,1

(4) 1,

1

(5)

1,

1

(7)

In this way, the variable is continuous and is easier to solve by deterministic annealing method [6][11]. The continuous-valued indicates how likely the matching is between the i-th exit and the j-th entry observations. Moreover, the relaxation reduces the chance of getting trapped in the local minimum during the optimization search. It was proved that as the iteration proceeds, the solution eventually converges at the one to the original integer problem [11]. The objective function is composed of several cost functions. Each cost function stands for the distance between a pair of exit and entry observations associated with one feature, e.g., time, color, texture, where the camera link model is applied before computing the distance. A. Temporal Feature People tend to follow the similar paths in most cases due to the presence of available pathway, obstruct, and shortest route. Thus, the transition time forms a certain distribution . Given the current estimation of , we can get the transition … … time values from , and : ∑

(8)



(9)

where and represent the time stamps in the observations and . The transition time is always positive if two cameras have no overlapping area, i.e., entry time of a person is greater than the exit time of the correct correspondence. Hence, the 0 and 0 are further included in the constraints problem. A set of valid time values which takes the is further extracted, and the estimation nonzero entries in is built based on the of the transition time distribution kernel density estimation: |



0, ∑

t

(10) (11)



where is the predefined variance of the Gaussian kernel. For each possible correspondence, we compute the likelihood value given the model. Thus, the total cost can be written as: ∑







1

(12) _

,

B. Holistic Color Feature The BTF is applied to compensate the color difference between two cameras before we compute the distance between the holistic histograms of two observations. Thus, the total cost function for the holistic color feature is:

×

+

= + ×

(a) (c) (b) Figure 2. (a) Green box is the bounding box of the target. The target is divided into 7 regions (exclude the head) based on the shown ratios. (b) An exit observation in camera 3. (c) An entry observation of the same person in camera 4. The red line is the principal axis. Region 3 in (b) and (c) do not cover the same area. The yellow rectangles cover the same areas on the target. The histogram extracted from region 3 in (b) can be modeled as the linear combination of the histograms extracted from six regions in (c). The region mapping vector of region 3 and region matching weight are shown in Table I and II. TABLE I. REGION MAPPING VECTOR value

0.295

0.2 _

0.185

∑ ∑

∑ ∑

0.15

TABLE II. REGION MATCHING WEGHT 0.14

0.03

, _

(13) ,

where

is the distance function between two histograms; and are the holistic color histograms of the and ; and : is the estimation observations, of BTF where d is the bin number of the color histogram. C. Region Color and Texture Feature Since the viewpoints vary in two cameras, some parts of the human body may not be seen in both views. Hence, the human is further divided into several regions for more detailed comparison. However, the corresponding regions do not always cover the same area of the human due to different viewpoints (Fig. 2). We observe that the entering (or exiting) directions of different people from an exit/entry zone of a fixed camera are similar, so we employ a mapping matrix to link the regions between two bodies. The histogram extracted from one region of the human leaving from the first camera can be modeled as the linear combination of the histograms extracted from multiple regions of the human entering in the second camera. The snapshots for a person exiting one camera and later entering another are shown in Fig. 2(b) and (c), respectively. First, the principal axis of a person is identified by applying principal component analysis to the human silhouette which is 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

. Initialize , camera link model , While ( ) For 1 Estimate by solving problem (21)~(25). Estimate , , , and based on . End For . ( 1) Update End While Estimate .

Algorithm 1. Iteration of the estimation of the camera link model in the training stage.

value

0.17

0.142

0.16

0.099

0.224

0.095

0.11

obtained from the single camera tracking system [10]. After that, the whole body is divided into head, torso, and leg regions based on the predefined ratios (Fig. 2(a)). We discard the head region in the region matching due to its relatively small area. The torso is further divided into six regions, and the mapping matrix will be trained for linking two six-region from a pair of matching people. Because the leg region usually changes little under different perspectives, we are going to compute the distance between the two whole leg regions without dividing it. Assume the region color histograms of the observations and are … and … , respectively; and are the color histograms extracted in the region k. The regions 1 to 6 are from the torso, and region 7 as: is from the leg. Denote the mapping matrix …

(14)

where is the weighting for the linear combination (Fig. 2). Moreover, since some regions may not be visible under camera’s view, they should be assigned with smaller weights in the region feature distance computation. The cost function is the weighted sum of the distances from all 7 regions: (15) _ ∑







,



where color histograms

_

,

,

is the linear combination of torso region …

after applying the BTF, …

(16)

and … is the weight for each region distance. Note that only the torso regions are considered for the mapping. The texture feature is included in the similar manner. The local binary pattern (LBP) histogram [12] is utilized as the … texture feature and is expressed as



and

, and the

and

are the r-dimensional LBP histograms extracted from the region k. Hence, the cost function is: (17) _ ∑







,



,

_

where

,

is the linear combination of torso region …

LBP histograms

with weights …

. (18)

Since the LBP is robust to the brightness change [12], the BTF is not applied here. D. Maxima Entropy Principle In deterministic annealing, a widely used scheme to solve the optimization problems, the procedure starts with emphasizing maxima entropy of the entries in . The importance of the maximum entropy principle is decreasing by increasing a certain parameter [6] through the iteration. Thus, the cost function is written as the negative of the entropy: ∑



log

(19)

The function (19) can also be seen as the barrier function for the constraint (7). E. Outlier Cost Since the presence of outliers is considered, an additional term to estimate the outliers is included: ∑



(20)

where is a control factor. For instance, if we believe there will be only few outliers, is set large which makes the objective function emphasize the number of nonoutliers.

arg min



1

1, ,





1

(24)

0

_

(25)

is the combination of the above _

B. Estimate Transition Time Distribution Given current , a set of transition time … t is extracted via (8)~(10), and the estimated based on (11).

is

C. Estimate Brightness Transfer Function , we should extract the corresponding To estimate histograms between two cameras [5]. Given a current , each indicates how likely the matching is between the i-th exit and the j-th entry observations. Thus, we can calculate the weighted sum among the histograms in set and separately, where the weights are set as value . ∑



,



(27)

In addition to the holistic color histogram, the region color histograms are also considered. ∑





(28)

(23)

0

The objective function cost functions:

A. Estimate can be updated by solving the problem (21)~(25), where the gradient based method is employed [6].

(22)

1



IV.

(21)

0

based on current camera link model, and a new is updated by solving the problem (21)~(25). The camera link model is then estimated based on current . After the outer iteration loop is , is approaching a binary matrix, and the finished, i.e., feature fusion weight is further estimated.



F. Objective Function Our final problem formulation becomes: s. t.

Figure 3. Camera topology. Four links are denoted as blue broken lines. The exit/entry zones are denoted as red ellipses.

_

(26)

CAMERA LINK MODEL ESTIMATION AND UPDATE

The deterministic annealing is employed (Algorithm 1) [6] to obtain the optimum binary matrix and camera link model. In each inner iteration, the objective function is formulated









Thus, two cumulated histograms

(29) and

,

are obtained: (30)

In this way, the histograms of the outliers are not included in and . After normalizing the the cumulated histograms can thus be estimated [5]. histograms, the D. Estimate Region Mapping Matrix To estimate , both the region color and region texture features should be utilized, and the BTF should be applied when dealing with color feature. Assume the region color and texture histogram vectors of the j-th entry and the i-th exit

∑ Then the





(34)

is calculated as ⁄ ⁄



1~7

(35)

are inversely proportional to the corresponding The weights estimation error.

Figure 4. Transition time distribution.

Figure 5. Brightness transfer function. Note only one channel is shown here for demonstration purpose.

F. Estimate Feature Fusion Weight After the deterministic annealing procedure is complete, the matrix approaches a binary matrix where value 1 indicates the estimated correspondence. Two sets are then defined: the positive set includes the distances of multiple features between estimated matched pairs: , and the , 1~ negative set includes those between nonmatched pairs: denotes the distances of four , 1~ . ): time, holistic color, region color, and features ( _ region texture. The weights are determined based on the degree of separation between the values in the positive set and negative sets. For each feature i in the two sets, we denote the mean and standard deviation of the distribution of the feature distance as , , , and , respectively. The separation is measured as d-prime metric [13][14]:

texture histogram vectors of the j-th entry and the i-th exit observations are concatenated in the following way: …

The weight





is structured as: ∑



and ; , for 1~6. The leg region, denoted as region 7 and , is not considered here with the feature vectors because the mapping matrix is mainly for the torso region. We want to minimize the weighted sum of the mapping error with : the weights

where

arg min ∑



(31) 0



,

, 0

,

1

(37)

The larger the distance between the distributions of positive and negative sets, the better the differentiability of the feature is, resulting in larger weight.





s. t.

(36)

G. Update Camera Link Model in The Testing Stage Due to the presence of the outliers in the training data, the estimation of may contain some wrong correspondences, and camera link model needs to be further refined in the testing stage. Moreover, the environment change may lead to the necessity of the modification of the model, e.g., change of the lighting condition may require a different BTF. Therefore, in the testing stage, the camera link model is updated once the matching score of the detected matched pair is higher than certain threshold, i.e., we believe it is a real matched pair. We use the information of this pair to get the instant camera link

1~6

, 1~6, can be After some manipulation, each vector solved separately (independent to ) by minimizing (32):

g





(32)

E. Estimate Region Matching Weight The weights for different regions are determined by the Matcher Weighting method [13] where the weights are assigned based on the errors of the estimation results. Define as the estimation error of the mapping vector

g

1~6

(33)

Figure 6. Histogram comparison. Blue: the histogram from region 3 in Fig. 2(b). Red: the histogram from Fig. 2(c) after applying BTF and region mapping. Green: the histogram from region 3 in Fig. 2(c). Note only one channel is shown here for demonstration purpose.

TABLE III. RE-IDENTIFICATION ACCURACY method accuracy

proposed system 76.9%

temporal and holistic color features only 65.8%

uniform fusion weight 70.5%

model by using the estimation procedure in Sec. IV, and is set to 1. The update is performed based on (38) 1 (38) where controls the update rate. To update the feature fusion weight , the and are updated similar to (38) given the new data, and is then adjusted by (36) and (37). V.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

We set up four cameras around the department building (Fig. 3). The FOVs of the cameras are spatially disjointed, and the cameras do not need any calibration in advance. The only prior knowledge is the topology and the exit/entry regions of the cameras, which can be easily obtained in real application. The 0.001 , parameters are set as following: 1~2 , 1.2 , 200 , 4 . Function used in histogram distance calculation is L2 norm. A. Camera Link Model There are four pairs of directly-connected cameras, and the links between exit/entry zones are shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 4 and 5 show the transition time distribution and the BTFs of them. The accuracy of the estimation and the comparison with other estimation methods can be referred to [6]. The histogram extracted from region 3 in Fig. 2(b) can be modeled as the linear combination of the histograms in Fig. 2(c) with the mapping weights shown in Table I. The yellow rectangles cover the same areas in Fig. 2(b) and (c) which accounts for nearly 85% of weight falling in region 1 to 4. Moreover, since the left portion of the target in camera 3 is not well-observable in camera 4 due to the different perspectives, and the right portion of the target in camera 3 is wellobservable in camera 4, it explains the region matching weight values (Table II) are higher for the region 1, 3, and 5 than region 2, 4, and 6. Fig. 6 shows the effectiveness of the region mapping matrix. The histogram (blue) of region 3 in Fig. 2(b) is compared with the ones with and without applying camera link model. The red curve is the histogram from Fig. 2(c) after applying BTF and region mapping. The green one is the histogram of region 3 in Fig. 2(c). The one with the camera link model applied gets the better matching which gives preferable similarity measurement between the objects under two cameras. B. Tracking Accuracy Method in [10] is utilized to accomplish the tracking within a single camera. From Fig. 3, the uncertainty of the exit and entry events increases the difficulty of the tracking. For example, a person exiting from camera 1 can enter into either camera 2 or 3. In our testing video, there are 188 people appearing in the deployed camera network, and our system achieves 76.9% re-identification accuracy defined as the fraction of the people being correctly labeled (Table III). Besides the proposed method, we conduct the experiment by using only temporal and holistic color feature similar to [8][9].

The accuracy drops to 65.8% which shows that the temporal and holistic color features are important cues, and the region features further enhance the performance. Moreover, if the integration of four features is equally-weighted, i.e., feature fusion weight is uniform, the accuracy is 70.5% which demonstrates the effectiveness of our feature fusion weight. VI.

CONCLUSION

A multiple-camera tracking system is proposed in this paper. The camera link model learned by an unsupervised scheme is presented to facilitate the matching between the features extracted under different cameras. Besides the temporal and holistic color features, the region color and texture features are effectively integrated based on the self-adjusted feature fusion weights. The experimental results demonstrate that our system is able to successfully estimate the camera link models and perform the tracking across the cameras. REFERENCES [1]

[2]

[3]

[4] [5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14] [15]

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Tracking Across Nonoverlapping Cameras Based On ...

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