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The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. __________________________________________________________Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702

EDITORIAL , ADVISORY AND ACADEMIC BOARD Editor – in - Chief ( Hon. )

Dr. Sunil Goyal B.Sc. , D.T.T. ( Hons. ) , M.A. , PGDBM , Ph.D. , FGASS , FIRJSSH Mobile + 91 94253 82228 , e mail [email protected]

INTERNATIONAL EDITORIAL BOARD Ms. Shabnam Siddiqui , FIRJSSH - Fellow Editor Mr. Rakesh Choudhary , FIRJSSH – Fellow Editor Dr. Maria Shepherd , USA Dr. Carol Zlateva , USA Dr. Eda Bottaglino , Canada Dr. John Mansourian , Italy Dr. Eric A. , UK Dr. Neal E . USA Dr. Norrozila K. Malaysia Dr. Jyoti Sahi , Dubai Dr. Rashmi Grewal , Hong Kong Dr. Chris Naeun , Singapore

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The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. __________________________________________________________Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702

From the Desk of Editor – in – Chief ( Hon. )

Dr. Sunil Goyal B.Sc. , D.T.T. ( Hons. ) , M.A. , PGDBM , Ph.D. , FGASS , FIRJSSH E mail [email protected] Mobile + 91 94253 82228 Language is a deciding factor in getting jobs. English speakers earn up to 34 per cent more, confirming that students from elite institutions have a better chance than non-English speakers. Only about 20 per cent of the student population can communicate in English, of which only four per cent are fluent. The English language training market is thriving and is set to double by 2015 according to a report by The British High Commission, New Delhi—from US$2.75 billion in 2012 to US$4.65 billion in 2015. Such private organizations offer e-learning programmes, as well as regular classes. “For underprivileged students, the spirit of inclusion isn’t there in spite of getting enrolment. They must be given extra help, be it in the form of English training or other ways of engagement. Shortage of teachers in government sector and profit oriented approach of the private sector stops such efforts from materialising,” says former Head of the Department of Defence and Strategic Studies at the Madras University, Professor Gopalji Malviya. While higher education in any of the Indian languages costs between Rs 1,200 and Rs 3, 000 a year, in English the amount comes to between Rs 8,000 and Rs 15,000. For many parents, it seems a sensible investment since it mostly guarantees higher wages. There are people like Bharat, from Delhi, who earns Rs 15,000 working as a gardener, but has still managed to send his brother to an English medium college. “I was always aspirational but reality kept my dreams under check. After I dropped out of middle school because of lack of resources to sustain my studies, I began working as a gardener. That day I pledged I would make my brother an English officer.” The report says 83 per cent of higher level education students in urban South India study in English medium institutions. The South offers the best opportunities for socially inclusive access to higher education. For example, 22 per cent of Hindu SC/STs who get higher education, get technical education. Likewise, 25 per cent of Muslims who get attend higher education, receive technical education. [Source: The Indian Express] With festive greetings and best wishes … v THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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CONTENTS Page

Title of Paper

Name of Authors

Teacher Education : Problems & Remedies with Special Reference to Self Finance Institutions

Gupta, Deepa

1–6

A Comparative Study of Current Scenerio in Online Marketing and Offline Marketing

Thada, Nameeta & Desai, Rajeshri

7 – 19

A Study Based on Awareness of Traditional Therapeutic Ethnobotanical Plants Use by Autochthon of Jhabua District - A Historical Outlook

Sisodiya, Manoj Kumar

20 – 38

An Analysis of Impact of Mgnrega on Socio-Economic Conditions of the Participants in Anantnag District of the State Jammu and Kashmir

Khan, Ishrat & Ganaie, Mushtaq Ahmad

39 - 53

Studying the State of Constitutional Rights in Retrospection: The Case of IndiaBangladesh Border Enclaves (1949-2015)

Bhuyan, Ankur Jyoti

54 – 74

Social Work and Social Harmony through National Integration

Ahad, Nadia & Mishra, Pratibha J.

75 – 91

Devimeenakshi, K., Agarwal, Mudit ; Biswas, Ruchira ; Reddy, Harsha Vardhan ; Raghuvanshi, Bramhansh ; & Vineel, Rohith

92 – 124

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125 – 132

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ekyoh;] vfurk

133 – 137

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ekyoh;] ,e-

138 – 143

Struggle against Terrorism

No.

*** A THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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TEACHER EDUCATION : PROBLEMS & REMEDIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SELF FINANCE INSTITUTIONS GUPTA, DEEPA B.Ed. Department, Shaheed Mangal Pandey Government Girls Post Graduate College, Meerut, Yttar Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT Over the last half a century and particularly, in the recent decades, teaching learning has been undergoing drastic changes. Teacher Education institutions have been proliferating and mushrooming all over the State with profit motives. The powerful lobbies of private education institutions are running their institutions as Teacher Education shops. These institutions exist as business centers for making profit. And the profit comes out of low overhead cost achieved out of low salary expenses of teacher educators who work on temporary basis or contract basis, with low salary without any benefits like pension, medical or maternity. The mere fact that a teacher educator with a doctorate in Education and 15-20 years or whatever experience can earn only a consolidated Rs.16000 per month itself is enough to ward off any aspirants. While the nine percent of the teacher educators who are working in the government as well as aided institutions earn UGC pay scales with promotions as asst. professor, professors, readers etc. with all sort of service benefits, ninety one percent of the teacher educators work in private and self financing sector without any of these and working under job insecurity. Even when the periodical salary revisions increase the salaries of permanent employees sky high, their counterparts in the B.Ed. centers can only dream of a meager rise. Nobody wants to annoy the private education institution bosses. So, some effective suggestions are in this article for the betterment of Teacher Education 1 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Institutions as well as teacher educators. By adopting suggested attitudes, actions, behaviours, activities and beliefs, Teacher Education Institutes can bring immense improvements in teacher education can enhance institutional effectiveness and provide quality teachers to the society. Key Words : Teacher Education, Teacher Educator, and NCTE.

Over the last half a century and particularly, in the recent decades, teaching learning has been undergoing drastic changes. There has been a shift towards student centered classrooms with teacher’s role more as facilitator of learning rather than an autocratic master. Unlike in the past when the teacher was entrusted with transferring the contents of curriculum to a passive audience of students, today new experiments are being tried out in the classroom that includes project based learning, development of thinking skills, and discovery learning approaches. Many teachers are not properly trained in implementing the concepts behind the new curriculum and many are not equipped to properly implement the curriculum. The funniest thing is that the Teacher Education centers and the curriculum followed in the Teacher Education have very little focus on new trends in education.

PRESENT SCENARIO OF TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher Education institutions have been proliferating and mushrooming all over the State with profit motives until the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) with its headquarters in Bangalore, came up with and insisted on mandatory norms and standards for these institutions. As a result of their intervention, many institutions have constructed buildings with classrooms and procured infrastructure to meet their standards. These institutions were even been forced to increase the salary of teacher educators to the basic amount in the government scale. But later, the effectiveness of NCTE intervention reduced and the powerful lobby of private education institutions had their way in 2 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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running their Teacher Education shops. These institutions exist as business centers for making profit. And the profit comes out of low overhead cost achieved out of low salary expenses of teacher educators who work on temporary basis or contract basis, with low salary without any benefits like pension, medical or maternity. Ninety percent of teacher educators are females, probably because this is not an attractive field for men. Such an unorganized workforce naturally invites education merchants. However, at present, the salary and working conditions of the teacher educators is not lucrative enough to attract best talents into the field. The mere fact that a teacher educator with a doctorate in Education and 15-20 years or whatever experience can earn only a consolidated Rs.16000 per month itself is enough to ward off any aspirants. Universities also run self financing B. Ed. colleges usually with a Librarian, a Section Officer and part time sweeper as permanent employees of the University. The Principal and the teachers are on contract basis with contract renewed every year. As a result the Section officers get upper hand in the college administration. The Principals and the faculty members, who are usually females, do not get enough powers to establish discipline in the college or work for the advancement to the institutions. The salary of the Principal is Rs.15000 and a teacher educator is Rs.12000 per month. If a faculty has a Ph.D. then she gets another Rs.1000 per month. While the nine percent of the teacher educators who are working in the government as well as aided institutions earn UGC pay scales with promotions as asst. professor, professors, readers etc. with all sort of service benefits, ninety one percent of the teacher educators work in private and self financing sector without any of these and working under job insecurity. Even when the periodical salary revisions increase the salaries of permanent employees sky high, their counterparts in the B.Ed. centers can only dream of a meager rise. The powerful lobby of the private institutions are also said to influence the Universities’ reluctance in providing fair deal to the teacher educators. The NCTE, unlike in the past, seems to be silenced and remaining 3 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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aloof and so does Hon. Minister for Education. Nobody wants to annoy the private education institution bosses. The B.Ed. institutions are rarely attached to colleges or colleges and exist separately. That itself provides ample scope for profit oriented managements to isolate the Teacher Education communities. Thus, with a team of faculty, predominantly females, with high qualification and submissive and with meager remuneration that challenges even their self esteem, the Teacher Education is carried out. The B.Ed. course is a single year course. The syllabus itself is riddled with problems of content irrelevance, poor standards, and absence of focus on essential areas etc. Even though the number of academic days is few, all sorts of co-curricular activities are carried out including a number of celebrations such as union day and festivals and even all India tour program. There is no substantial research going on in improving the education or evaluation of the existing programs. The evaluation of teacher trainees in the Teacher Education institutions is another big joke. The difference in the marks between high achievers and low achievers is minimal and the faculty members are least bothered in either encouraging the trainees to score high or to punish the lazy with low marks. Thus, most trainees who enter these institutions come out with flying colours.

SUGGESTIONS FOR BETTERMENT OF TEACHER EDUCATION The academic isolation of teacher educators coupled with their poor salary and working conditions itself reflects the neglect of the administration on Teacher Education. It should not be forgotten that the quality of school teacher depends on the training he/she receives from the training institution and allowing Teacher Education to rot adversely impacts education sector. Hope that the Education ministry will start focusing on the B.Ed. education, where the roots of the education system lie. Improving the Teacher Education would positively impact the education sector as a whole. So in this series, there are some

4 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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effective suggestions for the betterment of Teacher Education Institutions as well as teacher educators 1. The Teacher Education Institutions should provided actual salaries to the teacher educators because the institutions take hefty amount to the trainee as admission fee. Salary should be paid through Account Payee Cheques drawn on a scheduled bank, from the date of first appointment of the teachers on probation. 2. The Teacher Education Institutions should well define conditions of service as per norms of NCTE and should issue letters of appointment to the employees at the time of joining service and should also sign a contract of service. The period of probation should normally be one year extendable for another year. In case the management is not satisfied with the performance, the same should be brought to the notice of the employees concerned in writing. Probation should not be extended beyond two years and the Management should arrive at a decision to confirm the teacher or not before the end of the probationary period. 3. The Teacher Education Institutions should Contributory Provident Fund and Gratuity or Pension, Gratuity and General Provident Fund as retirement benefits. These schemes should be as per Government rules of the State/Centre. In addition, it will also consider providing other welfare measures like free children education, leave travel concession, medical benefits, leave encashment etc. 4. The number of students in the class should not be very large. The pupil teachers’ ratio should not exceed 30. Also there must be 1 1/2 teacher per section to teach various subjects. 5. Every Teacher Education Institute should take steps to provide reorientation to all teaching staff, at least once in three years. Such orientation may be organized by the college itself or in collaboration with other colleges or by the State or Regional Institutions or by a National Agency.

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6. Every Teacher Education Institute should be made compulsory to attend 3 seminars, workshops, conferences with full involvement for teacher educators and this is the entire responsibility of management to bear whole the expenses of T.A./D.A. 7. Teacher Education Institutions should arrange special lectures of dignitaries to the teacher educators as well as pupil teachers so that they learn more and more in an economical way. 8. Check gender specific violence, strictly comply with the guidelines and norms prescribed by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in the writ petition for protection of women from sexual harassment at the work place.

In conclusion it may be said that by adopting these attitudes, actions, behaviours, activities and beliefs, Teacher Education Institutes can bring immense improvements in teacher education can enhance institutional effectiveness and provide quality teachers to the society.

REFERENCES 1. Gopalan, K. (2003). Some quality issues in teacher education, University News, 41(7), 1-3. 2. Bhargava, M. and Sarika, L.R. (2006). Teacher in 21st Century. Agra: Rakhi Prakashan. 3. Venkataish (2000). Management and Quality Education, New Delhi, Anmol Publication. 4. Haseen , Taj (2005). Current Challenges in Education, Hyderabad, Neel Kamal Publishing Pvt. Ltd. 5. Saxena, N.R., Mishra, B.K. and Mohanty, R.K. (2005). Teacher Education. Meerut, R. Lall Book Depot. 6. Mohanty, S.B. (2003). Teaching as a Profession. University News, 40(38), 20-26. 7. Verma, R. (2002). Teacher in the 21st Century. University News, 40(48). *** 6 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CURRENT SCENERIO IN ONLINE MARKETING AND OFFLINE MARKETING THADA, NAMEETA1 & DESAI, RAJESHRI2 1

Research Scholar, School of Commerce, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

2

School of Commerce, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT Online marketing has become very important over the years as a more cost effective method of doing business. However in spite of the obvious advantages of internet, traditional marketing continues to be used by majority of the businesses. More and more customers are using the internet to research products and services online which they later buy offline. Most customers compare product features, attributes and prices to get the best product at the best price. Online search helps in this process. Online and offline strategies integration is a very important factor for the strategic success of any business. This paper is based on primary data fill from the respondents. Keywords: Online Marketing, Offline Marketing and Consumer Behaviour.

INTRODUCTION After twenty years of development of the internet as a promotional tool and high level technological and conceptual terms, the intercompany business relationships have drastically changed. These technical changes, improved not only promotional tools but also all other marketing functions by electronic means. A new form of marketing emerged, nowadays known as online marketing. After the “dot com boom” also known as “dot com bubble” (Galbraith, Hale, & Conference, 2004) in 1995 to 2000, companies and 7 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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researchers took the situation more seriously by seeing online marketing not just as a promotional tool but more as whole marketing form.

ONLINE MARKETING Online Marketing is the art and science of selling products and/or services over digital networks, such as the Internet and cellular phone networks. The art of online marketing involves finding the right online marketing mix of strategies that appeals to your target market and will actually translate into sales. The science of online marketing is the research and analysis that goes into both choosing the online marketing strategies to use and measuring the success of those online marketing strategies. Online marketing

uses internet to deliver

promotional marketing messages to consumers. It includes email marketing, search engine marketing, social media marketing, many types of display advertising (including web banner advertising), and mobile advertising.

OFFLINE MARKETING The word contains the meaning of offline marketing itself. It includes other methods of marketing apart from internet marketing. This industry is very popular since hundreds of years back. Although the methods have changed according to latest technology but the meaning is still same. It comprises of advertisement in newspaper, magazines, hoardings, exhibition shows, and print media (like the Yellow Pages, buses, benches, and billboards), sponsoring something, partnership and so on, there are various new and old methods that have been helpful to reach the target audience. This marketing concept is useful for all commercial and non-commercial businesses and products globally. Offline marketing helps in increasing Brand popularity, Product sale, Revenue generation, Profit Maximization and Covering the gap between providers and consumers and making more ... There is so much that is possible in offline

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marketing but everything need to be properly planned and organized else it may have adverse impacts too.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE Online services will drive marketing to the opposite end of the spectrum from “mass” marketing to customized “one-to-one” marketing. Online marketers communicate instantly and directly with the prospective customers and can provide instant fulfilment as well. Marketers with carefully designed World Wide Web sites are already interacting computer to computer, with prospective customers or an individual basis, much as ATM does in very primitive fashion. The increased fragmentation of media and customers, as well as the revolution in mass communication by the new communication channels – internet and mobile communication technologies – has created the need for a new approach to marketing communication that can ensure centralized management and a consistency of communication messages sent towards various audiences (McArthur and Griffin, 1997; Semenik, 2002; Smith, 2002).

Consumer behaviour has changed greatly over the past decades, but it has been evolutionary and the seeds of change have been apparent for generations (Kar, 2010). Piyush K. Sinha, Arindam Banerjee, and Dwarika Prasad Uniyal (2002), identified major drivers behind choice of stores for various marketing needs as exhibited by a typical Indian consumer, by conducting study on 293 participates recruited by e-mail.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY a) To understand the importance of online marketing in changing market scenario. b) To understand the reasons for growing popularity of online marketing.

9 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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c) To analyze the effectiveness of online marketing as compared to traditional marketing. d) To understand the reasons for growing popularity of offline marketing.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The researcher will use proposed methodology due in the tenure of the research work .

RESEARCH DESIGN Study is descriptive in nature.

SAMPLE DESIGN The universe of study include students, housewives, and customers from the age group belongs to 18 to 40 years. 1) Sampling size: The sample size will consist 60 nos. Of respondents which

include all above two categories. 2) Sampling procedure: We have used convenience sampling to select the

sample in this study.

COLLECTION AND SOURCES OF DATA The useful data would be collected from both primary and secondary sources of information. Data collection will be mainly alone through questionnaire some non- structured conversations and talk will also have their valuable place in the work. Secondly through e-mail, chat, phone etc will also to enrich the research work. Observation and personal experiences will also have their relevant place in the data collection. 1. Steps involved for data students, customers and retailers. 2. Contact and explaining them the purpose of study. 3. By questionnaire and interview with related people. 10 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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STATISTICAL TOOLS USED The main statistical tools used for the collection and analysis of data in the project are :  Questionnaire  Pie charts  Bar diagrams

Q1.

Are you shopping online ?

Particular

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

51

85%

No

9

15%

Total

60

100%

Shopping Online 15%

Yes No

85%

ANALYSIS From the survey it was found that amongst 60 respondents a)

85% of the respondents prefer to shopping online.

b)

15% of the respondents prefer to shopping offline.

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Q2.

What type of online advertising do you use ?

Particulars

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

Pop-ups

7

11.67%

Banners

6

10%

Search advertising

27

45%

E-mail/Newsletter

13

21.66%

Forum/chat

5

8.33%

None of the above

2

3.33%

Total

60

100%

Online Advertising 8%

3%

12% pop-ups 10%

22%

Banners Search ad E-mail Forum

45%

none abv

Analysis: a)

11.67% of the respondents use pop-ups for advertising.

b)

10% of the respondents use banners for advertising.

c)

45% of the respondents use search advertising for advertising.

d)

21.66% of the respondents use E-mail for advertising.

e)

8.33% of the respondents use Forum for advertising.

f)

3.33% of the respondents not use advertising.

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Q3.

How much time do you spend online a day ?

Particulars

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

0-1 hour

28

46.67%

2-5 hours

16

26.66%

5-10 hours

10

16.67%

More than 10 hours

6

10%

Total

60

100%

Time Spend Online 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0-1 hour

2-5 hrs

5-10 hrs

more t.10

Analysis: a)

46.67% of the respondents spend 0-1 hour online a day.

b)

26.66% of the respondents spend 2-5 hours online a day.

c)

16.67% of the respondents spend 5-10 hours online a day.

d)

10% of the respondents spend more than 10 hours online a day.

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Q4. From where do you access the internet ?

Particulars

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

At home

45

75%

At work

6

10%

At the College/University

5

8.33%

Other space

3

5%

Nowhere

1

1.66%

Total

60

100%

Internet Access 2% 5% 8%

At home

10%

At work College other spa. nowhere 75%

Analysis: a)

75% of the respondents access the internet at home.

b)

10% of the respondents access the internet at work.

c)

8.33% of the respondents access the internet college/university.

d)

5% of the respondents access the internet other space.

e)

1.66% of the respondents access the internet nowhere.

14 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Q5. Do you have a Credit/ATM/Debit Card ?

Particulars

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

43

71.66%

No

17

28.33%

Total

60

100%

Credit/ATM/Debit Card 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Yes

No

Analysis: a)

71.66% of the respondents have a credit/ATM/Debit Card.

b)

28.33% of the respondents have not a credit/ATM/Debit Card.

Q6. Have you ever bought any product (excluding service) from the internet ?

Particulars

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

53

88.33%

No

7

11.66%

Total

60

100%

15 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Buying Product from the Internet 12%

Yes No

88%

Analysis: a)

88.33% of the respondents have ever bought any product from the Internet.

b)

11.66% of the respondents have not ever bought any product from the Internet.

Q7. Are you satisfied with the product purchased online if Any ?

Particulars

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

41

68.33%

No

19

31.66%

Total

60

100%

Satisfaction with the Product Purchased Online No yes 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

16 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Analysis: a)

68.33% of the respondents are satisfied with the product purchase online.

b)

31.66% of the respondents are not satisfied with the product they have

Purchase online.

Q8. 24*7 Shopping accessibility available on internet ?

Particulars

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

47

78.33%

No

13

21.66%

Total

60

100%

Shopping Accessibility on Internet 22% Yes No 78%

Analysis: a)

78.33% of the respondents says that 24*7 shopping accessibility available

On the internet. b)

21.66% of the respondents says that 24*7 shopping accessibility are not

available On the internet.

FINDINGS 1] It is suggested that offline and online marketing strategies be brought into 17 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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alignment to prevent mixed messages and to promote the availability of the online forums for interaction. Offline advertising should be used to complement the online media. Adding “visit us on Face-book” and other such texts to promotional material will help to raise awareness. 2] The social networking strategy should sufficiently flexible to allow it to adapt to new developments and to determine what works and what does not work.

SUGGESTIONS 1] A dedicated social media co-ordinator is recommended to monitor the impact of any changes implemented. A dedicated co-ordinator would also allow for consistency in communication. At the very least a profession agency experienced in social media marketing should be consulted at from the earliest planning stages. 2] The reviews and complaints raised by the customers on the SNS should be effectively managed and proper actions should be taken by the hotels management and the action taken should also be communicated to the customer. 3] The promotional offers during season on should be displayed on the SNS on regular basis, so that large number of customers is captured.

CONCLUSION The finding and analysis shows that the consumer who are between the age group 18-25 are more comfortable for online marketing than rest of the group. The group which is coming under the age 35 and above are not much aware of the so many marketing sites and as well as they are not technically advanced to do online marketing they fear whether the product they are ordering will come genuine or not so they less do online marketing rather they prefer traditional market. The young generation are more often purchasing from online sites because of the revolution in the technology among the youth population and they are able to use this technology for their well-being more than other age 18 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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group category. There are many marketing site which is more preferable by the youngster. There are increasing demand of online marketing because the variety of options for the consumers to choose and that to at a reasonable price and sometime even less price than the markets. Now also people who are not aware of the several marketing sites and not that technically advanced are less into internet for marketing.

REFERENCES Aron M. Levin, Irwin P. Levin, Joshua A. Weller, (2005).” A Multi-Attribute Analysis

Preferences for Online and Offline Shopping: Differences across

Products, Consumers and Shopping Stages”,Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, VOL 6, NO.4. 2. Guo – Guang Lee & Hsiu-Fen Lin. (2015). Customer Perception of E-service Quality in Online Shopping: International Journal of Retail & distribution Management, Vol.33 Issue 2 pp.161-176. John Horrigan. (2008). Online Shopping: Pew internet and American life project. 1615 L ST. Ravi Sen ,Ruth C. King, & Michale J .Shaw. (2014). Buyers Choice of Online Search Strategy and its Managerial Implications: Journal of Management Information Systems. VOL.23, No.1. Rick L. Andrews. (2004). Behavioural Difference Between Consumer Attracted to Shopping Online Versus Traditional Supermarket: Implications for Enterprise Design and Marketing Strategy. Int J. Internet Marketing and Advertisement, Vol.1, No.1. Kar, M. (2010), Consumer behaviour over the last 25 years, Oxirm Research Themes. www.forbes.com/sites/.../the-top-7-online-marketing

www.google

my

business.com. *** 19 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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A STUDY BASED ON AWARENESS OF TRADITIONAL THERAPEUTIC ETHNOBOTANICAL PLANTS USE BY AUTOCHTHON OF JHABUA DISTRICT A HISTORICAL OUTLOOK SISODIYA, MANOJ KUMAR Research Scholar, Faculty of Life Science, Pacific Academy of Higher Education and Research University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India E mail [email protected] Mobile + 91 99406 880806

ABSTRACT Earth is planet dominated by plants. The green plant is fundamental to all other life. The oxygen we consume .The fuel we burn and many of the most important materials we used were produced by plants. They represent the first stages in the evolution of living things. In the process of the growth of nature, plant multiplied in number, variety and types. This study is a little Effort of documentation of the Traditional Therapeutic Ethnobotanical plant

used by

Autochthon of Jhabua district. Keywords : Awareness, Traditional Therapeutic Ethnobotanical Plants, Autochthon and Jhabua.

INTRODUCTION Humanity as identified as many as 7.5 lakes species plants on earth of which 5 lakes are classified as “higher plants” and 2.5 lakes as “lower plants” [1-5]. Among the Angiosperm plants 4, 20,000 flowering plants were reported around the world, more than 50,000 plants have been used for medicinal purposes In Asia about 6500 Species of plant are used as Home-based remedies

[6,7].

[8].

In

India, the main traditional systems like Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha used over 20 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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7500 species for medicinal purposes. In addition of this a large number of plants are also used in different traditional herbal system including homeopathy, Amachi, Chinese and Folklore

[9].

The history of Ethno botany is as old as that

of humanity but the search involving its observation, recognition and application in human life is traced to have been pioneered during the Phthagoreanism era around 500 BC while the orderly recorded ethno botany is traced to have stated with Dioscorides a Greek Philosopher who published De Materia Medica that cataloged about 600 plants in the Mediterranean around 77 AD

[10].

Today ethnobotany has become progressively more valuable in the

improvement of health care and protection programs in different parts of the world. Ethnobotanical studies that explore and help to preserve knowledge are therefore urgently needed before traditional folklores are lost forever [11].

STUDY AREA Jhabua district is situated in the extreme south‐ western part of the Madhya Pradesh state. It occupies the hilly tract along the western margins of Malwa plateau, and north of the Narmada River. The district extends between the parallels of latitude 21o30’ N and 25o10’ North, and meridians of longitude 73 o 20’ east and 75

o

10’ East. The upper valleys of the Mahi, the Anas and the

Hatni. A number of the rail way stations in district are Meghnagar, Bamnia, Thandla Rd, Panch Pipila, Anas, Bhairongarh, Raoti, Amargar which connects mainly of the towns and villages in the District. The whole district lies under the zone of northern tropical dry mixed deciduous forests. The major forest area is found in Jhabua, Ranapur, Thandla, Meghnagar, and Petlawad Tahsils. The main forest products are timbers, firewood’s, bamboos, grass, gum, resins, fruits, Roots and others products[12]. Jhabua State was one of the Princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. It had its capital in Jhabua town. Most of the territory of the Princely state was inhabited by the Bhil people, who 21 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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constituted a majority as the population. Umarket was a thikana or vassal State of Jhabua[13]. It was the capital of a princely state of the British Raj Central India, in the Bhopawar agency. Its area, with the dependency of Rutanmal, was approx 1,776 square miles (4,600 km2). After India's independence in 1947, its rulers acceded to India, and Jhabua became part of the newly created Madhya Bharat state, which in 1956 was merged into Madhya Pradesh [14]. According to the 2011 Census Jhabua district has a population of 1024091

[15, 16].

These

Tribal people are the ecosystem people who live in harmony with the nature and maintain a close link between man and environment [17]. The tribal’s live close to the forest and are largely dependent on the wild biological resources for their livelihood. They utilization various plant parts like root, bark, leaves; fruits etc [18].

According to the 2011 Census of India Bhil or Bheel is the most popular

tribe with a total population of 46118058, constituting 37.7 % of the total ST population .Bhil has the highest population in Jhabua district followed by Dhar, Barwani and Khargone district. Madhya Pradesh holds 1st rank among all the States/Union Territories (UTs) in terms of special Tribal population and 12 rank in respect of the proportion of ST population to total population

[19].

th

Major

part of the district is covered by dense forest area in which various tribes, like Bheel, Bhilala and Pataya are in Majority. Out of these tribes Bheel and Bhilala stand high in strength scattered in most of the villages of the district. Bheel are the one of the oldest tribal community not only of India but of the world. This ancestral knowledge about uses and preparations of these plants is transferred orally from one generation to another

[20].

These tribal’s are mainly in habitat

western parts of India i.e. in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maharashtra. In Madhya Pradesh these tribals are spread over in four districts, viz. Jhabua, Dhar, Khargone and Ratlam. Basically this community is forest dweller and well acquainted with medical properties of plants of their surroundings. They provide a good source of Ethrobotanical Information [21]. 22 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Map of Study Area

MATERIAL & METHODOLOGY Many Field surveys were conducted during June 2015 -2016 to Approach & uses of plants in disease, ethno botanical information, utilization, methods of raw materials preparation, historical aspects of plant, seasonally variations in plant, plant parts and all other information about selected plants to document through oral interviews & designed semi- structured questionnaire from local herbalists Badwa, Hakeems & the elderly people who were familiar with traditional uses of plants particularly for medicinal, veterinary, fruit, vegetable, fodder, Fuel & others, Literature work of selected pants, historical records aspects, review of work already done on the object, tabulation work in Library of life science department and pharmaceutics department of Pacific University. Field work Non-participant, direct observation and participant observation of tribal area. Prepared Questions were asked and discussed about therapeutic use of ethno botanical medicines. Plants were immediately collected and identified with the help of flora

[22-27]

and available literature herbarium was prepared

following standard method [28]. Authenticity of plant use were cross checked and 23 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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confirmed

[29, 30].

All the collected plant specimens were deposited in the

herbarium of department of Life Science Pacific Academy of higher education and research university Udaipur. All the Ethno botanical information during the survey Personal focused, mythological significance, religious and other uses were collected through Interviews from senior resourceful citizens, villagers, school teachers, group interviews, life history, open and closed questions, utilization of traditional knowledge of ancient races by interviews, opinion, and cross section collection of data, plants collection in study area, non-participant, participant observation questionnaire and interview of tribal plants & data and internet and electronic media device use. Therapeutic Traditional knowledge wisdom with modern knowledge with Therapeutic plants, Indigenous, Management system for Preservation, Synthetic drugs with potent therapeutic activity.

ETHNOBOTANICAL PLANTS OF STUDY OF JHABUA DISTRICT Among Tribal villages more common trees are Borassus flabellifer (Linn.), Mimusops hexandra (Roxb.), Syzygium cumini (Linn.), Ficus bengalensis (Linn.), Cassia tora (Linn.), Khair Acaceia catech Khajur (phonex silivestris), Khejra (prospis spicigera), Mahua (Bassia catifolia), Pipal (Ficus religosa), Haldu (Adina cordifolia), Anwala (cassia quriculata), Thor Euphorbia neffifolia), Cassia tora[31] . The plants which are commonly used by the tribal people of Jhabua Community for preparation of Medicines Frequently grow.

RESULT& DISCUSSION Ethno botanical plant and its parts are excellent sources of medicine. Even today it is the backbone of pharmaceutical companies. Due to this significance progress has been made in the field of Ethno medicine since last four decades. Many workers have contributed to find out various medicinal plants from different parts of India including Madhya Pradesh

[32].

Mayday Pradesh is a

24 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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pioneer state in country having rich natural resources of vegetation due to its unique geographic position. The present paper highlights the 81 Ethno botanical plants used by tribes of Jhabua district described along with their botanical & Vernacular name, Family, part utilization, treat factors and their Therapeutic used. The study put into record some noval conventional uses of certain plant as Ethnobotanical

resembling

Acanthospermum

hispidum

(Bri.)

is

used

Antipyretic, Epilepsy and Bronchitis, Borassus flabellifer (Linn.) is used in Diuretic & as stimulation. Seed of Celosia argentea (Linn.) used against in retention of Burning, Urination. Corm of Dioscorea bulbifera (Linn.) is very effective in bronchial disorders, leaves of Ficus bengalensis (Linn.) used for Dyspepsia. In Diabetes, Syzgium cumini (Linn.) seeds are very effective.

CONCLUSION Conclusively say Autochthon of Jhabua district Bheel, Bhilala and Pataya are using early anciently of various plants Traditional Therapeutic Ethno botanical plants in various diseases. They determination use lots plant and this Traditional, Oldest, ancestral acquaintance, innate knowledge, Aboriginal knowledge, Traditional, Ancestral, invaluable knowledge, about uses and preparations of these plants is transfer verbally from one age group to another it is proved by

Historical aspect, history of Articles , stone, Primitive ethic

evidence indication.This study is a little Effort of documentation of the Traditional Therapeutic Ethno botanical plant

used by Autochthon of Jhabua

district.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am thankful to Dr. Archana Pancholi, Head, Department of Botany, Swami Vivekananda P. G. College, Neemuch (M.P.), India & Dr. Rakshit Ameta, Department of Chemistry, Pacific University Udaipur (Rajasthan), India for providing necessary facilities and also thankful to those tribal and rural people 25 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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who have been helpful in the collection of the valuable information regarding the plants and their utilization.

Table 1 Importance of Ethnobotanical plants used by Tribes of Jhabua district

S.N.

Name &Vernacular of plants

Family

Part

Utilization

Asteraceae

Plant

Anti- pyretic

Amaranthaceae

Root

Scorpion sting

Rutaceae

Plant

Amaranthaceae

Root

Liliaceae

Gel

Annonaceae

Seed

Abortion

Araceae

Corm

Rheumatism

Amaranthaceae

Root

Colic

Araceae

Corm,

Papaveraceae

Seed

Acanthospermum 1

hispidum (Bri.)Chota Gokru

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

Achyranthes aspera (Linn.) Latjira Angijhada Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Bael, Golden Apple Aerva lanata (Linn.)Gorakh Ganja Aloe vera (Linn.) Gwaephata Annona squamosa (Linn.) Sitaphal Amorphophallus paeniifolius Jan. Bhuta Amaranthus spinosus (Linn.) Spiny amaranth Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Jan. Suran Argemone mexicana

Fever, Dysentery UrinaryDisorder Pimples, blemishes

Pain-Killer, Tonic Gout

26 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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(Linn.) Katseriya 11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Arisotolchia (Linn.) Isvarmul-ki-jar Azadirachta indica (Linn.) Neem Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Water hyssop, Brahmi Berberis aristata(Dc.) Rasant, Daru Haldi Boerhaavia diffusa (Linn.) Punarnava Bombax ceiba (Linn.) Semala Borassus flabellifer (Linn). Tad

Aristolochiaceae

Root

Rheumatism

Meliaceae

oil

Multipurpose

Scrophulariceae

plant

Epilepsy

Berberidaceae

Root

T.B.

Nyctaginaceae

plant

Dropsy

Bombacaceae

Root

Spermatorrhoea

Arecaceae

Plant

Diuretic

Paplinacceae

Bark

Tapeworm

Caesalpiniaceae

Fruit

Dyspepsia

Caesalpiniaceae

Plant

Demulcent

Asclepiadaceae

Root

Toothache

Vitaceae

plant

Arthritis

Liliaceae

Root

Tonic

Butea 18

monosperma(Lam.) Flam-of- the-forest

19

20

21

22

23

Cassia fistula (Linn.) Garmala Cassia tora (Linn.)Puvadia Calotropis procera (Ait.) Aakada Cissus quadraangularis (Linn.) Gathiya Chlorophytum borivilianum Safed musli

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24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

Celosia argentea (Linn.) Harod Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn.) Popt Costus speciosus (J.Ko.) Kali musli Cocculus hirsutus (Linn.) Sorva Curcuma pseudomontana ,Jangli haldi Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Dub Diasporas melanoxylon (Roxb.) Padola Dioscorea bulbifera (Linn.) Kanda Echinops echinatus (Roxb) Oontkanto Elephantos scaber (Linn.) Gaujihawa Emblica officinalis (Linn.) Amla Euphorbia neriifolia (Linn.) Thuar Euphorbia caulis (Roxb.) Khargoni Euphorbia hirta (Linn.) Doodamrikase

Burning,

Amaranthaceae

Seed

Sapindaceae

Seed

Swilling

Costaceae

Root

Gout

Menispemaceae

Leaves

Leucorrhoea

Zingiberaceae

Rhizome

Bronchitis

Poaceae

Plant

Decoction

Ebenaceae

Fruit

Dysentery

Dioscoreaceae

Corm

Conjunctivitis,

Asteraceae

Root

Leucorrhoea

Asteraceae

Root

Cardiac tonic

Euphorbiaeae

Fruit

Dysentery

Euphorbiaeae

Stem.

Eternal Used

Euphobiaceae

Root

Euphobiaceae

latex

Urination

Dysentery, Fever Scorpion bite

28 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

Eucalyptus umbellate (Dum.) Lipta Ficus bengalensis (Linn.) Bad Ficus carica (Linn.) Common fig Ficus glomerata (Roxb.) Goolar Ficus rumphii Kabaipipal Glorisa superba (Linn.) Ranchendi Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) Liquorice Habenaria commelinifolia (Roxb.) Hebenaria Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) Khutia Mul Ipomoea carnea (Jace.) Morning glory Jatropha gossypifolia (Linn.) Ratanjyot Jatropha curcas (Linn.) Ratanjot Lawsonia inermis (Linn.)Henna ,Mehndi Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Jivanti, Dodi

Myrtaceae

Leaves

Arthritis

Moraceae

plant

Dyspepsia,

Moraceae

plant

Dyspepsia,

Moraceae

plant

Diarrhoea

Moraceae

plant

Snake-bite

Liliaceae

Root

Snakebite

Papilionaceae

Rhizome

Epilepsy

Orchidaceae

Tuber

snake bite

Asclepiadaceae

Root

Blood pressure

Convolvulaceae

Latex

Arthritis

Euphorbiaceae

plant

Euphorbiaceae

Plant

Libraceae

Bark

Jaundice

Asclepiadaceae

Plant

Typhoid

Antiinflammatory Straight vegetable

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52

53

54

55

56

57

Leea asiatica (Linn.) Nanli Danhi Madhuca indica(Var.) Madhuka Mitragyna Parvifolia (Roxb.) Kalmi Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Rayan Merremia emarginata (Bur.F.) Sarsundari Moringa oleifera (Lamx.) Drumstick Tree

Leeaceae

Root

Snake-Bite

Sepotaceae

Bark

Tonsillitis

Rubiaceae

Leaf

Leucorrhoea,

Sapotaceae

Plant

Convolvulaceae

Leaves

Hair Massaged

Moringaceae

Plant

Joint pain

Solanaceae

Plant

Stimulate

Lamiaceae

Plant

Lamiaceae

Leaf

Snakes away

Cactaceae

Plant

Diabetes

Cactaceae

Plant

Stimulate,

Cactaceae

Plant

Digestibility

Papilionaceae

plant

Skin Disease

Euphorbiaeae

Seed oil

Intestine

Thought infection

Nicotiana 58

plumbaginifolia(Jan.) Tamakhu

59

60

61

62

63

64 65

Ocimum americanum (Linn.)Jan. Tulsi Ocmium Basilicum (Linn.) Kali Tulsi Opuntia dilenii (Haw.) Cactus Opuntia elatior (Mill.) Nagphani Opuntia vulgaris (Mill.) Octopus Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Honge Tree Ricinus cammunis (Linn.)

Asthma, Bronchitis

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Castor bean 66

67

68

69

70

71

Rauvolfia serpentina (Linn.) Chandrabagha Salvadora persica (Linn.) Pilu Solanm virginianum (Linn.)Kachla Syzgium cumini (Linn.) Jamun Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Van Kapas Tridax Procumben (Linn) Ghurar

Worms Apocynaceae

Root

Ulcer

Salvadoraceae

Root

Gout

Solanaceae

Seed

Toothache

Myrtaceae

plant

Diabetes

Malvaceae

Root

Jaundice

Apocynaceae

Plant

Stop bleeding

Fabaceae

Root

Respiratory dis.

Liliaceae

Bulb

Fabaceae

Bulb

Verbenaceae

Leaves

old wound

Solanaceae

plant

Health, Fever

Asclepiadaceae

Plant

Joint Pain

Lytharaceae

Leaf

Arthritis

Uraria picta 72

(Jacq)Pithwat, Pithavan , Dadra

73

74

75

76

77

78

Urginea indica (Roxb.) Jangli pyaz Vigha vexilata (Linn.) Jangali Mung Vitex negundo (Linn.) Nirgundi Withania somnifera (Linn.) Asgandh Wattakaka volubilis (L.F.) Kadwa dudi Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Dhawai

Swelling, Asthma Pipiple, blemishes

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79

80

81

Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) Ghurar Xanthium strumarium (Linn.) Gokhru Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.) Jharber

Apocynaceae

Leaves

Fish poisoning

Asteraceae

Plant

Tuberculosis

Rhamnaceae

Leaves

Scorpion Bite

PLATE - 1 Photo glance of Vegetation of Ranapur, Raipuria of Jhabua district.

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PLATE – 2 Photo glance of Vegetation of Rangpra soyala, Foot Talab & Petlawed of Jhabua district.

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PLATE – 3 Photo glance of Vegetation of Thandla & Meghnagar of Jhabua district.

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REFERENCES [1]

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[11] Kunwar, R. M. and Bassmann, R. W. (2008). Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya, Journal of Ethno biology and Ethnomedicine, vol. article 24, view at publisher, view at Google Scholar, view at Scopus. [12] Census of India (2011). “Madhya Pradesh, District Census Handbook Jhabua Village & Town Directory, Directorate of Census Operations Madhya Pradesh- series ‐ 24 Part XII‐A, Pp 3-17. [13] Great Britain India office the Imperial Gazetteer of India. Oxford: Clarenden Press (1908). [14] I, Resorts Government of

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by the Jaitia tribes in North Cachar hills district of Assam, Northeast India, J. Ethnobiol Ethno med 2. [18] Wagh, V. V. and Jain, A. k. (2010). Ethnomedicinal Observations Among the Bheel And Bhilal Tribes of Jhabua District, Madhya Pradesh India, J. Ethnobotanical, Leafleets 14:715,20. [19] Madhya Pradesh (2001). Data Highlights: The Scheduled Tribes, Census of India 2001 (PDF) Govt. of Madhya Pradesh Retrieved 2010-04-09. [20] Wagh, V., and. Jain, A. K. (2010). Traditional herbal remedies among Bheel and Bhilala tribes of Jhabua Madhya Pradesh. International Journal of Bibliography Technology 1 (2): 2024 ISSN- 0976:0976-4313. [21] Samvatsar, S. (2004). Plants used for the treatment of different types of fevers by Bhils and its sub-tribes in

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Knowledge Vol. 3(3) January 2004 PP. 96-100. 37 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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[22] Ray S., Saikhediya J. (2014). Rare and threatened plants of Nimar region, Madhya Pradesh, International journal of plant Animal and Environmental Sci. 4(4) 235-243 [23] Hooker, J. D. (1892-1897). Flora of British India (BSI publication Calcutta India (1-7). The Botany of Bihar and Orissa (BSI publication Calcutta India 1.3 [25] Verma, D. M, Balakrishna, and Dixit, R. D. (1993). Flora of Madhya Pradesh, BSI Publication, Calcutta India [26]

Mudgal, V., Khanna, K. K., and Hajara, P. K. (1977). Flora of Madhya

Pradesh BSI Publication, Calcutta, India Ray GP 1984 Grasses of Madhya Pradesh Publication Allahabad India [27]

Singh, N. P., Khanna, K. K., Mudgal, V., and Dixit, R.D. (2001). Flora of

M.P. (BSI) Publication Calcutta India 3. [28] Jain, S. K., & Rao R. R. (1977). A Handbook of Field and Herbarium Method, Today and Tomorrows. Oxford & IBH publishing company New Delhi. [29] Jain, S. K. (2004). Credibility of Traditional Knowledge –The Criterion of multi lavational and multiethnic use Ind. J. Trade. Know. Vol.3 (2) pp 137153. [30]

Katewa, S. S., Galav, P. K., and Jain, A. (2010). “Ethno veterinary plants

used for increasing

of lactation by Tribals Jhabua District M.P. India”

Traditional Folk Veterinary Medicines Scientific publisher Jodhpur, 170-172. [31] Scheduled Tribe /Tribes’ of Gujarat /Tribal/Demography of Gujarat Tribal www.trti.mp. gov.in. [32] Jadhav, D. and Rawat, S. S. (2011). Ethno medicinal plants are used in the treatment of various ailments by Bhilala tribe of Alirajpur District Madhya Pradesh J. Eco. Taxom, Bot. 35 (4) 654-657. *** 38 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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AN ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF MGNREGA ON SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE PARTICIPANTS IN ANANTNAG DISTRICT OF THE STATE JAMMU AND KASHMIR KHAN, ISHRAT1 & GANAIE, MUSHTAQ AHMAD2 1

Department of Economics, Swami Vivekanand College, Raisen, Madhya Pradesh, India

2

Ph.D. Research Scholar, Department of Regional Planning and Economic Growth, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT To make access to social and economic security to people is foremost objective of the State in underdeveloped and developing countries. To enable poor people to access basic amenities and to fulfill basic needs of life it is indispensable to provide employment and jobs to them. In our country, the poverty alleviation programs were designed at tackling the problems of poverty and backwardness by helping weaker sections to increase their incomes through self employment and wage paid employment. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was introduced on the lines of Gandhian Directive Principles of State Policies laid out by the Constitution of India with the very purpose of bridging the gap and empowering the rural poor by increasing their buying capacity and making them more self sufficient. This rural welfare scheme underpins the sole objective to reduce rural poverty and rural unemployment to create better socioeconomic conditions for the rural people. The present paper attempts to assess the impact of MGNREGA scheme on socio-economic conditions of rural people working in the scheme for last 10 years since the inception of the scheme in terrorism affected district Anantnag of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. 39 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Keywords: MGNREGA, Unemployment, Wage Employment, and Socioeconomic conditions.

INTRODUCTION Economic development of a country depends on the proper utilization of both human and non-human resources. The large swathes of the Indian land at the eve of Independence faced with economic problems such as the abject poverty. There were differences in the levels of per capita income and consumption, literacy, medical and health facilities, population growth, infrastructure development, employment opportunities. Independent India thus, inherited a backward economy in which prevailed extreme poverty and deprivation, characterized by stagnant agricultural output, an uneven and weak industrial sector and low capital resources (Narang, 1996). The government’s objective then was to attain and accelerate the economic development of the country (Bhuimali, 2004). Till date, numerous programmes have been taken up by Indian government to address the problem of rural unemployment so that the rural people are not forced to move out for survival. Some past important welfare schemes such as Food for Work Programme, Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY), Wage Employment Programmes, Jawahar Rozgar Yojana/ Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana had eroded their basic objective of providing needful employment in areas of extreme poverty and chronic unemployment because of the universalisation of schemes and malfunction of the system. In spite of these programmes, country witnessed a declining growth rate of employment in rural areas during the period from 1972-73 to 2004-05. For anti-poverty programmes had not delivered as per desired results so a debate on the National Rural Employment Guarantee Bill had sparked. The “Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)” was enacted to reinforce the commitment towards livelihood security in rural areas. The Act provides a legal guarantee of 100 days work in a financial year 40 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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(1st April-31st March) to every rural household whose adult members are willing to do unskilled manual work at a statutory minimum wage rate. (Eleventh Five Year Plan, Vol. 3; 86). Now, the scheme has completed a decade in year 2016, an important question arouses whether scheme has been successful in achieving its very basic objectives. The present paper is conducted to assess the impact of scheme on social and economic conditions of workers participated in MGNREGA scheme since its inception in the study area. Some review of literature related to present study. Negi, Singh and Dhanai (2015), conducted a study to find out the impact assessment of MGNREGA in Pauri Garhwal district of Uttrakhand. The study found that MGNREGA played a pivotal role in reducing poverty and unemployment. The study suggested problem of scarcity of water in the hilly areas can be solved through focusing on water conservation and drought proofing works and also suggested 100 days of work limit should be enhanced for wage earners. Tomba & Sanjoy (2013) studied on social and economic assessment of wage employment programs in Manipur. The study found beneficiaries had not received full benefits as there was defective implementation of program, lack of work culture and motivation. The study suggested there should be much more emphasis on physical work and livelihood development. Gupta & Fearooz (2015) conducted a study focused on the impact and strength of the assets created under MGNREGA in Block Sundarbani of district Rajouri of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. The study suggested that the functionaries should focus on community assets and convergence with other departments so that programme could be made more fruitful and in addition children benefitted type of works should be included like playground etc. Malla (2014), conducted a study and explained socio-economic vulnerabilities in Kashmir in an article An Opportunity for Derailed Social Protection: NREGA in Kashmir. The study had been conducted in three Halqa Panchayats 41 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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viz Hamchipora, Dalwash and Nagbal of Khage block in district Budgam. The study concluded that MGNREGA had some positive impact by creating relevant physical capital and also the first tier of Panchayats extended the horizons of the MGNREGA at the local level. The study suggested during lean winter period, MGNREGA job card holders should be provided employment immediately before and after winter session. T. K. Karthika (2015) studied the impact of MGNREGA in socio-economic development and women empowerment. The attempt was made to find out the benefits, implementation and the role of MGNREGA in rural development. The study suggested that people should be aware more about the scheme and government should give importance to productive work as well as programme should be expand in other relevant area like construction, industry, agriculture etc.

NEED AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY In selected district for present study Anantnag climate is very different and land remains covered with snow in winter from November to March. There are some sensitive factors such as terrorism, flood and climate mark selected region district Anantnag different from other regions of the state of Jammu and Kashmir and rest of India. The selected district Anantnag is terrorism affected area so people’s earnings are substantially affected by terrorist activities. Since there is very low investment by entrepreneurs in small business such as small scale and cottage industries so a great proportion of working population is involved in agriculture activities in general and horticulture activities in particular. This creates disguised unemployment in the region. In nutshell, the objectives of the present study are: (1) an analysis of impact of MGNREGA scheme on socio- economic conditions of participants by comparing socio-economic indicators before and after joining MGNREGA scheme. 42 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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(2) and further to describe a policy framework for better implementation of the scheme.

METHODOLOGY The present study is based on primary data collected by researcher from six villages i.e, Chinegund, Lehindagan, Katsoo, Bon-Numbal, Akoora and Fohar situated in two Blocks i.e. Dachinipora and Khoveripora Block in District Anantnag by applying simple random sampling. From each village of the two blocks, 60 beneficiaries holding active job cards in year 2015-16 were selected. In all, a total of 360 beneficiaries have been chosen for study.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Following study is conducted by comparing three social indicators viz. type of schooling of children of respondents, availability of sanitation facilities, migration before and after joining the scheme and similarly three economic indicators viz. average annual income, average annual expenditure and average annual savings of respondent households before and after joining the scheme.

IMPACT

OF

TYPE

OF

SCHOOLING

OF

CHILDREN

OF

RESPONDENTS To check social impact of scheme, provision of children’s education constitutes important place. Here purpose of comparison is to see if there any change in

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type of schooling of children of respondents after working in the scheme.

Table 1 Type of Schooling of the Children of Respondents before and after MGNREGA

Source: Primary data

The Table 1 shows the educational status of children of the respondent families before and after working in the MGNREGA. Out of total sample of 360 respondents, before joining MGNREGA 12 families were not sending their children to school, 277 families were sending their children to Government schools and 71 families were sending their children to private schools. After joining MGNREGA only two families are not sending their children to school, 252 families are sending their children to Government schools and 106 families are sending their children to private schools. It shows a positive impact as 44 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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majority of families are sending their children to school and are also providing better education to their children and as of now majority of families are sending their children to private schools.

AVAILABILITY OF SANITATION FACILITIES Provision of sanitation facilities constitutes a basic human need and is directly concerned with hygiene and health. Table 2 Availability of Sanitation facilities before and after MGNREGA

Source: Primary data 45 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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The table 2 portrays the latrine sanitation before and after joining the MGNREGA.Out of total sample of 360 respondents 30 households had no latrine sanitation, 278 households had their own private latrine and 52 households were using public latrine sanitation before joining MGNREGA. Later after earning from MGNREGA job only 9 households have no latrine sanitation and the numbers of households who have their own latrine sanitation have increased to 343 (95%). In Lehindagan village there are some households who have no latrine sanitation belonging to Gujjar category a sub caste under Schedule Tribe (ST). Overall analysis shows rural poor who were working in scheme have built their own private sanitation facilities. Moreover, it should be highlighted that government launched other schemes side by side relating to provision of sanitation facilities in rural areas in last one decade.

IMPACT ON RURAL MIGRATION Lack of employment and livelihood opportunities in rural areas is basic reason of rural migration in search of work. MGNREGA scheme has been framed in such a way to stop migration of workers especially in lean period by providing 100 days of employment. The study finds considerable decline in village to village migration. However, migration from village to other states declined less. The main reason of this pattern is winter session in which these villages remain covered with snow and most of job workers prefer to migrate neighbor states to work on high wage rates. 46 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Table 3 Migration of Respondents before and after MGNREGA

Source: Primary data The table 3 portrays the pattern of migration of respondents before and after working in MGNREGA. All in all, study shows scheme has positive impact on rural distress migration though it could not be completely stopped. 47 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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IMPACT ON ANNUAL EARNINGS, EXPENDITURE AND SAVINGS Table 4 Average Annual Income of Household before and after MGNREGA

Source: Computed from Primary data

The table 4 describes average annual income of workers before joining and after joining the scheme. It also shows percentage increase in their annual average income after working in the scheme. There is positive impact on the income of workers and percentage increase in average annual income ranges between15% to 20%. Table 5 Average Annual Expenditure of Households before and after MGNREGA

Source: Computed from Primary data 48 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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The table 5 describes average annual expenditure and percentage increase in household expenditure after earning from MGNREGA job. The Households average annual expenditure have increased and ranging between 11% to 16% from village to village.

Table 6 Average Annual Savings of Household before and after MGNREGA

Source: Computed from Primary data

Table 6 shows percentage increase in average annual savings of households in six villages. Expenditure except in village Fohar, average annual savings of households participating in scheme increased more than 50%. The analysis shows a significant impact of the scheme on the increase in savings of the households. However, total savings of households are not so sufficient to assure them a semblance of social and economic security in future. 49 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The foregoing analysis of primary data regarding the workers participated in MGNREGA scheme shows a positive impact on the socio-economic conditions of the workers. However impact is not so sufficient to enable them to come out of vicious circle of poverty and impoverishment. The scheme is successful to some extent to stop village to village migration in search of work but people still migrating to other parts of state in search of work at higher wage rates. No doubt, incomes of MGNREGA workers have increased their savings are also increased but insufficient. To make scheme more effective and beneficial some important recommendations can be added in it.

SUGGESTIONS 1. Working days under the scheme should be extended more than 100 days. 2. To check on migration, efforts should be made to provide work in lean period and in winter session. 3. Wage rates to be paid under MGNREGA should be enhanced . 4. MGNREGA should be diversified into the activities which require technical skill and ability. 5. Government should give significance to productive work. 6. There is need for development of MGNREGA work appropriate to the natural instinct of women from the prospective of augmentation the scope of women employment. 50 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Appendix Tables Table 1 Annual Income of Households before and after MGNREGA

Source: Primary data 51 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Appendix Tables Table 2 Average Annual Household Expenditure of Respondents Before and After MGNREGA

Source: Primary data 52 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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REFERENCES Gupta, S. and Fearooz Ahmad (2015). “Asset Creation Under MGNREGA”, International Journal Of Management,IT and Engineering, Volume 5, pp 275283. Negi, R.,Santosh Singh and Rekha Dhanai (2015). “Impact Assessment of MGNREGA Study of Pauri Garhwal District Of Uttarakhand, India”, International Journal Of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, Vol.3, pp 94-97. Singh, M. and Kh. Tomba Singh (2013). “Economic and Social Assessment of wage Employment Programs in Manipur”, IOSR journal of humanities and social science, Volume 15, pp 27-31. Malla, Mushtaq (2014). “NREGA in Kashmir Opportunity for Derailed Social Protection”, Economic & Political Weekly, VOL XLIX NO 52, pp 109-114. Karthika T. (2015). “Impact of MGNREGA on Socio-Economic Development & Women Empowerment”, IOSR Journal of Business and Management, Volume 17, pp 16-19. Bhuimali and Anil (2004). “Relevance of M.K.Gandhi’s Ideal of Self-Sufficient Village Economy in the 21st Centtury”, Sarvodaya 1 (5). Eleventh Five Year Plan, Planning Commission, Government of India, Vol. 3, p. 86. Five-Year Plans, Planning Commission, Government of India. Narang. A. S. (1996). Indian Government And Politics, Gitanjali Publishing House. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2012). “Youth: poverty and unemployment” In 50th session of the Commission for Social Development United Nations Headquarters, New York, 6 February 2012. United Nations Development Programme (2012-2014). “An Anthology of Research Studies”, MGNREGA Sameeksha II . *** 53 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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STUDYING THE STATE OF CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS IN RETROSPECTION: THE CASE OF INDIA-BANGLADESH BORDER ENCLAVES (1949-2015) BHUYAN, ANKUR JYOTI Research Scholar, CPS, SSS, Jawaharlal Nehru Uuniversity, New Delhi, India

ABSTRACT This paper engages with the erstwhile lives of dwellers of Indo-Bangladesh border enclaves to articulate the surreal and variegated nature of citizenship discourse in the Indian experience. Eventually, it unfolds an archetypal narrative of morbid existence. Their post colonial trajectory has succinctly flaunted, in its absolute definiteness, the thin experience of citizenship. Rather, on a radical note, their existence could be counted as one in the hinterland of rights discourse with its own constitutive vulnerability. In hindsight, one could, with conclusive evidence, assert its logical link to a long history of radical injustice ensured in all possibilities with indifference. Keywords : Constitutional Rights, and India-Bangladesh Border Enclaves.

INTRODUCTION The assessment of substantiality of citizenship rights appears to be an arduous task in post-colonial India owing to the conceptual telos and structural legalities made at the moment of its ‘tryst with destiny’. Consequently, the smorgasbord of knowledge on the nature of Indian State is an evident reality of an undeniable logic. Undoubtedly the trajectory from partition trauma to the normalization of an idiosyncratic democratic discourse and its procedural success has been a virtuous expedition. Amid the perturbing condition of democratic ethos in the post colonial subcontinent, India has symbolically and substantially gone 54 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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beyond the tag of failed state. The Indian brand of democracy has, besides moral credential, garnered reputation for its institutional success (Kohli, 2001, p.3). Amid all academic and ideological scrutiny, critique has given vent to the figured institutional success of democratic arrangement. This inevitably involves the aspect of bargaining and negotiation in the process of allocation of power and values for different individuals, groups and classes within the State. However, though the optimism built around is beguiling, in many instances opinions appearing in the popular media and public sphere could be apprehended as a misguided notion of self complacency. It is because a microscopic observation would reveal the penumbral presence of many darker spots in the trajectory of India democracy. The issues inter alia uneven developmental process, absence of an uncontested and coherent national identity and often irresponsive representative system (Jayal& Mehta, 2010, p.3) compel one to ponder critically the reality of post colonial India. While token of appreciation is immediately credited to the Indian State for keeping a huge pool of heterogeneous elements within a balancing mode, the cases of some specific groups unfold ground of interrogation for getting ignored in the process of seeking representation and citizenship facilities within constitutional norms. This fabricates a surreal and variegated portrait unfolding in the quotidian life of citizens. Intangible canonization of margins experienced within the State thus produces effect of thin concept of citizenship (Jayal, 2013, p.2-14). This insinuates one’s existence in the quagmire of being documented as citizen and still lacking to experience the egalitarian high rewards of the same. In light of the development that has shaped India’s post-colonial politicohistory, one could illustrate numerous instances to typify the lived reality of citizenship in thin dimension. Indian Muslim, People of the North-East and ethnic minorities are only few among groups complaining their being placed in the outer periphery of the State’s scheme. While the predicament is often 55 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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product of an irresponsive representative system, bureaucratic machinery and class differentiated public sphere, in some cases the reality is total absence of accessibility to State’s discourse. While those in the ‘Political Society’ in their quotidian life negotiate for marginal rights with the administrative machineries (Chatterjee, 2010, p.9), some other experiences a life situated in the hinterland of state discourse. This paper would examine the claim with a particular case study involving the history of lives of Indo-Bangladesh border enclaves (19492015). A detail analysis of their post colonial history would reveal an existence of the nature of ‘abandoned’ in similitude to homo Saceri(Agamben, 1998). Recourse to the provision and remedies of constitutional law had been but a forgotten dream for this people for a long time.

BORDER ENCLAVES OF INDIA AND BANGLADESH The term enclave derived from the Latin word inclavatus denoting ‘shut in, locked up’ and clavis referring a ‘key’. It is referred to signify a fragment encircled by something alien in nature or a state of seclusion. In a basic political sense, enclave is a part of the territory of a state that is encircled by territory of another state (Vinokurov, 2007). This means that the land tract is detached from the state (home), and surrounded by another state(host), but still having mental attachment to home state (Barman, 2014). In many instances, enclaves in modern day are seen as an anomalous element in the world political geography. Generally, they may create geographical curiosity in minds of map viewers (Schendel, February2002); but in moment of border related political turmoil, enclaves carry the capacity to disturb peaceful international relations (Vinokurov, 2007).Equally important is to mention here that enclave is understood from the point of view of the state where it is located. But, they are known as exclave for the state who owe them (Schendel, 2002).

Enclaves in Indian subcontinent are a modern day political anomaly. It is in the 56 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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sense that they continued to be counterpoint of spaces that clearly failed to match the modern era (Jones, 2009). As a result of their historical continuity, cultural similarity and geographical proximity with Bengal, the enclaves in the borderland are known in Bengali as chhitmahal. Chit denotes a fragment or part of a whole though not integrated into it and Mahal refers to land from which revenue is collected (Butalia, 2002). What was unique about IndoBangla border is the presence of a few counter enclaves (for example an Indian enclave inside a Bangladeshi enclave inside India) and the only counter-counter enclave (an Indian enclave inside a Bangladehsi counter enclave inside an Indian enclave inside Bangladesh) in the entire world (Whyte, 2002). However, before entering into detail about the history of border enclave and discourse of the living conditions, we need to mention that, in 2015 the governments of India and Bangladesh signed the Land Boundary agreement for resolving the long pending issues including border enclaves. Nevertheless, the conditions of statelessness and historical injustice would sound to be as true as it had been for almost last seven decades. Moreover, the dweller’s lives would flaunt a classic illustration of subsistence in the hinterland of citizenship rights discourse.

Though the signing of Land Boundary Agreement (LBA), 2015 between the two countries recorded official exchange of 162 enclaves (111 Indian enclaves within Bangladesh and 51 Bangladeshi enclaves within India), the academic research from time to time have come with numerical variations. Whereas Brendan R. Whyte estimated the exact number

to be 198

including 106 Indian and 92 Bangladeshi enclaves (Whyte, 2002) (Jones, 2009), Willem van Schendel in his work enumerated the number to be 197 along with a map (Schendel, February2002) to give a proper sketch of the enclaves. More painstaking has been the estimation of the total number of enclave dwellers. Though the LBA considered the total number to be 51,590 as 57 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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recorded by the Joint Boundary Working Group, the Bharat Bangladesh Enclave

Exchange

Coordination

Committee

(BBEECC)ii

insists

the

approximate number to be around 3,00,000 and this shows a huge gap. The number game here is still a matter of confusion and debate. But as far as violation of human rights is concerned, number does not matter (Ghosh, 2016). It is precisely in the sense that the constitution of a democratic country exists with the high egalitarian rewards for every citizens with the absence of any discrimination on individual basis.

HISTORY OF INDIA-BANGLADESH BORDER ENCLAVES India-Bangladesh border enclave is a post-colonial phenomenon. Independence of the Indian subcontinent and its partition had confined the dwellers of these enclaves in a landlocked archipelagoiii. Cyril Radcliffe, who headed the Boundary Commission to divide India was responsible for their being in the wrong side of history. Independence with the unwanted gift of partition was a disaster, calamity and quagmire of epic proportion for these people. However, the obscure origin of the enclaves and their existential complexity has often compelled the dwellers to transcend scientific sense of factual history and rely upon colourful folklore and legends to explain the cause of their predicament. One such spoken about legend goes that the chitts were serendipitous loss/reward of profligate gambling of Maharajas of the region in 18th and 19th centuries Maharajas in moment of losses in gambling would finally resort to the areas of own kingdom as pawns that eventually resulted in patchwork of different rulers (Jones, 2009). A little sober version would state this quilt work of enclaves as an outcome of chess game between Faujdar of Rangpur and ruler of Cooch Behar where villages were used as currency (T. J., 2011, P. 2). The rulers wrote down names of villages as their gambling bids on chitts of paper. These were the chitts that changed hands according to the fortune of the game. Surprisingly, some of them fell inside lands of other’s possessions. However, 58 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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due to absence of any modern concept of geographical territoriality, the adverse possession created no problem as such. Finally, one sarcastic explanation asserts, the British officer with the responsibility to draw border line, while about to finish, decided to have drinks. Suddenly, he knocked over an ink bottle and it spilled across the map, which his colleagues thought to be a conscious act of partition award and eventually the enclaves were retained (Whyte, 2002).

Now leaving the legends aside, a close observation of the post independence enclaves would reflect that, Bangladeshi chhitmahals were situated in Cooch Behariv district of West Bengal and Indian Chhitmahals were located in Panchagarh, Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat and Kurigram district of Bangladesh. The history of these enclaves is closely linked with evolution of Koch kingdom or Cooch Behar and its contiguity with Bengal, Assam and Bhutan. Koch kingdom possessed many detached land tracts within Bengal’s territory which were known as Rajwara or Kuchwara or Chhits. On the other hand Bengal had similar detached lands inside Koch territory called Moghlan or Chhitmahal (Barman, 2014, p.47). These were particularly remote areas in the mid of four different administrative centres, Cooch Behar, Dinajpur, Jalpaiguri and Rangpur (Jones, 2010). However, with British invasion of Cooch Behar in 1772-73 and subsequent status of Cooch Behar as Princely state (Schendel, 2002, p. 119)/Native state (Barman, 2014, p.48)having internal sovereignty, made the issue of controlling areas a matter of mutual administration. But, a friendly relation between the two inhibited any possibility of the subjects facing problem of movement (Barman, 2014). However, British marked boundaries of the scattered estates in 1937 with concrete pillars (Whyte, 2002) and anticipating administrative difficulties, exchanged all enclaves of districts like Dinajpur, Jalpaiguri and Rangpur to maintain territorial integrity (Jones, 2010). However, this system was productive only in terms of taxation/land registration. With

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absence of any concrete physical barrier, movement of the subjects continued as earlier.

It is a widely known fact that while declaring independence of India the princely states were given freedom to choose either India or Pakistan or to stay independent. Boundary commission addressed the issue of only the directly British controlled areas and hence the enclaves including the Princely state of Cooch Behar were left untouched (Whyte, 2002) (Schendel, 2002). But after a couple of years, Maharaja of Cooch Behar opted to join India that happened on 20th august 1949, which was also the official date of coming of enclaves (Jones, 2009). Similarly, Rangpur, which was inside the territory of East Pakistan decided to merge with Pakistan. But the territories they had been possessing inside other’s territories, chhitmahals, continued to remain in possession of conquering state, housing the subjects (Butalia, 2002).

Immediately though the enclave residents did not face restriction of accessibility and movement in the border, introduction of passport and visa in 1952 by Pakistan and subsequently similar steps by India, securitizing border created problem for enclave dwellers. The two decolonized South Asian neighbours perhaps took the concepts of political sovereignty and modern territoriality too seriously to not intervene in other’s internal matter. Hence, the enclaves were left without any administrative or political offices and the question of their passport or visa was beyond imagination.

Nevertheless, the leaders of both the countries recognized the problem and after a series of high level bi-lateral talks, an agreement was signed between Jawaharlal Nehru and Malik Firoz Khan Noon in 1958 to find out a modus Vivendi. The agreement decided to exchange the enclaves excluding the Dahagram/Angarpotav enclave which was kept with Pakistan. It also proposed 60 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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that Beruberi union would be divided in half with southern half falling in Pakistan and northern half in India (Jones, 2010).But, the problem, which Nehru claimed, that any rational human being would easily resolve, met with a halt when criticisms appeared about the agreement in both the countries. Moreover it faced legal and political resistance in India too (Whyte, 2002, p.93). Though Supreme Court of India finally validated Prime Minister’s authority to proceed for the exchange in 1971, independence of Bangladesh in December transformed the entire scenario compelling to renegotiate everything with Bangladesh.

However, on May 16, 1974, a Land Boundary Agreement was signed between Indira Gandhi and Sheikh Mujibur Rehman for finding solution to border disputes by exchanging enclaves and surrendering of adverse possessions between the two. According to the agreement, India retained Berubari Union completely and Bangladesh was given possession of Dahagram and Angorpota besides providing access to it through a corridor estimated 175 x 85 metre that would be rented by Bangladeshi government in perpetuity (Jones,2010). Though Bangladesh ratified it, India could not do so. But as a message of goodwill, in 1992, India permanently leased out the Teen Bigha Corridor to Bangladesh and in 2007, two Joint Boundary Working Groups conducted a joint census in the enclaves for the first time since independence. However, the problems related to the un-demarcated boundary in areas of Daikhata-56, Muhuri River-Belonia and Lathitila- Dumabari, exchange of enclaves and land of adverse possession continued to loom large. Again, in 2011, India and Bangladesh signed the Additional Protocol for the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement expecting to swap 162 enclaves and providing the dwellers the choice to choose the nationality as they like. But again this kept on pending in Indian parliament for years before getting passed on May 7th, 2015, as 100 th constitutional amendment. Eventually on 31st of July, 2015, the two countries 61 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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officially exchanged the enclaves. With the treaty 111 Indian enclaves within Bangladesh territory went to Bangladesh involving 17,160 acres of land while India received 51 Bangladeshi enclaves involving 7110 acres of land (Nagchoudhury, 2015).

THE POPULATION IN THE HINTERLAND OF RIGHTS DISCOURSE Van Schendel was the first scholar to bring an understanding of border enclave form people’s perspective (Gellner, 2014). He has tried to understand evolution of people’s social lives in the enclave, formation of their identity and the way they relate to ideologies of nation-state (Schendel and Baud, 1997). As already mentioned, Pakistan and Indian government introduced mandatory passport and visa system without taking into consideration the issue of enclave dwellers and this left them in Kafka-esque situation. The enclave dwellers were locked in an archipelago of enclaves. With the end of British rule, they were also left out of census (Schendel, 2002). Because enclaves were situated in another country, the home country could not establish offices inside it and the host country too did not enter there. Therefore, getting passport or visa was a matter of going out of the enclave, crossing another country’s securitized land and then entering the host country. For crossing borders and security points, one has to produce legal citizenship documents; the enclave dwellers with no documents at all, mostly ended up falling behind the bars in the process. Hence, the enclave dweller’s lives had been a terrible adventure without identity, legal documents and rights. They have lived in a modern world of territorial demarcation with a pre modern life.

In straight sense, the enclaves were formally un-administered because they were only nominally part of sovereign state. None of the modern state apparatus like bureaucracy, police, and military could access and operate here (Cons, 2016). As a result the enclave dwellers began to live in a state of uncertainty with fear 62 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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of attack, theft, rape or murder as they could resort to no legal or administrative authority (Butalia, 2002). There had been complete absence of any mechanisms to control violence like rape and murder in the enclaves (Schendel, 2002). The enclaves have had nothing to show the presence of government at all. Every moment, the lives of enclave dwellers had been a fight against destiny inside a landlocked archipelago for survival; poverty for them was merely one among the problems of a thoroughly struggling existence.

From economic perspective, it could be seen that though the enclave dwellers cultivated their lands and keep livestock, the surplus could not be channelized to market. This is because enclaves did have no market as outsiders businessman would not dare to venture into a space with absence of law and administration. Administration of local vicinity in the host country often allowed them to import particular essential goods, but only with a minimally prescribed amount. This has in most occasions put the enclave dwellers into a state of economic hardship. While lack of market prosperity had inhibited the possibility of doing business, their undocumented lives and lack of governmental recognition throttled the hope of formal employment outside the enclaves.

Literacy is a primary tool in modern day, both as an ingredient of human development as well as carrier of true democracy. It has been a long time that the enclave residents could ponder over educating their children without hurdles. No schools had been established by any government inside the enclaves; neither the residents could secure or raise fund to do so. But the dream and desperation of some parents often compelled them to resort to illegality to educate their children. This could happen only with generosity of friends or relatives who are citizens of the host country and ready to officially recognize the enclave kids as their children (Jones, 2010). This would entitle the kids to legitimately get enrolled in the schools, but at the cost of emotional violence for 63 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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parents. As expressed by Rashid Ali (enclave dwellers) to an India Today produced documentary titled ‘Barbed Wire: Stuck in an Enclave’.

There is nothing more painful than to force your child to call someone else their parent. It is better to die.

Moreover, getting educated is not a matter of a day or two. Though some fortunate students often got admission in schools of host country’s neighbouring territory, a fear of uncertainty always looms large. The fear of getting exposed about their fake identity not only keep children from getting completely involved in learning process, many enclave students indeed got exposed and were sent back from schools.

Besides the above discussed predicaments, the enclaves had been bereft of facilities related to health services, public distribution system, electricity and other essential amenities that the state in modern times provide to its citizens (Ghosh A. , 2016). Due to their non-adjacency with home state, enclaves lacked state patronage in terms of public health initiatives. The home state’s officials of health department did not have accessibility to the enclaves. On the other hand, the host state, with scarce health resources and increasing population, neither thought it necessary, nor possible to provide the enclaves with medical facilities. This had troubled the women most. Even in critical cases of child delivery, the women were not allowed to admit in hospitals of host state. As a way out, women were sometimes admitted under false name with someone from host state as the husband. Moreover, they took no birth certificates of children which were of no use in their enclave lives. Due to absence of health facilities, many even lost their lives in curable diseases. It must also be mentioned here that beyond day to day health issues, the enclaves became a problem for global disease eradication programme too (Jones, 2010). 64 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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As already mentioned, due to absence of state authorities, there had been no presence of set rules and established order. This had rendered the operation of market, Non Governmental Organisation, health facilities and electricity impossible. All the typical services of modern day state were mostly absent here. But, some of them were partly carried by the residents themselves as a part of survival strategy. For instance, the bridges though exist were constructed by people themselves, from dirt and bamboo. There had been no conception of public goods and services in the enclaves. While the enclave dwellers lives were full of daily struggles, their complexity doubled in moment of natural disaster like flood. It was but obvious that the enclaves did have no official ways of registering their lands (Jones, 2010).

Besides the absence of human security, another critically disturbing element in the enclave was absence of security in terms of law and order. This had hindered any possibility of residents resorting to legal or judicial processes for the conflicts and injustices. To deteriorate the situation, the enclaves had been used as hiding ground by groups of arm robbers as well as thieves. It was because police did not have access to them. Knowing it to be safer zone, often the enclave dwellers too became bandits creating problem of security here (Schendel, 2002). In a rather tensed period in South Asia, insurgent group like Kamtapur Liberation Organization and the Sanwar Group were believed to have established their camps in a few enclaves. It is in such light that, vigilant justice was the only option that the enclave dwellers were left with (Jones, 2010).

Though the day to day injustice of enclave life was one at the extreme level of severity, gendered dynamic unfold the unevenness of the lived experiences. For instance in this space of statelessness, women became the instrument to Indian citizenship for many enclave dwellers (Ghosh A., 2016). Again, the absence of public services, more importantly health facilities hurt the women 65 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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most. Moreover, the women in the enclaves were always vulnerable to male violence and patriarchal domination due to their lack of legal status in an abandoned space. They were always prone to sexual violence like rape and kidnapping (H.J.Shewly, 2015). The discussed space had emerged as ‘space of exception where law was completely absent and state machinery did not operate. Vulnerabilities of injustice associated here was not limited to mere deprivation and withdrawal of citizenship rights by home and host states, but far more than that. This could be explained with Agamben’s concept of construction of ‘bare life’ in ‘space of exception’ like refugee camps or detention camps. Bare life denotes sovereign power’s capacity to position itself above law and suspend legal status of subjects which is done by creating container or space to do so (Agamben, 1998). This also implies that by withdrawing citizenship rights and depriving her/him of basic human rights, homo sacer is left open to violence, abuse or unconditional death. On the other hand on basis of Shewly’s account this could be apprehended as a situation of ‘state of abandonment’. The implied assertion is the abandonment of the enclave dwellers by the home state while leaving them at the threshold of host country’s action of law and exposed to a variety of threats like laws of host country, security forces of home country, arm smugglers, drug dealers, robbers, insurgent groups camping in enclaves and often hostile neighbours of host country (Shewly, 2013). Bare life had been reproduced here every day through abandonment, violence and exploitation.

The discussion so far has unfurled the hardship of the lives of post-colonial sub continental enclave dwellers.

While analyzing the conundrum with a

reflection of abandonment, the implied logic also invokes an attitude of indifference. It should be made clear that abandonment is an act of ceasing to 66 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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support, look after or take interest in someone or something. Precisely speaking, in one aspect, abandonment is the concrete logical act of an indifferent attitude. In this sense, the enclave life is truly a strong case of abandonment. Analytically speaking, the enclave history in entirety was an embodiment of injustice conveyed perennially with expression of indifference. On basis of the condition of enclave dwellers, the parameters of injustice like ignoring one’s agency, putting it into complete passivity, making her/his/their voice unheard (here muted) and the subsequent breakdown of the conceptual universe prove to be absolutely reflective here.

RIGHTS VIOLATION AND A CASE OF RADICAL INJUSTICE To begin with, we can apprehend, making of the enclaves as a consequence of partition was an injustice of no comparison in itself. End of the hard fought Indian independence movement brought only misfortune to the lives of these people. They are victims of injustice due to a process of hasty and irrational boundary demarcation. The normal lives of these people were turned upside down over night without allowing them to properly adjust with the strange newness. Neither the Indian members of the Boundary Commission, nor the leaders in later period dared to rationally demarcate the border and remove injustice (Banerjee, 2001).

To make the matter worse, the two countries for a long time did not take the issue seriously. In the process, these people were locked inside the enclaves with no facilities of health, education, trade, electricity and basic amenities. Further their movements were restricted to the enclaves. Nothing could be more ironical than the fact that the undocumented citizens while entering own country have to land in jail for not being able to produce legal documents. Perhaps this is more than injustice. It could be considered as radical injustice, due to enduring character and the depth of its severity (Halev, 2012). 67 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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In modern sense, the enclave dwellers have been denied all sorts of facilities that citizenship discourse is counted for. There has been a clear denial of civil, political or economic rights. The high ideals of the Constitutions (of their home or host countries) could only be seen from a distant land locked in desperation and injustice. Injustice in this example is significantly unusual involving political and human geography.

There has been a good deal of discussions around the variegated experience of citizenship. But even the categorization like thick/thin and procedural/ substantial dimensions of citizenship is not adequate enough to explain the lived experiences of the enclave dwellers. They have lived like an unwanted organ in the body of nation. Their lives’ have been one of the stateless. Technically, though the International Law Commission’s interpretation (on basis of Convention of 1954 relating to the status of Stateless Persons’) did not directly view them as stateless due to presence of nominal nationality, a close observation of the other related documents convincingly make us see the enclave dwellers as de facto stateless persons (Ghosh A. , 2016). The term de facto stateless would here mean persons staying outside the country of nationality and therefore are unable or unwilling to avail protection of the country. In terms of legal straitjackets though the case of the enclave does not meet the criteria of being de facto stateless, harsh reality of their landlocked life in another country and the complete absence of all citizenship facilities make them de facto stateless in all account (Ghosh, 2016, p. 30).

At a deeper level, we may assume, the trans-territorial nature (Schendel, 2002) of their existence made the enclave dwellers victims of sovereignty mechanism. But the conundrum here was not only about their complex location in world political map. It has resulted as a ‘space of exception’vi where law is completely absent and state machinery does not operate. Vulnerabilities of injustice 68 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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associated here was not limited to mere deprivation and withdrawal of citizenship rights by home and host states, but far more than that. In this context, we may refer to Agamben’s concept of construction of ‘bare life’ in ‘space of exception’ like refugee camps or detention camps. For Agamben, sovereign power is embodied with capacity to position itself above law and suspend legal status of subjects which is done by creating container or space to do so. By withdrawing citizenship rights and depriving her/him of basic human rights, homo sacer is left open to violence, abuse or unconditional death. This way, our case is more than mere form of injustice in that the dwellers had been reduced to the status of biological minimum with an imposition of politicojuridical bare life (Agamben, 1998). But with an important extension of this construction, the living conditions of the enclave dwellers could also be explained as injustice under bare life having social and gendered interaction. Engaging with the arguments of Agamben, H. J. Shewly has come with her formulation from the other end to understand the bare life in the enclaves. For her, instead of looking at the case as sovereign power situating above and suspending rights of enclave dwellers, we can observe their vulnerability with a discourse of ‘state of abandonment’. The implied assertion is abandonment of the enclave dwellers by the home state while leaving them at the threshold of host country’s action of law. Whereas Agamben’s concept sees sovereign taking control over life of people and then constructing bare life in certain sites using a single force, Shewly observes it from diverse angle. In the enclaves, where the home state abandoned the enclave dwellers, they were exposed to a variety of threats. The threats ranged around the laws of host country, security forces of home country, arm smugglers, drug dealers, robbers, insurgent groups camping in enclaves and often hostile neighbours of host country. As a result people turned out to be homo sacer in their own niche (Shewly,2013, p.28)in this nonstate space (Schendel, 2002). Bare life was being reproduced here every day through abandonment, violence and exploitation. 69 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Though the day to day injustice of enclave life was one at the extreme level of severity, gendered dynamic unfolded the unevenness of the lived experiences. For instance, in this space of statelessness, women became the instrument to Indian citizenship for many enclave dwellers. This happened because, despite all hardships, many women were being married off to the enclaves to get rid of dowry. This allowed the family to get socio-economic benefit outside the enclave life. But it also unfolds the provocative story of how burden of dowry compel family to barter the women in exchange for access to citizen’s rights. Many people did this despite knowing the conditions of life inside enclaves (Ghosh A. , 2016). Again, the absence of public services, more importantly health facilities hurt the women most. As already discussed before, women facing labour pain are even not allowed to admit in the host country’s hospital, unless legal documents are produced. This is really heartbreaking. These make them realize the experience of not only borders between the enclaves and the state, but between life and death too. The real picture of the enclaves in general and the complexity of women in particular convince one, how the male and female members were affected differently. Ethnographic study of Hoshna J. Shewly reveals that the women in the enclaves were always vulnerable to male violence and patriarchal domination due to their lack of legal status in an abandoned space. They were prone to sexual violence like rape and kidnapping. Moreover, there was also a public form of patriarchy involved in the process of host country’s women getting married to enclave male. These women inside enclaves lost their status and facilities of citizenship on everyday basis. This is an example of radical injustice with a gendered dimension which could be termed as femina sacra (Shewly, 2013).

CONCLUSION The concern of discourse of constitutional and human rights had been completely and perennially absent in these enclaves. The dwellers had been 70 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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conspicuously pushed beyond the purview of constitutional compass and rights entitlement in a paradoxical political demarcation of the Indian sub-continent. A very long period of their perennial statelessness could be retrospectively analyzed as one of mishandled and ignored case of rights deprivation and rather abandonment. It is appropriate to affirmatively assume this stateless condition as one of radical and enduring injustice. The dwellers had been an accidental victim of a cruel historical trajectory. While the entire sub continent rejoiced their rendezvous with freedom and modernity, these people had to perilously adrift in a state of Statelessness for about seven decades. Interestingly while the ‘to be septuagenarian soon’ Indian democracy stands with its procedural success and the due credits, cases like the lives of the discussed dwellers keep on tickling the social science students and compels one to critically study the substantiality of our democratic and constitutional ethos.

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G.A.Cohen. (1979). The Labor Theory of Value and the Concept of Exploitation. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 8(4), 338-360. G.Agamben. (1998). Homo Sacer:Sovereign Power and Bare Life. (D. H. Roazen, Trans.) California: Stanford University Press. Ghosh, A. (2016). Words of Law, Worlds of Loss: The Stateless People of the Indo- Bangladeshi Enclaves. In P. Banerjee, A. B. Chaudhary, & A. G. Samaddar, The State of Being Stateless (pp. 20-51). New Delhi: Orient Blackswan. Guru, G. (2011). Introduction: Theorizing Humiliation. In G. Guru, Humiliation: Claims and Context. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. H.J.Shewly. (2015, October). Citizenship, abandonment and resistance in the India-Bangladesh

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doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.10.008. Hasan, Z. (2009). Politics of Inclusion:Caste, Minorities and Affirmative Action. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. J.E.Roamer. (1985). Should Marxists Be Interested in Exploitation? Philosophy and Public Affairs, 14(1), 30-65. J.S.Halev. (2012). Enduring Injustice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. J.Shewly, H. (2013). Abandoned spaces and bare life in the enclaves of the India–Bangladesh

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Jones, R. (2010). The Border Enclaves of India and Bangladesh: The Forgotten Lands. In A. a. Diener, Borderlines and Borderlands: Political Oddities at the Edge of the Nation- State (pp. 15-32). Lantham: Rowman and Littlefield. Kohli, A. (2001). Introduction. In A. Kohli, The Success of India's Democracy (p. 3). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Misra, T. (1980, August). Assam A Colonial Hinterland. Economic and Political Weekly, 15(32), 1357-1364. Nagchoudhury, S. (2015, June 7). I've got a nation. It comes at the end of my life, still it comes: resident of a Bangladeshi enclave. The Indian Express. R.K.Barman. (2014). Contested Identity of Stateless Indians: A Study on the Chhitmahal-dwellers of India-BangladeshBorder Zones. In &. P. K. Banerjee, On The Twin Wheels: Unity and Plurality, India Through Ages (pp. 41-87). Kolkata: Aruna Prakashan. Skhlar, J. (1992). Faces of Injustice. USA: Yale University Press. V.W.Schendel. (2002). Stateless in South Asia: The Making of the IndiaBangladesh Enclaves. The Journal of Asian Studies, 8(2), 211-242. V.W.Schendel, & Baud, M. (1997). Towards a Comparative History of Borderlands. Journal of World History, 8(2), 211-242. Verma, V. (1998). Exploitation and Justice: Should we be Interested in a Theory of Exploitation. Economic and Political Weekly, 115-121. Vinokurov, E. (2007). A Theory of Enclaves. Lexington Books.

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Whyte, B. R. (2002). Waiting for the Esquimo: an historical and documentary study of the Cooch-Behar enclaves of India and Bangladesh. Melbourne: The University of Melbourne. Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the Politics of Difference. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

END NOTES i

Homo Sacer is a person bound by law but not protected by it.

ii

Bharat-Bangladesh Enclave Exchange Co-ordination Committee is a civil

society based NGO working since 1994. They have been in the forefront in terms of raising the issue of the enclave dwellers among people and in front of authorities. Deeptiman Sengupta has been a vocal member appearing on its behalf. iii

This term has been used by Van Schendel to understand the existance of

enclaves with a view of islands amid the sea iv

Cooch Behar was a Princely State earlier and now happens to be a district in

West Bengal. v

This enclave has a history of exception in many dimensions. For further study

one can see “Sensitive Space: Fragmented Territory at the India-Bangladesh Border” by Jason Cons. vi

State of exception as understood by Jason cons is an ill defined state of

simultaneous secrecy, compromised security and ambiguity where the conditions are being kept covered by different apparatus of the state.

***

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SOCIAL WORK AND SOCIAL HARMONY THROUGH NATIONAL INTEGRATION AHAD, NADIA & MISHRA, PRATIBHA J. Department of Social Work, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, Chhatisgarh, India

ABSTRACT Social work is a profession among the social sciences that endeavours to improve the lives of individuals, groups, and societies. It incorporates and uses other social sciences as a means to improve human conditions with practice based. This paper attempts to present an overview of the social harmony through various practices based on the Social Work intervention. It is important as it promotes understanding, tolerance and friendship among human beings in their diversity of religion, belief, culture and language, and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, regardless of their race, gender, language or religion. The term social harmony can be defined as a condition where different ethnic communities could co-exist peacefully. It is the glue that binds the people of a nation together. When it comes to country, social harmony is related to development without which the overall development of a country might not be achieved. But today, we see intolerance amongst subgroups that people have formed on varying degrees of common interests. How long is it going to take before people realize that all people can form a big community, rather than smaller groups forming selfish communities ? National integration is the awareness of a common identity amongst the citizens of a country. It means that though we belong to different castes, religions and regions and speak different languages we recognize the fact that we are all one. According to the Indian Constitution, one of the fundamental duties of every 75 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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citizen of India is to “promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities.” The main objective of this article is to explain an effective plan and strategies to enhance social harmony in order to prevent the future ethnic crisis and develop the country. This article also defines social harmony and role of Social Work and it will also explain Social Work methods and tools which can be used to build social harmony. Keywords: Social Harmony, Integration, Religion, Values, and Peace Building.

INTRODUCTION India comprised of variety of ethnic groups. People belong to different cultures, religions, caste and tribes. These differences formed large ethnic diversity in India. The people have different thoughts, traditions, languages, cultures and own believes. Their attitudes, decisions and activities mainly depend on the ethnic diversity. The peace and violence, happy and sadness, smile and tears and the development and non-development of India is directly depend on the situation of ethnic harmony in India. Based the various studies it is understood that India is not having very effective strategies to build ethnic harmony national policies and systematic proper plan. Therefore requirement of standard and systematic planning and policies to enhance the ethnic harmony are utmost important.

CONCEPT Social harmony is a complicated concept to analyses: a literature search across various academic disciplines indicated that it is rarely explicitly defined. It tends to have broad implications; one well-cited article uses the term in conjunction with community cohesion, inter-group empathy and mutual respect and peaceful coexistence.

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In the report of the Lessons Learned and Reconciliation Commission of November 2011, the terms harmony, disharmony, community harmony, communal harmony, ethnic harmony, religious harmony and social harmony are commonly used in random with those such as unity and national reconciliation. A variety of government and international donor initiatives apparently aim to foster social harmony, for example through education or language rights programmes. Based on this understanding finally Social harmony can be defined “as a condition where different ethnic communities could co-exist peacefully. When it comes to a country, social harmony is related to development without which the overall development of a country might not be achieved”

TRADITIONAL SOCIAL WORK IDEOLOGY AND RELIGION India has a long tradition of social service. The responsibility of assisting the individual in need was shared by the community and the rulers. Devotion and service towards one’s fellowmen, love for charity and brotherhood existed even in the feudal times. According to Bhagwat Gita, charity is valid if it takes into account desh (place), kal (time) and patra (recipient). The forms of the charity were artha (money), vidya (education) and abhaya (courage). Religious institutions like templs, dharamshalas, maths became the centres of social service. They provided shelter and free kitchens of the poor. Thus religion emphasised the values of charity, philanthropy and mutual help.

HINDUISM PERSPECTIVE Hinduism, one of the oldest living religions, with a history stretching from around the second millennium B.C. to the present, is India’s indigenous religious and cultural system. It encompasses a broad spectrum of philosophies ranging from pluralistic theism to absolute monism. From fetishism, through 77 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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polytheism and pantheism to the highest and the noblest concept of Deity and Man in Hinduism the whole gamut of human thought and belief is to be found. Hindu religious life might take the form of devotion to God or gods, the duties of family life, or concentrated meditation. Given all this diversity, it is important to take care when generalizing about “Hinduism” or “Hindu beliefs.” For every class of worshiper and thinker Hinduism makes a provision; herein lies also its great power of assimilation and absorption of schools of philosophy and communities of people, (Theosophy, 1931).

The Gita discusses selflessness, duty, devotion, and meditation, integrating many different threads of Hindu philosophy; it is a microcosm of Vedic, Yogic, Vedantic and even Tantric thought of the Hindu fold. It speaks not only to Vaishnavas but to all people, and it is accepted by the members of all Hindu streams as an influential text.

HINDU VIRTUES Following are some of the important qualities listed in the scriptures: 1) Ahimsa (non-violence) – based on the concepts of a/man and reincarnation 2) Sam yam (control of mind and the senses) – considered essential for any form of morality 3) Tolerance – of different beliefs, opinions, religious traditions and persons. 4) Hospitality – demonstrating magnanimity, and the value of service 5) Compassion – based on notions of atman; an ability to feel for others as we feel for ourselves 6) Protection – giving shelter to others, especially those less fortunate 7) Respect – for all living beings; for sanctity of life 8) Wisdom – knowledge is contrasted with ignorance; ability to sift out right and wrong

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9) Austerity – Practical wisdom and discipline in addition to theoretical knowledge 10) Celibacy – important for spiritual life; only one of the four ashramas – grihasthya-permitted sexual gratification 11) Honesty – to avoid self-deception; essential to build trust within relationships. 12) Cleanliness – includes external hygiene and inner purity 13) Charity – “Charity given out of duty, without expectation of return, at the proper time and place, and to a worthy person is considered to be in the quality of goodness.” (Bhagwad Gita, 17.20)

A Tenfold system of virtuous duties was prescribed by Manu Smriti: (1) “Contentment; (2) Abstention from injury to others, active benevolence, and returning good for evil; (3) Resistance to sensual appetites; (4) Abstinence from theft and illicit gain; (5) Purity, chastity, and cleanliness; (6) Coercion of passions; (7) Acquisition of knowledge; (8) Acquisition of Divine Wisdom; (9) Veracity, honesty and fidelity; and (10) Freedom from wrath and hatred;” – Manu, vi, 92.

HINDUISM AND SOCIAL WORK The affinity between Hinduism and modern Social Work becomes immediately apparent in the light of the foregoing discussion. 1) The Hindu Philosophy and Traditions are replete with the importance

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accorded to the spirit of service and compassion; and sacrifice of personal gain in favour of others less fortunate. 2) The Hindu concepts of social conscience and social concern emphasize the fact that one’s welfare is entwined with that of others. The mutual aid and mutual interdependence have been in practice right from the ancient times. 3) However paradoxical it may seem, the concepts of God, Soul and maaya provide the foundation for social justice. Hindu Philosophy holds all living beings equal with similar capacity to realize their real potential; to achieve divinity. It discards all social ranks and differences as illusory (maaya) and temporary and denounces all discriminatory practices as sin.

ISLAM PERSPECTIVE Islamic values and practices have profoundly influenced Indian social tradition. Certain writers consider the process of Islamisation an important modernising influence on the Indian social tradition.

Social work profession deals with individuals, singly and collectively. Its main concerns are “the creation of those conditions within the society and the development of those capacities within the individual that increase the probability of a more satisfying way of life for the members of that society” (Bisno, 1952). For its applicability and effectiveness, it is heavily dependent upon the social organisation and cultural ethos, including faith and religion. Given this, the possibility of Islam having an impact on social work practice is strong.

Islamic tradition is determined by mainly three sources: (a) the Holy Qur’an, (b) Sunnah – sayings and practice of Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless and greet him), and 80 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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(c) Fiqh or Ijtihad – interpretation given by the knowledgeable on emergent or disputed issues. In a way, these also determine the worldview of Muslims.

From an Islamic perspective, the world is a collection of multifarious but interconnected realities which have and continue to come into existence through the Will of God. In Islam, racial groupings, caste grades, or social classes have no place. All people have been created alike and, irrespective of their lineage, they stand in one row. In principle, the whole world is based on equity and justice. Further, the believer has eiman (faith in Islam) which, in turn, brings several social obligations. Given this perspective, it would be highly relevant to study Islamic values and practices in relation of those of social work.

SOCIAL WORK VALUES AND ISLAM While a value-base is necessary for all professions, it is crucial for social work (Gutierrez, 1999). It gives form and substance to professional ethos. It provides a direction and focus, and lends professional authority for multi-layered social work practice. At one and the same time, the value-base of social work provides for stability and change in social organisation and functioning (Dominilli, 2005). Moreover, paying attention to social work mission, practitioner-client relationship or intervention methods – all are found to be linked or even dependent upon societal values. Indeed, the value-base of social work is informed by numerous historical-cultural forces, including religious ideologies.

CHRISTIANITY PERSPECTIVE Christianity is the name given to that definite system of religious beliefs and practices, which were derived from the teachings of Jesus Christ in the country of Palestine, during the reign of the Roman Emperor, Tiberius.

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The Christian life is cantered on some essential aspects of the Christian religion. Among them the following are key ones: 

Fellowship with God



Our relationship with others



Obedience to God’s commands



Discipline

Christianity is built around the value of relationship: with God and with others. When Jesus was asked to summarize his teachings, he said that it was all about “loving God and our neighbour”. Everything else is a means to that end. One of the most important terms used in Christianity is “fellowship”. This term covers their life together in communion as Christians. This means first of all that they spend time together in family, in worship, work, service to others, and having fun. They hold community as a value; it is in and through community that they desire and achieve their life’s ultimate goal of salvation through Jesus Christ. The Bible refers to the Christian community using organic metaphors, such as a vine and a body. It talks about them sharing with each other and supporting each other.

The Christians have their religious rules that are meant to regulate their behaviour and facilitate the modes of worship. Respect for others, regular prayer both individual and communitarian, discipline, self-less service to others and sharing of faith is some aspects of Christian life. The basic tenets of Christianity show compatibility with the cardinal values of social work. Moreover social work flows from the same premise of Christianity, which upholds the dignity of the human being. Christianity as a religion has certainly played a central role in the development of social work as a profession.

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SIKHISM PERSPECTIVE Sikhism, the youngest and the fifth largest world religion was founded about 500 years ago by Guru Nanak in Punjab district (of what is now India and Pakistan). Sikhism is based on Guru Nanak’s aching and those of the nine Sikh Gurus who followed him. There are about twenty million Sikhs in the world, and most of them live in India. It emphasizes the belief in one Supreme Being ‘the Creator’. It offers a simple straight path to eternal bliss and spreads a message of love and universal brotherhood.

BASICS OF SIKHISM i) Unity of God: There is but One God-Ek-Omkar. He is unborn, omnipotent, infinite, formless, all knowing and all-pervading. ii) Simran and Sewa form the essence of Sikhism: Simran means to remember and Sewa means to give voluntary help without any external reward. Simran and Sewa can be done by performing the following (three golden rules of Sikhism) duties: a) Kirat Karna: means to earn an honest livelihood. To work with one’s own hands. b) Naam Jaapo: Naam Jaapo means to remember God always in our minds at all times. c) Vand Chhako: means to share our earnings with others. Sikhs should give charity to the needy and care for the needy. iii) Equality: Sikhism emphasizes equality for all human beings. All human beings are equal and alike in front of God. They all should be loved, respected and treated equally. No distinctions have to be made on the basis of gender, race, religion, wealth, caste or creed. iv) Character Building: If the mind is impure, it cannot deserve union with Divinity. The development of character is the only foundation on which the edifice of disciple-ship can be raised. Conquer of the five deadly sins – lust, 83 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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anger, greed, attachment and pride is must. Morality is the foundation of Sikh religion. v) Sikhism Values: a) Love – Love of God is given high importance by the Gurus. We can love God only when we cease to love ourselves. We must first destroy the ego (haumai). b) Humility – In complete humility and humbleness all selfishness disappears; one has no ego and the soul no longer lives for its own self. c) Compassion – In Sikhs, Guru demand a high level of compassion; one should help and serve others in words and deeds. Service to mankind is service to the God. d) Contentment – It is an important virtue for Sikhs. It is to abide by the will of God with happiness. The soul of such person is satisfied and linked to God. By devoting one’s life to service, one gets rid of ego and pride. e) Truth – Truth means truthfulness of mind, body and action. Guru Nanak preached, “Truth is higher than all things but higher still is the truthful living.” f) Faith - One must have perfect faith in the Guru. Sikhism literally means the way of the disciple. The disciple must follow the Guru’s word. Sikhs believe in the Guru Granth Sahib – “the Living Guru” or the Sikh holy book. Sikhs do not believe in idols or idol worships or rituals.

JANISM PERSPECTIVE Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is a religion and philosophy originating from BC Centuries of South Asia. In the 21st Century, Jainism is a minority religion in India with growing communities in the United States, Western Europe, Africa and elsewhere. Jains have contributed to sustain the ascetic tradition.

Jainism has significantly influenced other religions, ethical, political and 84 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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economic spheres in India for well over two millennia. Jainism gives stress on the spiritual independence and equality of all life with a particular emphasis on non-violence which is one of the strategies being promoted by social work profession in several countries. Self control is the means by which Jains attain Moksha.

The Jain order, has four components: monks, nuns (sadhvi), lay men and lay women (shravika). The founder of Jainism was Vardhamana (C. 599-527 BCE), later known as Mahavira, the twenty-fourth and final Tirthankar.

Mahavira serves the religion as an illustration both of spiritual realization and social reconstruction. This religion is also utterly humanistic in its approach, and spiritualistic in its depth. Though humanistic, yet it is wider than humanitarianism, for it embraces all the sentiments of beings from one-sense to all the five senses. Jaina formulation of ethical theory is grounded in Jaina metaphysics. It argues that conceptions of bondage and liberation, punya and paap, heaven and hell, pleasure and pain and the like, loose all their relevance and significance, when we exclusively recognize either their permanence as constituting the nature of substance.

The Jain ethical code is taken very seriously. Five vows are followed by both laity and monks/nuns, which are 1) Non-violence (ahimsa, or ahinsa) 2) Truth (Satya) 3) Non-stealing (Asteya) 4) Chastity (Brahma-charya) and 5) Non-possession or Non-possessiveness (Aparigrah). For laypersons, ‘Chastity’ means confining sexual relations within marriage. For monks/nuns, it means complete celibacy. Non-violence involves being 85 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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vegetarian and some choose to be vegetarian. Jains are expected to be nonviolent in thought, word and deed, towards humans and every living creature. While performing holy deeds, Svetambara Jains wear cloths over their mouths and noses to avoid spittle falling on texts or revered Images. Along with five vows, Jains avoid harboring ill will towards others and practice forgiveness. Their belief is that Atma (Soul) can lead one to become Prmatma (liberated soul) and this must come from one’s inner self. No Jiv can give another the path to salvation, but can only show the way. In social work too, the worker is a guide and philosopher to the client who only shows the way and the final decision/act is left to the choice of the client.

BUDDHISM PERSPECTIVE In Buddhism social welfare is considered as the work done in different forms intended for the benefit of mankind. Such a work ranges from simple individual acts of charity, teaching and training to organized service in different forms for the betterment of the community which are common areas of social work intervention.

FIVE JEWELS OF BUDDHISM 1) To refrain from taking life. (non-violence towards sentient life forms). 2) To refrain from taking that which is not given (not committing theft). 3) To refrain from sexual misconduct (abstinence from immoral sexual behaviour). 4) To refrain from lying. (speaking truth always). 5) To refrain from intoxicants which lead to loss of mindfulness (refrain from using drugs or alcohol). Gautam Buddha was the founder of Buddhism and one of the noblest and the greatest teachers of the world. Buddhism was based on the noble teachings of Buddha. 86 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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BASICS OF SOCIAL WORK Social work discipline is scientific in method and artful in manner that takes remedial action on problem in several areas in society. It helps communities to bring their welfare and related services in to good balance. Social work provides many services for people, especially for children, youth, women, family, aged, disabled, handicapped, displaced and dependents. “The social work profession promotes social change, problem solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance wellbeing. Utilizing theories of human behaviour and social system, social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their environments. Principals of human rights and social justice are fundamental to social work,” (IASSW and IFSW, 2001)

According to the definition social work is merely on helping people who are not able to come up with themselves. But they need someone help in order to come out from various problems. The main aim of social work is to enhance human happiness in general and help people to help themselves.

The purposes of social work are: enhance human well-being and alleviate poverty, oppression, and other forms of social injustice, enhance the social functioning and interactions of individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities by involving them in accomplishing goals, developing resources, and preventing and alleviating distress, formulate and implement social policies, service, and programs that meet basic human needs and support the development of human capacities, to pursue policies, services, and resources through advocacy and social or political actions that promotes social and economic justice, develop and use research, knowledge, and skills that advance

87 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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social work practice and develop and apply practice in the context of diverse cultures.

ROLE OF PROFESSIONAL SOCIAL WORKER IN PRESENT SCENERIO Professional social workers have a strong tradition of working for social justice, and of refusing to recreate unequal social structures. Thus means reaching beyond state sponsored practices which merely cater for individual needs, in order to transform society as a whole. Social work maintains this radical kernel and today many social workers internationally have strong connections with social and political movements for the emancipation of the oppressed.

The main tasks of professional social workers engaged are case management (linking clients with agencies and programs that will meet their psychosocial needs), medical social work, counseling (psychotherapy), human services management, social welfare policy analysis, community organizing, advocacy, teaching (in schools of social work), and social science research.

These professional social workers work in a variety of settings, including: nonprofit or public social service agencies, grassroots advocacy organizations, hospitals,

hospices,

community

health

agencies,

schools,

faith-based

organizations, and even the military. In addition social workers work as psychotherapists, counselors, or mental health practitioners, normally working in coordination with psychiatrists, psychologists, or other medical professionals. Some social workers have chosen to focus their efforts on social policy or academic research into the practice or ethics of social work. The emphasis has varied among these task areas by historical era and country, and some of these areas have been the subject of controversy as to whether they are properly part of social work mission. 88 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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SUGGESTIONS Keeping in view the above mentioned facts I would suggest the following course of action to bring harmony among the followers of various religious and ethnic groups. 1. Eliminate all violence which take place in the name of religion, race or language and condemn such violence. 2. Promote positive inter-ethnic relation by including the idea of unity among ethnic groups. 3. Accept the freedom of every individual to believe, practice and live by any religion. 4. Stop the unethical religious conversion, by coercion or by force. 5. Stop all publicity, literature and audio-visual presentations, admiration and erection of

heroic-memorials which create anger, hatred and retaliation.

6. Take measure to erase bad memories of past violence but learn from the past mistakes to prevent any such hatred and violence in the future. 7. Accept the fact that present generation or future generations are not responsible for what is happened in the past, and they should not suffer due to the past mistakes. 8. Ban all support and unethical publicity for any individual or group trying to create ethnic and religious based violence. 9. Uphold the unity of mankind among people of all faiths.

SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION IN PROMOTING PEACE BUILDING, CIVIC VALUES AND SOCIAL COHESION Encourages Governments to promote, through education, as well as the development of progressive curriculums and text books, understanding, harmony and friendship among human beings in all their diversity of religion, 89 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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belief, culture and language, which will address the cultural, social, economic, political and religious sources of in harmony, and to apply a gender perspective while doing so, in order to promote understanding, harmony, tolerance, peace and friendly relations among nations and all racial and religious groups, recognizing that education at all levels is one of the principal means to build a culture of peace.

CONCLUSION Social Work considers every individual to be endowed with worth and dignity, as well as having physical and psychosocial needs. As we know, Social Work recognizes that, in making a person into a socialized individual, group process and community living has a critical role. Likewise, there are specific pronouncements in every religion stressing on collective living. It emphasizes on happy and cordial neighbourly relations. Equity, fraternity and justice are a pre-requisite for and a driving force behind group process and community living. Hindu beliefs and values enrich and strengthen the humanistic and rational approach to social work practice which enhances social harmony and social Integration. The Buddha teaches many practices which promote harmony within our self and among laymen in the society. Finally the importance in promoting understanding, tolerance and friendship among human beings in all their diversity of religion, belief, culture and language, and recalling that all States have pledged themselves under the 90 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Charter to promote and encourage universal respect through observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, regardless of their race, sex, language or religion.

REFERENCES 1. Arthur S, (2002). "Religion and Interfaith Conflict: Appeal of Conscience Foundation," in Interfaith Dialogue and Peace building, (ed.) David R. Smock (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace. 2. Nadkarni, M. V. (2006). Hinduism: A Gandhian Perspective, Ane Books India, New Delhi. 3. Nadkarni, M. V. (2007). Does Hinduism Lack Social Concern? Economic and Political Weekly May 19. 4. North American Association of Christians in Social Work (NACSW) (2006). A Vital Christian Presence in Social Work, USA. 5. The Asia Foundation (2013). Community mediation and Social Harmony in Sri Lanka, Craig Valters. 6. Smith, W. C. (1947). Modern Islam in India, Lahore: Ferozsons. 7. Umri, J. U. (n. d.): Islam and Human Rights, New Delhi: Markazi Maktaba Islami. 8. UNESCO (2006). Religions and cultural diversity: Mediation towards Social cohesioning urban area. *** 91 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISM DEVIMEENAKSHI, K.1, AGARWAL, MUDIT2 ; BISWAS, RUCHIRA2 ; REDDY, HARSHA VARDHAN2 ; RAGHUVANSHI, BRAMHANSH2 ; & VINEEL, ROHITH2 1

Assistant Professor (Senior), VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India 2

Ist Year Student of VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

ABSTRACT Fear causes preoccupation in our general public and psychological oppression is in its broadest sense the utilization or debilitated utilization of brutality so as to accomplish a political, religious, or ideological point. It is delegated fourth era fighting and as a brutal wrongdoing. In present day times, fear based oppression is considered as a noteworthy danger to society. Psychological warfare is about war. Individuals connected with the dread gatherings and affiliations have an alternate belief system about the world and they do all things that all is turning out badly and they need to make fear around the entire world. When, fear dialect changes and as the hundreds of years going on, the dread exercises changes and make misfortune to human life, furthermore make the aggravation in the public eye and make the financial misfortune too. The article is focused on the psychological oppression exercises that happened before sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth hundreds of years, moreover, what misfortunes happen around then. Psychological oppression is one of the greatest dangers to the world with a remarkable development. Our venture worries about the underlying driver of psychological oppression, the ascent of fear, and how to battle against it. Legislatures of created nations like America, France are setting up assaults on the fear based oppressor associations to catch and execute them. They are notwithstanding 92 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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authorizing instruction projects to oppose youth from joining such dread powers. They have taken up strengths to battle psychological warfare financing. Thus, the battle against fear based oppression is persevering and we as youthful personalities are pieces of it and Diary has demonstrated a hypothetical analysis and demonstrated the "Do Territorial Control and the Loss of Territory Determine the utilization of Indiscriminate Violence by Incumbent Actors ? An Examination of the Syrian Civil War in Aleppo more than 45 weeks" Keywords: Fear, Oppression, Terror, Terrorism, Terrorist, Attack, Threat and War.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 

TERRORISM CHOICE OR REVENGE



DEFINING TERRORISM



FREEDOM FIGHTERS



STATE TERRORISM



GLOBAL THREAT OF TERRORISM



COUNTER TERRORISM MEASURES

2. LITERATURE RIVIEW 

10 TERRORIST ATTACKS



PARIS TERROR ATTACKS



CAUSES OF TERRORISM



WHAT CONDITION ARE FAVORABLE FOR TERRORISM



COUNTER TERRORISM

a.

HISTORY

b.

PLANNING

c.

PRE-EMPTIVE NEUTRALIZATION

d.

NON-MILITARY

3. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 93 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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4. TERRORISM AS TRANSATIONAL CRIME 5. MODERN TERRORISM 6. STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISM 8. STATE TERRORISM 10. CONCLUSION 11. REFERENCES

1.

INTRODUCTION

There comes a point that “at the end of the day, as long as people believe that their religion is the only true religion and all other religions are false, there will be no end to terrorism and anti -terrorism effort will be futile.” The other problem is, some communities have this… “See no evil, hear no evil and speak no evil attitude on terrorism”. The problem with terrorism is that some group of people believe…. They are the chosen ones by God to commit MASS MURDER in the name of God ... TERRORISM – CHOICE or REVENGE ?

A young Afghan man looks at his mobile phone in a camp in Kabul, Afghanistan. Thousands of Afghans are pouring into makeshift camps in the 94 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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capital where they face a harsh winter as the Taliban return to areas once cleared by foreign forces People in the lower countries who have a dearth of economy and also have a volatile population of youth who are the most vulnerable lot to terrorism; they are referred to as thus “The Tinder Box of Extremists”.

Unemployment, scarcity of education and economic opportunities are one of the reasons why terrorism is so widespread, But then the question arises is it controlled by choice or the fury of revenge.

Revenge is more at a personal level than the ones which affect the mass in a wholesome way. It isn’t that the terror groups from day one hate a particular creed or religion but it starts from a more deep rooted cause for revenge from the super powers which have crushed or destroyed them. A word by a 23 year old TALIBAN militant…. “I did not join the Taliban because I was poor; I joined because I was angry” Why was he angry..? Because the Islamic school, or madrassa, where he used to study was destroyed in the U.S. led surge to clear the area of militants, five years ago. “It was where the young people studied. It was where we all came together. It was the centre of my village”, the young man said.  Strong feelings of injustice trump economic factors for those who decide to take up arms.  Such incidents from the side of the government like injustice and slow governance, corruption which affect a person’s natural growth and rebel against the dominance of the Super Powers, in spite of the rewards that they are allotted by the government. These causes which haunted them for entire life gain precedence and are one of the major reasons to fuel militancy. 95 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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 Though these findings don’t necessarily apply to those radicalized in Western countries, however Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein, the gunman who opened fire on a café and synagogue in Copenhagen was a promising student before he dropped out.  The forces that led them to militancy also include experiences of injustice, discrimination, and marginalization, corruption, or being faced with the killing of a family member.

Thus these reasons are more fueling terrorism than other common issues. Hence, US Government is trying to educate this mass to stop the birth of terrorism in such minds. Barack Obama was heard saying that these educational runs are acting as best antidotes for terrorism and big investments have been made. US AID noted that more than $300 million is spent each year on international youth programs, according to a 2012 report from the agency.

DEFINING TERRORISM In 2001, the British Ambassador to the United Nations expressed in the Security Council that 'What looks, smells and executes like fear based oppression is psychological oppression', suggesting that it was superfluous to characterize fear based oppression with a specific end goal to battle it. While it is obviously conceivable to make a move against fear mongering without a definition, it is extremely hard to organize a worldwide reaction if distinctive nations view diverse things as psychological warfare. Hence, for more than seventy years the global group has unsuccessfully endeavored to concede to a typical meaning of psychological oppression, not minimum so that presumed fear based oppressor hoodlums can't escape criminal equity by escaping to different nations. As right on time as 1937, the League of Nations (the ancestor of the United Nations) drafted a settlement to characterize fear mongering as genuine 'criminal acts coordinated against a State and planned or ascertained to make a condition of 96 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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dread in the psyches of specific people, or a gathering of people or the overall population'. This straightforward definition stresses whether a demonstration causes "dread" (that is, extraordinary dread) and is coordinated against a State, hence barring demonstrations of fear coordinated exclusively against regular citizens. It likewise makes no reference to political thought processes, so that private viciousness which causes dread, (for example, blackmail or outfitted theft) could qualify as fear based oppression. The League Convention never went into constrain, since insufficient nations received it. The League of Nations itself soon disintegrated as an aftereffect of the Second World War, and ensuing endeavors to characterize psychological oppressions were unsuccessful. Rather, somewhere around 1963 and 2005, governments embraced.

One vital stride towards achieving universal concurrence on a meaning of fear based oppression came in the 1994 UN General Assembly Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism. This Declaration characterized psychological warfare as 'criminal acts proposed or computed to incite a condition of fear in the overall population, a gathering of people or specific people for political purposes'. The HOT Tip definition required a political, a Declaration is not a thought process, to perceive that political legitimately restricting arrangement and private savagery are distinctive and just communicates countries stayed separated, the political feelings notwithstanding, on whether psychological warfare of state can be submitted by States and additionally by non-State performing artists, and on whether national freedom or self-assurance developments ought to be excluded from the definition. Since 2000, at the activity of India, the UN General Assembly legitimate board of trustees (the '6th Committee') has been endeavoring to characterize psychological warfare in a global criminal law arrangement. The Draft UN Comprehensive Convention against Terrorism at present proposes to characterize fear mongering as unlawful and deliberate passing or genuine 97 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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substantial harm to a man, genuine harm to property, or harm liable to bring about major financial misfortune, when the reason for existing 'is to threaten a populace, or to urge a Government or a universal association to do or go without doing any demonstration'. The definition does not, in any case, requires the demonstration to be politically inspired. It was constructed intensely with respect to a meaning of psychological warfare utilized as a part of the 1999 Terrorist Financing Convention, which made financing offenses (yet no broad offense of fear based oppression). The draft UN definition is like another definition proposed by the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan, in his point of interest gives an account of United Nations change, the Secretary-General asked States to characterize psychological oppression as any demonstration 'expected to bring about death or genuine real mischief to regular citizens or non-warriors, when the reason for such a demonstration, by its inclination or setting, is to scare a populace or to constrain a Government or a global association to do or to swear off doing any demonstration'. Another definition proposed by the Security Council in Resolution 15662, reintroduces the League of Nations' concept of inciting a 'condition of fear', which is overlooked from the SecretaryGeneral's proposition and the Draft UN Convention. In the event that making fear is excluded in the meaning of psychological warfare, it may be addressed why the wrongdoing being characterized is not rather called a wrongdoing of "terrorizing" or 'impulse', since those ideas appear to be less genuine than threatening somebody. Notwithstanding the absence of a universal definition, Australian law characterized psychological warfare in 2002, because of the stun of 11 September 2001 fear based oppressor assaults.

Basically, Australia characterizes fear based oppression as specific sorts of genuine damage to individuals, property, general wellbeing or security, or an electronic framework, where it is proposed to constrain a legislature or a worldwide association, or to threaten the general population, so as to propel a 98 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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political, religious or ideological cause. There is a special case for support, challenge, disagree or mechanical activity which is not planned to bring about genuine physical damage to a man, jeopardize life, or truly hazard general wellbeing. While the Australian definition has been censured, it is among the tightest meanings of fear based oppression in all national legitimate frameworks. The components of the definition are combined, implying that psychological warfare is just dedicated if there is not kidding mischief, to scare general society or force a legislature, for a political reason. All of the physical demonstrations secured by the definition are as of now violations themselves, and could, for example, be indicted as murder, attack, fire related crime, malevolent property harm, et cetera. The Australian definition is additionally like definitions utilized as a part of Britain, Canada and New Zealand. A few components of the definition are, be that as it may, rather dubious, making the extent of the definition questionable and unusual.

FREEDOM FIGHTERS After the Second World War, a new international political and legal order was created based on respect for the independence of ‘peoples’ from colonial domination and oppression. The aspirational idea of self-determination was enshrined in article 1(2) of the United Nations Charter 1945, and in the first major post-war human rights instrument, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 19483. Later self-determination was transformed into a legally binding commitment by States in adopting the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966 (ICCPR)4 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966 (ICESCR)5. Common article 1 of the ICCPR and ICESCR assert that self-determination means that people have a right to ‘freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development’, as well as to control their own natural resources. While none of these treaties define who constitutes a ‘people’ entitled to claim 99 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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self-determination, it soon came to be understood and accepted by States that a people comprises the population within the borders of a territory controlled by a foreign colonial power. Indigenous people, and ethnic or other minority groups within an independent State, could not therefore claim self-determination in order to achieve independence from such States.

Between the end of the Second World War and the late 1970s, many people achieved independence from colonial control, emerging as new States. For some of these people, independence came as a result of a peaceful decolonization process, whether through consultation with the colonial authorities, through the United Nations trusteeship system, or after passive resistance to colonial rule (as in India). For other people, resort to violence was seen as the only way to attain independence from colonial powers reluctant to relinquish foreign territories.

A major obstacle to international efforts to define terrorism has been the liberation; it is the key reason for the international community’s inability to define terrorism. Many new States, who themselves used violence to achieve independence, insisted that the just cause of self-determination justifies using all necessary means, including violence and even terrorism. A number of nonbinding resolutions of the UN General Assembly seemed to support this position,

by

exempting

self-determination

struggles

from

resolutions

condemning terrorism and by emphasizing the causes of terrorism (such as oppression, exploitation and foreign domination). The assumption underlying this position is that self-determination is a higher objective than anything else, including the protection of innocent civilians from arbitrary killings. In contrast, many western developed States, who were more likely to be victims of terrorism, argued that even self-determination movements must comply with basic humanitarian rules, such as not killing civilians deliberately for political ends. These governments claimed that just as governments must not violate 100 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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human rights and must comply with the laws of war They did not view selfdetermination as so important that it could override all other principles, including the protection of innocent lives. The Australian definition of terrorism does not recognize any exception for self-determination movements

STATE TERRORISM The other sticking point preventing agreement on defining terrorism is whether States can commit terrorism, or whether terrorists are only non-State actors (such as individuals or organized armed groups). Many western developed States have long insisted that it is unnecessary to include government conduct in the definition of terrorism, since existing areas of international law – such as human rights, humanitarian law, international criminal law, the law on the use of force, the law of State responsibility, and the law of the United Nations Charter – already govern what States can and cannot do. In their view, a legal definition of terrorism is necessary, precisely, because the violent activities of non-State actors are not fully covered by these international laws, which principally impose obligations on States. In contrast, some non-western and developing States have argued that terror inflicted by States (particularly western ones) is far more dangerous and prevalent than non-State terror, such as the bombing and killing of civilians by armed forces in war, large scale oppression and intimidation of civilian populations by their own governments, or covert operations by States to assassinate their political enemies. Existing international law is not considered sufficient to control and restrain such violence by States, which has continued unabated despite legal controls. In addition, because the term ‘terrorism’ is morally powerful in condemning and stigmatizing those to whom it is applied.

The term should be equally applied to States and non-State actors if they commit equivalent conduct (i.e.) terrifying civilians for political ends. Again, 101 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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this disagreement between different States is paralyzing progress on the Draft UN Comprehensive Anti-Terrorism Convention, since there is no consensus on the extent to which (if at all) State armed forces should be excluded from the definition. The Australian definition of terrorism does not exempt individual State officials from criminal liability if they are responsible for terrorism, although high-ranking government leaders and diplomats may enjoy immunity from prosecution. In addition, if terrorism is committed during wartime, foreign soldiers are more likely to be prosecuted for war crimes rather than terrorism.

GLOBAL THREAT OF TERRORISM It is difficult to objectively evaluate the threat posed by terrorism, whether globally or in Australia. The lack of an international definition of terrorism means that it is hard to measure the number of terrorist attacks worldwide. Different governments, organizations, and academic researchers use different definitions, resulting in large divergences in recorded numbers of terrorist attacks. The Federal Bureau of Investigation in the United States estimates that between 1968 and 1999, there were 14 000 international terrorist attacks, resulting in 10 000 deaths. Terrorist groups are secretive by nature, while some of them also rely on propaganda and fear to amplify, in the public mind, their actual capabilities. At the same time, governments are keen to protect their intelligence sources and information, so that terrorists are not alerted to the methods of government intelligence gathering. This means that governments are often reluctant to disclose to the public the full nature of terrorist threats that they know about. In addition, some governments have found it politically advantageous to exaggerate the threat of terrorism, or to label as terrorists people or groups who are really political opponents rather than terrorists. Some political groups have been falsely linked to Al Qaeda, in the hope of discrediting them and justifying harsh and repressive anti-terrorism measures.

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COUNTER-TERRORISM MEASURES Some administration counter-fear mongering activities have succeeded just in expanding instead of diminishing the risk of psychological warfare. Specifically, the attack of Iraq in March 2003 by the United States, Britain and Australia was incompletely legitimized on the affection that Saddam Hussein's Iraq was connected to Al-Qaeda and the sponsorship of worldwide fear based oppression. Not just have various authority examinations in the United States and Britain since affirmed that Iraq was not associated with Al-Qaeda, similar examinations likewise invalidated the other key support for war that Iraq had not incapacitated and still had weapons of mass demolition. The ousted of Saddam Hussein brought about the quick rise and acceleration of psychological warfare in a nation where beforehand there was none. Notwithstanding official affirmations actually, even in late 2006, over three years after the attack, Iraq has turned into a great degree fierce society, wracked by activist uprising, ethnic, religious and tribal pressures, and the contribution of remote psychological oppressors. The US intrusion and control of an Arab, Muslim nation fuelled resistance to the US all through the Arab and Muslim world, radicalizing those restricted to American approach in the Middle East and urging newcomers to join fear monger bunches. To some degree these advancements are driven by the across the board discernment that the US, British and Australian attack of Iraq was unlawful under global law, since it was neither embraced in self-preservation nor approved by the UN Security Council (the main two grounds on which constrain might be legitimately utilized). What's more, reports and pictures of US work force tormenting, mortifying, corrupting or generally abusing its detainees at Abu Ghraib jail in Iraq, and Guantanamo Bay in Cuba, have additionally fortified imperviousness to American activities saw as unlawful or unjustifiable. 103 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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LITERATURE REVIEW TEN TERRORIST ATTACKS a.)

Wall Street Bombing/United States (16th September, 1920)

The bombarding happened in the Financial District of New York City at around 12:01 pm on a Thursday.  The impact murdered 38 individuals on location and have been genuinely harmed another 143.  Also, Investigators and students of history have hypothesized that the shelling was completed by an Italian revolutionaries gather the Galleanists, they were additionally in charge of a progression of bombings that happened in the earlier year, however the case was never settled and none were given equity. 104 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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b.) British Mandate for Palestine (1937-1948)

 The Arab revolt in Palestine against the British Mandate, the militant Zionist group the Irgun carried out a total of sixty attacks against Arabs and the British soldiers. Described as underground terrorist organization, Irgun launched series of attacks against the Arabs and the Brits. This terror lasted for around 11 years been resulted in 250 deaths of targeted Arabs. c.)

The Mad Bomber/United Stated (1940-1956)

George P. Metesky, otherwise called the Mad Bomber who without any help threatened New York City for over 16 years in the 40s and 50s. For somebody who was announced lawfully crazy and admitted to a mental office years after the fact, putting 33 bombs in various swarmed parts of the city like stockpiling lockers, or rest rooms was without a doubt something you could just anticipate from a psycho-way. Some of the most essential places that they planted his explosives incorporate the Grand Central Terminal, Pennsylvania Station, Radio City Music Hall, the New York Public Library and significantly more. Out of the 33 bombs Metesky 105 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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had planted, just 22 detonated harming ten amid this time of challenge the neighborhood electric utility.

d.)

Menarsha Synagogue Attack/Syria (5th August, 1949)

 In the Jewish quarter of Damascus, Syria Menarsha Synagogue was under a projectile assault that brought about 12 passing, out of which eight were kids. 106 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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 The assault occurred on a Friday night which was to match with the Lausanne Conference, taking after the 1949 Armistice Agreement which was marked on July, 20 of that year.  A few hand projectiles were tossed into the synagogue bringing about genuine wounds of no less than 30. e.)

Airliner Explosion/Philippines (7th May, 1949)

 A Philippine-o carrier detonated in midair following 30 minutes into flight on seventh of May, Saturday; killing 13 travellers including the flight team.The flight was planned to head out from Daet to Manila. Examiners and students of history trust that the occupation more likely than not been finished with the assistance of a period bomb, which exploded directly following 30 minutes of the flight's take off close Alabat Island. f.) Ma’le Akrabim massacre/Israel (17th March, 1954)  Eleven travellers on a transporter transport were shot dead by aggressors who trapped and boarded the transport amidst the day. 107 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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 Ma'le Akrabim is Hebrew for the Scorpions Pass, which is a tight, winding level old street that associates Eilat and Beersheba, only south of Makhtesh Katan.  The pass was on the essential course amongst Eilat and focal Israel in 1954. Four travellers survived the assault from whom two were Israeli officers, a lady and a five-year old young lady – Miri Fristenberg, whose guardians were executed in the assault.

g.)

Beirut Barracks Bombing/ Lebanon (23rd Oct, 1989)

Occurred amid the Lebanese Civil War, the Beirut Bombing was fundamentally two truck bombs that had struck separate structures lodging United States and French military powers – individuals from the multinational compel – on the 23rd of October, bringing about more than 299 fatalities.

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The trucks were driven and struck on the individual structures by suicide aircraft. 241 American servicemen: comprising 220 Marines, 18 mariners and three troopers were killed in the assault on the American Barracks alongside sixty Americans that were truly harmed speaking to the deadliest single-day loss of life for the United States Marin Corps since the World War II's, Battle of Iwo Jima h.)

Dubrovka Theater Siege/Russia (23rd Oct, 2002)

It is otherwise called the 2002 Nord-Ost attack, Dubrovka theater attack was done by around 40 to 50 furnished Chechens who guaranteed devotion to the Islamist aggressor separatist development in Chechnya. Shocking talk is that more than 850 individuals were abducted requesting the withdrawal of Russian strengths from Chechnya putting a conclusion to the Second Chechen war. The attack has been conveyed to a stop following two and half days as Russian Alpha Group powers pumped an obscure gas into the building and assaulted it.

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Around 40 of the aggressors were executed by the powers amid the assault and very nearly 130 guiltless prisoners passed on because of unfriendly responses to the gas. i.) Piazza Fontana Bombing/Italy (12th Dec, 1969)

 The Piazza Fontana Bombing was one of the deadliest psychological oppressor assaults ever, which occurred around 4:30 pm, when a bomb detonated at the central command of the National Agrarian Bank somewhere in the range of 200m from the Duomo in Milan, Italy. This assault has been brought about 17 fatalities with more than 88 injured. That has been the amazing thing happened. The same evening, 3 more bombs were said to be planted in various urban areas around Italy. 2 of them detonated in Rome and Milan and the third one was recovered before explosion. j.) 9 11 Attacks/United States (11th Sept, 2001)

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It is additionally alluded to as the twin-tower bombarding that happened on the eleventh of September, 2011 is still accepted to be a progression of composed assaults propelled by the Islamic fear based oppressor amass al-Qaeda drove by the famous Osama receptacle loaded who was murdered by exceptional American military strengths on the second of May, 2011. As per the predominant press, four traveller aircrafts were commandeered by 19 al-Qaeda psychological militants so they could be flown directly into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. Altogether, just about 3000 individuals passed on in the assaults, including the 227 regular citizens and 19 criminals on board the four planes. Receptacle Laden initially denied any association in the assaults; however in 2004 he asserted full duty. At any rate, the more profound, we explore these assaults, the harder we discover it to swallow the entire story down and make it difficult to trust whatever the prevailing press and the United States government need us to see. These assaults are truly only an unmistakable impression of where we truly are as a race. In spite of the fact that we have progressed significantly since the Stone Age days, regardless we have a great deal to comprehend concerning what we truly are as creatures. Feelings like scorn and desire are destroying us with every tortuous second; it is in truth silly that regardless we let such things drive our inner self. All things considered, we may have this general confusion, ''I'm - "This resemble war amongst great and shrewdness." There are such a large number of reasons because of which these fear exercises happen, yet these things ought to be annihilated.

PARIS TERROR ATTACKS The strikes in Paris on the night of Friday 13 November by shooters and suicide planes hit a show entryway, a critical stadium, diners and bars, at the same time - and left 130 people dead and hundreds harmed. The ambushes were portrayed by President Francois Hollande as a "showing of war" created by the Islamic 111 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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State (IS) lobbyist gathering. Shootings and bomb impacts left 130 people dead and hundreds harmed, with more than 100 in an essential condition. "Three coordinated gatherings" were acknowledged to have been behind the ambushes, according to Paris supervisor prosecutor Francois Molins.

ATTACKS Timeline of attacks 13 November: 

21:16– First suicide bombing near the Stade de France.



21:19– Second suicide bombing near the Stade de France.



21:25 – Shooting at the rue Bichat.



21:32 – Shooting at the rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi.



21:36 – Shooting at the rue de Charonne.



21:40 – Suicide bombing on boulevard Voltaire



21:40 – Three men enter the Bataclan theatre and begin shooting.



21:53 – Third suicide bombing near the Stade de France.



22:00 – Hostages are taken at the Bataclan

14 November: 

00:20 – Security forces enter the Bataclan



00:58 – French police end the siege on the Bataclan

CAUSES OF TERRORISM  There are two causes of terrorism  All terrorist acts are motivated by two things: Social and political bad form: People pick psychological warfare when they are attempting to right what they see to be a social or political or authentic wrong, when they have been stripped of their property or rights, or denied these. The conviction that viciousness or its danger will be viable so to introduce change. Another method for saying this is, the conviction that savage means 112 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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legitimize the finishes. Numerous psychological militants in history said earnestly that they picked brutality after long consultation, since they felt they had no way out. The reasons for fear based oppression might be hard to swallow. It sounds excessively basic, or excessively hypothetical. Individuals who pick fear based oppressor strategies are likewise induced that brutality, or the risk of viciousness, is viable. There is a question about who really "picks" fear mongering, and it might be out of line to consider youthful enlisted people, for example, some suicide aircrafts today, who are lured by clique like strategies for influence as totally at fault for their decisions. 113 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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WHAT CONDITIONS ARE FAVORABLE FOR TERRORISM In fact, the question, "what causes terrorism?" is not quite the right question to be asking, because we will never be able to answer it. As we cannot say that the presence of one factor provokes terrorism in the same way that we can say with scientific certainty that certain toxins cause disease. .If you listen closely to the explanations that are usually given as answers to the question, "What is terrorism?" you will find that they actually answer the question: "What are the conditions in which terrorism is most likely to take place?" Sometimes these conditions have to do with the people who become terrorists (they are described as having certain psychological traits, like 'narcissistic rage') and some conditions have to do with the circumstances they live in (a poor society; a formerly colonized society, for example). Albeit numerous individuals today trust that that religious zeal "causes" fear mongering, it isn't valid. The facts may prove that religious zeal makes conditions that are ideal for psychological oppression. Be that as it may, we realize that religious extremism does not "bring about" psychological oppression on the grounds that there are numerous religious fans, who don't pick fear mongering or any type of savagery. So there must likewise be different conditions that mix, incites a few people to consider fear mongering to be a powerful method for making change in their reality. There are two more reasons, why asking, "What conditions make a positive atmosphere for psychological oppression?" It is superior to anything getting some information about causes. The first view is, it makes it simple to recollect that there are dependably no less than a few conditions. Continuously fear based oppression is a perplexing marvel; it is a particular sort of political viciousness conferred by individuals who don't have an authentic armed force available to them. A second reason that has been valuable while making inquiries about fear based oppression is that reasoning as far as "conditions" help to recall that individuals have a decision about whether to utilize viciousness. There is nothing inside any individual nor in their conditions that send them like an 114 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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imposing business model piece made a beeline for "Go", specifically to fear mongering. Rather, there are sure conditions, some of which make brutality against regular people appear like a sensible and even fundamental alternative. Aside this and a portion of the profoundly unpardonable conditions that encourage psychological oppression, individuals dependably have the choice to look for another game-plan. Some game plans follow: 1. The IRA (Irish Republican Army) bombarded English focuses in the 1980s to make the point that they felt their territory was colonized by British settlers. 2. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine felt that furnished assaults in Israel were a reasonable reaction to the usurpation of their property. 3. Osama container Laden's statement of war on American interests in the 1990s originated from his conviction that U.S. troops positioned in Saudi Arabia spoke to a cursed thing to the sort of Islamic state he accepted ought to exist in the Arabian landmass. 4. Uighur separatists in China today feel that Chinese religious suppression (the Uighur Chinese are Muslims) legitimizes their fear based oppressor strategies. Now and again, individuals pick fear based oppressor strategies in view of a cause whose honesty they have confidence into the prohibition of almost all else.

COUNTER TERRORISM  Terrorism has been a major threat to developed and developing countries. So, it is a duty of every individual to counter terrorism.  Counter terrorism incorporates the practice, military tactics, government and intelligent faces to prevent terrorism.

HISTORY Sir William Harcourt, an Irish Fenian was the first to establish anti-terrorism; he 115 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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established a speech Irish branch which later expanded by implanting modern techniques like under cover filtration.

PLANNING Most vital piece of arranging is to expanding in standard police and residential insight. There ought to be block attempt of correspondence and obviously the scope of military and low implementation ought to be increment. Troublesome piece of arranging emerges debate mass observation, and raises protest on common grounds, when it is coordinated at gatherings, thereby raises political grounds. Home developed fear mongering is hard to discover in light of the fact that they have a citizenship and capacity to stay under radar.

PRE-EMPTIVE NEUTRALIZATION Some countries like Russia, UK, Israel has taken pre-emptive attack as legitimate strategy. They capture, kill the terrorist before they mount an attack. Another method of pre-emptive attack is by interrogation to obtain information about specific plots, targets and identify other terrorists.. NON –MILITARY The human security outlines a non-military approach by reducing inequalities of people in terms of resources to people.

These may include water, food,

education, vaccination and military.

TARGET-HARDENING Whatever the objective of fear based oppressor, there are various approaches to keep the psychological militant from assault. One technique is to place shirt obstruction outside tall or politically delicate structures to counteract ear or bomb trucking. UK railroads stations evacuated junk receptacles as helpful area

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for focusing on. A more advanced endorsed must consider is modern base that could be assaulted.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS FACTS AND STATISTICS ON TERRORISM Terrorism is now more widespread with death rate rising higher every year. It has caused 130,000 deaths in between 2006 and 2013 years. There have been 90,000 terrorist attacks in this slot as well.

From 2010 to 2013 the number of jhadist groups worldwide has grown by 58%. 1) The number of jihadists’ fighters has doubled to a high estimate of 100,000.And by estimation it will reach a new high in few years with masterminds working in every level, the underground world is evolving dangerously.

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2) The number of attacks by Qaeda affiliates has increased to roughly 1,000 from 392 putting the world in a perilous condition. 3) The most significant terrorism threat to the United States comes from groups operating in Yemen, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Syria.

 Given the high level threat posed by these groups and the limited capacity of local governments, we should make a strategy to involve clandestine special operations, intelligence, diplomatic and other capabilities to target al Qaeda groups and their financial, and political support networks.  Terror attacks will be persistent. Because it is difficult to uproot such an issue yet the governments are trying to tame Global Terrorism Index.  But then all the powers will go on trying to create no offence be it religion or on individual level.  Only when there is no grudge on others, their demands will reach end, and terrorism can be erased slowly but steadily.

TERRORISM AS TRANSNATIONAL CRIME We can define terrorism as transnational crime. Terrorism is a greatest crime that a person can do. They create terror in others mind and they create human 118 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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loss and economic loss and try to show that they are the most powerful in this world. These are the some of the illustrative points: In the absence of agreement on how to define terrorism, the international community has taken a pragmatic approach to combating terrorism.  More than a dozen international anti-terrorism treaties have been adopted since 1963, most in reaction to serious terrorist incidents, such as attacks on civilian aircraft, airports or ships, or assassinations of diplomats and government officials.  Most of the treaties do not mention terrorism, but instead require States to prohibit and punish in domestic law acts such as hijacking, hostage taking, endangering aircraft or ships, or to regulate dangerous objects such as plastic explosives or nuclear material.  The most recent treaties (since 1997) require States to prohibit and punish terrorist bombings, terrorist financing, and nuclear terrorism (but only by nonState actors).

In addition to creating the principal offences, most of the treaties also require States to punish preparatory acts such as attempting or threatening to commit an offence, abetting, organizing, directing or contributing to the offence, or complicity in the commission of an offence. These additional offences are designed to allow law enforcement officials to intervene early in the planning and preparation of terrorism, given the potentially serious consequences of a terrorist act occurring.

MODERN TERRORISM  The modern terrorism was started by Irish republican brotherhood. In 1858, this group initiated a Fenian dynamite campaign in 1881.  Modern terrorism largely came into play after World War II. 119 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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 Terrorism after 9/11  The attack on the Twin towers on 11th Sept. marked a turning period in world history and marked the beginning of ‘World Terror’.

TOP 10 ATTACKS CHANGING WORLD HISTORY 1) 9/11 attack, 2) 1st World War center bombing, 3) Oklahoma city Federal Building Bombing, 4) Beslan massacre, 5) Truck bombing of U.S Embassy, 6) Bombing of Marine Barracks., 7) Mid Air Bombing of Pao Am flight 103, 8) Solmonella attack, 9) Anthrax Letter Attack, 10) Bombing of USS Cole.

TERRORISM IN INDIA  Terrorism in India is fast growing. It has been a great threat to the country. The state more prone to terrorist attacks in India is J&K.  The worst incident in India was the incident at Mumbai on 26/11. When 10 terrorists entered Mumbai through the seaway and initiated an attack on innocent people wherever they can and it lasted for three days. The incident claimed the lives of 166 people with 293 injured.

STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISM 1) All parties should make it a point to the hardest possible to remove terrorism in India. 2) We should make our own decision not depending on other countries. 3) As India is a big country, we have to strengthen our military and service 120 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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capabilities. 4) Each and every state government should strive equally in all aspects to strive against terrorism.

BY CITIZENS 1) Every Indian should feel it as our motherland and strive for its best to prevent terrorism. 2) Nobody should facilitate bribe for these terrorist activities. 3) There should be compulsory army training at school which enables selfdefense.

CONCLUSION Terrorism nowadays has become the major threat to the society. It is terrorism that has took the lives of many people and left their families on roads. Gandhiji says “An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind”. So, it is the responsibility of every individual to fight against terrorism to make our country a terrorist free nation. While acknowledging the limitations and potential faults of this study, the data gathered and the subsequent analysis has provided strong evidence to support two key assumptions of the control-collaboration model. It has also come to be known that the loss of territory is accompanied by an increase in the death rate of civilians and children, again representative of a higher rate of indiscriminate violence and different vulgarity.

SURVEY (STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISM) 1) How old are you ? 

Under 18



18-25



25-40

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Above 40

2) According to you, which factor gives rise to terrorism ?  social injustice  political injustice  misguided(brainwashing)  none of these

3) What do you think about how terrorists get support and funding ?  Political leaders  Rich businessman  Secret agencies  Other sources

4) Thinking about the present situation, just say whether the world is becoming safer or more dangerous for the Indian people?  Much safer  Safer  Dangerous  Very dangerous

5) What do you think, how can we fight against terrorism. 122 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 - 4702

6) Why can’t India show a hard stance against terrorism like Israel or others ?  Lack of resources  Political reason  Due to peaceful nature of india  None of these

7) According to you, how India should take against attacks near borders ?

8) Did you worry about being a victim of terrorism ?  Yes  No

9) Do you think India is safer now than before “26/11” ?  Yes  No

10) Did you feel safer living in India versus any other country in the world ?  Strongly disagree  Disagree  Neutral  Agree

123 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 - 4702

REFERENCES 1.

www.google.com

2.

Wikipedia terrorism

3.

Google docs.

4.

Belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu

5.

Academic papers and report

6.

https://muse.jhu.edu

7.

Google books (terrorist activities)

8.

Jt.st-andrews.ac.uk/articles/10.15664/jtr.812/galley/932

9.

https://www.researchgate.net/..../293193649

10. search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx11. Terarsofgriefbayonne.JPG. To the st 12. ruggle Against terrorism. 13. izquotes.com 14. www.brainyquotes.com/quotes/keywords/terrorism.html 15. https://www.geckoandfly.com 16. Tumbir quotes on love and life. Books 1.

Legal issues in struggle against terror.

2.

The Struggle of democracy against terrorism.

3.

Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle against Terrorist.

*** 124 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 - 4702

fnO;kaxksa ds 'kS{kf.kd mRFkku gsrq 'kkldh; ;kstukvksa dh Hkwfedk lDlsuk] euh"kk1 ,oa czkã.ks] ve`rk2 1

f’k{kk ,oa dkS’ky fodkl foHkkx] MkW- ch- vkj- vEcsMdj lkekftd foKku fo’ofo|ky;] egw] ftyk bUnkSj] e/;izns’k] Hkkjr 2

ih,p- Mh- 'kks/kkFkhZ] MkW- ch- vkj- vEcsMdj lkekftd foKku fo’ofo|ky;] egw] ftyk bUnkSj] e/;izns’k] Hkkjr eksckbZy $ 91 98264 95988

lkjka’k lkekftd utfj;s ls izkphu le; ls gh fnO;kax O;fDr dh n;uh; fLFkfr gS rFkk mUgsa n;k dk ik= ekuk tkrk Fkk ,oa mudh lgk;rk bu fopkjksa ls dh tkrh Fkh fd nkudrkZ ;k lgk;rkdrkZ dks LoxZ dh izkfIr gksxh ;k fQj mldks iq.; dh izkfIr gksxh] u fd mlds fodkl dks /;ku esa j[kk tkrk gSA ysfdu orZeku esa fnO;kaxksa ds 'kS{kf.kd ;kstuk,a tSLks lekos’kh f’k{kk] fnO;kax ¼fu%’kDr½ Nk=o`fRr ;kstuk] fu%’kDrtu flfoy lsok izksRlkgu ;kstuk] fu%’kDrtu dks fons’k esa mPp f’k{kk gsrq Nk=o`fRr] us’kuy [email protected]ªLV QaM ds varxZr fnO;kaxksa dks jk"Vªh; Nk=o`fRr nsus dh ;kstuk bR;kfnA orZeku le; es fnO;kaxksa dh 'kS{kf.kd ;kstukvksa dk izHkko o fØ;kUo;u dh fLFkfr] leL;k,¡ rFkk dkj.k vkfn fcUnqvksa dk v/;;u fd;k x;k gS] ftlls orZeku esa fnO;kaxksa dks tkx#dr ] 'kS{kf.kd Lrj o ;kstukvkas ds ek/;e ls viuh vko’;drkvksa dh iwfrZ rFkk laiw.kZ O;fDrRo dk fodkl dj ldrk gS] ftldk eq[; mn~ns’; gS fd izR;sd {ks= esa viuh Hkkxhnkjh lqfuf’pr dj ldsA 'kCndqath & fnO;kax] 'kS{kf.kd] ,oa 'kkldh; ;kstuk,¡A izLrkouk O;fDrRo dk lokZaxh.k fodkl dk vk/kkj rFkk lekt dk niZ.k f’k{kk gSA ;g ns’k dh mUufr vkSj fodkl dk laokgd ,oa izR;sd egRokdka{kh lekt dh loksZPp izkFkfedrk 125 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 - 4702

gSA fdlh xfr’khy lekt esa f’k{kk dh vo/kkj.kk ml lekt dh uSfrdrkvks]a vkn’kZoknh vis{kkvksa csgrj thou ewY;ksa vkSj O;kogkfjd thou dh ekaxksa ls tksM+dj x<+h tkrh gSaA yksdrkaf=d lekt esa lekurk] Lora=rk rFkk HkzkrzRo tSLks yksdrkaf=d xq.kksa dk fodkl ,oa lkekftd psruk tkxzr gksrh gSaA tux.kuk 2011 ds vuqlkj ns’k Hkj esa dqy fnO;kax tula[;k 2]68]10]557 gS] ftlesa iq#"k la[;k 1]49]62]202 rFkk efgyk 1]18]24]355 gSA e/;izns’k esa fnO;kaxksa dh dqy tyla[;k 15-5 yk[k gSA n`f"Vckf/kr] Jo.kghurk] ewdcf/kj] eancqf)] ekufld jksxh ,oa dq"B jksx eqDr fnO;kax vkfn fnO;kaxrk esa 'kkfey gSA e/;izns’k 'kklu lkekftd U;k; ,oa fu%’kDrtu dY;k.k foHkkx }kjk fu%’kDrtuksa gsrq lapkfyr 'kS{kf.kd ;kstukvksa ls ykHkkfUor fgrxzkgh ds vuqlkj fu%’kDr Nk=o`fRr esa fgrxzkgh 12262] f’k{kk izksRLkkgu ;kstuk 44] mPp f’k{kk gsrq Qhl] fuokZg] HkRrk] ifjogu HkRrk & 898 flfoy lsok izksRlkgu ;kstuk&67] ekufld ,oa cgqfnO;kax lgk;rk ;kstuk&48744] fu%’kDr isa’ku&150713 bR;kfnA fnO;kaxksa dh 'kS{kf.kd ;kstukvksa ds fo"k; esa uxjh; lekt esa tkxzfr gS] fdlh lhek rd 'kS{kf.kd lqfo/kk,¡ miyC/k gS] ysfdu xzkeh.k lekt esa fodV va/kdkj gSA ogka izpkj&izlkj ek/;eksa ls tupsruk dh vko’;drk gSA vkt fnO;kaxksa dks lgkuqHkwfr ;k n;k dh bruh t#jr ugha gS] ftruh ^lEeku n`f"V vkSj leku O;ogkj* dh gSA orZeku esa ftrus fnO;kaxksa dks 'kS{kf.kd lqfo/kk;sa nh tk jgh gSA mudh rqyuk ;fn mu fnO;kaxksa dh la[;k ls dh tk;s] ftudks lqfo/kkvksa dh vis{kk gS rks Li"V gksrk gS fd vHkh Hkh dsoy 19-15 izfr’kr dks gh lqfo/kk;sa izfro"kZ fey ik jgh gS tks fd ux.; gSA fnO;kaxksa dh 'kS{kf.kd ;kstuk,a] uhfr;ka rFkk dk;ZØeksa ij fo’ks"k /;ku nsus dh vko’;drk gS] ftlls leLr ;kstukvksa dk ykHk fnO;kaxksa dks 'kr&izfr’kr izkIr gks rFkk mUgsa lekt dh eq[; /kkjk esa tksM+us dh vko’;drk gSA 'kks/k v/;;u ds mÌs’; 1- fnO;kaxksa ds 'kS{kf.kd Lrj dk v/;;u djukA 2- fnO;kaxksa dh f’k{kk esa vkus okyh ck/kkvksa ds dkj.kksa dks Kkr djukA 3- fnO;kaxksa ds 'kS{kf.kd ;kstukvksa ls ykHkkfUor fLFkfr dks Kkr djukA 126 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 - 4702

'kks/k fof/k ;g xq.kkRed 'kks/k ij vk/kkfjr i= gS] ftlds vUrxZr bankSj ftys ds fnO;kaxksa dh lwph ds vk/kkj ij lHkh izdkj ds fnO;kaxksa dk p;u lkSÌs’;iw.kZ fof/k ds }kjk fd;k x;k] ftlesa bankSj ftys ds dqy 330 fofHkUu fnO;kaxksa dk p;u fd;k x;kA v/;;u esa rF;ksa ds ladyu gsrq lk{kkRdkj vuqlwph] voyksdu ,oa lewg ppkZ ds }kjk rF;ksa dk ladyu dj vk¡dM+s ,df=r fd, x, gSaA ifj.kke ,oa fo’ys"k.k 'kks/k v/;;u ls izkIr vkadM+ksa ds vk/kkj ij fnO;kax izkIr izkFkfed vkadM+ksa ls tkudkjh izkIr djus ds i'pkr~ 'kS{kf.kd Lrj] f’k{kk esa vkus okyh ck/kkvksa ds dkj.k leL;k,¡ rFkk ;kstukvksa ls lacfa /kr tkudkjh yh xbZ gSA 

dqy 330 esa ls fnO;kaxksa esa vfLFkckf/kr 54-2 izfr’kr gs]a tcfd n`f"Vckf/kr 25-5

izfr’kr] ewdcf/kj 6-4 izfr’kr] eancqf) 5-8 izfr’kr] ekufld jksx 3-04 izfr’kr rFkk dq"V jksx ,oa Jo.kckf/kr 5-1 izfr’kr gSaA 

dqy 330 fnO;kaxksa esa ls 53-3 izfr’kr iq:"k ,oa 46-66 izfr’kr efgyk fnO;kax ik;s

x;s] ftlesa vuqlwfpr tkfr ds fnO;kax 23-03 izfr’kr] vuqlwfpr tutkfr fnO;kax 2635 izfr’kr rFkk fiNM+k oxZ ds fnO;kax 30-90 izfr’kr gSA flQZ 19-72 izfr’kr fnO;kax lkekU; tkfr ds ik;s x;s gSaA 

v/;;u esa ik;k x;k gs fd 80-00 izfr’kr iksfy;ks ds }kjk fnO;kaxrk gksus dk dkj.k]

tcfd 9-09 izfr’kr nq?kZVuk gksus ls fodykxrk ik;s x;s] ogah 6-06 izfr’kr izkÑfrd izdksi ls fnO;kaxrk rFkk 4-85 izfr’kr ;q)&naxs ls fnO;kaxrk gksrh gSaA 

dqy 330 fnO;kaxksa esa ls 58-48 izfr’kr tUe ls fnO;kaxrk gSa] tcfd 41-42 izfr’kr

tUe ds ckn ls fnO;kaxrk ikbZ xbZA 

v/;;u esa ik;k x;k gS fd 47-0 izfr’kr fiNys ik¡p o"kksZa ls fodklkRed ;kstukvksa

}kjk fnO;kaxksa dh fLFkfr esa ldkjkRed vUrj fn[kkbZ fn;k] tcfd 53-0 izfr’kr fiNys ik¡p o"kksZa ls fodklkRed ;kstukvksa }kjk fnO;kaxksa dh fLFkfr esa ldkjkRed vUrj ugha fn[kkbZ fn;s x;sA 127 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 - 4702



dqy 330 esa ls 56-97 izfr’kr fnO;kaxksa esa fodklkRed ;kstukvksa ls thou esa

ifjorZu gqvk] tcfd 43-03 izfr’kr fnO;kaxksa esa fodklkRed ;kstuk ls thou esa ifjorZu ugha ik;k x;kA 

dqy 330 esa ls 38-80 izfr’kr fodklkRed ;kstukvksa ls fnO;kaxksa dh f’k{kk Lrj esa

lq/kkj gqvk tcfd 18-18 izfr’kr ;kstukvksa ds ek/;e ls csjkstxkj nwj gksrh gS] ogha ;kstukvksa ds }kjk 22-43 izfr’kr fnO;kaxksa dh vkokxeu dh lqfo/kk,¡ miyC/k gksrh gSA blh izdkj 20-60 izfr’kr ;kstukvksa ls fnO;kaxksa dks vkRefuHkZj cuk;k tkuk ik;k x;kA rkfydk & 1 mÙkjnkrkvksa dh 'kS{kf.kd Lrj ,oa f’k{kk esa vkus okyh ck/kkvksa ds dkj.k Ø-

'kS{kf.kd Lrj

izfr'kr

1-

vui<+

¼24½ 2-27

2-

izkFkfed

¼20½ 6-1

fo|ky;@dkWyst nwj gksukA

¼43½ 13-3

3-

ek/;fed

¼36½ 10-90

Ik<+kbZ esa :fp u gksukA

¼36½ 10-91

4-

gkbZ Ldwy

¼38½ 11-5

fnO;kaxrk

¼58½ 17-58

5-

gk;j lsd.Mjh

¼62½ 18-8

vU;

¼60½ 18-18

6-

Lukrd

¼82½ 24-8

7-

LukrdksÙkj

¼40½ 12-1

8- izksQs’[email protected]

¼28½ 8-5

dqy

¼330½ 100

f'k{kk esa vkus okyh ck/kk ifjokj dh vkfFkZd fLFkfr fuEu gksukA

izfr'kr ¼133½ 40-30

¼330½ 100

mijksDr lkj.kh ls Li"V gS fd dqy 330 fnO;kaxksa esa ls 7-27 izfr’kr fnO;kax vui<+ gSa] tcfd 6-06 izfr’kr fnO;kax izkFkfed rFkk 10-90 izfr’kr fnO;kax ek/;fed Lrj ds ik;s x;sA ogha 11-52 izfr’kr gkbZ Ldwy Lrj ij fnO;kax] 18-8 izfr’kr gk;j lsds.Mjh esa fnO;kax rFkk Lukrd esa 24-8 izfr’kr fnO;kax ,oa LukrdksÙkj esa 12-1 izfr’kr fnO;kax gS] 128 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 - 4702

tcfd izksQs’kuy [email protected] esa fnO;kaxrk 8-5 izfr’kr ik;s x;sA mijksDr rkfydk ls Kkr gksrk gs fd 40-30 izfr’kr fnO;kaxksa dks ifjokj dh vkfFkZd fLFkfr fuEu gksus ls i<+kbZ esa ck/kk vkrh gSa tcfd 13-03 izfr’kr fo|ky;@dkWyst nwj gksus ls i<+kbZ esa ck/kk,¡ mRiUu gksrh gSa] ogha fnO;kaxksa dks 10-91 izfr’kr i<+kbZ esa :fp ugha gksuk] 17-58 izfr’kr fnO;kaxrk gksus ls i<+kbZ esa ck/kk mRiUu gksrh gSA blh izdkj 18-18 izfr’kr fnO;kaxksa dks vU; dkj.kksa ls i<+kbZ esa ck/kk,¡ mRiUu gksrh gSaA LIk"V gS fd f’k{kk dh vikj lEHkkouk,¡ gSa] ogha okLro esa f’k{kk ds Hkkxhnkjh gks ldrh gS] fdarq vf/kdka’k xzkeh.k {ks=ksa rFkk fuEu vkfFkZd fLFkfr ds dkj.k f’k{kk ds {ks= ds vkxs ugha vk ldsA f’k{kk gsrq vusd 'kkldh; ;kstuk,¡ py jgh gSa] fdUrq eq[; dkj.kksa esa vkarfjd ladksp rFkk nsjh ls ikB’kkyk esa izos’k f’k{kk ds izfr :>ku de djrk gSa] ogha fnO;kax gsrq fnO;kaxksa ds izdkjksa ds vuqlkj ekxZn’kZu dh deh Hkh yx jgh gSaA 'kgjksa dh vis{kk xzkeh.k {ks=ksa esa fnO;kaxrk vf/kd gSa] bl {ks= esa 'kSf{kd mUeq[khdj.k dk vHkko] midj.kksa dk vHkko] f’k{kk dh lqfo/kk,¡ ux.; gSaA 'kkldh; fo|ky;@egkfo|ky;@ laLFkkuksa esa 'kSf{kd lkefxz;ksa dk vHkko Oghy ps;j dk vHkko] ifjokj dh vkfFkZd fLFkfr fuEu gksuk] fnO;kaxrk] f’k{kd dk udkjkRed O;ogkj] tSls fp<+fp<+kiu] >qa> ykgV] /;ku u nsuk] ifjokj rFkk fo|ky;@egkfo|ky; dk izfrdwy okrkoj.k bR;kfn dkj.kksa ls fnO;kax f’k{kk ds izfr v:fp j[krk gS] ftlls mldk lokZaxh.k fodkl vo:) gks tkrk gSA rkfydk & 2 ;kstukvkas ls ykHkkfUor Ø-

;kstuk

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198

60

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4

1-21

26

38-18

3

us'kuy [email protected]ªLV QaM ds varxZr fu%’kDrtu dks jk"Vªh; Nk=o`fRr ;kstuk

129 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 - 4702

4

vU; dqy

2

0-61

330

100

rkfydk 2 ls Li"V gksrk gS fd 60 izfr’kr fnO;kax Nk=o`fRr ;kstuk ls ykHkkfUor gS] tcfd flfoy lsok izksRlkgu ;kstuk ls 1-21 izfr’kr ykHkkfUor gq,] ogha 38-18 izfr’kr us’kuy [email protected]ªLV QaM ds varxZr fu%’kDrtu dks jk"Vªh; Nk=o``fRr ;kstuk ls ykHkkfUor rFkk 0-61 izfr’kr vU; ;kstukvksa ls ykHkkfUor ik;s x;sA ;kstuk lac/a kh tkudkjh izkIr gksus ij dqy 330 fnO;kax esa ls 55-46 izfr’kr fnO;kaxkas dks tkudkjh izkIr gS] tcfd 44-54 izfr’kr fnO;kaxksa dks ;kstukvkas dh tkudkjh izkIr ugha gqbZA varr% fnO;kax O;fDr vf/kd leL;kxzLr dk :Ik ys ysrk gS] ftlls ifjokj] vfHkHkkod rFkk vU; ds lkFk Hkh fnO;kax O;fDr cks> cu tkrk gS tks lkekthdj.k dh izfØ;k esa ck/kd gSA fnO;kaxksa dks fo’ks"k rkSj ij xzkeh.k {ks=ksa esa ;kstukvksa dh tkudkjh izkIr ugha gksus dk eq[; dkj.k lapkj ek/;eksa dh deh] vf’k{kk] vKkurk bR;kfn ls ;kstuk,¡ dh tkudkjh miyC/k ugha gksrh gSa rFkk ljdkjh ,oa xSj ljdkjh ;kstukvksa ls ykHkkfUor dh la[;k ux.; gSA ljdkjh rFkk vljdkjh foHkkxksa }kjk ;kstukvksa ls lacfa /kr tkudkjh dkxth dk;Zokgh iw.kZ djus ds ncko vkfn ds dkj.k ;kstukvksa esa :fp mRiUu dk vHkko rFkk fofHkUu ;kstuk,¡ ykxw djus ds Lrjksa ij izHkkodkjh rkyesy dk;e djus dk vHkko ik;k x;k gSA fu"d"kZ fnO;kax O;fDr;ksa ds lexz fodkl gsrq dsUnz rFkk jkT; ljdkj }kjk fofHkUu ;kstuk,a ,oa dk;ZØe lapkfyr fd;s tkdj mUgsa fØ;kfUor fd;k tk jgk gSA mDr leLr ;kstukvksa dk ykHk bu fnO;kax O;fDr;ksa dks 'kr&izfr’kr izkIr gks] ysfdu fØ;kUo;u ds ekeys esa ;g lcls ihNs gks x;k gSA 130 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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orZeku esa ftrus fnO;kaxksa dks lqfo/kk,a nh tk jgh gS mudh rqyuk ;fn mu fnO;kaxrk dh la[;k ls dh tk;s] ftudks lqfo/kkvksa dh vis{kk gS rks Li"V gksrk gS fd vHkh Hkh dsoy 19-15 izfr’kr dks gh lqfo/kk,a izfro"kZ fey ik jgh gS tks fd ux.; gSA vkt Hkkjr esa vU; oxksZa dh ns[kk&ns[kh fnO;kaxksa esa Hkh gj {ks= esa rsth ls izlkj gks jgk gSA ljdkjh vkadM+ksa ds vuqlkj dqy vkcknh dk 2-1 izfr’kr fnO;kaxrk dk f’kdkj gSA ;fn buds ifjokjtuksa tks buls izHkkfor gksrs gS] dks tksM+k tk,] rks ;g la[;k 10 izfr’kr dks ikj dj tkrh gSA vkcknh ds brus cM+s fgLls ds fy, ljdkj o lekt dks txkuk gh gksxkA rFkkfi fnO;kaxksa ds 'kCn tkus ls Hkkouk,a rFkk ;kstukvksa ds izlkj.k vkSj tkx#drk ds Lrj esa dksbZ varj ugha gksxkA f’k{kk] Nk=o`fRr] isa’ku bR;kfn ds ckotwn dsUnz rFkk jkT; 'kklu ds vkadM+s vkt Hkh fnO;kax jkstxkj ds fjDr iM+s inksa dks Hkj ugha ik jgk gSA ekuuk gS fd lkekU; O;fDr dksbZ u dksbZ dkS’ky izR;sd fnO;kax gksus ds ckotwn izR;sd fnO;kax vkt Hkh eq[; /kkjk esa 'kkfey ugha gks ik jgk gSA vkadM+ks dh ekus rks fnO;kaxrk ds vkadM+s fnO;kax gh gSA leLr ifjiw.kZ tkudkfj;ka vkt Hkh fOkHkkxks]a ljdkjh rFkk izfrosnuksa esa miyC/k ugha gSa] ogha ;kstukvksa esa l{kerk vkSj l’kfDrdj.k nksuksa gh lkekftd] vkfFkZd Lrjksa dh ekus rks fiNM+kiu dHkh ekStwn gSA gkykafd fofHkUu ,tsafl;ksa] xSj ljdkjh laxBuksa vkSj ljdkj us fnO;kax O;fDr;ksa ds jgu&lgu esa lq/kkj ds fy, dke djuk 'kq# dj fn;k gS] ysfdu ge vc Hkh lcds fy, leku volj vkSj LokLF; ds y{; ls dkQh ihNs gSA blds fy, fnO;kaxrk {ks= esa Lo;a lsok dks izksRlkfgr djds rFkk ns’k ds fnO;kaxksa dh lgk;rk ds fy, lkeqnkf;d lsokvksa dh O;oLFkk djds ns’k ds fnO;kax O;fDr;ksa dh lgk;rk dh tk ldrh gSA Lo;alos k dks ,d ljdkjh dk;ZØe vkSj tu vkanksyu cuk;k tkuk pkfg, fnO;kax O;fDr;ksa dks n;k dh ugha lEeku dh rFkk vyx&vyx dh ugha cfYd lekt ds lkFk ,dhdj.k dh t#jr gSA 131 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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lq>ko 

fnO;kaxtuksa ds ykHk ds fy;s fofHkUu Lrjksa ij izf’k{k.k] f’k{kk ,oa vuqla/kku ds

dk;ZØe pykuk vfr egRoiw.kZ gSA 

fnO;kaxksa ds fy;s pykbZ tk jgh mudh dY;k.kdkjh ;kstukvksa ds ykHk mu rd

igq¡pkus dk ek/;e tSls foKkiuksa] ehfM;k es]a U;wt pSuy vFkkZr~ lapkj ek/;eksa bR;kfn lqfuf’pr fd;s tkus dh vko’;drk gSaA 

fnO;kaxksa ds fy;s fu%’kqYd mPp lHkh ladk;ksa esa miyC/k dh tkus dh vko’;drk

gSaA '[email protected] a dkWystksa esa Nk=o`fRr dh jkf’k c<+k;h tk;sA 

fnO;kaxksa dh fodklkRed ;kstukvksa dks Ldwyksa ds gkbZLdwy rFkk gk;j lsdaMjh

ikB~;Øe esa 'kkfey fd;k tkuk pkfg,] rkfd xzkeh.k ifjos’k esa budh igqap gks ldsA 

xzke iapk;r Lrj esa f’kfoj vk;kstu dk le;≤ ij Qkyksvi djuk gS rFkk

n`<+ fu’p; dh vko’;drk gSA 

f’kfojksa ds ek/;e ls izkIr fnO;kaxksa dks dsl ds vuq:Ik vko’;drkvksa dh iwfrZ

gsrq rRdky dk;Zokgh gksA lanHkZ xzaFk lwph 1- e- iz- 'kklu lkekftd U;k; ,oa fu%’kDr dY;k.k Hkksiky iz’kkldh; izfrosnu o"kZ 2013&14] Hkksiky] ist 382- ukjk;.k ukVk.kh] izdk’k ¼2007½- **Hkkjr esa fnO;kaxrk**] ifCyds’ku] t;iqj] ist 103- lkekftd U;k; foHkkx }kjk lapkfyr tudY;k.kdkjh ;kstuk,a] bankSj laHkkx bankSj] ist 1&6 4- ;kno] jfo izdk’k] **fnO;kaxksa ds fy;s f’k{kk**] fnlEcj ¼1999½- dq:{ks=] fnYyh] ist 3&55- e/;izns’k 'kklu dh dY;k.kdkjh ;kstuk,a] egkohj ifCy’klZ ,.M fgLVªh] bankSj] ist 52&546- Hkkjr dh tux.kuk] 20117- www.socialjustice.mp.gov.in 8- Disability Employment/…/background perspective info change India.

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Lo;a lgk;rk lewg% ,d v/;;u ekyoh;] vfurk okf.kT; foHkkx] foØe fo’ofo|ky;] mTtSu] e/;izns’k] Hkkjr bZ esy

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lkjka’k xk¡o esa lkekftdrk ij xkSj djsa rks ikrs gS fd fdlh Hkh dk;Z esa enn ysus vkSj nsus dh ijEijk lfn;ksa ls pyh vk jgh gS A tSls **lkeqnkf;drk dh Hkkouk** vkfnoklh lekt dh lcls cM+h fo’ks"krk gS vkSj ;g blds lkekftd] vkfFkZd vkSj jktuSfrd igyqvksa ds rkj ls Hkh tqM+h gqbZ gS A ijarq vkt ds iSlk cktkj izfr;ksfxrk iw.kZ ;qx esa bldk QSyko] fodkl dh izfØ;k esa lqlaxfBr gksdj ugha fd;k x;kA blds ckotwn lkeqnkf;drk xjhc o lkekftd rkSj ls fiNM+s oxksZ esa vkt Hkh fdlh u fdlh :Ik esa fo|eku gSA Lo;a lgk;rk lewg dk bfrgkl ns[kus ij ;g irk pyrk gS fd eq[; :Ik ls bldh 'kq:vkr ns’k dh izfrf"Br LoSfPNd laLFkk,Wa tSls lsYQ ,EiykbM ohesu ,lksfl,’ku vgenkckn e;jkM+k] caxykSj vkfn ds ek/;e ls gqbZ FkhA e;jkM+k caxykSj ds bfrgkl dks ns[kk tk;s rks bl laLFkk us o"kZ 1968 ls gh lkekftd dk;Z ds izfr viuh Hkwfedk fuHkkuh 'kq: dj nh Fkh A 'kq:vkr eas e;jkMk us eq[; :Ik ls phu ;q) ds Ik’pkr~ frCcr ls vk;s frCcfr;ksa dks iquLFkkZfir djus dk dk;Z 'kq: fd;kA nwljs nkSj esa bl izdkj o"kZ 2000 rd yk[kksa yksxks dks lqfo/kk,Wa nsdj muds thou LRkj dks mBkus dk y{; cuk;k A 'kCndqath % Lo;a lgk;rk lewg A izLrkouk vkt ds fc[kjs gq, 'kgjh] xzkeh.k] ifjn`’; esa fofHkUu tkrh; lewg vyx&vyx uxjksa ¼eksgYyks½a esa fuokl djrs gS] ;s lewg viuh & viuh leL;kvksa dks dkQh gn rd vkil esa fuiVk Hkh ysrs gS] bu lewgksa ds vyx& vyx lnL; Hkwfeghu] [ksfrgj etnwj 133 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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NksVs fdlku dkjhxj ,oa y?kq O;olk;h gksrs gS vkSj O;fDrxr :Ik ls NksVh gSfl;r gksus dkj.k xjhch dk thou fcrk jgs gS A mUgsa LakLFkkxr L=ksrksa ls Hkh fdlh izdkj dh lgk;rk ugha feyikrh gS A Lolsoh cpr lewg dh ladYiuk blh lanHkZ ls mRiUu gqbZ gSA lewg vius lnL;ksa ds lkewfgd ,oa O;fDrxr dY;k.k ds fy;s viuh cpr ds ek/;e ls lfØ; :Ik ls dk;Z djrs jg ldrs gS A cpr dk egRo blfy;s Hkh gS fd bLkls O;fDr lewg esa viuRo eglwl djrk gSAvkSj lewg dks LFkkf;Ro Hkh izkIr gksrk gSALo lgk;rk lewg] le:i xzkeh.k fu/kZuksa }kjk LosPNk ls xfBr lewg gSA Lo lgl;rk lewg dks vksfpR; xk¡o esa dqy vkcknh dk 75 ls Hkh vf/kd vkcknh dk izeq[k vk/kkj [ksrh gSA ,sls xzkeh.kksa dh vusd leL;k,a gSA igyh ;g dh [ksrh ds vfrfjDr vU; vk; dk lk/ku blds ikl ugh gksrs gSA nwljk ;g fd [ksrh eas 5ls 6 ekg rd dke feyrk gSA blfy;s cps le; esa xzkeh.kksa dks vk; ds fy;s fo’ks"k iz;Ru djuk iM+rk gSA vkSj vko’;drk iM+us ij bUgsa viuh tehu o xguksa dks fxjoh j[kuh iM+rh gSA vkSj ifjfLFkfr ls etcwj gksdj bls NqMk+ Hkh ugha ikrs gSA cSad 'kk[kkvksa dh o`gn usVodZ gksrs gq, Hkh xzkeh.kksa dh igqp ogkW rd ugh gS A pwfd fu/kZuksa dh t:jrs NksVs _.kksa ls lacfa /kr gksrh gks] lkFk gh lkFk mudh vko’;drk mi;ksx vkSj mRiknu nksuksa mnn~s’;ksa ls twMh gS cSad okys bls [krjk ekurs gS vkSj m/kkj nsus ls fgpdrs gSA bl ldV ls mHkjus ds fy, ,d vdsyk O;fDr rks laHkork% dqN ugah dj ldrk gSA ijarq dqN yksx feydj viuh NksVh vk; ls FkksM+h & FkksM+h cpr djrs & djrs ,d iwath tek dj ldrs gS A blh iwath ls os ,d nwljs dh enn djrs gS vkSj bldk mi;ksx djds /khjs & /khjs tehu NqM+krs gS A Li"Vr% bl izfØ;k esa dkQh le; yx tkrk gS A ijarq Lo;alsoh laLFkkvksa dh enn ls dqN gn rd viuh leL;kvksa dk lek/kku djrs gSA v/;;u dk mnn~s’; 1-

Lo;a lgk;rk lewg dh dk;Ziz.kkyh dk v/;;u djuk A

2-

orZeku le; esa Lo;a lgk;rk lewg ds vkSfpR; dk irk yxkuk A

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v/;;u fof/k izLrqr 'kks/k v/;;u f}rh;d leadks ij vk/kkfjr gS A leadks ds laxzg.k ds fy, lekpkj] i= & if=dk,¡ ,oa osolkbM dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA v/;;u {ks= izLrqr 'kks/k v/;;u dk {ks= nsokl ftys ds fofHkUu xk¡o gS A Lo;a lgk;rk lewg leku lkekftd ,oa vkfFkZd i`"BHkwfe okys 10&20 lnL;ksa dk ,d LoSfPNd lewg gS tks & 1- fu;fer :Ik ls viuh vkenuh ls FkksM+h&FkksM+h cpr djrs gS A 2- O;fDrxr jkf’k dks lkewfgd fof/k esa ;ksxnku ds fy, ijLij lger jgrs gS A 3- Lkewfgd usr`Ro ds }kjk vkilh erHksn dk lek/kku djrs gS A 4- Lewg }kjk r; fd;s x, fu;eksa ,oa 'krksZ ij _.k miyC/k djkrs gS A Hkkjr esa Lo;a lgk;rk lewg ,oa cSad fyadst dk;ZØe vukSipkfjd _.k iz.kkyh ds yphysiu laxzfgrk vuqfØ;k’khyrk tSls xq.kksa dks vkSipkfjd _.k laLFkkvksa dh rduhdh {kerkvksa vkSj foRrh; lalk/kuksa ds lkFk la;ksftr djus vkSj _.k forj.k esa iz.kkyh esa ldkjkRed uohurk;sa ykus dh n`f"V ls jk"Vªh; d`f"k vkSj xzkeh.k fodkl cSad ¼ ukckMZ ½ us Qjojh 1992 esa Lo;a lgk;rk lewgks dks okf.kT; cSadks ls tksM+us ds fy, ik;yV ifj;kstuk 'kq: dh Fkh A ftlesa ckn esa lgdkjh cSadks vkSj {kS=h; xzkeh.k cSadks dks Hkh 'kkfey dj fy;k x;k gSA ;g tqM+ko bl fopkj ls Hkh Fkk fd vkSipkfjd vkSj vukSipfjd _.k iz.kkyh ds vPNs xq.kksa dks lek;ksftr dj ldsA Lo;a lgk;rk lewg ds fodkl esa ck/kd rRo ;|fi efgykvksa ds Lo;a lgk;rk lewgksa }kjk dkQh vPNk dke fd;k tk jgk gSA fdarq Hkkjrh; ifjizs{; esa efgykvksa dks Lo;a dks lewg ds :i esa laxfBr gksus o fdlh fdlh m|e ds fodkl esa iq:"kksa dh rqyuk esa dgha vf/kd dfBukb;ksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gSA 135 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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1-

Ekfgykvksa dh xfr’khyrk ij lhek,a & Hkkjr esa iq:"k iz/kku lekt ds dkj.k

efgykvksa dk thou izk;% ?kj dh pkj nhokjh esa gh lhfer gksrk gSA blfy;s ?kj ds ckgj tkdj Lo;a lgk;rk lewgksa ds :i esa laxfBr gksus dh fLFkfr esa mu ij vusd izdkj dh lkekftd ck/kk,¡ gksrh gSA efgykvksa }kjk lewgksa ds :i esa laxfBr gksus ij Hkh mUgsa vius m/ke dks vkxs c<+kus ds fy, cSadlZ xSj ljdkjh laxBuks vius mRiknu ds fy, e/;LFkksa bR;knh ls ckrphr djuh gksrh gSA ftlesa dbZ ckj ifjtuksa }kjk lhek, Mkyh tkrh gSAblh izdkj iq:"k tgk¡ nsj jkr rd dke dj ldrs gSA efgykvksa ds fy;s dk;Z djus dh vof/k vusd dkj.kksa ls lhfer gksrh gSA 2-

Lkkekftd izfrca/k & Hkkjrh; lekt esa efgykvksa ds jgu&lgu] dke&dkt

jkstxkj bR;kfn ij vusd lkekftd ikjEifjd jhfr&fjokt Hkh ck/kk ds :i esa dke djrs gSA efgyk Lo;a lgk;rk lewg dks Lo;a ds m/ke ds mRiknksa dk izpkj djus o vusdks 'kgjksa rd igw¡pkus ds fy, iq:"kksa dh lgk;rk ysuh iM+rh gSA ifj.kker% lewgksa esa dk;Z djus ds okotwn efgyk,¡ Lo;a esa iw.kZ fo’okl ugha dj ikrh gSA rFkk iq:"kksa ij fuHkZjrk dks vius thou dk ;FkkFkZ ekuus yXkrh gS ,slh fLFkfr esa l’kfDrdj.k dsoy vkfFkZd vkRefuHkZjrk dk gh :Ik ys ikrk gS vkSj ekuksoSKkfud fodkl ugha gks ikrk gSA 3-

cSadlZ dk udkjkRed joS;k & iajijkxr :Ik ls cSadks esa iq:"k xzkgd gh vf/kd

la[;k esa gksrs gS rFkk efgyk,a ,d rjg ls cSafdax lsokvksa ls oafpr jgh gSA Lo;a lgk;rk lewgks dh lnL; ds :Ik esa tc efgyk,Wa cSadks ls _.k bR;kfn ds fy, laidZ djrh gS rks iwoZ vuqHko ds vHkko esa mudh ftKklk,a o 'kadk,a vf/kd gksrh gS fdUrq cSadlZ dh rjQ ls bl fLFkfr ds izfr ldkjkRed o lgkuqHkwfr iw.kZ O;ogkj ugha fd;k tkrk gS ftlls efgyk lewgksa dk eukscy de gksrk gS A 136 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 - 4702

4-

iz’kklfud ck/kk,¡ & ljdkjh laLFkkvksa ls laidZ lk/kus esa efgyk lewgksa dks

iz’kklfud :fuk iM+rk gSA

fu"d"kZ vusd ck/kkvks ds Ik’pkr Hkh Loa; lgk;rk lewg us efgykvks esa cpr dh Hkkouk lkeklftd vkfFkZd fodkl esa uo psruk dk izlkj fd;k gSA Lo;a lgk;rk lewg ls efgyk l’kDr gksus ds lkFk gh mudk 'kkjhfjd ekufld ckSf)d o vkS/kksfxd fodkl gqvk gSA la{ksi esa dg ldrs gS fd xzkeh.k fodkl esa Lo;a lewg viuk egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku ns jgs gS A

lUnHkZ xzaFk lwph 1- ukckMZ Hkkjr esa lw{e for dh fLFkfr ¼2011&12½ fjiksVZ2- vkuan flag- Financial Inclusion and Urban Cooperative Banks. 3- M-Cril Micro Finance Review (2010). 4- www.rbi.org.in

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egkRek xk¡/kh jk"Vªh; xzkeh.k jkstxkj xkjaVh Ldhe % ,d v/;;u ekyoh;] ,eokf.kT; foHkkx] Jh d`- i- 'kkldh; vxz.kh egkfo|ky;] foØe fo’ofo|ky;] mTtSu] e/;izns’k] Hkkjr bZ esy

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lkjka’k eujsxk ds rgr dke izkIr djus ds fy, tkWc dkMZ gkfly djus okys ifjokjksa dh la[;k Hkh foRrh; o"kZ 2015 rd c<+h A Lora= laxBuksa }kjk iwoZ fd;s x, vkdyuksa ls irk pyrk gS fd dukZVd vka/kzizns’k ] e/;izns’k vkSj jktLFkku esa eujsxk ifj;kstukvksa ds pyrs Hkwty ds Lrj ds lkFk is;ty dh miyfC/k esa okLro esa lq/kkj gqvk gS A bl ;kstuk dks vius :[k esa cnyko djrs gq, iwjh lfØ;rk ds lkFk NksVs vkSj lhekar fdlkuksa dh NksVh tksrksa esa lq/kkj dh fn’kk esa c<+uk pkfg, A xzekh.k rFkk d`f"k ls tqM+s yksxks dh vk; esa btkQk djus dh xjt ls ;g ,d cM+h vkfFkZd xfrfof/k cu ldrh gSA 'kCndqath % egkRek xk¡/kh jk"Vªh; xzkeh.k jkstxkj xkjaVh Ldhe A izLrkouk egkRek xk¡/kh jk"Vªh; xzkeh.k jkstxkj xkjaVh vf/kfu;e ¼eujsxk½ Hkkjr esa ykxw ,d jkstxkj xkjaVh ;kstuk gs ftls 25 vxLr] 2005 dks fo/kku }kjk vf/kfu;fer fd;k x;kA ;g ;kstuk izR;sd foRrh; o"kZ esa fdlh Hkh xzkeh.k ifjokj ds mu Ok;Ld lnL;ksa dks 100 fnu dk jkstxkj miyC/k djkrh gS tks izfrfnu 220 :Ik;s dh lafof/kd U;wure etnwjh ij lkoZtfud dk;Z lacfa /kr vdq’ky etnwjh djus ds fy, rS;kj gS A 2010&11 foRrh; o"kZ esa bl ;kstuk ds fy, dsUnz ljdkj dk ifjO;; 40]100 djksM+ :- FkkA bl vf/kfu;e dks xzkeh.k yksxksa dh dz; 'kfDr dks c<+kus ds mnn~s’; ls 'kq: fd;k x;k Fkk] eq[; :Ik ls xzkeh.k Hkkjr esa jgus okys yksxksa ds fy, v/kZ & dkS’kyiw.kZ ;k fcuk 138 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 - 4702

dkS’kyiw.kZ dk;Z pkgs os xjhch js[kk ls uhps gksa ;k uk gksa A fu;r dk;Z cy dk djhc ,d frgkbZ efgykvksa ls fufeZr gS A ljdkj ,d dkWy lsaVj [kksyus dh ;kstuk cuk jgh gS] ftlds 'kq: gksus ij 'kqYd eqDr uEcj 1800&345&22&44 ij laidZ fd;k tk ldrk gSA 'kq: esa bls jk"Vªh; xzkeh.k jkstxkj xkjaVh vf/kfu;ke ¼ujsxk½ dgk tkrk Fkk ysfdu 2 vDVwcj 2009 dks bldk iqu% ukedj.k fd;k x;k A bl vf/kfu;e dks oke ny lefFkZr laizx ljdkj }kjk yk;k x;k FkkA dbZ yksxksa dk ekuuk gS fd bl ifj;kstuk dk oknk Hkkjrh; vke pquko 2009 esa ;wih, ds iqufoZt;h gksus ds izeq[k dkj.kksa esa ls ,d FkkA csfY;;e esa tUesa vkSj fnYyh Ldwy vkWQ bdksuksfeDl esa dk;Zjr~ vFkZ’kkL=h T;ka Vªst dh bl ifj;kstuk ds ihNs ,d vge Hkwfedk gSA xzkeh.k fodkl ea=ky; }kjk dk;ZfUor egkRek xk¡/kh jk"Vªh; xzkeh.k jkstxkj xkjaVh vf/kfu;e ¼ eujsxk ½ 2005 ljdkj dk izeq[k dk;ZØe gS tks xjhcksa dh ftanxh ls lh/ks rkSj ij tqM+k vkSj tks O;kid fodkl dks izksRlkgu nsrk gs ;g vf/kfu;e fo’o esa viuh rjg dk igyk vf/kfu;e gS ftlds rgr~ vHkwriw.kZ rkSj ij jkstxkj dh xkjaVh nh tkrh gS A bldk edln gS xzkeh.k {ks=ksa ds ifjokjks dh vkthfodk lqj{kk dks c<+kuk A blds rgr gj ?kj ds ,d O;Ld lnL; dks ,d foRr o"kZ esa de ls de 100 fnuksa dk jkstxkj fn, tkus dh xkajVh gSA ;g jkstxkj 'kkjhfjd Je ds lanHkZ esa gS vkSj ml O;Ld O;fDr dks iznku fd;k tkrk gS tks blds fy, jkth gks A bl vf/kfu;e dk nwljk y{; ;g fd blds rgr

fVdkÅ ifjlEifRr;ksa dk l`tu fd;k tk, vkSj

xzkeh.k fu/kZuksa dh vkthfodk ds vk/kkj dks etcwr cuk;k tk,A bl vf/kfu;e dk edln lw[ks ] taxyksa ds dVku] e`nk {kj.k tSls dkj.kksa ls iSnk gksus okyh fu/kZurk dh leL;k ls Hkh fuiVuk gS rkfd jkstxkj ds volj yxkrkj iSnk gksrs gS A egkRek xk¡/kh jk"Vªh; xzkeh.k jkstxkj xkjaVh vf/kfu;e ¼eujsxk½ dks rS;kj djuk vkSj dk;kZfUor djuk ,d egRoiw.kZ dne ds rkSj ij ns[kk x;k gS A bldk vk/kkj vf/kdkj vkSj ek¡x dks cuk;k x;k gS ftlds dkj.k ;g iwoZ ds blh rjg ds dk;ZØeksa ls fHkUu gks x;k gS A vf/kfu;e ds cstksM+ igyqvksa es le; c) jkstxkj xkajVh vkSj 15 fnu ds Hkhrj etnwjh dk Hkqxrku vkfn 'kkfey gS blds varxZr jkT; ljdkjksa dks izksRlkfgr 139 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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fd;k tkrk gS fd os jkstxkj iznku djus es dksrkgh u cjrsa D;ksfd [kpZ dk 90 izfr’kr fgLlk dsUnz ogu djrk gSA blds vykok bl ckr ij Hkh tksj fn;k tkrk gS fd jkstxkj 'kkjhfjd Je vk/kkfjr gks ftlesa Bsdsnkjksa vkSj e’khuksa dk dksbZ n[ky u gksA vf/kfu;e esa efgykvksa dh 33 izfr’kr Je Hkkxhnkjh dks Hkh lqfuf’pr fd;k x;k gSA Je en ij 60 izfr’kr vkSj lkexzh en esa 40 izfr’kr O;; fd;s tkus dh vf/kdre lhek fuf’pr dh x;h gS A ujsxk 2 Qjojh 2006 dks ykxw gks x;k FkkA igys pj.k esa bls ns’k ds 200 lcls fiNM+s ftyksa esa ykxw fd;k x;k FkkA 'kq:vkrh y{;ds vuq:Ik ujsxk dks iwjs ns’k esa ikap lkyksa esa QSyk nsuk FkkA cgjgky iwjs ns’k dks blds nk;js esa ykus vkSj ekax dks n`f"V esa j[krs gq, ;kstuk dks ,d viszy 2008 ls lHkh xzkeh.k ftyksa rd foLrkj ns fn;k x;k gS A jkT; ljdkjsa izR;sd foRrh; o"kZ esa izR;sd ifjokj dks ftlds Ok;Ld lnL; vdq’ky 'kkjhfjd Je djuk pkgsa ] de ls de 100 fnu dk xkjaVh’kqnk osru jkstxkj eqgS;k djo,xhA v/;;u dk mn~ns’; izLrqr 'kks/k v/;;u ds eq[; mn~ns’; fuEu gSA ¼1½ eujsxk dh dk;Z iz.kkyh dk v/;;u djuk] ¼2½ xzkeh.k {ks= esa fodkl dk;Z dk irk yxkuk A v/;;u dk {ks= izLrqr 'kks/k v/;;u dk {ks= e-iz ds nsokl ftys dks pquk x;k gS A v/;;u fof/k izLrqr 'kks/k i= f}rh;d leadks ij vk/kkfjr gS A laedks ds laxzg.k ds fy, lekpkj] i=] if=dk;sa ,oa osclkbV ls tkudkjh ,df=r dh xbZ gSA ;kstuk ;g vf/kfu;e ]jkT; ljdkjksa dks ** eujsxk ;kstukvksa ** dks ykxw djus ds funsZ’k nsrk gSA eujsxk ds rgr dsUnz ljdkj dh etnwjh dh ykxr] eky dh ykxr dk [email protected] vkSj 140 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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iz’kklfud ykxr dk dqN izfr’kr ogu djrh gSA jkT; ljdkjs csjkstxkjh HkRrk] eky dh ykxr dk [email protected] vkSj jkT; ifj"kn dh iz’kklfud ykxr dks ogu djrh gS A pwfa d jkT; ljdkjsa csjkstxkjh HkRrk nsrh gS mUgsa Jfedksa dks jkst xkj iznku djus ds fy, Hkkjh izksRlkgu fn;k tkrk gS A gkyakfd csjkstxkjh HkRrs dh jkf’k dks fuf’pr djuk jkT; ljdkj ij fuHkZj gS] tks bl 'krZ ds v/khu gS fd ;g igys 30 fnuksa ds fy, U;wure etnwjh ds [email protected] Hkkx ls de uk gks vkSj blds ckn U;wure etnwjh dk [email protected] ls de u gks A izfr ifjokj 100 fnuksa dk jkstxkj ¼ ;k csjkstxkjh HkRrk ½ l{ke vkSj bPNqd Jfedksa dks gj foRRkh; o"kZ esa iznku fd;k tkuk pkfg, A izfØ;k xzkeh.k ifjokjksa ds o;Ld lnL;] xzke iapk;r ds ikl ,d rLohj ds lkFk viuk uke] mez vkSj irk tek djrs gSA tk¡p ds ckn iapk;r] ?kjksa dks iathd`r djrk gS] vkSj ,d tkWc dkMZ iznku djrk gSA tkc dkMZ esa iathd`r o;Ld lnL; dk C;kSjk vkSj bldh QksVks 'kkfey gksrh gS A ,d iathd`r O;fDr ;k rks iapk;r ;k dk;ZØe vf/kdkjh dks fyf[kr :Ik ls ¼ fujarj dke ds de ls de pkSng fnuksa ds fy, ½ dke djus ds fy, ,d vkosnu izLrqr dj ldrk gSA vkosnu nSfud csjkstxkjh HkRrk vkosnd dks Hkqxrku fd;k tk,xkA bl vf/kfu;e ds rgr iq:"kksa vkSj efgykvksa ds chp fdlh Hkh HksnHkko dh vuqefr ugha gSA blfy, iq:"kksa vkSj efgykvksa dks leku osru Hkwxrku fd;k tkuk pkfg, A lHkh o;Ld jkstxkj ds fy, vkosnu dj ldrs gSA Ldhe ds mnn~s’; Ldhe ds lkjHkkx mnn~s’; fuEu fyf[kr gksx a sA 1- fofgr DokfyVh vkSj LFkkf;Ro dh mRikn vfLr;ksa ds l`tu esa ifj.kke Lo:i ekax ds vuqlkj xzkeh.k {ks=ksa esa izR;sd xzgLFkh ds fy, foRrh; o"kZ esa xkjaVhd`r jkstxkj ds :i esa vdq’ky 'kkjhfjd dk;Z ds fy, de ls de lkS fnu iznku djuk A 2- fu/kZu ds thfodk lalk/ku vk/kkj dks lqn`<+ djuk A 3- lekftd vUros’kZu dks vfrlfØ; :Ik ls lqfuf’pr djuk A 4- iapk;r jkt laLFkkvksa dks lqn`<+ djuk A 141 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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dk;Z dk vkoaVu 1- xzke iapk;r vkSj dk;ZØe vf/kdkjh ;g fuf’pr djsxk fd izR;sd vkosnd Ldhe ds mica/kks ds vuqlkj vkosnu dh izkfIr ds iUnzg fnukas ds Hkhrj ;k ml rkjh[k ls ftlls og vkfxze vkosnu dh n’kk esa dk;Z pkgrk gS] buesa ls gks Ik’pkrorhZ gks] vdq’ky 'kkjhfjd dk;Z iznku fd;k tk,xkA 2- efgykvksa ds bl rjg iwfoZdrk gh tk,xh fd de ls de & frgkbZ Qk;nk izkIr djus okyksa esa ,slh efgyk,sa gksxh] tks jftLVªhd`r gS vkSj dk;Z ds fy, ftUgksua s vuqjks/k fd;k gS A ,dy efgyk vkSj fu%’kDr O;fDr dh Hkkxhnkjh dks c<+kok nsus ds fy, iz;kl fd;s tk;sxas A 3- ,sls vkosnd] ftUgs dk;Z fn;k tkrk gS] dk;Z dkMZ esa fn, x, muds irs ij mudks Hkstdj vkSj ftyk] e/;orhZ ;k xzkeLrj ij iapk;rksa esa lkoZtfud lwpuk iznf’kZr dj bl izdkj fyf[kr :i esa lwfpr fd;k tk,sxk A 4- mu O;fDr;ksa dh lwph] ftUgs dk;Z fn;k tkrk gS xzke ia;k;r ds lwpuk iVy ij vkSj dk;ZØe vf/kdkjh ds dk;kZy; esa rFkk ,sls LFkkuksa ij ftUgs dk;ZØe vf/kdkjh vko’;d le>s] iznf’kZr dh tk,xh vkSj lwph jkT; ljdkj ;k fdlh fgrc) O;fDr }kjk fujh{k.k ds fy, [kqyh jgsxh A 5- tgk¡ rd laHko gks] vkosnd dks ml xzke ls tgk¡ og vkosnu djrs le; fuokl djrk gS ik¡p fdyksehVj ds O;kl ds Hkhrj jkstxkj iznku fd;k tk,xk A 6- Ldhe ds v/khu dks u;k dk;Z vkjaHk fd;k tk ldrk gS] ;fn de ls de nl Jfed dk;Z ds fy, miyC/k gks tkrs gSA 7- ;fn jkstxkj iSjk 8 fofufnZ"V esa ,sls O;kl ds ckgj iznku fd;k tkrk gS rks ;k CykWd ds Hkhrj iznku fd;k tkuk pkfg, vkSj Jfedksa dks vfrfjDr ifjogu vkSj thouk;kiu [kpksZ dsk iwjk djus ds fy, vfrfjDr etnwjh ds :Ik esa etnwjh nj ij 10 izfr’kr dh lank; fd;k tk,xkA 8- jkstxkj dh vof/k de ls de fujarj pkSng fnu ds fy, gksxh ,d lIrkg esa N% fnu ls vuf/kd ds lkFkA 142 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 - 4702

fu"d"kZ eujsxk ds rgr dke izkIr djus ds fy, tkWc dkMZ gkfly djus okys ifjokjksa dh la[;k Hkh foRrh; o"kZ 2015 rd c<+h A foRrh; o"kZ 2014 esa tkWc dkMZ /kkjdksa dh la[;k lokZf/kd 13-15 djksM+ Fkh A ;g tkjdkjh Hkh ih ,p Mh fjlpZ C;wjksa dh eujsxk osclkbV ij miyC/k gS A Lora= laxBuksa }kjk iwoZ fd;s x, vkdyuksa ls irk pyrk gS fd dukZVd vka/kzizns’k] e/;izns’k vkSj jktLFkku esa eujsxk ifj;kstukvksa ds pyrs Hkwty ds Lrj ds lkFk is;ty dh miyfC/k esa okLro esa lq/kkj gqvk gS A

bl ;kstuk dks vius :[k esa cnyko djrs gq, iwjh lfØ;rk ds lkFk NksVs vkSj lhekar fdlkuksa dh NksVh tksrksa esa lq/kkj dh fn’kk esa c<+uk pkfg, A bl dk;Z dks eujsxk ds rgr lkewnkf;d dk;Z ls lkFk fVdkÅ laifRr;ksa ds fodkl] fuekZ.k ds tfj, fljs p<+k;k tk ldrk gS A ,slk gks ldk rks vkus okys le; esa blls d`f"k dh mRikndrk ckSys rFkk lhekar fdlkuksa dh vkthfodk dk BjkZ gh cny nsus ckyk lkfor gks ldrk gS vkSj eujsxk ds dk;Zdyki dks Hkh O;kidrk fey ldsxh A d`f"k vkSj d`f"k ls tqM+h xfrfof/k;ksa ij /;ku dsfUnzr fd;k tk ldk rks fuf’pr gh ;g ,d cM+h miyfC/k gksxhA xzekh.k rFkk d`f"k ls tqM+s yksxks dh vk; esa btkQk djus dh xjt ls ;g ,d cM+h vkfFkZd xfrfof/k cu ldrh gSA

lanHkZ xzaFk lwph 1- lgkjk le; 2- nSfud “kLdj 3- www.nregsmp.org ***

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Invitation to Scholars It gives us immense pleasure to inform you that we are bringing THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES , An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in The International Serial Directories . The IRJSSH provides instant, worldwide and barrier - free access to the full -text of all published manuscripts to all interested readers in the best interests of the research community. IRJSSH do not sell published manuscripts and offer all published manuscripts free of cost to all members, researchers, libraries, organizations, companies and universities. Open access allows the research community to view, download, print, and redistribute any manuscript without a subscription, enabling far greater distribution of an author's work than the traditional subscription-based publishing model. Authors may also use their published .pdf's on their own or institution's website. Many authors in a variety of fields have begun to realize the benefits that open access publishing can provide in terms of increasing the impact of their work, because there is at all NO CHARGE to access its research content. The publication costs of a manuscript are paid from an author's research budget, or by their supporting institutions. It is further to inform to your good-self that the Full Copy of the upcoming issue will be duly available on the Home page and as the time passes , the FULL COPY of the previous issues will be made duly available on the home page of respective journal on our website i.e. www.thegass.org.in You may download any of them free of cost. It is important to mention here that we have taken all measures to publish quality Research Papers / Case Studies etc. belonging to latest research in the field of Social , Behavioural Sciences and Humanities . You may submit unpublished novel, original, empirical and high quality research work pertaining to recent developments & practices in the all the areas of Social Sciences and Humanities and in allied subjects as well .You can submit the soft copy of manuscript anytime in M.S. Word format after preparing the same as per our submission guidelines at the email addresses: [email protected] . Please encourage your faculties and research scholars and students to submit original research papers. If your good-self have any queries, please feel free to contact us at [email protected]

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vii THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. __________________________________________________________Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702

Please note that membership subscription or processing fees will not be returned or refunded if your manuscript is not accepted for publication . Membership subscription or processing fees is a must while submitting the manuscript otherwise it will not be processed. All Author and co – authors have to submit processing fees . While submitting the membership subscription in cash or by demand draft or by multi city at par cheque , please do submit membership form as well. If anybody do not have funds to pay publication fee, he / she will have an opportunity to request the Editor for fee waiver through the Head of his / her Institution / Department / University with the reasons, because IRJSSH does not want fees to prevent the publication of worthy work, however Processing Fee waivers or discounts are granted on a case-by-case basis to authors who lack funds. To apply for a waiver or discount, one can request during the submission process. Failure to pay the Publication fee makes a manuscript liable to be placed back under access control, losing its open access status. Research Paper Received 1. After receipt of the paper online, we will check first whether it is as per format of the journal. If not, author will be asked to submit it again as per instructions to authors. 2. Declaration to be given by the authors regarding manuscript is must. If authors do not provide the declaration, manuscript will not be processed. 3. Membership ( Life or Fellow ) Subscription or Processing Fees should be received within ten days of receipt of manuscript by cheque or by draft. Those who are paying by wire transfer, or by Paypal or by western union or by internet banking should submit proof of payment to us by email or by post within ten days of receipt of manuscript. 4. After receipt of declaration and membership subscription or processing fees, your manuscript will be sent to two experts for review. 5. Manuscript accepted or rejected will be notified at the website in this section. within 30-45 days of receipt of the manuscript. 6. Acceptance letter will be sent to corresponding author after 45 days of receipt of manuscript. Manuscript will be published in the coming issues of the journal at earliest. Acceptance As soon as you submit the paper online, it will appear in heading " Papers Received ". When we receive the paper along with "Declaration of Authors" and membership subscription of all authors / co authors and processing fees, we will send your paper for peer reviewing of its merits to two anonymous experts any where in the world. After acceptance by both the experts, we will try our best to inform you regarding acceptance within one month. If it is accepted, we will send you acceptance letter and your paper will be published at earliest in coming issues. If your paper is rejected, you can submit to other journal with our prior permission. Please note that your membership subscription or processing fees will not be refunded in any case whether your paper is rejected or accepted. The journal gives acknowledgement w.r.t. the receipt of every email and in case of non-receipt of acknowledgment from the journal, w.r.t. the submission of manuscript, within two days of submission, the corresponding author is required to demand for the same by sending separate mail to the journal .

viii THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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INSTRUCTIONS FROM PUBLISHERS All manuscripts submitted to the Journal – 1. 2. 3.

are original ones , have not been published and sent elsewhere for publication authors agree that rights to produce and distribute , taking and circulating reprints , microfilming , scanning , photographic reproduction have been transferred , 4. authors shall be solely responsible for reliability , authenticity , validity , originality etc. of the facts , figures and views expressed in their article . No part of this publication can be reproduced , copied or stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means , without written permission from the publishers , except for citing references.

General Instructions This journal publishes research papers , short communications containing original research work of good standard and review papers of contemporary relevance from all over the world. Following types of contributions are also considered for publication : , brief reports, comments & replies on the published articles, book reviews , obituaries , monographs , letters to editors , notices etc  RESEARCH PAPERS (Full Length - Maximum of 12 pages – A / 4 size ) ,  SHORT COMMUNICATIONS ,  REVIEW PAPERS including Mini Reviews . We also publish information about latest products and practices in Industry, Recent Research, Information about Awards/ Prizes, Scholarships , News and Views , Seminars , Conferences , Appointments etc. 1.

This is a multilingual Journal . Papers are accepted in English , Hindi or any other recognized language. English spelling and punctuation is preferred. All the matter and information should be submitted online or by e - mail as attachment. Soft copy format should be in MS word only ( pdf. version is liable to be rejected without any consideration ). Charts, Tables and Diagrams should be in MS Excel or MS Word and images in JPG format using maximum possible high resolution. The total size of the file containing the manuscript should be below 500 KB. Abstract alone will not be considered for review and the author is required to submit the complete manuscript in the first instance. 2. Full length Research Papers must not exceed Maximum of 12 pages in A/4 size . Tables and Figures must be in separate sheet , Pages should be properly numbered. Mathematical data must be provided strictly in APA style . 3. Authors and co-authors must be members of Journal. If authors are not members, they should pay processing fees. 4. After receipt of research paper and membership subscription of all the authors or processing fees, your paper will be referred to two experts for Double Blind Peer Review. Both experts should approve the paper and their decision regarding acceptance will be final and binding. The editorial board reserves the right to condense or make changes in the paper. 5. Manuscripts should be strictly in accordance with prescribed FORMAT of the journal. They will not be returned in any case whether accepted or rejected. Manuscripts and all other correspondence should be addressed to Editor . Acceptance communication will be sent to authors in one month time. Rejected manuscripts can be sent by authors to other journals only after our prior permission. Please note that your membership subscription or processing fees will not be refunded in any case whether your paper is rejected or accepted. 6. Declaration to be given by authors : The facts and views in the manuscript are ours and we are totally responsible for authenticity, validity and originality etc. I / We undertake and agree that the manuscripts submitted to your journal have not been published elsewhere and have not been simultaneously submitted fully or partly to other journals , nor is it under review for publication elsewhere. I / We also declare that manuscripts are our original work and we have not copied from any where else. There is no plagiarism in our manuscripts. Our manuscripts whether accepted or rejected will be property of the publisher of the journal and all the copyrights will be with the publisher of the journal. 7. Acceptance - As soon as you submit the paper online, it will appear in heading " Papers Received ". When we receive the paper along with "Declaration of Authors" and membership subscription of all authors / co authors and processing fees, we will send your paper for peer reviewing of its merits to two anonymous experts any where in the world. After acceptance by both the experts, we will try our best to inform you regarding acceptance within one month. If it is accepted, we will send you acceptance letter and your paper will be published at earliest in coming issues. If your paper is rejected, you can submit to other journal with our prior permission. Please note that your membership subscription or processing fees will not be refunded in any case whether your paper is rejected or accepted. The journal gives acknowledgement w.r.t. the receipt of every email and in case of non-receipt of acknowledgment from the journal, w.r.t. the submission of manuscript, within two days of submission, the corresponding author is required to demand for the same by sending separate mail to the journal . 8. Proofs - Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author via e-mail as an Acrobat PDF (Portable Document Format ) which should be returned to the Editorial office within 2 working days. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read the PDF. 9. Please correspond by email and mention your requirements in subject. 10. All correspondence should made at [email protected] or [email protected]

ix THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING MANUSCRIPT 1.

COVERING LETTER must accompany with all Manuscripts:

THE EDITOR IRJSSH Subject

-

DATED: DD – MM – YEAR

Submission of Manuscript for Review / Publication .

DEAR SIR , Please find attached herewith our / my Manuscript entitled “ ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ” for review and publication there after in your journal. The facts and views in the manuscript are ours and we are totally responsible for authenticity, validity and originality etc. I / We undertake and agree that the manuscripts submitted to your journal have not been published elsewhere and have not been simultaneously submitted fully or partly to other journals , nor is it under review for publication elsewhere. I / We also declare that manuscripts are our original work and we have not copied from any where else. There is no plagiarism in our manuscripts. Our manuscripts whether accepted or rejected will be property of the publisher of the journal and all the copyrights will be with the publisher of the journal. I affirm that all the author (s) have seen and agreed to the submitted version of the manuscript and their inclusion of name (s) as coauthor (s). NAME OF CORRESPONDING AUTHOR : Designation: Affiliation with full Address, Contact Numbers & Pin Code: Residential Address with Pin Code: Mobile Number (s): Landline Number (s): E-mail Address: Alternate E-mail Address:

2.

MANUSCRIPT TITLE

The title of the paper should be in a 12 point Calibri Font. It should be Bold typed , Centered and CAPITALIZED. 3. AUTHOR NAME ( s ) & AFFILIATIONS: The Author ( s ) Full Name in Bold ( Surname or Family Name First ) , Designation , Affiliation ( s ) , Address , Mobile / Landline Numbers and e mail / alternate e mail ID should be in Italic & 11 - Point Calibri Font. It must be Centered underneath the Title.

4.

ABSTRACT

Abstract should be in fully Italicized text , not exceeding 200 words. The abstract must be informative and explain the Background , Aims , Methods , Results & Conclusion in a single para. Abbreviations must be mentioned in full.

5.

KEY WORDS

Abstract must be followed by a List of Keywords ( Maximum of Five ) arranged Alphabetically separated by Commas and Full Stop at the end.

6.

MANUSCRIPT

Manuscript must be in BRITISH ENGLISH prepared on a Standard A4 Size PORTRAIT SETTING PAPER. It must be prepared on a Single Space and Single Column with 1” Margin for Top , Bottom , Left and Right. It should be Typed in 8 Point Calibri Font with Page Number at the Bottom and Centre of every page. It should be free from grammatical , spelling , punctuation errors and must be thoroughly edited.

7.

HEADINGS

All the headings should be in a 10 point Calibri Font. These must be Bold - faced, Aligned Left and fully CAPITALIZED. Leave a blank line before each heading.

8.

SUB - HEADINGS

All the sub – headings should be in a 8 Point Calibri Font. These must be Bold – faced, Aligned Left and fully CAPITALIZED.

9.

MAIN TEXT

The main text should follow the following sequence : INTRODUCTION ( including REVIEW OF LITERATURE , NEED / IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY , STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM , OBJECTIVES and HYPOTHESES )

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESULTS & DISCUSSION ( including FINDINGS , RECOMMENDATIONS / SUGGESTIONS , CONCLUSIONS and SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH )

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS REFERENCES APPENDIX / ANNEXURE The Main Text should be in a 8 Point Calibri Font , Single Spaced and Justified. The manuscript should preferably not exceed 5000 WORDS. Use Italics , rather than underlining when appropriate . Abbreviations should be explained at first appearance in the text.

10.

FIGURES &TABLES

These should be Simple , Crystal Clear , Centered , Separately Numbered & Self Explained , and Titles must be Above the Table / Figure. Sources of data should be mentioned below the Table / Figure. It should be ensured that all Tables / Figures are in JPG format of good resolution ( 300 dpi ) are referred to from the main text.

11.

EQUATIONS

These should be Consecutively Numbered in Parentheses , Horizontally Centered with equation number placed at the Right.

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12.

IN - TEXT CITATIONS

Standard format ( Single Author ) - Author’s last name & year of publication Example Organizational structures are loosely coupled to the actual outcomes that they produce, so that they can satisfy demands for legitimacy from important actors in their environments ( Goyal , 2012 ) . res are loosely … In case of Two Authors – always cite both names as Goyal and Swami ( 2012 ) postulates ... In case of 3, 4, or 5 Authors - cite all authors first time in your paper. Subsequent citations include only first name of first author followed by “ et al .” First in-text citation – Goyal , Swami and Shukla ( 2012 ) found … Subsequent citation per paragraph thereafter – Goyal et al. ( 2012 ) found … After first citation within a paragraph, omit the year in subsequent citation - Goyal et al. also determined …

13.

REFERENCES:

The list of all references must be serially numbered and should be alphabetically arranged by family name (surname) first. The author (s) should mention only the actually utilised references in the preparation of manuscript and they are supposed to follow APA Style of Referencing. The author (s) are supposed to follow the references as per the following: Alphabetical arrangement within list ( Each source retains its original order ) , starts on a New Page immediately after the last main text page of the paper , Double – Spaced , Introduced by the word “ References ” at Top of First Reference Page Only , Centered with No Quotes .

Basic format

-

itle ( of article or book )

Standard formats ( books & journal / research articles ( pdf format ) ) One author ( book ) : Goyal, S. ( 2003 ). Industrial Sociology. Jaipur : RBSA Publishers.

Two authors ( scholarly journal article ) : Goyal, S., & Swami, S.G. ( 2002 ). Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony. “ International Journal of Sociology ”, 83(2), 340-363.

Three or more authors ( scholarly journal article ) : Goyal, S., Swami, S. G., & Shukla, R. N. ( 2004 ). Services for victims: A market research study [Electronic version]. International Review of Sociology, 6, 101-115. First citation in paper - ( Goyal, Swami, & Shukla, 2004 ) Second citation in paper - ( Goyal et al., 2004 ) All works cited in the text ( including sources for tables and figures ) should be listed alphabetically. Use (ed.) for one editor, and (ed.s) for multiple editors. When listing two or more works by one author, use --- (20xx), such as after Kohl (1997), use --- (2001), etc, in chronologically ascending order. Indicate (opening and closing) page numbers for articles in journals and for chapters in books. The title of books and journals should be in italics. Double quotation marks are used for titles of journal articles , book chapters , dissertations , reports , working papers , unpublished material, etc. For titles in a language other than English, provide an English translation in parentheses. The location of endnotes within the text should be indicated by superscript numbers. Spell out org’s name the first time & abbreviate thereafter ( The Global Association of Social Sciences [GASS], 2012) Subsequent text citation - (GASS, 2012)

References The Global Association of Social Sciences. (2012). Victim rights and services: A legislative directory. India: Author.

References (electronic version) Central Bureau of Investigation. (2007, September). Crime in the India, 2006. Retrieved November 5, 2007, from http://www.cbi.gov.in/ucr/cii2006/ Always indicate the date that the source was accessed, as online resources are frequently updated or removed.

References ( Legal Materials ) Court Decisions - Standard format : Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date). Citation: Lessard v. Schmidt (1972) or (Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972) Reference: Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Suppl. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972) U.S. Supreme Court reference examples Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954). Maryland v. Craig, 110 S.Ct. 3160 (1990).

CONFERENCE PAPERS Goyal, S. (2012): " Research Ethics" Paper presented at the 1 st International Conference of Social Sciences and Humanities for The Global Association of Social Sciences, Indore, India, 19–22 June.

UNPUBLISHED DISSERTATIONS AND THESES Goyal, S. (1995): "A Sociological Study of Workers in Textile Industries in Madhya Pradesh," Thesis, Devi Ahilya University, Indore. Disclaimer: This is a rough overview. Scholars are responsible for consulting APA for correct citations and references . See APA book for more detailed instructions and example .

xi THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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ETHICAL GUIDELINES Ethical guidelines accepted by the Editorial , Advisory and Academic Board of The IRJSSH : April , 2012

1.0 Statement of Purpose The purpose of this document is to enhance the quality and protect the integrity of scientific publishing in addiction specialty journals. It is written in the interests of all those who engage in the scientific endeavor and those who put trust in the truthfulness of the scientific output. To that end, this document provides guidance to authors, editors and other individuals regarding ethical and procedural issues that affect the integrity of scientific publishing. These guidelines were developed to deal with the growing complexity of decision-making in addiction journal publishing, which often requires critical judgment on the part of editors, reviewers, authors, publishers and others with regard to ethical issues. The guidelines address two broad areas : 1) the responsibilities of authors, and 2) the responsibilities of editors, journal staff and journal owners.

2.0 Responsibilities of Authors The responsibilities of authors include but are not limited to study design, ethical approval of research, data analysis, authorship credits, conflict of interests, redundant publication, and plagiarism. 2.1 Study Design and Ethical Approval Research reported in IRJSSH should be well justified, well planned, appropriately designed, ethically approved when necessary or appropriate to do so, scrupulously analyzed and honestly interpreted. Formal supervision, usually the responsibility of the principal investigator, should be provided for all research projects.

2.2 Authorship Credits Authorship of a scientific report refers to the origin of a literary production, not just to the experimentation, data collection or other work that led up to it. All persons named as authors should 1) have made a major contribution to the work reported, and 2) be prepared to take public responsibility for its contents. Early agreement on the precise roles of the contributors and collaborators, and on matters of authorship and publication, is advised. All contributors to a research project or other scholarly publication should be advised of their authorship responsibilities and given the opportunity to participate in the drafting of the manuscript. Initial inclusion in the planning of a scientific paper does not necessarily warrant authorship credit unless the prospective author makes a substantive contribution as described below. The lead author should periodically review the status of authorship credits and substantive contributions with all prospective collaborators, in order to avoid disputes. The award of authorship should balance intellectual contributions to the conception, design, analysis and writing of the study against the collection of data and other routine work. If there is no task that can reasonably be attributed to a particular individual, then that individual should not be credited with authorship. All listed authors on a paper should have been personally and substantially involved in the work leading to the paper. Involvement in data collection and other routine tasks does not necessarily warrant authorship credit. Similarly , merely granting access to clinical samples or being the head of a research unit or grant is not by itself sufficient to justify a share in authorship. If professional writers employed by pharmaceutical companies, medical agencies, or other parties have written the paper, then their names should be included, and any conflicts of interest declared. Authors should not allow their name to be used on a piece of work merely to add credibility to the content.

2.3 Redundant Publication Redundant publication occurs when two or more papers, without full cross-reference, share any of the same data. Authors are expected to ensure that no significant part of the submitted material has been published previously and that it is not concurrently being considered by another journal. An exception to this general position may be made when previous publication has been limited to another language, to local publication in report form, or to publication of a conference abstract. In all such instances, authors should consult the editor. Publication in different papers of subsets of data from the same population of subjects in a study may be acceptable if publication in one article would render it unreasonably long and complex. In such cases, cross- referencing to the other relevant publication(s) must occur. Re-publication of a paper in another language is acceptable, provided that there is full and prominent disclosure of its original source at the time of submission and provided that any necessary copyrights are respected. At the time of submission, authors should disclose details of related papers, even if in a different language, and similar papers in press. When in doubt, authors should provide the editor at the time of submission with copies of published or submitted reports that are related to that submission.

2.4 Plagiarism Plagiarism ranges from the unreferenced use of others' published and unpublished ideas, including research grant applications, to submission under "new" authorship of a complete paper, sometimes in a different language. It may occur at any stage of planning, research, writing, or publication; it applies to print and electronic versions. All sources should be disclosed through appropriate citation or quotation conventions, and if a large amount of other people's written or illustrative material is to be used, permission must be sought.

2.5 Conflict of Interest A conflict of interest is a situation or relationship in which professional, personal, or financial considerations could be seen by a fairminded person as potentially in conflict with independence of judgment. It has also been described as a situation or relationship which, when revealed later, would make a reasonable reader feel misled or deceived. A conflict may be personal, commercial, political, academic or financial. "Financial" interests may include employment, research funding, stock or share ownership, payment for lectures or travel, consultancies, and company support for staff. Conflict of interest is not in itself wrongdoing.

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The potential for conflict of interest in the addiction field is enhanced by any relationship or funding connected with the tobacco industry, the alcohol beverage industry, for-profit health care systems, private hospitals, the pharmaceutical industry, and "social aspect organizations" that receive their primary support from these sources. There are three levels of conflict of interest: real, apparent, and potential. A real conflict of interest means that the author, or the administrative unit with which the author has an employment relationship, has a financial or other interest that could unduly influence the author's position with respect to the subject matter being considered. An apparent conflict of interest exists when an interest would not necessarily influence the author but could result in the author's objectivity being questioned by others. A potential conflict of interest exists with an interest that any reasonable person could be uncertain whether or not it should be reported. Each author should declare to the editor any interests that could constitute a real, potential or apparent conflict of interest with respect to his/her involvement in the publication, between (1) commercial entities and the participant personally, and (2) commercial entities and the administrative unit with which the participant has an employment relationship. "Commercial entity" refers to any company, association (e.g., trade association), organization, or other unit with commercial interests. Sources of funding for the study, review, or other item should be declared in the final publication.

3.0 Responsibilities of Editors/ Journal Staff/Journal Owners Journal editors can have a significant influence on the practice of addiction science, as well as treatment and prevention. Editors need to promote the highest standards of ethical practice in order to advance addiction science and to maintain the trust of the people their journals serve. The ethical responsibilities of editors include the ethical decision-making, the peer review process, advertising, conflict of interest, and how to deal with scientific misconduct. Editors' decisions to accept or reject a paper for publication should be based only on the paper´s importance, originality, and clarity, and the study’s relevance to the remit of the journal. All original studies should be peer reviewed before publication, taking into full account possible bias due to related or conflicting interests. Studies that challenge previous work published in the journal should be given an especially sympathetic hearing. Studies reporting negative results should not be excluded. Editors must treat all submitted papers as confidential. When a published paper is subsequently found to contain major flaws, editors must accept responsibility for correcting the record prominently and promptly.

3.1 Peer Review Addiction journals should be committed to peer review, and research reports and scientific reviews should go through this process. As regards the extent to which other material (e.g., commentary, book reviews) will be so reviewed, we see that as a matter for editorial discretion. Peer reviewers are external experts chosen by editors to provide written opinions, with the aim of improving the study. Reviewers are also expected to behave in an ethical manner and the editor should consider breaches of the following guidelines as instances of misconduct no less serious than comparable actions by authors. Editors must treat all submitted papers as confidential. The duty of confidentiality in the assessment of a manuscript must be maintained by expert reviewers, and this extends to reviewers' colleagues who may be asked (with the editor’s permission) to give opinions on specific sections. Referees should be told that their access to the papers on which they have been requested to comment is in strict confidence. Confidentiality should not be broken by prepublication statements on the content of the submission. Manuscripts sent to reviewers should be returned to the editor or destroyed. Reviewers and editors should not make any use of the data, arguments, or interpretations, unless they have the authors' permission. Reviewers should provide speedy, accurate, courteous, unbiased and justifiable reports. If reviewers suspect misconduct, they should write in confidence to the editor. To enhance the quality and efficacy of the peer review system, addiction journals should audit the quality of peer review on a continuous basis, and where possible, provide training to enhance the quality of peer review. Journals should publish accurate descriptions of their peer review, selection, and appeals processes. Journals should also provide regular audits of their acceptance rates and publication times. In refereeing journal supplements, an editorial note should be published to indicate whether or not the papers have been peer-reviewed.

3.2 Conflict of Interest Referees should be asked to declare to the editor if they have a conflict of interest in relation to the material which they are invited to review, and if in doubt they should consult the editor.' Conflict of interest ' is defined as a situation in which professional, personal, or financial considerations could be seen by a fair-minded person as potentially in conflict with the editor's independence of judgment. Conflict of interest is not in itself wrongdoing. To protect the independence of the editorial process, the owner or another body that may influence the editorial process should be declared, and sources of support from the alcohol, tobacco, pharmaceutical or other relevant interests should be published in the journal. When a journal publishes journal supplements, an indication will be given of sources of support for their production. Editors should also disclose relevant conflicts of interest to their readers. Sometimes editors may need to withdraw from the review and selection process for the relevant submission. Conflicts of interest, where relevant, must be declared to editors by researchers, authors, and reviewers. To further enhance the integrity of science, editors are urged to adopt a more complete disclosure policy. Such a policy should require contributors to disclose to journal editors at least the following information: Sources of funding for the study, review, or other item being published. Sources of funding for the submitted paper must be declared and should be published. Financial or other significant relations (e.g., consulting, speaker fees, corporate advisory committee memberships, expert testimony given in legal cases) of the author and the authors' immediate family in the last 5 years with companies, trade associations, unions, or groups (including civic associations and public interest groups) that may gain or lose financially from the results or conclusions in the study, review, editorial, or letter. If an editor considers he/she may be subject to Conflict of Interest, advice from a co-editor may be sought and a co-editor or guest editor should have full responsibility for editing the manuscript.

xiii THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Double Blind , Open and Ethical Peer Review Referral Process MANUSCRIPT SUBMITTED TO THE JOURNAL IS SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING DOUBLE BLIND ETHICAL PEER REVIEWING AND REFERRAL PROCESS: 1. 2.

3. 4.

5.

Each manuscript will be initially evaluated by the editor / co - editor, who may make use of appropriate software to examinethe originality of the contents of the manuscript. The manuscripts passed through screening at above noted level will referred to two experts for blind peer review, each ofwhom will make a recommendation to publish the article in its present form/modify/reject. During this period referees shalltreat the contents of papers under review as privileged information. The review period varies from a week to one month (Maximum two months in extra ordinary circumstances). Reviewers and editors shall a. read and evaluate the article b. Reviewers submit their reviews back to the journal editor c. The journal editor takes all comments, including their own, and communicates this feedback to the original author (or authors) . Both experts should approve the paper and their decision regarding acceptance will be final and binding. The editorial board reserves the right to condense or make changes in the paper.

Jurisdiction All legal disputes are subject to territorial jurisdiction of District Indore , Madhya Pradesh , India Only.

Disclaimer The entire contents of The Global Association of Social Sciences ( GASS ) and THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES ( IRJSSH ) are protected under International copyrights. The GASS and IRJSSH, however, grants to all users a free , irrevocable , worldwide , perpetual right of access to , and a license to copy , use , distribute , perform and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works in any digital medium for any reasonable non - commercial purpose , subject to proper attribution of authorship and ownership of the rights. The GASS and IRJSSH also grants the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal non - commercial use. Important notice on reuse , reproduction or commercial use: Contents of this site , partial or as a whole , should not be included in a framed web page. Contents of this site , partial or as a whole , should not be included in a password protected site or a site which requires registration , even if free. Contents of this site , partial or as a whole , should not be included in a site which charges for other contents but provides the content from this site for free. For purchase of reprints , printable PDF or commercial reuse please contact GASS at [email protected] .

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Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Fellow Member Indian Rs. 24 000 US Dollar $ 2 400 EUR € 2 400 British £ 2 400 Privileges Shall get a copy of Journal life time free of cost . Honour to decorate name by suffixing abbreviation FIRJSSH , Fellow – The International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities . Can submit maximum of five research papers in a calendar year without paying any processing fee. Shall be exempted from paying registration charges for all the Conferences / Seminars / Symposium / Workshops organized by the Association in future.

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xvii THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Please note that membership subscription or processing fees will not be returned or refunded if your manuscript is not accepted for publication .Membership subscription or processing fees is a must while submitting the manuscript otherwise it will not be processed. All author and co – authors should be members . If there are many authors, then only one author or main author should submit processing fees . While submitting the membership subscription in cash or by demand draft or by multi city at par cheque , please do submit membership form as well. Annual Membership is for one Calendar Year only. Note : Indians residing in India can pay by Multi City Cheque / Draft payable to The Global Association of Social Sciences at Indore , Madhya Pradesh , India , otherwise they should add Rs. 125 - in Cheque. Indians who want to pay online / through NEFT ( National Electronic Fund Transfer ), may send the payment directly to AXIS Bank Account of The Global Association of Social Sciences having Account Number 9120 100 4135 0822 , IFS Code UTI B000 1313 , MICR Code 451 211 501 , Madhya Pradesh , India . Membership Form – The IRJSSH

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The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. __________________________________________________________Vol. 5 (10) Oct (2016) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702

Publications of Dr. Sunil Goyal - International Editor – in – Chief : Publication of Books - As Author S.No.

Year

Title of Book

Name of Publisher

Place

Nation

24

2011

Government Narmada P.G. (Exc.) College , Hoshangabad

H’bad

India

23

2007

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

22

2007

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

21

2007

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

20

2005

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

19

2005

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

18

2005

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

17

2005

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

16

2004

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

15 14

2004 2004

M/s Ram Prasad and Sons M/s Ram Prasad and Sons

Agra Agra

India India

13

2004

M/s Ram Prasad and Sons

Agra

India

12

2003

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

11

2003

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

10

2003

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

9

2003

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

8

2003

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

7

2002

India

2002

Dept. of P. G. Studies and Research Centre in Sociology , Government College M/s RBSA Publishers

Sarni

6

Jaipur

India

5

2002

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

4

2001

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

3

2000

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

2

1999

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

1

1998

Poverty in India , Book of Abstracts (Ed.) Dept. of P. G. Studies and Research Centre in Sociology Social Anthropology ISBN 81 - 7611 - 410 - 3 Criminology ISBN 81 - 7611 - 405 - 7 Social Thought ISBN 81 - 7611 - 404 - 9 Advanced Social Research ISBN 81 - 7611 - 285 - 2 Elementary Social Research ISBN 81 - 7611 - 284 - 4 Advanced Sociological Theories ISBN 81 - 7611 - 220 - 8 Sociological Essays ISBN 81 - 7611 - 209 - 7 Crime in India ISBN 81 - 7611 - 252 - 6 Sociology B A III rd Year , Chhatis Garh Sociology B A III rd Year , Madhya Pradesh Sociology B A II nd Year , Madhya Pradesh Industrial Sociology ISBN 81 - 7611 - 205 - 4 Social Change In India ISBN 81 - 7611 - 202 - X Women In Indian Society ISBN 81 - 7611 - 200 - 3 Indian Social System ISBN 81 - 7611 - 186 - 4 Basic Sociological Concepts ISBN 81 - 7611 - 064 - 7 Globalisation and Strikes and Lock Outs in Indian Industries , Book of Abstracts ( Ed. ) Great Sociological Thinkers ISBN 81 - 7611 - 164 - 3 Indian Society ISBN 81 - 7611 - 141 - 4 Elements of Social Research ISBN 81 - 7611 - 108 - 2 Sociology of Organisation ISBN 81 - 7611 - 0768 - X Urban Sociology ISBN 81 - 7611 - 062 - 0 Rural Sociology

M/s RBSA Publishers

Jaipur

India

xix THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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Government Registration No. 03 / 27 / 03 / 15269 /12

Registered Publisher of International ISBN Agency , London, UK Under Category 5 / 2012 – ISBN , Dated 8 th Dececember , 2012

Registered India Office

Sector FH / 369 , Vijay Nagar , Scheme No. 54 , Behind Shekhar Residency , Indore , Madhya Pradesh , PIN 452 010 , INDIA Visit us at www.thegass.org.in E mail [email protected] , [email protected] Mob. + 91 94253 82228

Publish your Scholarly Work on any Subject / any Discipline in Hindi or English as Double Blind Peer Reviewed , Referred , Recognised and Scientific ISBN numbered International Reference Book. Research Reports of Minor / Major Projects , Ph.D. Research Work , Manuscript of Text Book / Reference Book , Conference / Seminar / Workshop Proceedings , Edited Volume of Chapters written by different Authors , Novels / Stories etc. The double blind peer reviewing , referring and scientific processing of manuscripts is done by the Association on nominal Processing Charges on No Profit - No Loss basis .

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Amount per page one side

Privilege to Author

E Book will be launched internationally on Association’s Official Website without any extra expenses . The Book Rs. 60 only will also be abstracted , Indexed and listed in international Institutions without any extra expenses . Fifty books in CD ROM format will be given as CD Rom complimentary copies without any extra expenses . In case mode as CD Rs. 75 only of Co Author (s) the number will be divided equally Rom Book between them . For book containing less than 200 pages author will be given 50 printed copies and for books containing 200 or Print mode as Rs. 150 more pages author will be given 100 printed copies of books towards full amount paid as processing charges. In case of Printed Book only Co Author (s) the number will be divided equally between them.

Electronic mode as E Book

As per new UGC Guidelines for Performance Based Appraisal System ( PBAS ) – Academic Progress Indicator (API) , single author is entitled to get a score of 50 marks for every Text / Reference Book published by an International body like us with an established peer review system . Interested Scholars my contact : International Secretary ( Hon. ) at e mail [email protected] , [email protected] , Mob. + 91 94253 82228 . Visit us at www.thegass.org.in xx THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the International Serial Directories, Visit us at www.thegass.org.in

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