The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702                                                                                                  ISSN 2320 – 4702     

An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized    Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of   

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The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702 

THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An  Official  International  Double  Blind  Peer  Reviewed  Referred  Recognized  Indexed  Impact  Factor  Open  Access  Monthly  Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences .   The Editorial Board is getting The IRJSSH  abstracted , indexed and listed in  • SCOPUS  • EBSCO Publishing , USA  • Social Science Abstracts  • Journal Citation Report  • Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)   • Research Paper in Economics RePEc and ERA   • The Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI)   • Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory © ProQuest , USA  • Cabell’s Directory of Publishing Opportunities , USA  • The American Economic Association’s electronic bibliography, EconLit, U.S.A.  • Open J – Gate , India ( link of the same is duly available at Inflibnet of UGC , India  Registration and listing is in process at Index Copernicus Publisher’s Panel , Poland  The Journal is Included in the International Serials Directories .  

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   ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702  

  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES 

  An  Official  International  Double  Blind  Peer  Reviewed  Referred  Recognized  Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The  Global  Association  of  Social  Sciences  included  in  the  International  Serial  Directories.   The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. Vol. 3, No. 8 , Page 1 ‐ 209 , Aug ( 2014 )  Indexed  in  Directory  of  Research  Journals  Indexing  ,  DRJI  ,  Journal  ID  :  586  .  Impact Factor for 2013 is 0.989 , visit at http://impactfactorservice.com/home/journal/480   www.gass.org.in                 email: [email protected] 

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ii  iv  v  A  vi  vi  vii  vii  viii  viii  ix  xii  xiv  xiv  xiv  xv  xvi  xvii xviii ixx  xx 

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The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702 

EDITORIAL , ADVISORY AND ACADEMIC BOARD  Editor – in ‐ Chief ( Hon. )  Dr. Sunil Goyal   B.Sc. , D.T.T. ( Hons. ) , M.A. , PGDBM , Ph.D. , FGASS , FIRJSSH   Mobile   + 91 94253 82228 , e mail   [email protected] 

INTERNATIONAL EDITORIAL BOARD Ms. Shabnam Siddiqui , FIRJSSH - Fellow Editor Mr. Rakesh Kumar , FIRJSSH – Fellow Editor Dr. Maria Shepherd , USA Dr. Carol Zlateva , USA Dr. Eda Bottaglino , Canada Dr. John Mansourian , Italy Dr. Eric A. , UK Dr. Neal E . USA Dr. Norrozila K. Malaysia Dr. Jyoti Sahi , Dubai Dr. Rashmi Grewal , Hong Kong Dr. Chris Naeun , Singapore

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INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD Dr. Rafeal Barry , Puerto Rico Dr. H Deep Nijhawan , Canada Dr. Fernandez A A , Mexico Dr. Bert Rivera , USA Dr. Yusuf Aftab , Bahrain Dr. Aftab Merwe , South Africa Dr. Karol Islam , Bangladesh Dr. Christian Zuomin , China Dr. Anup Mangal , USA Dr. Nan Rivera , Japan Dr Romol M , Italy Dr. Adward Lennie , USA Dr. Michael Perry , Canada Dr. Jamshed Guillano , USA Dr. Mark Greenspan , Canada Dr. Peter BNharucha , USA Dr. Keya S F , USA Dr. Xiaotang Z , China Dr. Meyer M R D , Brazil Dr. Deepati Saini , Canada INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC BOARD Dr. Yu Ming Pen , Taiwan Dr. Zineldin John G , Sweden Dr. Pedro Soko K P , Spain Dr. Sultam M Shah , Kuwait Dr. Aronson Zeff , USA Dr. Rodger Alas , Estonia Dr. Nuenu Louis , UK Dr. Schirikitis A D , Switzerland Dr. Colley Jum C , USA Dr. Manolas Esantario , Greece Dr. Huang Min Hsin , China Dr. Grace Tak Pai Lin , Taiwan Dr. Werner Souder W E < Germany Dr. Jamal Siddiqui , New Zealand Dr. Nour S S Pie , Denmark Dr. John F H , Portugal Dr. Caryol M Matt , France Dr. Lucia Storwing , Denmark Dr. Frey Henry S , UK Dr. Malaya Stefenesco , Romania iv  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of  THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702 

From the Desk of Editor – in – Chief ( Hon. ) 

Dr. Sunil Goyal  B.Sc. , D.T.T. ( Hons. ) , M.A. , PGDBM , Ph.D. , FGASS , FIRJSSH  E mail  [email protected]   Mobile  + 91 94253 82228     

The existence of social exclusion makes it difficult to achieve particular social objectives, such as reducing poverty and malnutrition, because there are often hidden barriers to reaching those who are socially excluded. Social exclusion also generally involves exclusion in more than one dimension, and these can reinforce each other. For example, a combination of economic and educational exclusion makes it more difficult to advance on either front Social exclusion may take the form of discrimination along a number of dimensions including gender, ethnicity and age, which reduce the opportunity for such groups to gain access to social services and limits their participation in the labour market. Exclusionary processes can have various dimensions: Political exclusion can include the denial of citizenship rights such as political participation and the right to organise, and also of personal security, the rule of law, freedom of expression and equality of opportunity. Bhalla and Lapeyre (1997: 420) argue that political exclusion also involves the notion that the state, which grants basic rights and civil liberties, is not a neutral agency but a vehicle of a society's dominant classes, and may thus discriminate between social groups. Economic exclusion includes lack of access to labour markets, credit and other forms of ‘capital assets’. Cultural exclusion refers to the extent to which diverse values, norms and ways of living are accepted and respected. Once boundaries have been established between racial and ethnic categories and groups, separating them into dominant group and minorities, social and economic conditions may throw them into competition or conflict whereby the dominant group tries to exclude and marginalize the minority, using prejudice and stereotypes to justify such mistreatment. Patterns of social exclusion are more often based on racial or ethnic prejudices than on social classes or other categories. It is because, as Milton Esman (2004) shows, racial and ethnic identifications tend to carry a stronger emotional weight for people. A sense of racial or ethnic membership is a stronger part of one’s identity than other statuses, which is why such identifications can be tapped into to mobilize one group of people against another. Internal colonialism (Blauner, 1972) is a form of economic exploitation whereby one racial or ethnic group conquers another and takes advantage of its distinctive racial or ethnic characteristics. Internal colonialism differs from colonialism. Colonialism involved a Western industrial country conquering a semi-peripheral or peripheral country and exploiting its people and resources. Internal colonialism occurs when an industrialized country exploits a racial or ethnic minority within its own borders and relegates it to lowpaying, menial occupations that carry low prestige. In such a system, there is a perfect match between race and class: one’s racial status determines one’s class and socioeconomic status. Slavery in the United States was a form of internal colonialism. Wish all readers a very happy festival season ahead.   v  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of  THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702 

CONTENTS  Title of Paper 

Name of Authors 

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF ASSERTIVENESS AND SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AMONG GENERATION Y BY ETHNICITY

BALAN, RATHAKRISHNAN; SITI, NOOR FAZARIAHSUIS AND SREEHARI, RAVINDRANATH

Page  No. 

1 –  14 

ZAINULABIDENMALIK , ATUFAKAWAN , CLIMATIC CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON PAKISTAN

MALIKUSMAN BIN ZAHEER,

ROLE OF RELIGIOUS COMMITMENTS, SELF EFFICACY AND SEXUAL KNOWLEDGE TOWARDS SEXUAL ABSTINENCE BEHAVIOR AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS MATERNAL CHILD REARING CORRELATES OF SUCCESSFUL INTELIGENCE

BALAN, RATHAKRISHNAN; MASDIN, MAHIRAH BINTI AND SREEHARI, RAVINDRANATH

29 ‐ 40 

SHABNAM

41 ‐ 52 

PUROHIT, HARSH AND SIDDIQUI, SHABNAM

53 ‐ 67 

THE EXTENT OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND WOMEN IN KERALA

HASEENA, V. A.

68 – 78 

HUMANITY FOR THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF OLD AGE PERSONS

SHARMA, SONIA DUTT

79 – 90 

JAIN, ANIL AND SAXENA, NIDHI

91 – 94 

SHRIVASTAVA, PALLAVI

95 – 104 

VEERAMANI, S. AND DURGA DEVI, P. K.

105 – 109 

TANEJA, JYOTI

110 ‐ 116 

DEVELOPING GLOBAL LEADERSHIP : TRAINING AS THE KEY CATALYST

IS THE BSE SENSITIVE INDEX BETTER THAN THE NATIONAL INDEX CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RIGHT OF CHILDREN TO FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION ACT OR RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACT (RTE) IN INDIAN CONTEXT NEW HISTORICISM : A SIMPLIFIED CRITICAL OVERVIEW THE FORGOTTEN SPIRIT OF HUMANITY AND HUMAN RELIGION MAHESH DATTANI’S FINAL SOLUTION

ANEEQA NAWAZ AND SADAFNAWAZ

15 – 28 

  A  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES    An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of  THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in 

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702 

DIASPORA IN BERNARD MALAMAUD’S NOVEL ‘THE FIXER’ AN APPLE PIE ANALYSIS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES IN TAMIL NADU

KUMAR, SANTHOSH L.

117 ‐ 121 

AMUTHAN, AROCKIA V.

122 ‐ 131 

THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON EDUCATION THROUGH DISTANCE MODE A STUDY OF PROBLEMS OF TEACHERS IN GOVERNMENT AND NON GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS UNDER RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACT

SAIN, SUNIL KUMAR AND KAWARE, SUDHIR SUDAM

132 ‐ 139 

SHARMA, CHITRA

140 ‐ 146 

USE OF LIGHT IN INDIAN CULTURE AND HUMAN HEALTH

KHAN, SABA AND KHAN, FEMINA

147 ‐ 164 

efgyk l'kfDrdj.k

lksguh] lat;

165 ‐ 170 

vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa ij gksus okys mRihM+u dk lekt’kkL=h; v/;;u ¼ bankSj rglhy ds fo’ks"k lanHkZ esa ½

cMksys] liuk ,oa ekgkSj] lq’khyk

171 ‐ 178 

Hkkjrh; ijEijk esa efgyk l'kfDrdj.k

lksguh] lat; ,oa ckFke] vfurkjk;

179 ‐ 185 

efgyk l'kfDrdj.k esa f'k{kk dh Hkwfedk dk lekt'kkL=h; fo'ys"k.k

dkfdMsZ] lqyHkk

186 ‐ 190 

larqfyr fodkl vkt dh loksZPp izkFkfedrk

lksguh] lat;

191 ‐ 195 

ifjokj lfgr vkRe?kkr dh izo`fRr dk lekt'kkL=h; fo'ys"k.k

iztkifr] vtsUnz ukFk

196 ‐ 200 

Hkw & ty esa vklsZfud iznw"k.k % Hkfo"; dh xaHkhj pqukSrh

lksguh] lat; ,oa ikVhnkj] iou

Hkkjr esa jkstxkj ij oS’ohdj.k dk çHkko ,oa pqukSfr;kWa

lDlsuk] lq/khj

201 ‐ 205 

206 ‐ 209 

 

B   THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES    An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of  THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in 

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF ASSERTIVENESS AND SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AMONG GENERATION Y BY ETHNICITY BALAN, RATHAKRISHNAN 1; SITI, NOOR FAZARIAHSUIS 1 AND SREEHARI, RAVINDRANATH 2 1 2

University Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development, Sriperumbudur .Tamil Nadu

ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between self-assertiveness and satisfaction with life among generation Y according to ethnicity. A total of 742 respondents Generation Y with a mean age of 20.63 participated in this study. A study conducted in Sabah, Malaysia. The design of the study was a survey using a questionnaire. The instruments used is The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) to assess the self-assertiveness and The Satisfaction with life Questionnaire-9 (LISAT-9) measure of satisfaction with life. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21.0, in which the Pearson correlation analysis is used to examine the relationship of two variables, t-test to test the difference in terms of gender, and one way Anova to test the differences in terms of ethnicity. Both instruments showed the suitable reliability for measuring variables. The results show that there is a significant relationship between self-assertiveness with satisfaction with life among generation Y. However, the study found no significant differences in terms of gender and ethnic groups in self-assertiveness and satisfaction with life. The results can be used for the purpose of developing suitable interventions for generation Y. Keywords : Self Assertiveness, Satisfaction with life, Generation Y and Ethnicity.

INTRODUCTION Life satisfaction has a strong linkage with happiness, where people feel satisfied with their lives, then enjoy the taste of happiness (Diener, Lucas, Oshi&Suh, 2002). The concept of life satisfaction is very subjective. It was conceptualized by understanding and condition of the individual in understanding life satisfaction either personal needs, mental and physical (Diener, Lucas, Oshi & Suh, 2002). Dalai Lama (1999) describes the life satisfaction or happiness shall be known as two aspects, namely mental peace and physical comfort. Beutell 1 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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(2006), believes that life satisfaction in relation to good physical and mental health, as well as long life and other aspects which are considered positive. However, Diener (1984) in Siti Nor, Tan, Tan and Rumaya (2012) mentions the life satisfaction as a cognitive assessment on the quality of their life as a whole or in specific domains. Specific domains, including interpersonal relationships with family members, friends, school experiences, perceptions of self and living environment (Huebner, 1994, in. SitiNor et al., 2012). Life satisfaction have an adaptive effect and contribute to a positive development, especially to individuals who are still in the stage of adolescence (Park & Huebner, 2005).

RESEARCH PROBLEMS Life satisfaction is an important element among the youth, especially generation Y are always facing significant challenges in all aspects. According to previous research there are various factors that influence life satisfaction Generation Y as employment, education, economic, social and self-assertiveness. Factors issues of employment, education, economic and social issues that are often associated in discussing the factors that influence life satisfaction. One new aspect associated with life satisfaction Generation Y is self-assertiveness. Life satisfaction and self-assertiveness is a relatively new concept in Malaysia (Salleh, 2007). The study of life satisfaction along with personal assertiveness in Malaysia is very rarely done. Assertiveness is often defined themselves in the context of the West (Dwairy, 2004; Poyrazli, 2000, Sue & Sue, 1990). In the context of the East, namely in Malaysia, self assertiveness tends to be defined as an attitude that rude in some cultures (Sue & Sue, 1990). However, self-assertiveness attitude is very important in one's life because it enables a person is satisfied with his behavior. However, there is also a past research which proved that selfassertiveness do not give any impacts on satisfaction with life among generation y. Schimmack et al. (2009) stated in a study that self-assertiveness do not give any relationship to satisfaction with life. On the other hand, explains satisfaction with life is more influenced by biological factors and the environment. This case raises the question whether the self assertiveness plays an important role in determining satisfaction with life generation Y.

2 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

In addition to focusing on the relationship between the satisfactions with life with selfassertiveness, this study also focuses on aspects of gender and ethnic variety in terms of selfassertiveness and satisfaction with life. This is because past research proves that there are differences in terms of gender and ethnicity. As Baron and Byrne (2004), stated that men had more self-assertiveness compared with women. The findings can be supported by a study conducted by Herringer (1998) which states that women are generally more difficult to be assertive than in men. But studies by Zane et al. (1991), Kilkus (1993) and Fukuyama and Greenfield (1983) found no significant difference in terms of self-assertiveness based on gender. So arise some questions about the issue of satisfaction with life and self-assertiveness in the context of gender. In terms of ethnicity, it also shows the diversity in relationship of self-assertiveness and satisfaction with life. As such, Western societies are often seen as a community group that has a higher self-assertive than communities in Asia (Fukuyama & Greenfield, 1983; Sue et al., 1983; Thompson & Klopf, 1995; Thompson et al., 1990; Zane et al., 1991). Meanwhile, a study by Yager and Rotheram - Borus (2000) found that the generation Y of Americans European descent showed higher assertiveness than African-Americans or students of Latin American descent. Obviously there are differences and diversity of ethnicity. This may be explained by cultural factors and the environment they grew up. So, how about Generation Y in the context of Malaysia, Sabah in particular? Do also shows diversity of ethnicity and gender? Therefore, this study aimed to see whether there is a relationship between self-assertiveness with life satisfaction among generation Y in Sabah. In fact, the study also explores differences by ethnicity and gender in satisfaction with life among generation Y.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 1.

Study the relationship between satisfactions with life with self-assertiveness among Generation Y in Sabah.

2.

Study the differences of satisfaction with life among Generation Y in Sabah in terms of gender.

3.

Study the differences of satisfaction with life among Generation Y in Sabah in terms of ethnicity.

3 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL SELF-ASSERTIVENESS Self-assertiveness is a quality of self to be someone who is confident without aggressiveness (Lange & Jakubowsky, 1976). The behavior is to defend personal rights honestly in the right way. The right way refer to the consideration of the views and the well-being of others. Meanwhile, Lazarus (in Iriani, 2009) explains that self-assertiveness is the behavior that exists because they want to express emotions and affective state that includes a statement of individual rights, do something to get those rights and efforts to achieve emotional freedom. An individual will not be seen as having self-assertiveness if failure to reflect the feelings, views and confidence (Pratanti, 2009). In this study, self-assertiveness is seen as an evaluation of generation Y to what extent they are able to perform assertiveness in certain circumstances or situations without compromising the well-being of others. Examples of items are as ' I avoid asking questions for fear of looking stupid '.

SATISFACTION WITH LIFE Life satisfaction is an individual's psychological well-being of the overall life satisfaction (Santrock, 2002). Hurlock (2009) defines satisfaction with life as a condition of peace and satisfaction when the requirements are met. Based on that perspective, when a certain requirements are met, then the satisfaction with life will increase. In addition, satisfaction with life is also a cognitive component of subjective wellbeing (Andrew & Withey, the Diener, 2000). Diener and Diener (2008) say that satisfaction with life is cognitive individual assessment of satisfaction over what he has done in life as a whole, based on domain of satisfaction, namely, interpersonal, health, employment and income, spiritual and recreational activities. When five domains can be achieved, then the individuals enjoying the high satisfaction with life. Satisfaction with life seen in this study is based on an evaluation of the generation Y over their lives in certain aspects such as personal, interpersonal and intrapersonal relations.

GENERATION Y Various definitions and categories explored by the critics trying to determine when to start and end of the year Generation Y. However, most detractors used the beginning years Generation Y is in 1980 and ended in 2000. William Strauss and Neil Howe have published a book titled "Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2,069 in 1991, which discuss about Generation Y and the features available on the generation using the term of 4 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Millenial. Neil Howe uses 1982 as the beginning of the next generation Millenial and 2004 is the last year for the generation (Horovitz, 2012). The definition based on traits and values, Strauss and Howe predicted that the generation Millenial more to ' Civic close-minded ', namely, a generation that have a strong community instinct either locally and globally (Strauss & Howe, 2000). In this study the Generation Y is measured by the respondents who are in the range of 15 to 25 years. Determination of the age of the generation Y is taken from the determination of the age of the youth that have been conducted by the Department of Statistics in accordance with the age categories used by the United Nations (UN) and many countries (Mohd. Ismail, 2004).

ETHNIC An ethnic term derived from the Greek ' ethnos ' which means people. One ethnic group defined socially on the basis of the characteristics of its culture. Ethnicity is the sense of belonging to a particular ethnic group. This means that there is a clear cultural or multicultural where members feel combined with a history, values, attitudes and same behavior (Eriksen, 2001). Ethnic identity is nurtured by differentiating themselves from the cluster group through attributes such as culture, language, religion and behavior (Maarof & Sm, 2002). This study refers to ethnic groups in Sabah, where groups of people whose members associate themselves through a common heritage.

METHOD

STUDY DESIGN The study is using the survey method. Survey instrument used to examine the relationship between self-assertiveness and life satisfaction among generation Y by ethnicity in Sabah.

SAMPLES The study involved a total of 742 generation Y is selected using purposive sampling technique. A sampling technique aimed at targeted respondents between the ages of 15 to 25 years. Respondents selected by ethnicity, which is an ethnic group in Sabah in particular, Malaysia in general. Table 1 illustrates the distribution of respondents according to demographic factors. 5 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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TABLE 1 DISTRIBUTION OF STUDY BASED ON DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ___________________________________________________________________________ N

Percentage ( % )

___________________________________________________________________________ Gender

Ethnic

Male

227

30.6

Female

515

69.4

Bugis

94

12.5

Suluk

70

9.4

Dusun

94

12.7

Malay

125

16.8

India

31

4.2

Sungai

50

6.7

Kadazan

61

8.2

Bajau

141

19

Chinese

47

6.3

Other

29

3.9

PMR

76

10.2

SPM

115

15.5

STPM

213

28.7

338

45.6

Academic Achievement

Diploma/Degree/ Masters/PhD

___________________________________________________________________________ ( N = 742 ).

INSTRUMENTS The review instruments used are a set of questionnaire consists of three parts, namely personal information such as gender, age, ethnicity, level of education and educational institutions, the sociological questionnaire and the questionnaire of satisfaction with life. 6 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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A. SELF - ASSERTIVENESS The instrument The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) used to assess the respondents’ self-assertiveness. Research instrument consists of 30 items using Likert scale 4, and consists of positive and negative items. Scale 1 = not really show myself, 2 = somewhat not show myself, 3 = somewhat shows myself, and 4 = really show myself.

B. SATISFACTION WITH LIFE To assess the satisfaction of the respondent's life, The Satisfaction with life Questionnaire-9 (LISAT-9) was used. LISAT-9 consists of 9 items and using Likert scale 4. Scale 1 = not very satisfied, 2 = somewhat not satisfied, 3 = satisfied, and 4 = very satisfied.

STUDY PROCEDURE The research began with a collection of reference materials from scholarly sources, such as books, scholarly journals, bulletins, Internet, statistics and writing materials to get the facts needed. Researchers focus on the advance in getting the data determination of age category for generation Y globally and in Malaysia. Next, after obtaining suitable questionnaire, researchers started a pilot study among 30 people generation y. A pilot study was carried out to test the validity and reliability of the research instruments to be used for the administration of the actual study. When the outcome of the pilot study found good and consistent, the researchers begin administration for actual study. Data collection is carried out using a questionnaire administered directly by the researchers. Each respondent estimated complete a set of questionnaire for 5 to 8 minutes. After respondents completed the questionnaire and delivered back to the researchers, researchers would like to thank for their cooperation which has been given.

RESULTS

PILOT STUDY Based on the analysis of Cronbach's alpha coefficient has to see the level of reliability of the instruments, found the level of reliability of two instrument was a good. Table 2 describes the value of the level of reliability using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. 7 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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TABLE 2 THE LEVEL OF RELIABILITY COEFFICIENT OF CRONBACH'S ALPHA

___________________________________________________________________________ Instruments

Coefficient of Cronbach's Alpha

___________________________________________________________________________ The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS)

0.754

The Satisfaction with life Questionnaire - 9 (LISAT-9)

0.717

___________________________________________________________________________

THE ACTUAL STUDY A.

THE

RELATIONSHIP

BETWEEN

SELF

-

ASSERTIVENESS

AND

SATISFACTION WITH LIFE OF GENERATION Y HYPOTHESIS 1 : There is a significant relationship between self-assertiveness with satisfaction with life among Generation Y

TABLE 3 RESULTS OF CORRELATION FOR SELF ASSERTIVENESS AND SATISFACTION WITH LIFE OF GENERATION Y _______________________________________________________________________ Variable

Satisfaction with Life

_______________________________________________________________________ Sig.

Correlation (r)

_______________________________________________________________________ Self-Assertiveness

0.000

0.138

_______________________________________________________________________ K < 0.01** Table 3 shows the correlation between self-assertiveness and satisfaction with life among generation Y. Analysis shows there is a significant relationship between the two variables [r = 0.14, n = 742, k < 0.01]. Results of correlation show that there are positive relationships and weak between satisfaction with life and self-assertiveness among respondents. Therefore, the hypothesis built that there is a relationship between self-assertiveness and satisfaction with life among Generation Y is received. 8 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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B. SATISFACTION WITH LIFE DIFFERENCES AMONG GENERATION Y IN TERMS OF GENDER HYPOTHESIS 2 : There are significant differences of satisfaction with life among Generation Yin terms of gender

TABLE 4 SATISFACTION WITH LIFE DIFFERENCES IN TERMS OF GENDER _______________________________________________________________________ F

df

t

Sig.

_______________________________________________________________________ Satisfaction with Life 0.398

0.040

740

0.968

_______________________________________________________________________ k > 0.05 Table 4 shows the results of the analysis of differences in satisfaction with life in terms of gender. Based on the analysis carried out shows there is no significant differences in the scores of men (µ = 27.58, SP = 3.46) and female (27.57, µ = SP = 3.23) [t (740) = 0.04, k >0.05]. The magnitude of the mean differences between both genders is very small. Therefore, the hypothesis that were rejected.

C. THE DIFFERENCE OF SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AMONG GENERATION Y IN TERMS OF ETHNIC HYPOTHESIS 3 : There is a significance differences of satisfaction with life among Generation Yin terms of ethnicity TABLE 5 RESULTS OF ONE-WAY ANOVA FOR SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AMONG GENERATION Y IN TERMS OF ETHNIC _______________________________________________________________________ Ethnic

df

MKD

JKD

F

Sig

_______________________________________________________________________ Between the Group

9

16.28

146.7

In the Group

732

10.86

7948.9

1.50

0.14

_______________________________________________________________________ p > 0.05 9 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Table 5 shows the differences in satisfaction with life among generation Y in terms of ethnic. Analysis shows no significant differences based on ethnicity in the testing (F (9, 732) = 1.50, p >. 05). Therefore, the hypothesis that were rejected.

DISCUSSION The results of the study found that self-assertiveness in relation to satisfaction with life among generation Y. The relationship of a positive, but weak. It is shown that a high level of self-assertiveness will make Generation Y assesses the satisfaction of their lives positively. Assertiveness is in relation to the ability of the individual to defend his personal rights and uphold its view by considering the well-being of other people (Shan & Roderick 1991; Townend 1991). The ability can increase the quality of life of generation Y, thus contributes to the satisfaction of their lives. Thus, the researchers concluded that generation Y has the ability is an individual who has a good life satisfaction. This is so because, generation Y is typically being assertive will make sure his life is in good condition and satisfactory. Study by Salleh and Zuria (2007) supports that self-assertiveness helps individuals become more open and confident in upholding the rights of self, which is the attitude will make less of anxiety and stress, once satisfied with himself. In addition, self-assertiveness can help Generation Y to build positive interpersonal relationships. It helps reduce stress and anxiety to generation Y. Delamater and McNamara (1991) explained that the rigorous person can build positive interpersonal relationships, feel less anxiety and able to build a better life satisfaction. Self assertiveness and good interpersonal relationships may be associated with personality factors generation Y, which also influences from the development environment of generation Y itself (Buss & Craik, 1980; Gough, 1987; Wiggins, 1979). Nearest environment as an agent of socialization that plays an important role in the development of generation Y is family and friends. Both of these agents if have good interpersonal relationship with generation Y, it can increase life satisfaction of generation Y. Furthermore, Generation Y is the generation known as a tough and active in interpersonal relationships (Rebore & Walmsley, 2010). Meanwhile, Cakic, Mihaljevic and Perkovic (2006) also explains that generation Y who has high self assertiveness is an active, intelligent problem-solving strategies and more satisfied with their lives. This may be due to the high level of self-respect and fulfillment of key stages in the evolution of life. Based on Maslow's Needs Theory, individual life satisfaction can be 10 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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achieved if the individual has met the requirements of the five stages of life, namely the need for physiological aspects, safety requirements, the need to love and ownership as well as the need for self-respect. In addition, in the context of generation Y based on the findings of this study, self-assertiveness is explained in the needs of high self-respect which is a reference to the need to respect the individual himself. Generation Y is able to satisfy the need to be firmly against themselves by showing the strength of self or self-control of things or issues that arise. Capacity suggests that self-control indirectly provides opportunities for generation Y to live independently, thereby assess and appreciate the advantages in itself. Generation Y in the state of Sabah in particular, not to live their lives in the context of an enclosed and rely on others to lead this group did not achieve a proper level of life satisfaction. In contrast, life satisfaction Generation Y in Sabah is high and positive and this was very significant with the capacity to be decisive and have the authority in their lives, which in other words, they are free to choose and live their lives as he wants that once led to life satisfaction. However, for the difference of life satisfaction Generation Y by gender aspects, the analysis showed that there was no difference in life satisfaction among generation Y in Sabah, whether men or women. In more simple connotation, generation Y men and women in Sabah are satisfied with the life they have served. This study was supported by a study conducted by Zane et al. (1991), Kilkus (1993) and Fukuyama and Greenfield (1983) also found that there was no significant difference in terms of gender in the relationship between self-assertiveness and life satisfaction. However, these findings differ from other studies may be significant gender differences in life satisfaction, as a study conducted by Baron and Byrne (2004) and Herringer (1998) Their findings show that men are more assertive than women. Both studies, which concluded that self-assertiveness generation Y women are lower in affecting life satisfaction than men. Meanwhile, the difference in life satisfaction by ethnic aspect also shows no significant difference for the Y generation in the state. The analysis of this hypothesis suggests that generation Y in Sabah is located at the normal level of life satisfaction. These results correlate with the authority held by this generation to maintain their needs, opinions and also be firm. Thus, the factor of ethnic diversity among generation Y in particular, does not create a significant difference in determining life satisfaction of this generation. This may be inferred that, generation Y of context and background of the case, will tend to have higher life satisfaction if these people have a platform that allows them to demonstrate and apply the 11 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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self assertiveness. In fact, the factor of living in the same context is more likely to play a role in differentiating the level of life satisfaction of generation Y, and instead focused on differences in ethnic groups. As a study by Rotheram-Borus and Yager (2000), which explained that Latin Americans have more self assertiveness than African citizens and influence their life satisfaction. In which case, the difference is only seen in the context of society and not influenced by the context of the ethnic groups.

CONCLUSION In particular, this study was undertaken to examine the relationship between selfassertiveness with life satisfaction among generation Y in ethnic groups in Sabah. The results showed that self-assertiveness relationship with life satisfaction Y generation in the state. However, there are also no significant differences in the level of life satisfaction in relation to gender and ethnicity. Thus, in conclusion, self assertiveness in relation to life satisfaction generation Y. The results of this study will provide knowledge about the role of assertiveness generation Y in influencing their life satisfaction. In addition, the study also provides information to the institutions of family, especially parents of the importance of fostering self-assertiveness attitude to children who are in the generation Y. Hence, the study of interest to the community in improving the understanding of the positive role of selfassertiveness on the generation of life satisfaction Y, rather than the negative aspects that are often mistaken for aggressiveness.

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Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., Oishi, S., & Suh, E. M. (2002). Looking Up And Looking Down: Weighting Good And Bad Information In Satisfaction With Life Judgments. Personality And Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 437-445. Diener, E., & Diener, B. R. (2008). The Science Of Optimal Happiness. Boston: Blackwell Publishing. Dwairy, M. (2004). Culturally Sensitive Education: Adapting Self-Oriented Assertiveness Training To Collective Minorities. Journal Of Social Issues, 60(2), 423-436. Eriksen, T. H. (2001) Ethnic Identity, National Identity And Intergroup Conflict: The Significance Of Personal Experiences. In Ashmore RD, Jussim L And Wilder D (Eds) Social Identity, Intergroup Conflict And Conflict Reduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fukuyama, M. A. & Greenfield, T. K. (1983). Dimension Of Assertiveness In An AsianAmerican Students Population. Journal Of Counseling Psychology, 30(3), 429-432. Gough, H. G. (1987). CPI Manual (2nd Ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Herringer, L. G. (1998). Facets Of Extraversion Related To Satisfaction With Life. Personality And Individual Differences, 24, 731-73. Horovitz, B. (2012). After Gen X, Millennials, What Should Next Generation Be?. USA Today. Huebner, E. S. (1994). Preliminary Development And Validation Of A Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Psychological Assessment 6, 149-58. Hurlock, K. (2009). Fourteenth Century England V. History, 95(317), 112-113. Iriani , N. (2009). Pengaruh Pelatihan Asertivitas Terhadap Peningkatan Harga Diri. Tesis : Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Gadjah Mada. Kilkus, S. P. (1993). Assertiveness Among Professional Nurses. Journal Of Advanced Nursing. 18, 1324-1330. Mohd. Ismail, M. (2004). Menjadi Belia Cemerlang. Kuala Lumpur: PTS Publication & Distributors Sdn Bhd. Park, N., & Huebner, E. S. (2005). A Cross-Cultural Study Of The Levels And Correlatesn Of Life Satisfaction Among Adolescents. Journal Of Cross Cultural Psychology, 36, 444456. Poyrazli, S. (2000). The Role Of Assertiveness, Academic Experiences, And Academic Self Efficacy On Psychosocial Adjustment Of Graduate International Students. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University Of Houston. Pratanti (2007). Perilaku Asertif. Diakses Daripada . http://mitaunair-fk12.web.unair.ac.id/artikel_detail-67465-Gudang%20Rongsokan PERILAKU%20ASERTIF.html Rebore, R. W., & Walmsley, A. L. E. (2010). Recruiting And Retaining Generation Y Teachers. Thousand Oaks: Corwin.

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Salleh, A. (2007). Refleksi Sistem Pendidikan Negara Dan Kesan Kepada Kesihatan Mental Pelajar. Prosiding Seminar Kebangsaan Isu-Isu Pendidikan Negara Ketiga. Bangi: Fakulti Pendidikan UKM. Salleh A., & Zuria, M. (2009). Hubungan Antara Ketegasan Diri Dan Kepuasan Hidup Dalam Kalangan Pelajar Institusi Pengajian Tinggi. Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia 34(2), 49 – 65. Santrock, J. (2002). Life Span Development (2nd Ed). United States: Mcgraw-Hill. Schimmack, U., Oishi, S., Furr, R. M., & Funder, D. C. (2009). Personality And Life Satisfaction: A Facet-Level Analysis. Personality And Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(8), 1062-1075. Shan, R., & Roderick, S. G. (1991). Assertation Training: How To Be Who You Really Are. London: Routledge. Siti Nor, Y., Tan, S. A., Tan, J. P., & Rumaya, J. (2012). Malaysian Adolescents’ Life Satisfaction, Archives Des Sciences, 65(8), 182-192. Strauss, W., & Howe, N. (1991). Generations: The History Of America’s Future, 1583 To 2069. New York, NY: Quill William Morrow. Strauss, W., & Howe, H. (2000). Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation. Cartoons By R. J. Matson. New York, NY: Vintage Original. Sue, D., Ino, S., & Sue, D. M. (1983). Non Assertiveness Of Asian Americans: An Inaccurate Assumption? Journal Of Counseling Psychology 30(4), 581-588. Sue, D. W. & Sue, D. (1990). Counseling The Culturally Different. New York: John Wiley & Son. Thompson, C. A., Ishii, S. & Klopf, D. (1990). Japanese And American Compared On Assertiveness/Responsiveness. Psychological Reports, 66, 829-830. Thompson, C. A. & Klopf, D. W. (1995). Social Style Among North America, Finnish, Japanese, And Korean University Students. Psychological Reports 77, 60-62. Townend, A. (1991). Developing Assertiveness. London: Biddle Ltd, Guildford And King’s Lynn. Wiggins, J. S. (1979). A Psychological Taxonomy Of Trait-Descriptive Terms: The Interpersonal Domain. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 37, 395–412. Yager, T. J., & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2000). Social Expectation Among African American, Hispanic And European American Adolescents. Cross-Cultural Research, 34(3), 283305. Zane, N. W. S., Sue, S., Hu, L. & Kwon, J. H. (1991). Asian-American Assertion: A Social Learning Analysis Of Cultural Differences. Journal Of Counseling Psychology 38(1), 6370. ***

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CLIMATIC CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON PAKISTAN    ZAINULABIDENMALIK 1 , ATUFAKAWAN 2 , MALIKUSMAN BIN ZAHEER 3 , ANEEQA NAWAZ 4  AND SADAFNAWAZ 5  1

 Ph. D. Scholar In International Relations Preston University, Islamabad, Pakistan   E mail  [email protected]  

2

 Ph. D. Scholar In Zoology,  PMAS ARID Agricultural University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan   E mail  [email protected] 

3

 Doctor Of Veterinary Medicine,  PMAS ARID Agricultural University,  Rawalpindi, Pakistan   e mail   [email protected]   4

 M. Phil. Scholar In Pakistan Stn Studies NUML Islamabad, Pakistan   E mail  [email protected] 

5

 BS In Economic In Fatima Jinnah University,  Rawalpindi, Pakistan    E mail   [email protected]  

  ABSTRACT  Earth has always been subject to change in climates, a natural and most obvious example is  the evolution of earth from the ice age to the current age, all these changes and evolutions  occur due to the phenomena of climate change. However the changes seen in recent times  are  more  obvious  and  transform  rather  quickly  because  of  the  presence  of  the  human  interference in climate change. This means the emission of Greenhouse gases among other  threats  to  life.  For  those  readers  who  are  unaware  of  what  climate  change  is,  too  briefly  describe it is the statistical change of climate over certain periods of time, this change can be  natural and can also be sped up by human interference. The Government of Pakistan and the  international  community  is  launching  multi‐programmes  to  tackle  this  problem  and  are  investing to prevent climatic disasters in Pakistan.   Keywords : Global Warming, Climate Change, Greenhouse Effect and Variations.     Methodology  This research has been devised in a planned and methodological manner. This method can  be better explained in the following steps:   15 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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1.

Selection of topic, 

2.

Selection base paper: this step was carried out so I could get a idea of previous  

 

related  research  on  my  selected  topic  so  I  can  consider  past  views  and  build  on 

 

them, this helps duplication of work and avoids any irregularities, 

3.

Detailed analysis of base paper, 

4.

Literature review of reports, papers, topics and ideas related to the topic, 

5.

Analysis and way forward, 

6.

Conclusion. 

     

  

    INTRODUCTION   This  Research  paper  is  a  blend  of  research  based  on  facts  and  figures  taken  from  recent  studies  related  to  recent  papers  on  the  mentioned  subject.  Climate  change  and  global  warming  is  a  major  concern  for  the  world  and  continues  to  become  a  difficult  matter  to  tackle as time grows. This paper will help understand the climate change effects in Pakistan  along with variables that contribute to it and what corrective measures are being taken by  our people to mitigate these effects. This paper is divided into five sections, the first section  covers  a  brief  introduction  of  the  concept  behind  undertaking  this  research,  the  second  section describes the selection of the base paper and explains the reasons behind selection  of this particular paper, in section 3 some key findings are derived that link to assumptions  and predictions of the selected paper, section 4 describes measures that are being taken by  the  Pakistani  government  to  counter  the  climate  change  problem  and  finally  section  5  concludes the paper with a suggested way forward.   SECTIONS  1. Introduction,   2. Selection and analysis of the base paper,   3. Literature Review,   4. Key findings/contradictions based on assumptions of the selected base paper,   5. Findings in light of the climate change policy,   16 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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6. Conclusion and way forward.    SELECTION OF BASE PAPER  It  is  evident  that  climate  change  is  a  problem  which  is  a  growing  concern  of  Pakistan  and  definitely it is something to debate on by researchers and metrological and other technical  experts. In this regard it was clear that many researches have been carried out in the past  regarding  this  area  of  concern.  Therefore  the  purpose  of  my  research  is  not  to  replicate  anyone’s  previously  carried  out  efforts,  but  to  develop  a  research  which  builds  on  work  conducted by researchers in the past so that individuals exploring this area can benefit from  most recent developments.  Figure 1 : Research Objective    Recent research after    the climate change  th policy and 18   Amendment   

This  paper 

Updated  findings 

Base  paper 

 

Concrete and  updated research 

Past research before    climate change policy  th    Amendment  and 18

    While  selecting  previous  papers  and  researched  related  to  our  topic,  we  found  a  lot  of  quality research, out of this some mentionable where United Nations previously carried out  reports,  draft  climate  change  policies  and  papers  by  individuals  like  Mr.  Fazal  Ali  Khan  (student of SZABIST) paper on human vulnerability index to climate change.     The base papers that we consulted were :   ƒ

Changing Climatic Patterns and Their Impacts with Special Focus on Pakistan by Mr.  Jawed Ali Khan.  

ƒ

Climate Change and Variability in Mountain Regions of Pakistan Implications for  Water and Agriculture by Mr. Syed Sajidin Hussain.  

ƒ

The Impact of Climate Change on the Glaciers, Water Resources and Livelihood of  Pakistan by Ms. Mariya Absar. 

  17 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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After extensive research we choose to base our research primarily on a paper by Mr. Jawed  Ali  Khan  and  the  Climate  Change  Policy  of  Pakistan.  Mr.  Jawed  Ali  Khan  has  directed  his  research  related  to  changing  climatic  patterns  and  their  impacts  with  special  focus  on  Pakistan.  This  research  was  completed  during  the  drafting  stages  of  the  climate  change  policy and before the devolution of power to the provinces (18th Amendment) therefore this  assessment  only  predicts  what  the  Pakistani  government  is  planning  to  do  to  counter  the  climate change problems.     The advantage of our research (this paper) is that it builds on previous work carried out by  Mr.  Jawed  Ali  Khan  and  gives  a  more  clear  picture  of  what  Pakistan  is  doing  to  counter  climate change because now the climate change policy has been developed and there have  been  multiple  changes  in  the  government  of  Pakistan  in  this  regard.  Therefore  this  paper  does  not  completely  contradict  the  previous  research  but  builds  on  it  and  explains  the  existing setup.     SUMMARY  OF  PAPER  SELECTED;  CHANGING  CLIMATIC  PATTERNS  AND  THEIR  IMPACTS  WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON PAKISTAN  Below is a brief description and analysis of the base paper selected for analysis. This will give  the reader a clear understanding of the direction this paper is intended to go in.     The  author  Mr.  Javed  Ali  Khan  begins  this  paper  by  describing  the  climate  change  phenomena and how human interference is acting as a catalyst to speed up this process, he  has  also  given  recent  examples  relevant  to  Pakistan  e.g.  the  2010  floods  that  are  a  clear  indication  of  the  growing  concern  of  the  international  community  in  respect  to  the  discussed matter.   The author in Section II describes the global perspective and explains in the past 150 years  the  concentration  of  Carbon  Dioxide  (CO2)  has  risen  from  280  ppm  to  350ppm  and  this  increase is mainly due to the burning of fossils and has resulted in warming the earth due to  the Greenhouse effect it produces. (Khan, 2008).  In  Section  III  of  this  paper,  the  author  explains  the  climate  change  effect  with  respect  to  Pakistan by throwing light on impacts that are felt and seen in the country. These include  biodiversity  loss,  rise  in  the  sea  level,  shifts  in  the  weather  pattern  and  extreme  weather  18 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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changes for example floods and droughts. In this section the writer also explains Pakistan’s  contribution to Climate Change in terms of Greenhouse gas emissions and its ranking among  countries  that  are  producers  of  Greenhouse  gases.  According  to  this  research  in  2002  Pakistan was contributing to the only 0.43% of worlds total Carbon Dioxide emission.   Section IV of this paper explains Pakistan’s vulnerability to the climate change problem and  explains  how  this  phenomena  is  affecting  the  country.  This  section  gives  reference  to  researched  of  that  time  (2007),  in  particular  the  Maplecroft  research  which  gave  a  vulnerability  index  and  ranked  Pakistan  as  the  12th  most  vulnerable  country  to  climate  change (Khan, 2008). Section IV continues to explain the problems caused by climate change  in  Pakistan  in  terms  of  loss  in  water  and  its  vulnerability  of  costal  areas  and  the  energy  sector  and  it  concludes  by  Pakistan’s  response  to  the  growing  concern  of  climate  change.  This  includes  the  development  of  a  climate  change  policy  along  with  initiatives  of  the  Ministry of Environment.  The  next  section  of  this  paper  will  give  the  readers  an  overview  of  the  literature  that  we  reviewed in order to build up on the findings of the above mentioned paper.     LITERATURE REVIEW   In  order  to  understand  updated  research  and  findings  related  to  the  climate  change  progress  on  policy  level  in  Pakistan  we  reviewed  literature  related  to  the  mentioned  problem  so  that  their  findings  could  support  my  conclusions  and  recommendations.  This  review included reports from the development sector including reports from United Nations  entities mandated to work on Climate Change in Pakistan, World Bank commission findings  and reports from the Government of Pakistan and the Ministry of Environment in particular  (now devolved to the provincial level after the 18th Amendment).     The base papers consulted as previously mentioned were :   ƒ

Changing Climatic Patterns and Their Impacts with Special Focus on Pakistan by Mr.  Jawed Ali Khan. 

ƒ

Climate  Change  and  Variability  in  Mountain  Regions  of  Pakistan  Implications  for  Water and Agriculture by Mr. Syed Sajidin Hussain. 

ƒ

The  Impact  of  Climate  Change  on  the  Glaciers,  Water  Resources  and  Livelihood  of  Pakistan by Ms. Mariya Absar. 

19 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Research papers consulted are listed below :  ƒ

City  clusters  in  China:  Air  and  Surface  Water  Pollution  by  Min  Shao  and  Xiaoyan  Tang. 

ƒ

Impact of pollution due to tanneries on groundwater regime by N. C. Mondal, V. K.  Saxena and V. S. Singh. 

  Policies :  ƒ

The Climate Change Policy for Pakistan. 

  This literature are quoted in our recommendations and findings throughout this paper and  has been referenced in detailed at the end.     Data Sources  The data sources for most of the conclusions quoted are derived from the climate change  policy  developed  by  the  Ministry  of  Environment  and  independent  evaluation  reports  developed  by  United  Nations.  This  policy  on  climate  change  provides  data  on  important  social  and  economical  variables  at  the  national  and  provincial  level,  it  also  explains  the  administrative arrangements that the Government of Pakistan is planned to initiate and has  already  started  execution  of  some  of  these  initiatives.  Although  this  data  is  not  too  quantitative but it provides a road map at the policy and implementation level and explains  the measures that the Government is taking to ensure suitable corrective measures for this  growing concern. The aim of this information is to give the reader a better understanding of  the  outcomes  being  planned  at  the  policy  level  and  give  a  updated  view  of  the  existing  problem to the readers.     OVERVIEW AND FINDINGS IN LIGHT OF THE CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY  This  section  introduces  the  climate  change  policy  developed  in  September  2012  and  explains the mitigation mechanisms explained in it.     BACKGROUND  The National climate change policy address the present and future climate change issues in  Pakistan.  This  policy  is  based  on  the  a  report  that  was  prepared  by  a  Task  Force  of  the  20 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Planning  Commission  working  on  climate  change  in  Pakistan  and  inputs  provided  by  provinces, federal institutions and civil society. (Planning Commission 2010).    FOCUS  The  policy’s  main  focus  is  adaptation  effort  and  measures  in  case  of  adverse  impacts  of  climate change in Pakistan covering major sectors like water resources, agriculture, forestry,  coastal  areas,  biodiversity  and  various  vulnerable  ecosystems.  This  policy  also  highlights  mitigation  attempts  in  sectors  like  energy,  forestry,  agriculture  and  livestock  and  concentrates  on  way  forward  on  the  issues  like  disaster  preparedness,  capacity  building,  institutional strengthening, technology transfer and international cooperation.    OBJECTIVE  The  policy  objective  is  to  set  a  framework  to  address  all  future  challenges  concerning  economic growth, extreme events and minimise risks like water, food and energy security. It  also  focus  on  Pakistan’s  responsibility  being  a  active  member  of  the  international  community  and  building  strong  ties  between  Federal  and  provincial  coordination  mechanism  on  climate  change,  efficient  utilization  of  available  resources,  institutional  capacity  building  of  relevant  stakeholder  and  planning  of  long  term  sustainability  of  resources.    THREATS AND VULNERABILITY TO PAKISTAN  1. Floods and Droughts : An increase in frequency of the extreme weather combined with  rains and monsoon thunderstorms causes floods and at the same time causes droughts  in different parts of the world.  2. Glaciers  And  Global  Warming  :  Recessions  from  the  Hindu  Kush  –  Karakoram  ‐  Himalayan glaciers are shooting out carbon deposits from their boundary and are acting  as  pollution  sources,  this  is  a  major  threat  or  water  flowing  in  and  out from  the  Indus  River.  3. Dams : More dams are being built naturally and water is gathering due to major floods.  4. Temperature  Increase  :  Due  to  the  increase  in  temperature  particularly  in  agricultural  land is resulting in reduced agriculture productivity.  21 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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5. Forest Devastation : Plant species are migrating from forests rapidly due to the decrease  in forest scarcity due to global warming.  6. Indus  Delta  and  Water  Flow  :  There  is  a  considerable  amount  of  decrease  in  saline  water in the Indus delta and it is adversely affecting coastal agriculture and mangroves  bleedings.  7. Costal Area Threat : There is a ever growing threat to costal areas due to predicted sea  level rise and a increase in cyclones and activities related to the rising of the sea surface.  8. Water  Sharing  :  There  is  a  ever  growing  stress  of  increased  tension  between  sharing  water resources between upper and lower riparian regions.   9. Health  Risks  :  There  is  a  increase  in  health  risks  due  to  climate  change  and  global  warming.     PAKISTAN’S CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION  An  important  and  startling  fact  to  be  explained  here  in  this  section  is  that  Pakistan’s  contribution  is  lowest  to  the  global  green  house  emissions  when  compared  to  most  countries  but  it  is  effected  greatly and  is  vulnerable  to  climate change  effects  n  technical,  financial  and  natural  resources.  (Oxfam  2009).  In  order  for  Pakistan  to  prepare  and  tackle  these  climate  change  problems  it  is  important  to  prepare  a  ground  plan  and  a  policy  to  tackle  and  mitigate  these  climatic  problems,  this  climate  change  policy  provides  that  background preparation and mitigation plan.     WATER RESOURCE CONSERVATION ; NEED AND POLICY MEASURES  It is a technical fact that water resources are linked with climatic conditions therefore any  change in climatic conditions or global warming will automatically produce a effect on water  resources, this is the case with the water resources of Pakistan. Geographically we can see  that most of the fresh water resources in Pakistan are connected to melting of glaciers and  ice,  these  water  resources  are  being  greatly  affected  due  to  climate  change  and  global  warming.  The  climate  change  trends  and  frequency  shows  that  with  the  passage  of  time  Pakistan’s glaciers and snow mountains are melting at a alarming rate and they are causing  immediate floods with no expectations of reserving this fresh water as water resources for  the future. (Climate Change Policy 2011).   22 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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In response to the afore mentioned threats to water resources, the government of Pakistan  suggests the below policy measures in the climate change policy :  WATER STORAGE  In order to ensure sufficient water resources, the climate change policy highlights that :  ƒ

Access to water should be addressed and sufficient additional water resources  should be identified for distribution. 

ƒ

A complete remodeling of existing water resources is suggested so that the existing  irrigation infrastructure is rehabilitated. 

ƒ

Identification of new water resources are required so that new water reserves can  be built. 

ƒ

Development of necessary technologies and techniques is essential so that water is  reserved in hilly and difficult terrains. 

ƒ

Measures should be taken to preserve existing water resources.  

  In order to conserve water, the policy suggests the following strategies :  ƒ

It is suggested to ensure water conservations and reduce irrigation system problems. 

ƒ

Rain water is suggested to be harvested by taking account of different mechanisms. 

  Introducing integrated management of water resources :   ƒ

Ensuring ground water extraction by preventing excessive pumping. 

ƒ

Ensuring  recycling  measures  and  ensure  proper  demarcation  of  water  resources  when making water allocations geographically. 

ƒ

Identifying possibilities of joint water treaties with neighboring countries. 

ƒ

Developing  short  term  and  long  term  risk  management  plans  to  ensure  water  conservation and integration of water resources. 

  Legislative framework measures suggested  ƒ

The  policy  suggests  that  new  laws  should  be  enacted  and  drafted  which  enforce  protection of environment and water resources.  

ƒ

Laws should be developed which protect existing glaciers and develop multi‐country  agreements  to  protect  the  protection  of  glaciers  and  water  reserves  that  geographically lie between two countries.  

23 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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  Build capacity and raise awareness :  ƒ

It  is  suggested  to  enhance  capacity  of  existing  water  resources  by  introducing  efficient technologies for water utilization.    Figure 2 Source :Khan, 2008, base paper 

                                    ƒ

Introduction  of  new  technologies  to  enhance  capacity  of  water  resource  management mechanism by Geographical Information Systems (GIS). 

ƒ

Strengthening  coordination  mechanism  among  national  and  international  communities. (WB 2006). 

ƒ

It is suggested to launch public awareness campaigns to highlight the importance of  water  management  and  raise  awareness  in  terms  of  climate  change  and  global  warming. 

  AGRICULTURE AND LIVE STOCK  It is a obvious fact that agriculture is a essential commodity and its most valuable when it  comes  to  generating  growth  from  the  farming  industry  and  in  Pakistan  agriculture  contributes 21% to the GDP. (Climate Change Policy 2011).     24 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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It  is  also  evident  that  agriculture  is  most  vulnerable  to  climatic  problems  and  global  warming.  The  climate  change  policy  for  Pakistan  throws  light  on  protecting  live  stock  and  agriculture by recommending the following measures :    POLICY MEASURES  In terms of research and technology the policy suggests the following measures :    ƒ

More  effort  and  investment  is  suggested  in  R&D  particularly  to  develop  digital  simulation models for assessing impact and changes of climate and their effects on  agricultural land. 

ƒ

Further  variety  of  crops  should  be  explored  that  are  particularly  sustainable  to  climate change problems and effects. 

ƒ

Databases  that  maintain  data  of  entire  crop  cycles  should  be  developed  and  maintained regularly. 

ƒ

It is suggested to in general increase the farming capacity of farmers and the farming  community. 

ƒ

In  terms  of  technological  enhancements  this  policy  suggests  the  use  of  improved  farming by the help of technology and solar energy conservation mechanisms. 

ƒ

Bio‐technology  is  a  new  introduction  and  it  can  be  used  to  generate  energy  and  enhance life of crops. 

ƒ

Remote sensing by the help of Geographical Information Systems is suggested as it is  a new upcoming innovation. 

 

In terms of general management, the policy suggests the following recommendations :    ƒ

It  is  suggested  to  establish  climate  change  units  in  agriculture  based  research  organizations. (Planning Commission 2010). 

ƒ

It is also suggested to improve the quality of feed for farming products and to enable  financial opportunities for farmers. 

ƒ

In  parallel  to  the  above  recommendations  it  is  suggested  to  develop  a  risk  management  system  to  cater  for  any  possible  flaws  in  the  system  and  to  ensure  economic stability of the farming industry. 

25 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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  In  terms  the  base  paper  selected  the  climate  change  policy  mentions  the  above  recommendations  for  water  resource  management  and  agriculture  and  live  stock  management. Apart from this there are other details related to human health etc that are  also  mentioned  but  are  not  relevant  to  the  aims  of  the  base  paper  and  this  research  however  they  can  be  attached  as  annexure  or  additional  supporting  documents  to  this  research.     FINDINGS In Light Of The Climate Change Policy   (Comparison Of Base Paper And Recent Findings)  The author was accurate to define effects of climate change and global warming and gave  accurate  examples  of  the  2010  floods,  these  have  examples  have  been  authenticated  and  verified in the climate change policy. The author failed to explain the Koyoto protocol and  highlight  its  significance  in  terms  of  Pakistan’s  active  participation  in  it  and  Pakistan’s  minimum contribution to Carbon gases but maximum exposure of getting effected by global  warming. The base paper selected serves as a good base that defines need for National level  policy  legislation  and  implementation  as  it  highlights  the  negative  effects  that  Pakistan  is  going through in terms of climate change problems. In conclusion the base paper highlights  why there is a need for policy legislation at the National level and assumes that the climate  change policy will suggest corrective measures to help Pakistan tackle this growing concern.  The  advantage  of  this  research  is  that  it  accurately  highlights  the  related  salient  features  mentioned in the climate change policy that are suggested to solve this growing concern.    SHORT COMINGS AND/OR POTENTIAL AREAS OF RESEARCH  After conducting extensive research on the topic I identified various areas related to climate  change which were not added in the policy or the base paper, for example :  ƒ

Effects on the solar system due to climate change and potential consequences. 

ƒ

How clouds and the atmosphere act as a natural thermostat. 

  The above two topics are still in initial phase of research that’s why we can quote them in  this study.   26 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARD  In  conclusion  it  is  expected  that  the  base  paper  combined  with  this  independent  study/research  should  be  used  as  a  tool  to  understand  the  effects  of  climate  change  in  Pakistan  and  its  vulnerability  to  them  and  also  helps  understand  what  the  Government  is  doing and is planning to do at the policy level to solve these concerns.     CONCERN  A concern is that after the 18th Amendment in the constitution of Pakistan the Ministry of  Environment  has  been  devolved,  but  now  there  are  talks  of  establishing  a  fully  functional  Ministry  of  Climate  Change  at  the  national  level  which  will  be  mandated  to  solve  climatic  problems and concerns of Pakistan.     RECOMMENDATION  In light of the above discussion, following actions are recommended :  1.  Dedicate  the  Ministry  of  Climate  Change  to  ensure  that  the  climate  change  policy  is  followed in its true essence.  2.  The  climate  change  policy  should  be  reviewed  bi‐annually  and  research  should  be  conducted to instil new best practices.    3. The ministry should consists of technocrats (national and international) who are subject  matter experts on climate change policy.  4. Successful international frameworks and models related to climate change from different  countries should be introduced in Pakistan.   5. Internatinonal NGOs like UN, DFID and World Bank etc. should be encouraged to help the  Pakistani  government  in  providing  their  expertise  and  funding  to  help  implement  the  climate change policy.     REFERENCES  Armitage ,  Kevin C.    2005 .  “  State Of Denial : The United States And The Politics Of Global  Warming . ”   Globalizations   2 ,  3 .  Planning Commission. (2010). Report On “Task Force On Climate Change”. Government Of  Pakistan.  Climate Change Policy. (2011). Policy On “Climate Change”. Government Of Pakistan.  27 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Oxfam  (2009).  “Climate  Change  In  Pakistan:  Stakeholder  Mapping  And  Power  Analysis”,  Oxfam International, Islamabad.  WB (2006):  “Pakistan Water Economy Running Dry”, The World Bank.   Ball ,  Jeffrey.   2007 . “In Climate Controversy, Industry Cedes Ground .” Wall Street  Journal  . January 23.  Khan, 2008. “Changing Climatic Patterns And Their Impacts With Special Focus On Pakistan.”  Paper No. 285.   BIBLIOGRAPHY   An  W  And  Hu  JY.  2006.  Effects  Of  Endocrine  Disrupting  Chemicals  On  China's  Rivers  And  Coastal Waters. Front Ecol Environ 4: 378–86.   Andrews  ,    Edmund  L.    ,  And  Felicity      Barringer.    2007.  “  Bush  Seeks  Vast,  Mandatory  Increase In Alternative Fuels And Greater Vehicle Efficiency. ” New York Times. January  24.  Armitage ,  Kevin C.    2005 .  “  State Of Denial: The United States And The Politics Of Global  Warming . ”   Globalizations   2 ,  3 .  Barringer ,  Felicity.    2008 .  “  US Given Poor Marks On The Environment . ”   New York  Times. January 23.  Barrionuevo ,  Alexei.    2007 .  “  Springtime For Ethanol . ”   New York Times. January 23.  Bauman ,  Zygmunt.    2006 .  Liquid Fear .  Cambridge :  Polity.  Borghesi ,  Simone  , And   Alessandro   Vercelli  .  2008 .  Global Sustainability: Social And  Environmental Conditions .  New York :  Palgrave Macmillan.  Brown  ,    David    .    2007  .    “   As  Temperatures Rise, Health  Could  Decline  .  ”      Washington  Post. December 17.  Carson ,  Rachel.    1962 .  Silent Spring .  Boston :  Houghton Miffl In.  Climate Change Policy. (2011). Policy On “Climate Change”. Government Of Pakistan.   Conca  ,    Ken.        2006  .    Governing  Water:  Contentious  Transnational  Political  And  Global  Institution Building .  Cambridge, MA :  MIT Press .  Conca ,  Ken.    2007 .  “  Water . ”  In   Jan Aart   Scholte   And   Roland   Robertson  , Eds.,   Encyclopedia Of Globalization .  New York :  MTM Publishing.  Dauvergne ,  Peter.    2008 .  Shadows Of Consumption: Consequences For The Global Environment .   Cambridge, MA :  MIT Press .  ***  28 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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ROLE OF RELIGIOUS COMMITMENTS, SELF EFFICACY AND SEXUAL KNOWLEDGE TOWARDS SEXUAL ABSTINENCE BEHAVIOR AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS BALAN, RATHAKRISHNAN 1 ; MASDIN, MAHIRAH BINTI 1 AND SREEHARI, RAVINDRANATH 2 1 2

Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu. Sabah.

Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development, Tamil Nadu, India E mail [email protected]

ABSTRACT This study aims to examine the relationship between religious commitments, self-efficacy and sexual knowledge with sexual abstinence behavior among 169 female adolescents aged 13 to 22 years old. The study also analyzed the factors contributing to the behavior. This survey study conducted by questionnaires and the results were analyzed using descriptive, correlation and regression (stepwise). Results showed that religious commitments (interpersonal), self-efficacy and sexual knowledge is correlated with sexual abstinence behavior. Additionally, there were contributions of the factors in sexual abstinence behavior among female adolescents. Several recommendations were given to enhance adolescents' sexual abstinence awareness, especially for parents and those who involved in helping professions. Keywords : Religion, Commitment, Efficacy, Sex, Knowledge, Behavior and Female. PROBLEM STATEMENTS The process of development in adolescence is critical and has a lifetime effect. It is a process experienced by individuals who growing and requires the preparation to be able to grow as a positive adult. Each adolescent will experience significant challenges in all aspects of development, particularly the development of sexuality. (Buzwell & Doreen, 1996). Almost all of the challenges of adolescence are related to puberty, the level of human life in which physical maturity occurs. (Siti Nor et al., 2009). Thus, adolescents need to develop selfregulation, are responsible for all behavior is taken, make the best decisions in life and 29 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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develop the ability to sustain intimate relationships in adulthood. (Zimmer-Gembeck & Collins, 2006). The way and the solutions chosen by the adolescences face the challenges and conflicts can determine whether the pattern of adolescent development in a positive or a negative direction. A major challenge that is often associated with adolescent development is the early onset of sexual activity out of wedlock that can result in a threat to the future of the adolescent, especially female adolescent. Early onset of sexual activity among female adolescents has been identified as a major risk factor to a number of negative reproductive health outcomes, including the adolescent pregnancy can pose a health risk to infants, also adolescents and can result in sexually transmitted infections (STI) (Caroline & Alex, 2007). Increased sexual activity before marriage among female adolescent nowadays is alarming and like a trend or style of life for some individuals through adolescence. In Malaysia, this is like a new sub-culture among the female adolescents. A survey by the Global Health School (GSHS) and the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) about indecent behavior committed adolescents before marriage, beginning 1994 to 2012, explained there is an increasing in these symptoms (The National Health Morbidity Survey, 2012). The study found a twofold increase for the year 1994 to 2012, the percentage of adolescent involved in sexual behavior out of wedlock in 1994 was 0.9 %, rising to 8.3 % in 2012.

Even so, there were still female adolescents who behave sexually abstinent themselves from engaging in sexual activity. Sexually abstinent is one way that can be done by either adolescents who have had sexual intercourse or not to stop or delay of sexual activity. The concept of sexually abstinent can be obtained through sex education that is applied (John et al., 2006), as done in the West. Due to comprehensive sex education is not a subject in formal education in Malaysia, and then the concept of sexual abstinence can only be obtained informally, through the cultural context and subjective norms (Shtarkshall, et al., 2007).

The studies of sexual abstinence behavior among female adolescents have been conducted frequently in the West. However, due to differences of social and cultural contexts, the findings are not all able to fully apply in the context of Malaysian culture. In general, religious commitment, self-efficacy and sexual knowledge were factors identified from previous studies that can contribute to sexual abstinence behavior in female adolescents. However, the results obtained are not consistent with each other. Just as the study of John et 30 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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al. (2006) explain the factors that caused the religious commitments girls decided sexually abstinent. By contrast, a study by Caroline and Alex (2007) rejects the proposition of religious commitment as a contributor to the formation of sexual abstinence behavior. Meanwhile, in terms of self-efficacy, the study Oladepo and Fayemi (2011) explained that high self-efficacy causing the female adolescents refused sexual behavior before marriage. The belief in their ability for sexually abstinent before marriage causing a negative perception towards their friends whose engaged in sexual activity before marriage. However, Kasen, Vaughan and Walter (1992) state that high self-efficacy in female adolescents to sexually abstinent is due to the risk of AIDS infection. This is clearly less suitable to explain the situation female adolescent in Malaysia due to the different cultural factors. In addition, the factor of sexual knowledge is also an important factor in contributing to the sexual abstinence behavior. Study by Azriani et al. (2011) explained that sexual knowledge is contributing to female adolescent decision not to engage in sexual behavior before marriage. But Kaiser Family Foundation study (2004) also describes sexual knowledge may not necessarily be significant contributors to the sexual abstinence behavior. Even so, female adolescents are sexually abstinent also may be due to other factors, such as the environment in which adolescents were raised. Based on the findings of the study are explained clearly show the diversity and inconsistency. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the influence of religious commitment, self-efficacy and sexual knowledge on sexual abstinence behavior in young girls. Specifically, the study was carried out in the context of the culture in Malaysia, which clearly shows the social and cultural differences with other countries. METHOD STUDY DESIGN AND RESPONDENT Quantitative study conducted on 169 female adolescents aged between 13 and 22 years. The original number of respondents is 316. After the screening process undertaken to select respondents who have never engaged in any sexual behavior out of wedlock, only 169 selected respondents.

MEASUREMENT Three sets of questionnaires were used in the study. For measurements of religious commitment, The Religious Commitment Inventory-10 (RCI-10; Worthington, Wade & Hight, 2003) was used. RCI-10 contains about 10 items to measure individual obedience in religious value, belief and religious practice in life. RCI-10 also contains 2 sub-scales, 31 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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intrapersonal (6 items) and interpersonal (4 items), and using Likert scale 5. Item for intrapersonal is as ‘I spent time trying to develop my spirituality and belief’, meanwhile for interpersonal is ‘I like spend my time with people in my religious affiliation’.

For self-efficacy measurement, Norris’s Sexual Abstinence of Self-Efficacy was used to measure female adolescent self-efficacy on sexual abstinence behavior. (Norris et al., 2003). The questionnaire contains 8 items with Likert scale 4. Item sample is as ‘Say NO to Sex before marriage strictly’.

Sexual knowledge measurement was used Knowledge of Human Reproductive Organs, Pregnancy, Contraceptive, STDs, and Abortion. Questionnaire contains 23 items using 3 respond scales. Sample item is as ‘women who are menstruating can get pregnant if having sex’.

PROCEDURE Before the actual study conducted, a pilot study was conducted to test reliability and validity of the questionnaires. Based on the pilot study, the level of coefficient of reliability was good and consistent. Level of coefficient for The Religious Commitment Inventory-10 was 0.867; Norris’s Sexual Abstinence of Self-Efficacy was 0.807, and Knowledge of Human Reproductive Organs, Pregnancy, Contraceptive, STDs, Abortion and 0.927. RESULT

Based on analyses was conducted, the results were shown; Table I Correlation between Independent Variables with Sexual Abstinence Behavior among Female Adolescents ___________________________________________________________________________ Variables

Sexual Abstinence Behavior

___________________________________________________________________________ r ___________________________________________________________________________ Religious Commitments Intrapersonal

- 0.068

32 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Interpersonal

- 0.291**

Self-Efficacy

0.165*

Sexual Knowledge

- 0.359**

___________________________________________________________________________ ** k <0.01, * k <0.05 The tables I am shown almost all variables correlate with sexual abstinence behavior. Interpersonal religious commitment in a negative relation with sexual abstinence behavior [r=-0.291, n=169, k<0.01]. It is clear those female adolescents who have a low interpersonal religious commitment will behave sexually abstinent well. Intrapersonal religious commitment was found to have no significant relationship with sexual abstinence behavior. However, self-efficacy showed low correlation with sexual abstinence behavior [r=0.165, n=169, k<0.05]. Studies show that sexual knowledge has a significant negative relationship with sexual abstinence behavior [r=-0.359, n=169, k<0.01]. This shows that despite low sexual knowledge, but sexual abstinence behavior among female adolescents are still good. Table II Regression for Variables Value Contribution on Sexual abstinence behavior

___________________________________________________________________________ Independent Variables

Beta



t

___________________________________________________________________________ Self-efficacy

0.569

0.324

3.975

Interpersonal Religious Commitment

0.524

0.275

-3.735

Sexual Knowledge

0.359

0.129

-3.265

___________________________________________________________________________ Dependent Variable = Sexual abstinence behavior

(N=169)

Table II shows the results of the regression analysis using the stepwise method. Based on the results of the analysis carried out showed self-efficacy (32.4 %) is a much higher contribution of sexual abstinence behavior among female adolescents. Meanwhile, interpersonal religious commitment and knowledge of sexual contribute 27.5 % and 12.9 %. 33 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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DISCUSSION INTERPERSONAL RELIGIOUS COMMITMENT Religion is an important aspect that affects the daily lives of religious individuals. Its influence can be seen significantly from patterns of thought, behavior and actions of individuals who put religion as the basis of life. The findings showed that interpersonal religious commitment relating to adolescent sexual abstinence behavior and contributed 27.5 %. The intrapersonal religious commitment does not have a relationship with sexual abstinence behavior.

The result is to assume that female adolescents are sexually abstinent is less fond of engaging in religious activities or any activities organized by religious institutions. This finding is contrary to the findings of other studies, which found that female adolescents who sexually abstinent tends to engage in religious activities. For example, findings from a study conducted by Miller, Christensen and Olson (1987) which suggests that increased female adolescents' involvement in religious activity participation, explain the decline rates of adolescents' participation in sexual activity and sexually permissive attitude.

The same result is obtained in a study conducted by Siebenbruner, Zimber-Gembeck and Egeland (2007) showed that female adolescents who behave sexually abstinent state religion as a key factor in sexually abstinent behavior. In addition, the involvement of religious groups is also engaged in sexually abstinent reinforces the behavior (Jessor et al., 1995; Bingham & Crockett, 1996; Whitbeck & Hoyt., 1999). This is probably because, for adolescents in the Malay Muslim religious activities are usually carried out actively attended by boys than girls. This is because, for male adolescent the movement and involvement in an activity are not limited compared to female adolescents who still need consent from parents, causing their movement was limited. In addition, the safety threat factor causing parents of female adolescents do not encourage their girl to engage in any religious activities conducted. Thus, these factors may contribute to female adolescent sexual abstinence behaviors are less likely to engage in organized religious activities.

However, the intrapersonal religious commitment was found to be not correlated with sexual abstinence behavior. The result also is contrary to the findings of previous studies that have been conducted. A study conducted by Mellina, (2008) regarding the influence of religious commitment on the behavior of delaying sexual intercourse among female adolescents 34 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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explained that the increase of faith of female adolescents delaying any act of sexual intercourse until marriage. Similarly, a study conducted by Williams (2006) on adolescents' perceptions of sexual abstinence behavior explained that religious belief is one of the factors that contribute to sexual behavior among adolescents. According to Edwards et al. (2011) conducted in the United States on a sample aged 15 to 44 years explains that religious beliefs influence attitudes and sexual behavior and reproduction. However, for this study, it may be explained due to the influence of parenting. Although female adolescents do not have a strong faith or religious practice is low, but the factors parents’ upbringing that stressed to adolescents for sexual abstinent until marriage causes the adolescents to behave in sexually abstinent. If adolescents feel attachment, support and supervision of their parents, then adolescents are less involved in sexual behavior (Abu & Akerele, 2006). A study conducted by Collier (1997) found that if there is a close relationship between parents and adolescents, the adolescents will constitutes acceptance of norms and values regarding sexual behavior that have been set by the parents.

SELF-EFFICACY

Self-efficacy is the belief of individuals in relation to its ability to maintain a behavior to achieve a goal (Ormrod, 2006). Self-efficacy influences the functionality of the individual, for example an individual will tend to do a job is to feel that it can achieve the task.

Based on the results of the analysis carried out revealed that self-efficacy relating to the sexual abstinence behavior of adolescents and contributed 32.4 %. The result is likely to be explained by social factors that influence female adolescents’ self-efficacy. This is because of social pressure or regulation affecting the development of individual self-efficacy. As may respondents from adolescents who grew up in Malaysia with Malaysian culture, social order governed by rules on the prohibition of religious sexual activity before marriage makes female adolescents develop self-efficacy of sexual abstinence behavior until marriage. Previous studies and theoretical considerations suggest that self-efficacy plays an important role, whether the individual is practicing abstinent behavior sexual or otherwise (Sionean et al., 2002; Santelli, Kaiser, Hirsch, Radosh, Simkin, & Middlestadt, 2004; Buhi, 2006). Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, self-efficacy plays an important role in determining the behavior. The person's behavior is influenced by the belief to do that behavior, and can expect the effects of the behavior taken (Bandura, Adams, Hardy & Howelss, 1980). Thus, 35 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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female adolescents who believe in the ability to perform the sexual abstinence behavior, it will tend to maintain the behavior. Belief in the ability also influenced by the attitudes of the behavior and subjective norms (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1975).

Findings from previous studies support the findings of a study conducted by proposing selfefficacy as a predictor of sexual abstinence behavior (Buhi. 2006; Childs, 2007; Rasberry & Goodson, 2007). Qualitative study conducted by Supametaporn (2006) showed that respondents reported high self-efficacy of sexual abstinence behavior makes female adolescents tend to avoid engaging in sexual activity.

SEXUAL KNOWLEDGE

Sexual health and reproductive among adolescents has become an important issue in Asia (Azriani et al., 2011). Issues such as sexually transmitted diseases (STD / HIV), pregnancy out of wedlock and illegal abortion is an issue faced by female adolescents today (Low, 2007). Because of that conversation publicly on sexual and reproductive health is still considered taboo in society of Malaysia, the Malaysian adolescents difficult to get accurate information on this issue. Thus, many female adolescents involved in sexual behavior without knowing the effect would have occurred had to do the behavior. Knowledge of sexual and reproductive health is essential channeled to female adolescents because it can provide accurate information and can influence adolescents’ attitudes on sexual behavior, thus can help female adolescents make decisions to delay sexual activity until marriage.

A study conducted by Oladepo and Fayemi (2011) suggest that knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases is one of the factors that promote sexual abstinence behavior, as well factors have no spouse, no alcohol consumption, positive attitude and self-efficacy. The finding supports the findings of the research conducted, where sexual knowledge negatively related to sexual abstinence behavior among female adolescents. It can be assumed that even adolescents who lack the knowledge of sexual behavior sexually abstinent. This may be explained because of cultural factors in Malay society does not encourage conversation about sexual openly (Azriani et al., 2011). However, these factors do not become barriers to female adolescents to behave sexually abstinent. Even so, sexual knowledge is not a major contributor, contributed only 12.9 %. This may be due to parents providing less information about sexual knowledge to female adolescents that results in information about the matter 36 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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obtained very limited (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004) and peer reported as the main source of sexual knowledge (Azriani et al., 2011).

As the Malay society, openly conversation on issues of sexual health is treated as a prohibition (Azriani et al., 2011), then female adolescents still do not know clearly the issue of sexual knowledge and it is not a major influence on decisions of female adolescents sexual abstinent (Low, 2007). Kaiser Family Foundation (2004) explains that even female adolescents get information on sexual knowledge a very limited and information available only through the media, peers and the school education syllabus indirectly as in science and Islamic education, but it still can contribute to the development of adolescents’ sexual orientation and help decide to behave sexually abstinent

In addition, curiosity knows that something is very strong at the level of adolescent development. For example, information obtained by the female adolescents tends to cause adolescents sexual fantasizing and experimenting with sexual (Steinberg, 2007; Santrock, 2008). This is because, in the adolescents sexual development occurs with highly active (Glasier et al, 2006). Thus, although female adolescents have little information about sexuality, but it can save them from building a strong curiosity about sexuality and avoid doing the experiment, compared with a lot of knowledge which may not be accurate and may upset female adolescents’ sexual activity.

CONCLUSION

From the analysis of the research conducted on female adolescents aged 13 to 22, interpersonal religious commitment, self-efficacy and sexual knowledge is related to sexual abstinence behavior. However, the study also found that interpersonal religious commitment, self-efficacy and sexual knowledge contributed to the abstinent sexual behavior. In short, concluded that the formation of sexual abstinence behavior among female adolescents is strongly influenced by their self-efficacy. Female adolescents with high self-efficacy tend to behave in sexually abstinent. Only intrapersonal religious commitment alone found not in a relationship with a sexually abstinent behavior. A recommendation for future research is to also focus on the relationship of parent and adolescent communication on sexual abstinence behavior. This is because, the researchers looked at parent communication and adolescent culture in Malaysia plays an important role in adolescent development. 37 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Jessor, R., Van Den Bos, J., Vanderryn, J., Cosata, F. M., & Turbin, M. S. (1995). Protective Factors In Adolescent Problem Behavior. Moderator Effects And Developmental Change. Devel. Psychol, 31, 923-933. John, S., Mary, A. O., Maureen, L., Jennifer, R., Daniel, S., & Rebecca, S. (2006). Abstinence And Abstinence-Only Education: A Review Of U.S. Policies And Programs. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 38, 72-81. Kaiser Family Foundation (2004). Sex Education In America: General Public/Parents Survey.

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Siti Nor, Y., Rozumah, B., Rumaya, J., Mariani, M., Mansor, A. T., & Wong, F. P. (2009). Understanding Of Sexuality And Psychosocial Health Among Malaysian Adolescent. Serdang: Dept. Of Human Development And Family Studies, Faculty Of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia. Shtarkshall, R. A., John S, S., & Hirsch, J. S. (2007). Sex Education And Sex Socialization Roles For Educators And Parents. Perspectives On Sexual And Reproductive Health, 39(2), 116-119. Sionean, C., Diclemente, R. J., Wingood, G. M., Crosby, R., Cobb, B. K., Harrington, K., Davies, S. L., & Hook, E. W. (2002). Psychosocial And Behavioral Correlates Of Refusing Unwanted Sex Among African-American Adolescent Females. Journal Of Adolescent Health, 30, 55-63. Steinberg, L. (2007). Risk-Taking In Adolescence: New Perspectives From Brain And Behavioral Science. Current Directions In Psychological Science, 16, 55–59. Supametaporn, P. (2006). Grounded Theory: Sexual Abstinence Process In Young Thai Women. (Unpublished Dissertation, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand). The National Health Morbidity Survey (2012). Global School-Based Student Health Survey Module (GSHS) Malaysia. Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia & Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. Whitbeck L. B., & Hoyt, D. R. (1999). Nowhere To Grow: Homeless And Runaway Adolescents And Their Families. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine De Gruyter. Williams, M. E. (2006). Sex: Opposing Viewpoints. Detroit: Greenhaven. In Worthington, E. L., Wade, N. G., Hight, T. L., Mccullough, M. E., Berry, J. T., Ripley, J. S. Et Al. (Eds), The Religious Commitment Inventory-10: Development, Refinement And Validation Of A Brief Scale For Research And Counseling. Journal Of Counseling Psychology, 50, 8496. Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Collins, W. A. (2006). Autonomy Development During Adolescence. In G. R. Adams (Eds.), Blackwell Handbook Of Adolescence, 175-204. Australia: Blackwell.

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40 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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MATERNAL CHILD REARING CORRELATES OF SUCCESSFUL INTELIGENCE SHABNAM Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology (NIT), Kurukshetra (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT The present study aimed to see maternal child rearing correlates in the development of different components of successful intelligence i.e. analytical, creative and practical intelligence. For this purpose a sample of 500 B. Tech. under graduate male students was selected and they were administered Sterenberg Triarchic Ability Test (STAT) (objective and descriptive) (Sternberg, 1993) and Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) (mother form) (Saxena, 1976). Factor analysis was applied to analyze data which is showing role of maternal child rearing practices in the development of different components of successful intelligence. Keywords : Maternal Child Rearing Attitude, Successful Intelligence, Analytical, Creative and Practical Intelligence. Theory of successful intelligence is proposed by Robert Sternberg ((Sternberg, 1997). This theory is also known as the triarchic theory of intelligence. According to this theory, there are three basic types of human intelligence, the first, called componential or analytical intelligence, involves the abilities to think critically and analytically. Persons high on this dimension usually excel on standard tests of academic potential and make excellent students. The second type of intelligence, experiential or creative intelligence, emphasizes on the ability to formulate new ideas. Sternberg terms the third type of intelligence contextual or practical intelligence (Sternberg et.al, 1995). Persons high on this dimension are intelligent in practical, adaptive sense and are adept at solving the problems of everyday life. So components represent analytical (academic) abilities when they are applied to relatively abstract and academic kinds of problems that are, nevertheless, somewhat familiar. They represent creative abilities when they are applied to relatively novel kinds of tasks and situations. And they represent practical abilities when they are applied to everyday problems requiring adaptation, shaping, and selection (Sternberg, 2003). Thus, analytical, creative, and 41 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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practical abilities are not wholly distinct, but rather related to each other in some degree, depending upon the given problem and the situation in which it is solved (Sternberg, 1984, 1985). A number of researches show the influence of parental child-rearing attitudes and values on the family climate. Mothers with hostile-rejecting and authoritarian attitudes reported more on achievement (academic intelligence) (Ollendick et al., 1978). Mothers of high creative children were less emotionally involved with their children than other mothers, less likely to be perceived as overprotective, and less likely to deny their feelings of hostility towards them. They were more self-confident and self-realized in their homes and had higher occupational levels than other mothers (Michel and Dudek 1991). Raw and Marjoribanks (1991) examined that adolescents' creativity (Creative intelligence) has modest associations with their perceptions of both family and school environments. Mendecka (1992) has shown that positive parental attitudes had influenced the development of certain features (family life; course of learning; course of professional work) in these people as children, which later resulted in their adult life in a creative approach to their professional work. In a similar way, negative parental attitudes were restrictive and made development of such features difficult. Mendecka (1995) suggested that among family variables certain characteristics of both parents were found to be decisive such as parental relationship and attitudes, atmosphere in the home created by parents as well as child rearing strategies in the development of creativity or creative intelligence. Thus, a picture emerges regarding the relationship of identity with parental attitudes and the development of components (analytical, creative and practical) of successful intelligence.

METHOD SAMPLE The total sample comprised of 500 B. Tech under graduate male students (from different branches of engineering) of National Institute of Technology (NIT) Jalandhar, Punjab (India) ranging from 18 years to 21 years with a mean age of 19.6 years. Students belong to different places of India which give diversity in the total sample. MEASURES The following psychological measures were used: 1) The Sternberg Triarchic Ability Test (STAT) (Objective and Descriptive Type) 42 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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The STAT Level H (modified) (Sternberg, 1993) is a mean of capturing analytical, practical, and creative skills with three types of item content: verbal, quantitative, and figural by using multiple choice questions and essay type test (Sternberg & Clinkenbeard, 1995; Sternberg et al. 1996). Each multiple-choice item in the STAT has four different response options, from which the correct response can be selected. The STAT scale is composed of nine subscales: analytical–verbal, analytical–quantitative, analytical–figural, practical–verbal, practical– quantitative, practical–figural, creative–verbal, creative– quantitative, and creative–figural. The Schmidt et al. (2002) analyses indicate that the IRT item reliability estimate for STAT was good (.79). The Cronbach alpha estimates of reliability are .67, .56, and .72 for the analytical, practical, and creative subtests, respectively (Sternberg & the Rainbow Project Collaborators, 2006).

2) Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) (Mother Form) This test is an adaptation by Saxena (1976). PARI consists of 23 scales, each scale having 5 statements. Thus PARI consists of 115 statements. It has two forms (mother and father). For the present study, only mother form was used. The split-half reliability was found 0.83 and the test-reset reliability was found 0.78 which is an indicator of very high reliability. Concurrent validity for mother form of PARI was found 0.78.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION FACTOR ANALYSIS The primary aim of this analysis was to determine the structure of successful intelligence associated with child rearing practices. The correlation matrices were subjected to principal component analysis. Seven factors were found by using varimax rotation (Kaiser, 1958) in Table - 1. A factor loading of 0.30 and above was considered to be significant. The total variance explained was 47.02 %. The description is as follows:

TABLE - 1 ROTATED FACTOR MATRIX Values

I

II

III

IV

Analytical (AN)

0.691

0.082

0.143

-0.016

Practical (PR)

0.698

0.009

0.0824

-0.064

V 0.059 0.055

VI

VII

h2

-0.112

-0.049

0.52

0.03

0.075

0.51

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-

Creative (CR)

0.696

0.0006

0.017

0.024

Verbal (V)

0.667

0.091

0.0772

-0.066

0.007

Quantitative (Q)

0.717

0.048

-0.114

0.002

0.049

Figural (F)

0.759

-0.047

0.068

-

-

0.0041

0.062

Essay Analytical (EANALY)

0.0459

0.758

-0.07

0.108

Essay Creative (Ecreative)

-0.004

0.815

0.022

0.012

Essay Practical (Epractical)

0.139

0.787

0.073

-0.04

Total essay Rating (E4)

0.06

0.849

0.08

Encouraging verbalization (A1)

0.164

0.007

-0.393

-0.492

Fostering dependency (A2)

0.078

0.099

0.257

0.216

Seclusion of mother (A3)

0.016

-0.164

0.059

0.159

Breaking the will (A4)

0.146

0.053

0.227

0.419

Martyrdom (A5)

0.036

-0.02

0.134

0.149

Fear of harming the body (A6)

0.054

-0.032

0.49

0.0198

Marital conflict (A7)

0.079

0.064

0.477

0.092

-0.042

-0.038

0.717

-0.158

-0.016

0.405

0.061

0.019

0.096

0.09

0.576

Deification (A11)

-0.066

-0.015

0.066

Suppression of aggression (A12)

-0.037

0.008

0.042

Equalilarianism (A14) Approval of activity (A15)

Strictness (A8)

Irritability (A9) Exclusion of outside influences (A10)

Rejection of homemaking role (A13)

Avoidance of communication (A16) Inconsiderateness of the husband

0.0091

0.0099

0.098

-0.093

0.50

0.126

-0.178

0.51

0.094

0.54

-0.122

0.061

0.61

0.009

-0.018

0.078

0.60

0.057

-0.026

-0.023

0.67

-0.003

-0.019

0.66

0.049

-0.006

0.73

0.147

-0.088

0.47

0.391

0.341

0.0048

0.40

0.457

0.296

-0.018

0.35

0.142

0.237

0.445

0.109

0.563

0.161

0.413

0.088

0.0747

0.002

0.26

0.019

0.408

0.41

0.136

-0.03

0.54

0.174

0.276

0.30

0.238

0.41

0.034

0.099 -0.01 0.144

0.128

0.047 0.027 0.025

0.0087

-

-

0.027

0.0034

0.145

0.127

0.039

0.637

0.45

0.12

0.369

0.021

0.479

-0.073

0.39

0.02

0.384

-0.013

0.406

0.174

0.172

0.37

0.156

-0.076

-0.121

-0.448

-

-

0.108

0.0418

-0.241

0.32

-0.016

-0.037

0.152

0.512

0.128

0.263

-0.125

0.39

0.018

0.09

0.283

0.388

0.384

0.117

0.211

0.446

0.097

0.038

0.437

0.021

0.194

0.297

-0.153

0.35

44 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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(A17) Suppression of sexuality (A18)

0.0009

-0.048

0.073

0.0018

0.075 -

-0.083

-0.049

0.022

0.131

0.024

0.48

0.126

0.139

0.49

-0.086

-0.394

0.39

0.054

0.51

Ascendancy of the mother (A19)

0.069

0.093

0.671

0.013

Intrusiveness (A20)

0.0093

0.003

0.546

0.306

Comradeship and sharing (A21)

0.012

-0.032

-0.193

-0.278

-0.091

-0.039

-0.025

0.022

0.706

0.007

0.584

0.262

0.237

-0.125

-0.066

0.48

Acceleration of development (A22) Dependency of mother (A23)

0.0021

0.029 0.249 0.336

0.0431

Eigen Value

3.15

2.68

2.86

2.83

1.58

1.19

1.22

-

% of variance

9.54

8.12

8.66

8.58

4.78

3.61

3.73

47.02

Factor I

VARIABLES

LOADINGS

Figural (F)

0.759

Quantitative (Q)

0.717

Practical (PR)

0.698

Creative (CR)

0.696

Analytical (AN)

0.691

Verbal (V)

0.667

This factor highly loads on the variables F, Q, PR, CR, AN, and V of STAT with respective loadings of 0.759, 0.717, 0.698, 0.696, 0.691, 0.667. Variables mentioned above with the magnitude and direction of loadings clearly suggests it to be a factor of successful intelligence. This factor explains 9.54 % of total variance. All the loadings on this factor are positive. The loadings on this factor 0.759, 0.717, 0.698, 0.696, 0.691, 0.667 of the variables F, Q, PR, CR, AN, & V respectively suggest that figural, quantitative, practical, creative, analytical, and verbal intelligence all relate well to each other. The structure of all the loadings on this factor shows that they all are related to objective type of successful 45 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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intelligence as listed by Sternberg (1997, 1998, & 1999). No variable related to descriptive type of successful intelligence and child rearing practices are having significant loading on this factor. This is a factor of objective type of successful intelligence because this is only related to multiple choice (objective type) tests. All the obtained significant loadings are showing relation with each other.

Factor II

VARIABLES

LOADINGS

Total essay Rating (E4)

0.849

Essay Creative (Ecreative)

0.815

Essay Practical (Epractical)

0.787

Essay Analytical (EANALY)

0.758

E4 (total essay rating), Ecreative, Epractical, and EANALY variables of STAT have mainly been defined this factor with respective high loadings of 0.849, 0.815, 0.787, and 0.758. This factor explains 8.12 % of total variance. All the loadings on this factor are positively loaded. No variable related to multiple choice (objective type) test of successful intelligence and child rearing practices are showing significant loading on this factor. All the loaded variables on this factor are relates to only descriptive type of successful intelligence because it is related to the essay type of test of successful intelligence. The obtained significant loadings on this factor of the variables essay analytical, essay practical, and essay creative and essay overall suggest that all descriptive type of successful intelligence (analytical, practical, and creative) extremely well relate with each other.

Factor III

VARIABLES

LOADINGS

Ascendancy of the mother (A19)

0.671

Dependency of mother (A23)

0.584

Intrusiveness (A20)

0.546

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Fear of harming the body (A6)

0.49

Marital conflict (A7)

0.477

Inconsiderateness of the husband (A17)

0.437

Irritability (A9)

0.405

Encouraging verbalization (A1)

- 0.39

Rejection of homemaking role (A13)

0.384

This factor has been defined mainly by the variables A19, A23, A20, A6, A7, A17, A9, A1, and A13 of PARI which is related to child rearing practices. By looking to the structure, this factor only loads on child rearing practices. There is no significant loading of the components of successful intelligence.. It has accounted for 8.66 % of total variance. Except one, all the loadings on this factor are positive. Loadings on this factor suggest it to be a factor of child rearing practices. The obtained significant loadings 0.671, 0.584, 0.546, 0.49, 0.477, 0.437, 0.405, - 0.39, 0.384 of the variables A19, A23, A20, A6, A7, A17, A9, A1, and A13 respectively suggest that child rearing practices as ascendancy of the mother, dependency of mother, intrusiveness, fear of harming the body, marital conflict, inconsiderateness of the husband, irritability, opposite to encouraging verbalization, rejection of homemaking role. If we evaluate loadings on this factor with reference to Zuckerman & Oltean (1959) types of child rearing practices, out of nine one loading (A1) is related to democratic attitude, other two loadings (A7 & A13) are related to hostility rejection and remaining six (A6, A9, A17, A19, A20, A23) are related to authoritarian control child rearing practices. Factor structure related to authoritarian control child rearing practices is also supported by Baumrind, 1971; Baumrind and Black, 1967.

Factor IV VARIABLES

LOADINGS

Strictness (A8)

0.717

Exclusion of outside influences (A10)

0.576

Approval of activity (A15)

0.512

Encouraging verbalization (A1)

- 0.492

Equalitarianism (A14)

- 0.448

Breaking the will (A4)

0.419

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Avoidance of communication (A16)

0.388

Suppression of aggression (A12)

0.369

Intrusiveness (A20)

0.306

This factor loads on child rearing practices. This factor explains 8.58% of total variance. This factor positively loads on the variables A8, A10, A15, A4, A16, A12, A20 and negatively loads on variables A1, A14. The structure of this factor only relates to child rearing practices because no dimension of successful intelligence is showing significant loadings on this factor. The obtained significant loadings 0.717, 0.576, 0.512, - 0.492, - 0.448, 0.419, 0.388, 0.369, 0.306 on this factor of child rearing practices likewise suggest that the child rearing practices related to strictness, exclusion of outside influences, approval of activity, opposite to encouraging verbalization and opposite to equalitarianism, breaking the will, avoidance of communication, suppression of aggression, and intrusiveness. By looking at the factorial structure this factor is apparently a factor of child rearing practices. Total loadings on this factor are nine out of which four loadings (A1, A8, A14,) are related to democratic attitude and remaining five loadings (A4, A10, A12, A15, A16, A20) are related to authoritarian control child rearing practices as reported by Zuckerman & Oltean (1959).

Factor V

VARIABLES

LOADINGS

Acceleration of development (A22)

0.706

Seclusion of mother (A3)

0.457

Rejection of homemaking role (A13)

0.406

Fostering dependency(A2)

0.391

Avoidance of communication (A16)

0.384

Comradeship and sharing (A21)

-0.336

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This factor loads on the variables A22, A3, A13, A2, A16, and A21 of PARI. The structure of factor only relates to child rearing practices. This factor highly loads on the variable of acceleration of development. No loading of the dimensions of successful intelligence are significant on this factor. This factor explains 4.78 % of total variance. Out of six five loadings are positive and only one loading is negative. The obtained significant loadings 0.706, 0.457, 0.406, 0.391, 0.384, - 0.336 on this factor of the variables A22, A3, A13, A2, A16, and A21 respectively suggest that child rearing practices related to acceleration of development, seclusion of the mother, rejection of homemaking role, fostering dependency, avoidance of communication, opposite to comradeship and sharing. So nature of markers suggests this factor related to child rearing practices. Total loadings on this factor are six out of which loadings (A21 & A22) are related to democratic attitude, another one loading (A13) is related to hostility rejection and remaining three (A2, A3, & A16) are related to authoritarian control. This factor has resemblance with Zuckerman & Oltean (1959).

Factor VI

VARIABLES

LOADINGS

Martyrdom (A5)

0.563

Suppression of aggression (A12)

0.479

Fostering dependency (A2)

0.341

By looking at the structure of this factor, it only relates to child rearing practices. So this factor can also be termed as factor related to child rearing practices. This factor explains 3.61% of total variance. All the loadings on this factor are positive. There is no significant loading of STAT variable on this factor. The significant loadings 0.563, 0.479, 0.341 on this factor of the variables A5, A12, A2 correspondingly suggest that child rearing practices related to martyrdom, suppression of aggression and fostering dependency. Total loadings on this factor are three out of which one loading (A12) is related to democratic and remaining two (A2 & A5) are related to authoritarian child rearing practices. 49 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Factor VII

VARIABLES

LOADINGS

Deification (A11)

0.637

Marital conflict (A7)

0.408

Comradeship and sharing (A21)

- 0.394

Variables A11, A7, A21 have defined this factor. This factor is also showing the loadings on the child rearing practices. This factor explains 3.73 % of total variance. Except one all the loadings on this factor are positive. There is no significant loading on the components of successful intelligence. The significant loadings 0.637, 0.408, - 0.394 on this factor of the variables A11, A7, A21 correspondingly suggest that the child rearing practices related to deification, marital conflict, and opposite to comradeship and sharing. Total loadings on this factor are three out of which one loading (A21) is related to democratic and one is related to hostile (A7) remaining one (A11) is related to authoritarian child rearing attitude. As suggested by the results of the present study, maternal attitudes emerge as significant correlates of of successful intelligence (analytical creative and practical). Maternal democratic and authoritarian attitude are showing relation with analytical, practical, verbal, and figural intelligence. The development of creative intelligence is related to authoritarian child rearing attitude. It is substantiated by factor analysis that authoritarian child rearing attitude is negatively related with the development of practical, verbal, figural intelligence. Research also suggests that more authoritarian style of parenting result difficulties in emotional and cognitive development (Morawska & Sanders, 2008). The present results lend no support with the available review that democratic child rearing practices will have no relation in the development of different components of successful intelligence as these results significantly emerge negatively with some of the components (analytical, practical, verbal, and figural) of successful intelligence in the present sample. Results of the present study also did not support that authoritarian child rearing practices will be negatively related with the development of components of successful intelligence and it reported lack of support regarding that there is no relationship between hostile child rearing practices with the components of successful intelligence. 50 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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REFERENCES Baumrind, D. (1971). Current Patterns Of Parental Authority. Developmental Psychology. Monograph, 4 (1), 1-103. Baumrind, D. & Black, A. E. (1967). Socialization Practices Associated With Dimensions Of Competence In Preschool Boys And Girls. Child Development, 38(2), 291-327. Kaiser, H. F. (1958). The Varimax Criterion For Analytical Rotation In Factor Analysis. Psychometrika, 23, 187-200. Necka, E., & Orzechowski, J. (2005). Higher – Order Cognition And Intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg & J.E. Pretz (Eds.), Cognition And Intelligence (Pp.122-141). New York: Cambridge University Press. Mendecka, G. (1992). Attitudes Of Parents And Development Of Creativity. European Journal Of High Ability, 3(2), 148-154. Mendecka G. (1995). Characteristics Of Fathers And Development Of Creativity In Their Sons. High Ability Studies, 6(1), 91-99. Michel, M., & Dudek, S. Z. (1991). Mother-Child Relationship And Creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 4(3), 281-286. Morawska, A. & Sanders, M. R. (2008). Parenting Gifted And Talented Children: What Are The Key Child Behavior And Parenting Issues? Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Psychiatry, 42(9), 819-827. Ollendick, D., Laberteaux, P., & Horne, A. (1978). Relationships Among Maternal Attitudes, Perceived Family Environments, Preschooler’s Behavior. Perceptual And Motor Skills, 46, 1092-1094. Raw, J. S., & Marjoribamks, K. (1991). Family And School Correlates Of Adolescent’s Creativity, Morality And Self Concept. Educational Studies, 183-190. Schmidt, K. M., Bowles, R. P., Kline, T. L., & Deboeck, P. (2002). Psychometric Scaling Progress Report: The Rainbow Project Data -Revised. Technical Report Presented To The College Board. Sexena, U. (1976). Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI). Agra Psychological Research Cell, Agra.

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Sternberg, R.J. (1984). Toward A Triarchic Theory Of Human Intelligence. Behavioral And Brain Sciences, 7, 269-287. Sternberg, R.J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory Of Human Intelligence. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. Sternberg, R.J. (1993). The Sternberg Triarchic Ability Test. Unpublished Test. On The Basis Of Personal Communication. Sternberg, R.J. (1997). Successful Intelligence. New York: Plum. Sternberg, R.J. (1998). Abilities Are Forms Of Developing Expertise. Educational Researcher, 27, 11 -20. Sternberg, R.J. (1999). The Theory Of Successful Intelligence. Review Of General Psychology, 3, 292 -316. Sternberg, R.J. (2003). WICS: A Theory Of Wisdom, Intelligence, And Creativity, Synthesized. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. Sternberg, R. J., & Clinkenbeard, P. R. (1995). A Triarchic Model Applied To Identifying, Teaching, And Assessing Gifted Children. Roeper Review, 17(4), 255−260. Sternberg, R.J., & The Rainbow Project Collaborators (2006). The Rainbow Project: Enhancing The SAT Through Assessments Of Analytical, Practical, And Creative Skills. Intelligence, 34, 321-350. Sternberg, R.J., Wagner, R.K., Williams, W.M., & Horvath, J.A. (1995). Testing Common Sense. American Psychologist, 50(11), 912-927. Sternberg, R. J., Ferrari, M., Clinkenbeard, P. R., & Grigorenko, E. L. (1996). Identification, Instruction, And Assessment Of Gifted Children: A Construct Validation Of A Triarchic Model. Gifted Child Quarterly, 40, 129−137. Zuckerman, M., & Oltman, M. (1959). Some Relationships Between Maternal Attitude Factors And Authoritarianism, Personality, Needs, Psychopathology And SelfAcceptance. Child Development, 30, 27-36.

***

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DEVELOPING GLOBAL LEADERSHIP: TRAINING AS THE KEY CATALYST    PUROHIT, HARSH 1 AND  SIDDIQUI, SHABNAM 2  1

 Dean, FMS‐WISDOM, State Bank of India School of Commerce and Banking,   Banasthali Vidyapith, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith – 304022, Rajasthan, India  Tel. + 91 1438 228956 (O) Fax +91 1438 228365,  Cell + 91 98878 86320,   Email: [email protected]  2

 Corresponding Author : Assistant Professor (HR), FMS ‐ WISDOM,  

Banasthali  Vidyapith, P.O.  Banasthali Vidyapith – 304022, Rajasthan, India,   Cell + 91 9636902125, Email: [email protected][email protected]    “As we look ahead into the next century, leaders will be those who empower others”.   Bill Gates  “A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way and shows the way”.       John C. Maxwell    ABSTRACT  Ever  since  the  dawn  of  human  civilization,  no  society,  right  from  the  primitive  period  of  hunter‐gatherer  to  the  post‐industrial  boom  to  the  modern  technological  zoom,  has  ever  been and has ever progressed without its leaders thinking, directing and shaping the future  of their fellow human beings. Leadership is probably the most valuable multi‐faceted quality  encompassing  in  itself  the  leader’s  dream,  vision,  imagination,  courage,  conviction,  foresight, grit and determination to excel all others operating in the field and have a clear  edge  in  that  particular  field  of  activity.  Leadership  is  also  a  multi‐dimensional  attribute  ‐  geographically,  socially,  culturally,  economically,  morally,  ethically,  nationally  and  internationally.  The old adage that leaders are born and not made is slowly and gradually  giving  place  to  wiser  saying  that  in  the  present  era  of  galloping    globalization,  internationalization  and  privatization,  leaders  have  to  be  made  and  produced  through  ‘invincible love of learning,’ extensive and intensive training and multi‐skilling and the tests  and trials of global exposure and experience. It is historically well established that training  has  played  a  very  vital  role  in  growth  and  development  of  human  race  in  all  areas,  at  all  times and in all climes. Numerous instances from the World history prove that the cultivated,  53 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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trained  and  groomed  leaders  have  carved  out  a  place  of  distinction  par  excellence  for  themselves.  Keywords : Global leader, Leadership and Training.    INTRODUCTION  Ever  since  the  dawn  of  human  civilization,  in  practically  almost  all  spheres  of  human  activities  all  over  the  globe,  leadership  has  always  played  a  dominant  role  in  shaping  the  destiny of mankind. The concept of leadership has been continuously evolving during all the  centuries. In today’s fast changing dynamic world, it is in full bloom.  The pre‐eminence of  successful  business  leadership  is  fully  highlighted  by  the  saying:  ‘A  good  leader  can  make  success  of  a  weak  business  plan,  while  a  poor  leader  can  ruin  even  the  best  of  plans’.  Developing effective leadership by using a steady talent management program at all levels  across  the  organization  can  give  massive  business  value.  To  identify,  attract,  pick‐up,  develop  and  retain  potential  leadership  talent,  the  corporate  world  needs  effective  leadership  development  programs  focused  on  hiring,  training,  developing,  retaining,  ensuring,  attractive  career‐advancements  and  succession  planning.  Corporations  all  the  world  over  are  completely  seized  by  new  zeal  and  enthusiasm  for  innovation  and  faster  growth after a sobering phase of retrenchments and downsizings. Fast‐moving technological  advancement with immense transformational impact, rapid globalization and liberalization,  changing  business  models,  mergers  and  acquisitions  all  hold  out  amazing  scope  and  opportunities.  But,  in  order  to  fully  capitalize  on  these  excellent  opportunities,  corporate  leaders have to look for new kinds of leadership talent. Forward‐looking organizations have  recognized in full measure the urgent need for a continuous and more intensified, focus on  talent development and retention in order to ensure future organizational sustainability and  success,  and  are,  therefore,  continuously  investing  in  all  kinds  of  talent  development  initiatives.  The present paper surveys notable trends in the field of leadership growth development in  keeping with the current corporate culture of globalized world.    LITERATURE REVIEW : JOURNEY FROM DOMESTIC LEADERSHIP TO GLOBAL LEADERSHIP  The  growing  realization  that  leadership  development  involves  much  more  than  just  developing  individual  leaders.  This  has  led  to  a  greater  focus  on  the  context  in  which  54 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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leadership  is  developed,    best  using  leadership  competencies,  and  the  work‐  life  balance  issues.  Future  trends  include  exciting  potential  advances  in  globalization,  technology  expansion,  time  and  speed  management,  return  on  investment,  and  the    new    modes  of  thinking  about  the  kind  of  leadership  and  its  development.  While  training  is  an  essential  constituent of leadership development, developmental experience and exposure are likely  to  have  the  maximum  impact  when  they  can  be  linked  to  or  surrounded  in  a  person’s  continuing  work  assignment.  Activities  like  coaching,  counseling,  teaching,  learning,  mentoring, action‐learning  and  360‐degree  feedback  are,  in  themselves,  definitely  the  key  components  of  leadership  development  initiatives.  Challenging  job  assignments  provide  enormous developmental opportunities in today’s fast changing world of business.     Training  is  very  essential  for  leadership  development.  Conger  (1992)  is  of  the  view  that  training plays a vital role in leadership development. Bennis and Nanus (1997) also believe  in the power of training. They state that “major capacities and competencies of leadership  can be learned. Training can change them to become successful leader. As the speed of life  in  societies  increases,  the  rate  of  change  in  the  organizations  increases  as  well.  So  development of meaningful training programs is becoming more and more demanding for  organizations.  Many  researchers  used  practices  like  360‐degree  feedback,  networking,  action learning, specific job assignments, corporate case studies, computer simulations and  experiential  learning  for  leader  and  leadership  development.  Hernez‐Broone  &  Hughes  (2004) conclude that mentoring, job assignment, 360‐degree feedback, executive coaching,  and  action  learning  are  the  most  prevalent  leadership  development  practices  in  the  21st  century. Naquin (2006) also asserted that leadership development training programs should  include a variety of methods, such  as lectures, case study analysis, role playing and group  discussion.  Grove  (2007)  too  viewed  360  degree  feedback,  executive  coaching  and  mentoring,  net  working,  job  assignments  and  action  learning  as  important  leadership  development techniques.    With the emergence of globalization and issues related thereto, the term ‘global leadership’  has  lately  come  into  focus.  The  emergence  of  global  leadership  is  the  off‐shoot  of  the  management challenges of globalization era, which need to develop executives to manage  and  lead  from  a  global  perspective  (Mendenhall  et  al.  2003).  Leadership  began  to  be  55 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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considered as more complex and challenging for driving organizations towards excellence.  Scholars came up with the identical findings that developing global leadership and business  competence  in  leaders  was  a  high  priority  area  (Gregersen  et  al.  1998,  Suutari  2002,  Mendenhall  et  al.  2003).  Osland  et  al.  (2006)  identified  challenges  emanating  from  global  contexts such as geographic reach in terms of business operations, cultural reach in terms of  people and intellectual reach in terms of development of global mindsets. Lane et al. (2004)  argued  that,  as  a  term,  globalization  attempts  to  describe  a  difficulty  of  four  different  kinds—multiplicity, interdependence, ambiguity and cross‐cultural differences. The field of  global  leadership  development  has  started  expanding  and  scholars  are  continuously  undertaking research, reviews and surveys to contribute to this field in its nascent stage.    Some  scholars  working  in  the  area  of  global  leadership  have  also  agreed  that  most  competencies associated with leadership from the domestic and the traditional arenas were  essential  to guide  globally.  The  global  context  places  high  demands  on  the  deployment  of  these competencies that for all intents and purposes render the phenomenon very different  (Mendenhall 2008) and the study of global leadership becomes quite necessary. Osland and  Bird (2006) distinguish between global and domestic leaderships in terms of issues related  to connectedness, boundary‐spanning, complexity, ethical challenges, handling of tensions  and  paradoxes,  pattern  recognition,  and  building  learning  environments,  teams  and  community,  and  massive  change  efforts  across  diverse  cultures.  Living  and  working  constantly in a global context, and experiencing the ongoing intensity of the dimensions of  complexity  (Lane  et  al.  2004)  can  trigger  a  transformational  experience  within  managers  (Osland  1995).  These  powerful  transformational  or  crucible  experiences  (Osland  1995,  Bennis  and  Thomas  2002)  have  been  found  to  produce  new  mental  models  in  the  individual—new worldviews, mindsets, perceptual acumen, and perspectives that simply do  not exist in the people who have not gone through such a vast series of experiences in the  global context.    Mendenhall et al. (2008) define global leaders as individuals who effect significant positive  changes in organizations by building communities through development of mutual trust and  the arrangement of organizational structures and processes in a context involving multiple  cross‐boundary  stakeholders,  multiple  external  sources,  and  multiple  cultures  under  56 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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conditions  of  temporal,  geographical  and  cultural  diversity.  Weeks  (1992)  described  successful  international  manager  as  someone  with  the  knowledge  of  the  business,  high  degree  of  tolerance  and  flexibility,  and  the  ability  to  work  with  people.  Mintzberg  (1973),  listed  three  prime  managerial  roles—informational  (monitor,  spokesperson),  interpersonal  (leader,  liaison),  and  action  (decision  maker,  innovator,  negotiator).  According  to  Osland  (2008),  emotional  stability,  decision‐making  and  negotiating  skills,  and  the  ability  to  learn  played a more significant role with global leaders, than domestic leaders. However, in the  present  context  when  the  entire  business  environment  itself  is  globalize,  even  domestic  leaders  must  have  these  competencies  to  be  successful  and  meet  challenges  from  global  organizations. McBer (1995) in a research work undertaken for interviewing 55 CEOs from  various  industries  in  15  countries  listed  the  factors  that  make  both  global  and  domestic  leaders  effective:  sharpening  the  focus,  building  commitment,  and  driving  for  success.  Barham (1994, cited in Mendenhall 2008) after interviewing 60 successful senior executives  from  nine  global  firms,  listed  three  core  competencies:  cognitive  complexity,  emotional  energy  and  psychological  maturity.  Wills  and  Barham  (1994)  identified  three  values  as  central features of the psychological maturity—the curiosity to learn, living in the “here and  now”,  and  personal  morality.  In  one  of  the  most  exciting  contributions  from  the  largest  comparative  leadership  study,  the  ‘Project  GLOBE’  by  House  et  al.  (2004,  cited  by  Osland,  2008a), a 170‐member multinational research team obtained data on indigenous leadership  from 17,000 managers in 62 countries belonging to telecommunications, food and banking  industries  in  their  own  countries.  The  cultural  framework  was  developed  comprising  nine  dimensions: performance orientation, assertiveness, future orientation, human orientation,  institutional collectivism, in‐group collectivism, gender egalitarianism, power distance, and  uncertainty avoidance (Javidan and House 2001). The kind of leadership required to make  domestic  organizations  as  high  performing  and  also  become  global,  is  also  an  important  area for study of leadership issues.    Global  leaders  also  need  to  recognize  the  factors  that  shape  international  interactions  in  their businesses, by undertaking a structured examination of cross‐country differences and  their  consequential  effects.  A  major  review  of  the  literature  summarizes  it  in  three  core  competencies 

(self‐awareness, 

engagement 

in 

personal 

transformation, 

and 

inquisitiveness),  seven  mental  characteristics  (optimism,  self‐regulation,  social‐judgment  57 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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skills,  empathy,  motivation  to  work  in  an  international  environment,  cognitive  skills,  and  acceptance of complexity and its contradictions), and three behavioral competencies (social  skills, networking skills, and knowledge).    Typical  competency  lists  also  tend  to  focus  on  cross‐cultural  differences,  missing  other  components  critical  to  global  leadership.  Economic  differences  (such  as  the  challenges  of  fast versus slow‐growth markets) and administrative and political differences (including the  extent  of  state  intervention)  are  amongst  other  factors  that  can  cause  leaders  to  stumble  and falter in unfamiliar contexts.    Clearly  the  implications  for  global‐leadership  development  are  threefold.  First,  shifting  to  the  rooted‐cosmopolitan  ideal  is  critical  to  attracting  and  developing  executives  from  emerging markets. Second, escalating competition for talent in growth markets implies that  it is even more urgent for multinationals to diversify their leadership teams quickly. Third,  incorporating more local talent will require a greater emphasis on developing people. Tight  talent markets and overstretched education systems imply that firms hire some people who  are not up to the mark they would prefer to maintain.    Eric Olson in ‘Creating Global Leaders’ has advocated that in today’s world of business, there  is greater need for more number of leaders who can think and operate globally. Successful  global  leaders  must  be  able  to  lead  with  their  heads  (to  manage  complexity),  with  their  hearts (to manage diversity) and with their guts (to manage uncertainty).     Professor  Subhash  Sharma  in  his  classic  ‘New  Mantras  in  Corporate  Corridors‐‐‐From  Ancient  Roots  to  Global  Routes’  has  discussed  several  models  of  leadership  developed  by  Indian  thinkers  and  scholars  and  succinctly  summarized  their  salient  features  in  a  tabular  form which is placed below:    Model  Vijigshu 

Author  Kautilaya   (Ancient times) 

Key concept  Desirous of victory  (Vijaya + Ikshuk) 

58 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Nurturant Task  Leadership 

Sinha (1980) 

Ideal leader is both nurturing and task‐ oriented  Eight leadership values are Openness, 

OCTAPACE Model 

Pareek (1981) 

Collaboration, Trust, Authenticity, Pro‐activity,  Autonomy, Confrontation & Experimentation 

Singh &  Karta Model 

Bhandarkar  (1990) 

head of the joint family  Enlightened leader harmonizes vision mission & 

Four Steps  Enlightened 

Leadership style based on the metaphor of Karta‐ 

Shama (1995) 

Leadership Model 

action through HOPE‐ Higher Order Purpose of  Existence and VEDA  (Vision, Enlightenment,  Devotion & Action)  Leader combines the qualities of yin – trinity viz, 

Yin – Trinity Model 

Sharma (1996) 

Laxmi, Saraswati and Durga in his/her leadership  style 

Mother Leadership 

Workship Model 

Banerjee 

Self‐realized leader with a long term perspective 

(1998) 

that helps sustainability and promotes values 

Chatterjee 

Inner pathos to leadership (i) Discipline; (ii) 

(1998) 

Righteousness: (iii) Sacrifice, (iv) Transcendence 

Wisdom Model of 

Chakraborty 

Leadership 

(1999) 

Contribution Model 

Anup Singh 

of Leadership 

(2000) 

Responsible  Leadership  Corporate Rishi  (Rishi as Re‐see) 

Bhatta (2000) 

Organic) Model 

Every person is known by his/her contribution 

Leaders is in 24 hours duty and not merely 9 to 5  Corporate Rishi is Matured and Self Responsible 

Sharma (2000) 

Individual. He/she has ability to re‐see things in  new perspectives 

CEO (Creative,  Enlightened, 

Rajrishi framework as a basis of leadership 

Sharma (2005) 

CEO leader is Creative, Enlightened and Organic in  his/her relationship 

59 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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GAINS OF LEADERSHIP TRAINING ‐ SURVEY  Defining,  re‐defining  developing,  re‐developing,    refining  and  re‐refining  leadership  traits  are  a  continuous  lifelong  quest,  and  there  being  many  different  levels  of  leadership  to  explore  and  excel.  Great  leaders  display  a  wide  variety  of  traits,  abilities,  capabilities  and  potentials. There are many things that most great leaders share in common, such as :  • Fully knowing one’s strengths, weaknesses, potentials and challenges  • Understanding the others’ strengths and challenges   • The ability to guide others to consistent, measurable and impressive results  • The capacity to handle a  stressful situations, i.e., sound emotional stability  • Unimpeachable honesty, integrity, objectivity, and the ability to embrace change  •  The  requisite  amount  of    Energy  for  Synergy  to  promote  the  vision,  mission  and  core  values of their organization     As firms reach across borders, global‐leadership capacity is surfacing more and more often  as  a  compulsory  constraint.  According  to  a  survey  of  senior  executives,  76%  believe  their  organizations  need  to  develop  global‐leadership  capabilities,  but  only  7%  think    they  are  currently doing so very effectively. And some 30%  of US companies admit that they have  failed  to  exploit  fully  their  international  business  opportunities  because  of  insufficient  internationally competent personnel.    Companies now think more and more about global leadership development and have higher  expectations from such programs. These trends were identified by a new survey of nearly  1,200  senior  business  and  human  resource  executives  from  more  than  40  countries  by  American Management Association.    “Organizations worldwide — public, private and government — are increasingly focused on  bringing  effective  global  leadership  development  to  their  workforce,  and  there’s  now  a  shrinking tolerance for lack of results,” said Sandi Edwards, Senior Vice President for AMA  Enterprise, a specialized division of American Management Association that offers advisory  services  and  tailored  training  programs  to  organizations.  “Companies  want  to  ensure  that  employees  master  the  global  skills  and  competencies  required  to  work  optimally  with  customers, suppliers, colleagues, and distributors from a wide variety of cultures anywhere  in  the  world.”  Tim  Anderson,  Director  of  Human  Resources  for  ServiceMaster,  states  that  the identification of leaders really requires one to “look at the company, its philosophy and  objectives. Then, you really need to examine what fits the nature of your company.”    The  survey conducted in 2013  presented a number of findings, out of which three  given  below stand out in defining a new outlook for global leadership development :  60 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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• More  and more organizations define leaders by their influence, not their rank or position.  More  than  half  (53%)  consider  individuals  to  be  leaders  not  according  to  job‐level  but  by  their influence and performance. Nearly 4 in 10, indicated that their definition of leader is  “anyone  whose  role  allows  them  to  influence  a  group,  regardless  of  direct  reporting  relationships.” According to another 14%, a leader is “anyone, whether he manages others  or not, but is a top‐performer in his specific role.”   •  Strategic  workforce  planning  plays  a  pivotal  role  in  shaping  the  contents  of  global  leadership  programs.  Long‐term  strategies  and  values  continue  to  drive  global  leadership  development,  but  there  is  greater  emphasis  on  strategic  workforce  planning  to  identify  competency gaps and shape the contents of development programs.  •  While  mastery  of  critical  competencies  relating  to  technology  and  innovation  is  more  critical  than  ever,  these  are  none‐the  less  missing  from  many  global  leadership  programs.  Organizations  are  aware  of  their  neglect  in  key  aspects  of  development.  The  top  four  competences widely missing from the global leadership programs, yet considered important  are  :  increased  comfort  with  virtual  technology,  social  network  technology,  creativity  and  building a culture of innovation. These are also among the top six competencies that have  the greatest need for mastery.  Twenty  ‐  six  competencies  were  examined  in  the  study,  including  people/communication  skills, business skills and global skills. According to Edwards, “Managing change and critical  thinking/problem‐solving  are  still  the  top  two  competencies  for  global  leadership,  just  as  they  were  in  2012  and  2011.  There  were  others,  however,  that  joined  the  overall  top  competencies: creating a culture of engagement, business acumen, embracing diversity and  political  savvy.  Competencies  that  fell  from  the  top  10  are  the  ability  to  build/influence  coalitions, leading cross‐cultural teams, and creativity.”    Some other findings :  •  More  organizations,  than  previously,  are  addressing  global  leadership  development.  In  past  survey  years,  31  %  of  the  respondents  indicated  their  firms  had  some  form  of  such  programming. That percentage grew to 39 % in this year’s findings.  • More than half of organizations (52 %) standardize their program contents for consistency  but adjust it at the local level to reflect cultural or geographic nuances.  •  Organizations  have  tempered  their  self‐assessments  of  program  effectiveness  from  previous years. This year the proportion rating their programs as “effective” dropped to 40  %, down from 51 % in 2012, 47 % in 2011 and 42 % in 2010.    “Without outstanding communication and collaboration skills and a keen understanding of a  wide  variety  of  cross‐functional  areas,”  Edwards  cautioned,  “global  leaders  will  find  it 

61 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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increasingly  difficult  to  forge  the  global  partnerships  needed  to  execute  their  corporate  strategies.”    According  to  a  2013  survey  by  Impact  Instruction  Group,  a  corporate  training  and  development  firm  technology  plays  an  important  role  in  leadership  development:  86  percent  of  companies  report  a  significant  investment  in  learning  technology  such  as  webinars, videos, mobile applications and simulations in soft skill development.    Technology is also making up a bigger piece of the learning pie. According to a report from  the American Society for Training & Development technology‐based methods accounted for  37  %  of  formal  learning  hours  in  2012.  That’s  a  nearly  21  %  increase  from  2000,  when  technology‐based learning methods accounted for only 16 % of formal learning hours. Still,  many industry experts question whether technology is the most effective means for soft skill  development — skills that learning leaders say are difficult to master even in a face‐to‐face  environment.    BORN LEADERS VS GROOMED LEADERS — SKILLS ACQUISITION  A  very  question  ‘whether  leaders  are  born  or  made’  has  been  hotly  debated  for  decades,  evoking  very  strong  opinions.  Some  people  think  leaders  are  born  –  naturally  intelligent,  strategic, visionary and charismatic, able to articulate a plan and rally their teams around it.  Others believe that leaders are groomed and made – needing ongoing experience, training,  development  and  coaching/mentoring.  Some  say  that  leaders  are  both  born  and  made  –  naturally  intelligent  and  extroverted,  enhanced  with  education,  training,  coaching  and  experience.    Center  for  Creative  Leadership,  a  research  firm,  surveyed  top  leaders  globally  and  found  that  the  majority  (52.4%)  believed  leaders  were  made,  affirming  that  leadership  is  more  than  just  “genetics.”  A  minority  (19.1%)  believed  that  leaders  were  simply  born.  The  remaining  28.5%  believed  it  to  be  a  combination  of  these  factors  –  that  leader  may  have  some  intrinsic  leadership  skills  (outgoing,  intelligent  and  confident)  but  have  also  worked  hard to gain valuable experience, perspective and knowledge to maximize their successes.    Successful CEOs start with a set of leadership traits, associated with strong leaders, such as  ambition,  drive,  emotional  stability,  emotional  intelligence,  and  extraverted  personalities  that  can  rally  support  and  action.  However,    by  just  possessing  these  traits  doesn’t  mean  you’ll  be  a  great  leader.  Leaders  must  also  learn  from  experience.  To  prepare  for  the  requirements of their challenging roles, they should develop the prerequisite competencies 

62 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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–  shaping  strategy,  business  acumen,  seasoned  judgment,  powerful  communication,  operational excellence, and the ability to inspire others – which is learnt by doing.     The  Center  for  Creative  Leadership  researched  into  proven  methods  that  enable  organizations to develop their leaders, which include, from most to least effective :  •  Moved into new and challenging roles,  •  Given temporary assignments,  •  Implemented projects and taskforces,  •  Received 360 feedback and coaching,  •  Participated in classroom training.  The  organizations  should  allocate  sufficient  time  and  resources  towards  hiring  and  developing leadership talent by ensuring:  •  Carving strategic connections,  •  Adoption of advanced processes,  •  CEO’s personal time involvement,  •  Culture of  sustained continuous development,  •  Leadership philosophy,  •  Leadership structure,  •  Leadership’s awards, incentives and recognition,  •  Creator/Mentor‐like accountability,  •  Undiluted commitment.    INTRAPERSONAL COMPETENCIES   There are three types of intra‐personal competencies relating to leader development: self‐ awareness (emotional awareness, self‐confidence, and accurate self‐image), self‐regulation  (self‐control, trustworthiness, adaptability and personal responsibility), and self‐motivation  (commitment, initiative, and optimism) (Day, 2000).    The ability to reach out to people in a way that transcends the intellectual and rational is the  mark of a great leader. They all have it. They inspire us. It’s as simple as that. And when we  are inspired we tap into our best selves and deliver amazing results.  Briefly put, these skills can be listed as under :  • Emotional intelligence,  • Continuous learning,  • Curiosity and an insatiable desire to always do better,  • Genuine freedom to act,  • Kindness, regard and respect,  •

Leadership is both an art and a science. 

63 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Gorjestani identifies and enumerate these key competencies as humility, empathy, curiosity,  listening,  hearing,  and  patience.  By  cultivating  such  competencies  in  teams  and  across  organizations,  leadership  is  an  enabling  facilitator  allowing  the  valuable  talents  to  emerge  and participate  in  collective organizational  efforts aimed at building a super organization  rather than as dictating to others or compelling imitation of one's own behavior.  Leadership is about crystal clear  vision,  charting out a course where no path is visible, it is  about  taking  decisions  not  to  please  everyone  but  to  make  sure  basics  objectives  are  achieved to the benefit of everyone.    IMPORTANCE OF GLOBAL MINDSET IN DEVELOPING GLOBAL LEADERS  The  environment  in  which  global  leaders  have  to  operate  remains  full  of  complexities,  diversities,  novelties,  varieties,  uncertainties  and  even  chaos.  Nevertheless,  global  leaders  face a common challenge: how to influence individuals, groups and systems unlike their own  to achieve their employer’s strategic goals and objectives.    A single critical catalyst for success in globalizing business lies with an organization’s pool of  highly competent global leaders who have the global knowledge of consumer demands for  products and services around the world, and who can positively influence others even from   diverse  cultural,  political  and  institutional  backgrounds  to  think,  decide,  analyze,  act  and  communicate like their leader. In other words, global leaders with “Global Mindsets” are the  key to sustainable competitive advantage in the global economy of the day.    Global  Mindset  is  defined  as  a  set  of  personal    attributes  and  qualities  that  help  a  global  leader  better  influence  those  who  are  different.  Global  Mindset  profile  comprises  three  capitals: Intellectual Capital, which refers to one’s global savvy, cosmopolitan outlook, and  cognitive complexity; Psychological Capital, which refers to one’s passion for diversity, quest  for  adventure,  and  self‐assurance;  and  Social  Capital,  which  refers  to  one’s  inter‐cultural  empathy, interpersonal impact, and diplomacy.    FUTURE LEADERSHIP TREND  Several trends will play a major role in our future understanding and practice of leadership  and  leadership  development.  These  represent,  in  different  ways,  the  critical  role  changing  contexts in leadership development.  1. Leadership competencies will still matter most,  2.  Globalization/internationalization  of  leadership  concepts,  constructs,  and  development  modes and methods,  3. The role of fast paced technological advancements,  4. Increasing emphasis on the integrity, honesty and character of leaders,  64 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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5. Pressure for return on investments,  6. New thinking about the nature of leadership and leadership development.  With  no  borders  or  boundaries  and  managing  virtually:  “We  need  to  get  people  to  think  outside the building. And we need people who know how to manage people they can’t see  face to face physically.”    COMPONENTS OF LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS   Talent  management  functions  will  play  a  major  part  in  any  comprehensive  leadership  development  program  and  can  be  well  supported  by  a  unified  talent  management  technology platform. These functions include   • Impeccable recruitment to source leadership talent pool,  •  Regularity  and  thoroughness  assessments  to  evaluate  leadership  capabilities,  both  internally and externally,  •    Excellence  in  performance  management,  to  monitor  and  make  course  corrections  in  developing leaders,  • Meticulous succession planning, to avoid  any future leadership gaps,  • Attractive career planning enabling employees to understand their leadership options and  set development goals,  • Continuous updation/upgradation and development to create a roadmap to fill skills gaps.    LEADERSHIP AT BANASTHALI VIDYAPITH ‐ AN EPITOME OF LEADERSHIP’S EXCELLENCE PAR  EXCELLENCE  Banasthali  Vidyapith  –  the  greatest  institution  of  its  kind  for  women’s  education  and  learning  not  only  in  the  country  but  also  probably  in  the  whole  world  is  a  solid  living  testimony  and  a  proof  of  the  Leaderships  Excellence  par  excellence,  right  from  its  Great  Founder down to the present generations of leaders in the hierarchy, for its core universal  values of humanism, kindness, spirituality, ethics, morality, honesty and character‐building,  backed  by  high  Indian  ethos,  so  essential  in  the  present  era  of  dominant  materialism  and  consumerism. We bow our heads in reverence before them.    CONCLUSION  We are living probably in the most challenging as also exciting times of the history of human  civilization.  Our  globe  is  shrinking  to  the  size  of  a  small  village,  galloping  technological  advancements,  neck‐breaking  super  fast  speed,  stiffest  ever  cut‐throat  competition  for  survival  and  sustenance,  monstrous  materialism  and  crazy  consumerism,  multi‐fanged  capitalism, almost total extinction of human, moral, ethical and social values, worst form of  environmental  degradation  and  Nature  in  its  most  ferocious  form  engulfing  entire  life  systems  on  earth  ‐‐‐  all  collectively  call  for  emergence  and  development  of  enlightened  65 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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global leaders not only in the trade, business and industry but also in each and every sphere  of men’s activity with special leadership traits. Acquisition of these requisite skills through  rigorous,  intensive  and  extensive  morality  based  training  is,  to  our  mind,  one  of  the  most  appropriate options in this direction.    REFERENCES  Bennis, W.  (1989). On Becoming A Leader. Wilmington, MA : Perseus Books Group.  Daft, R.  L. (2005). Management. 7. Mason. OH : South‐Western College.  Bandura, A. (2009). Toward A Psychology Of Human Agency. Perspectives On Psychological  Science.  [4]  F.  Amagoh,  Leadership  Development  And  Leadership  Effectiveness.  Management Decision.  Black,  J.  S.,  Morrison,  A.  J.,  &  Gregersen,  H.  B.  (1999b).  Global  Explorers:  The  Next  Generations Of Leaders. New York: Routledge.  Bennis,  W. B.  And  B. Nanus, (1997).  Leaders : The Strategies For Taking Charge. New York :  Harper And Row.  Conger, J. A.  (1992).  Learning To Lead. San Francisco, CA : Jossey‐Bass.  G. Hernez‐Broone And Hughes, R. L.  (2004).  Leadership Development: Past, Present, And  Future. Human Resource Planning.  K.  Groves,  (2007).    Integrating  Leadership  Development  And  Succession  Planning  Best  Practices. Journal Of Management Development.  E. Sharon And F. Holton, (2006). Leadership And Managerial Competency Models: A Simple  Process And Resulting Model. Advances In Developing Human Resources.  Ghemawat, Pankaj (2012). Companies Must Cultivate Leaders For Global Markets. Dispelling  Five Common Myths About Globalization Is A Good Place To Start.  Goldsmith, M., Greenberg, C., Robertson, A., & Hu‐Chan, M. (2003). Global Leadership: The  Next Generation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice‐Hall.  Gregersen,  H.  B.,  Morrison,  A.  J.,  &  Black,  J.  S.  (1998).  Developing  Leaders  For  The  Global  Frontier. Sloan Management Review, 40.  Jones, Jennifer (2013). Key Trends Found In Global Leadership Development.  Mehrabani,  S.  A.  And  Mohamad,  N.  A.  (2011).  The  Role  Of  ‘Training  Activities’  And  ‘Knowledge  Sharing’  In  The  Relationship  Between  Leadership  Development  And  Organizational  Effectiveness,  International  Conference  On  Sociality  And  Economics  Development, IPEDR Vol.10.  Mendenhall, M. (2001). New Perspectives On Expatriate Adjustment And Its Relationship To  Global  Leadership  Development.  In  M.  Mendenhall,  T.  Kuhlmann,  &  G.  Stahl  (Eds.)  Developing  Global Business Leaders: Policies, Processes, And Innovations. Westport, CT:  Quorum Books. 

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Mendenhall, M., Jensen, R., Gregersen, H., & Black, J. S. (2003). Seeing The Elephant: HRM   Challenges In The Age Of Globalization. Organizational Dynamics.  Mendenhall,  M.,  &  Osland.  J.  S.  (2002).  An  Overview  Of  The  Extant  Global  Leadership  Research.  Symposium  Presentation  At  The  Academy  Of  International  Business,  Puerto  Rico.  Dubois‐Maahs, Jessica (2013). Technology’s Role In Leadership Development.  R. Noe, Employee Training And Development. 2. New York : Mcgraw‐Hill Irwin, 2002.  Noe, R. A., Wilk, S. L., Mullen, E. J., & Wanek, J. E. (1997). Employee Development: Construct  Validation  Issues.  In  J.  K.  Ford  (Ed.),  Improving  Training  Effectiveness  In  Work  Organizations.  Noe,  R.  A.  (1986).  Trainees’  Attributes  And  Attitudes:  Neglected  Influences  On  Training  Effectiveness. Academy Of Management Review.  Naquin,  Sharon  S  And  Elwood  F  Holton  III.  2006.  Leadership  And  Managerial  Competency  Models:  A  Simple  Process  And  Resulting  Model.  Advances  In  Developing  Human  Resources.  Osland, J. S., & Bird, A. (2006). Global Leaders As Experts. In W. Mobley, & E. Weldon (Eds.)   Advances In Global Leadership.  Osland, J. S., Bird, A., Mendenhall, M. E., & Osland, A. (2006). Developing Global Leadership  Capabilities And Global Mindset: A Review. In G. K. Stahl, & I. Björkman (Eds.) Handbook  Of Research In International Human Resource Management.  Osland, J. S. (2008a). The Multidisciplinary Roots Of Global Leadership. In M. Mendenhall, J.  S.  Osland,  A.  Bird,  G.  Oddou,  &  M.  Maznevski  Global  Leadership:  Theory  And  Practice.  London: Routledge.   Osland, J. S. (2008b). An Overview Of The Global Leadership Literature. In M. Mendenhall, J.  S.  Osland,  A.  Bird,  G.  Oddou,  &  M.  Maznevski  Global  Leadership:  Theory  And  Practice.  London: Routledge.  Osland, J. S., Oddou, G., Bird, A., & Osland, A. (2008). Global Leadership In Context.  Sharma, Subhash (2007). New Mantras In Corporate Corridors‐From Ancient Roots To Global  Routes.  Suutari, V. (2002). Global Leadership Development: An Emerging Research Agenda. Career  Development International.  Websites:  www.google.com  www.wikepedia.com  www.shrm.org  www.hr‐guide.com              http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/leading_in_the_21st_century/developing_global_leaders   ***  67 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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THE EXTENT OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND WOMEN IN KERALA HASEENA, V. A. Post Graduate Department of Economics, M.E.S Asmabi College, P.Vemballur, Pin 680671, Kerala, India E mail [email protected]

Mobile + 91 94001 72854

ABSTRACT In the chequered history of mankind one finds that different and disparate cultures, however distant they may be in time and space have at least one thing in common and that is the contempt of women. However, the Gandhian era and the decades after independence have seen tremendous changes in the status and the position of the women in the Indian society. The constitution of India has laid down as a fundamental right- the equality of the sexes. But the change from a position of utter degradation of women in the nineteenth century to a position of equality in the middle of the twentieth century is not a simple case of the progress of men in the modern era. The position of women in the Indian society has been a very complicated one. In fact, it could not be an exaggeration to say that the recent changes in the status of women in India is not a sign of progress but it is really a recapturing of the position that they held in the early Vedic period. Yet, the status of women who constitute almost half of the Indian population is not that encouraging. Gender based violence – including rape, domestic violence, mutilation, murder and sexual abuse- is a profound health problem for women across the globe. Nonetheless, it is not considered as a public problem of serious concern. Keywords : Domestic Violence, Gender Discrimination and Women Empowerment.

INTRODUCTION Gender based violence is clearly based on unequal power relation between men and women. The status of women in India is not equal to the status of men in terms of access, participation and reward. It owes this situation to the patriarchal and feudalistic structure of the society. The issue of gender discrimination manifests itself as violence in the family, community and society. It takes the form of female foeticide, female infanticide, abuse of the girl child, social harassment, mental torture, physical violence and cruelty affecting the body and mind of the women. Violence occurring within the family, which is referred as Domestic violence, cuts 68 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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across lines of race, nationality, language, culture, economics, sexual orientation, physical ability and religion to affect people from all walks of life. It is the most pervasive form of gender violence.

Although men are victims of street violence, brawls, homicide and crime, violence directed at women is a distinctly different phenomenon. Men tend to be attacked and killed by strangers or causal acquaintances whereas women are most at risk at home from men whom they trust. Violence against them is often grounded in power imbalances between men and women and is caused and perpetuated by factors different than violence against men.

Domestic violence though means violence in the family refers to violence against women in particular, as almost always the victims are women. Domestic violence means physical or mental assault of women by their male partners. The term wife abuse is also often used to mean the same. Masculine behavior - aggression, risk taking, and the consumption of drugs and alcohol –is often believed to underlie male violence against women. Domestic violence is not only on the increase, but is also assuming subtler forms every day. Earlier victims of domestic violence did not lodge complaints, as they feared that such complaints might create a hostile home environment. Very often, women used to endure the violence towards them in silence for fear of repercussions. Violence is willful behavior that is criminal and punishable by law. To define domestic violence against women, two areas need to be taken into account – physical violence (violence on the body) and emotional/Psychological violence (Violence on the mind).

The various forms of physical violence are 1. Female foeticide and female infanticide. 2. Incest, connivance, and collusion of family members to selfish, sexual abuse, rape within marriage. 3. Physical torture like slapping punching, grabbing, murder. 4. Overwork, lack of rest, Neglect of health care

Psychological violence takes different forms like 1. Curbing freedom to associate with the natal family, neighbours friends etc. 2. Curtailment of self-expression. 69 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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3. Promiscuity of the husband, Accusing of unchaste behavior Alcoholic and irresponsible husband, Scapegoatism and victim blaming 4. Money related violence namely persuasion and coercion to get more money from the women’s parents, denial of freedom to spend money, refusal to spend money to run the household.

Physically abused women live under constant fear, threats and humiliation. She is a potential candidate for personality disorder and psychosomatic problems. Indian women feel the entire responsibility of preserving the family as her duty; hence she makes all adjustments unilaterally in her husband’s home. In spite of the extreme physical and psychological violence meted out on many women, they do not seek divorce, as they feel their trauma and that of their children is too great a price to be paid instead. Thus to a great extent she accepts domestic violence as part of her family life. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2) findings released at the end of the year 2000 points out this fact. Although no direct link has been established, the survey reveals the extent to which women lack autonomy, even as more than 50 percent justify, or accept violence within the home. Three out of every five women (56 percent) said that they believed wife beating was justified on at least one of six grounds – neglecting the house or children, going out without telling the husband, showing disrespect to the in-laws, not cooking food properly, if he suspects her of unfaithfulness and if she does not bring enough money or goods home. However, a brighter picture seems to be emerging. Women have broken their silence by coming out and complaining about violence and harassment. Though international covenants, human rights, constitutional and legal provisions to protect women already existed, most women were not aware of these. Even if they were aware, they lacked the resources in terms of money, skill, time, confidence, contacts and coverage to invoke these provisions. Thanks to legal literacy campaigns, social activists, social work institutions, government initiatives towards gender sensitization programme for all level of administration and the law enforcing machinery strengthening of existing legislation regarding violence against women, etc have made women more confident to register complaints against the atrocities meted out towards them by the family members.

Kerala, the proposed area of study has often been cited as a model and is considered to be unique in many aspects as compared to the rest of India. In spite of having a low per capita income and unemployment when compared to other Indian states, Kerala has achieved a 70 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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quality of life, which is much higher than all the other states in India as well as some industrialized countries. This unique phenomenon of socio-economic development has been widely acclaimed as the ‘Kerala Model of Development.’

Although, much has been proclaimed and written about the status of women especially related to educational advancement, health improvement, entrepreneurship, etc. the status of women as against the indicators reveal that women in Kerala are relatively disadvantaged as compared to men in the state. But, even with this increased rate of literacy and increased pace towards ultra-modernization, the state of women is no way better. Women’s welfare is the greatest need of the day. This development is not required just on humanitarian grounds or for the sake of attaining social justice to all sections of society, but the same is a must for the overall development of the society.

Domestic violence has attracted the attention of the general public and the judiciary in the district due to series of unpleasant incidents – the loss of life and threat to life in several parts of the districts. There were several cases of women who were ill treated, tortured and even murdered for not meeting the demands of the so called – head of the family.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE Gender based violence including rape, domestic violence, mutilation, murder, sexual abuseis increasing on an alarming rate across the globe. Often this represents a hidden obstacle to economic and social development. By sapping women’s energy, undermining their confidence and compromising their health, gender violence deprives society of women’s full participation. Violence against women can be identified in 3 areas a) violence within the family b) violence occurring in the community and c) violence perpetrated by the state. Violence within the family refers to violence occurring within the private sphere of the women’s life. This include marital rape female genital mutilation, dowry related violence, battering etc.

Violence occurring in the community includes sexual violence including lurid comments, staring, stalking and rape at he level of the community, sexual harassment at the workplaces, forced prostitution and trafficking of women.

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Violence perpetrated by the state included verbal or physical abuses in custody, sexual or physical torture and violence such as rape in situations like armed conflict or against vulnerable, marginalized refugees or internally displaced women.

As violence against women is increasing several theories are also on the board to understand the violence committed by individuals.

Ahuja (1998) and Sharma (1997) highlight a common approach in some of the theories that focus on individual aggressors. There are two kinds of explanations focusing on individuals. One includes psycho-pathological explanations that focus on personality characteristics of victims and offenders. These theories provide pathological explanation for violent behaviour focusing on brain structures chemical imbalances, dietary deficiencies, hormonal factors as well as evolutionary theories and genetic characteristics to explain violent behaviours. This model thus links mental illnesses and other intra\ individual phenomena such as alcoholism and drug use to violent behaviour. The socio- psychological model on the other hand argues that violent behaviour can be understood by careful examination of the external environmental factors that have an impact on the behaviour of individual leading to stressful situation or family inter-actional patterns.

Heise (1998) proposes a clearer and interrelated ecological framework for understanding violent behaviour among individuals. This framework includes a range of physical, social, emotional and psychological factors at the personal community and societal levels. In this model, the causative factors are represented in the form of four concentric circles. The innermost circle includes the personal history of the man and the woman who are in the relationship. For example, this includes factors influencing their personalities such as being male, child hood experience of marital violence in their families, childhood experience of abuse. The second circle represents the micro system factors that influence familial relationship and include the immediate context within which violence takes place such as male dominance in the family, control over money and decision making at the household level by men, low status of women such as daughter –in –law within the family, use of alcohol, marital conflict situations.

The third circle represents the exo-system representing he social systems and structures at the micro level or community level such as poor socio-economic status, unemployment, poor 72 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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social surroundings leading to delinquent behaviour, lack of access of women to economic and other resources, and lack of support structures leading to powerlessness. The macro system represents the broader societal norms that serve to create a favorable environment for the other three factors to act. These include: the general societal acceptance of power structures that represent dominance, aggression and control of men over women, of rigid gender roles, of acceptance of niter personal violence.

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Violence against women within the family is a global phenomenon. However, it is complex and deeply embedded in the Indian context. The most pathetic aspect of disrespect for human rights is domestic violence. The National Crime Records Bureau has recorded an increase of 40% in the case of social harassment, and 15.2% in cases of dowry deaths. The steady decline in the sex ratio noted for over a century in India from 972 females for 1000males in the population in 1901 to 927 females in 1991 and the prevalence of female foeticide in at least ten states of India are critical indicators of the issue of violence against women. Female foeticide and female infanticide are basically a Socio-cultural problem and not law and order problem alone. UNICEF reports that 40- 50 million women are missing from Indian population due to foeticide. (The World’s Women –1978-1990 Trends and Statistics, United Nations, New York, 1991).

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

A. GENERAL OBJECTIVE The general objective of the study was to have a situational analysis of Domestic violence against women in Kerala

B. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. To study the socio-economic profile of women under study. 2. To find out the different types of Domestic Violence prevalent in the state 3. To analyze the existing types of violence in terms of: (a) Characteristics of the affected parties viz. Husband and inlaws (b) Nature and Frequency of Domestic violence (c ) Causative factors for violence 73 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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4. To find out the consequences/impact of violence on women in terms of personal, familial, social and cultural levels. 5. To study the services which address domestic violence in terms of availability, and effectiveness and to suggest measures for improving them. 6. To suggest suitable measures for reducing the occurrence and prevalence of domestic violence.

METHODOLOGY UNIVERSE AND GEOGRAPHICAL AREA All women affected by Domestic Violence in the fourteen districts of the state of Kerala formed the universe and geographical area of the study respectively.

CONCEPTUALIZING WOMEN EMPOWERMENT The concept of empowerment has been the subject of much intellectual discourse and analysis. According to the United Nations (2001), empowerment is defined as the process by which women take control and ownership of their lives through expansion of their choices. Thus, it is the process of acquiring the ability to make strategic life choices in a context where this ability has previously been denied. Kabeer (2001) defines empowerment as ‘the expansion of people’s ability to make strategic life choices in a context where this ability was previously denied to them’. Almost all definitions of women’s empowerment include some reference to an expansion of choice and freedom to make decisions and take the actions necessary to shape life-outcomes. The core elements of empowerment have been defined as agency (the ability to define one’s goals and act upon them), awareness of gendered power structures, self-esteem and self-confidence. Empowerment can take place at a hierarchy of different levels — individual, household, community and societal — and is facilitated by providing encouraging factors (for example, exposure to new activities, which can build capacities) and removing inhibiting factors (for example, lack of resources and skills). Two vital processes have been identified as important for empowerment. The first is social mobilisation and collective agency, as tribal women often lack the basic capabilities and selfconfidence to counter and challenge existing disparities and barriers against them. Often, change agents are needed to catalyse social mobilisation consciously. Second, the process of social mobilisation needs to be accompanied and complemented by economic security. As long as the disadvantaged suffer from economic deprivation and livelihood insecurity, they will not be in a position to mobilise. The effects of women empowerment create a powerful 74 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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influence on family, community norms, values, and finally the laws that govern these communities. Women’s empowerment is the restoration to individuals of a sense of their own values, strength, and their own capacity to handle life’s problems. Household and interfamilial relations is the pivotal focus in the measurement of the level of women empowerment including political participation. Women’s empowerment is distinct from the empowerment of other disadvantaged or socially excluded groups because, first, women are not just one among several disempowered sub-populations; instead, they are ‘a cross-cutting category of individuals that overlap each of these other groups’. Second, women’s disempowerment is caused and reinforced through household and family relations much more than what is true for the disempowerment of other socially disadvantaged groups. Hence, the current study measured the tribal women’s empowerment needs in the areas of personal autonomy, family decision making, and domestic consultation within household and political process.

TABLE 1 FORMS OF VIOLENCE EXPERIENCED BY WOMEN THROUGHOUT THEIR LIFESPAN

Phase Pre-birth Infancy

Type of Violence Present Sex-selective abortion; battering during pregnancy; coerced pregnancy. Female infanticide; emotional and physical abuse; differential access to food and medical care

Girlhood

Child marriage; genital mutilation; sexual abuse by family members and strangers; differential access to food, medical care and education Violence during courtship; economically coerced sex (e.g. for school

Adolescence

fees); sexual abuse in the workplace; rape; sexual harassment; arranged marriage; trafficking. Physical, psychological and sexual abuse by intimate male partners

Reproductive

and relatives; forced pregnancies by partner; sexual abuse in the

age

workplace; sexual harassment; rape; abuse of widows, including property grabbing and sexual cleansing practices. Abuse of widows, including property grabbing; accusations of

Elderly

witchcraft; physical and psychological violence by younger family members; differential access to food and medical care.

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FIG. 1 ECOLOGICAL FORMS OF VIOLENCE EXPERINECD NY A WOMEN IN THEIR LIFE SPAN 

Society

• Norms granting men control over female behavior • Acceptance of violence as a way to resolve conflict • Notion of masculinity linked to dominance, honor, or aggression • Rigid gender roles

Community

• Poverty, low socioeconomic status, unemployment • Associating with delinquent peers • Isolation of women and family

Relationship

• Marital conflict • Male control of wealth and decision-making in the family

Individual Perpetrator

• Being male • Witnessing marital violence as a child • Absent or rejecting father • Being abused as a child • Alcohol use

 

Source : Adapted from Heise, 1998 

CONCLUSION Violence against women is not a new or recent phenomenon. Women had been the victims of violence all through the ages- in all societies, culture, region and religious communities of the world. Violence in any form should be averted and condemned at all means. The study showed that, knowledge about laws related to atrocities against women and services addressing women’s issues were scanty with regard to the victims under study. Proper awareness campaigns, Workshops, Seminars etc. in this regard should therefore be organized regularly in rural as well as urban areas. Furthermore, a committee should be set up to monitor the proper functioning of the institutions dealing with women’s issues. More over a clear – cut state policy is needed to safe guard women’s rights. A fundamental change is required in the attitude of the employers, policy makers, family members and other relatives and the public at large towards women. An attitudinal change in the society is also required, 76 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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if women are to live in the world as free human beings with due respect and without fear. Women must organize themselves in-groups and raise a collective voice against violent acts. Unified efforts can certainly create a public opinion and outcry against situations, where women are subjected to all forms of atrocities. Women must help themselves and each other in the fight against violence. Women experienced domestic violence across all strata almost equally, and in fact women with a university degree reported a slightly higher level of violence than others with any education. A greater proportion of women working as labourers had experienced any violence in their lifetime than other workers and even homemakers. There was not a perceptible difference across age groups in lifetime experience of violence, suggesting that for those experiencing violence, this experience may start early in their lives. Having been subjected to dowry demand before and after marriage, and having no say in matters related to contraception and sex within marriage emerged as factors most significantly associated with lifetime experience of violence. The association of lifetime experience of violence with decision-making power within the household shows that overall, a smaller proportion of those who were part of the decision-making process experienced violence as compared to those who were the sole decision-makers, as well as those who were never consulted for any major household decision. Home is believed to be a safe and private place for individuals especially women. This belief results in the issue of violence against women inside the house being rarely discussed. And it is only when the acts of violence results in a crisis or acute emergency or manifests as other health problems requiring either physical and/or psychological treatment the women approach the health system. Poor society manifested with low socio-economic status leading to poverty as well as the violence in the family often lead a woman to commit suicide and to think to stop their life.

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REFERENCES Coomaraswamy (1996). Report Of The Special Rapporteur On Violence Against Women: Its Causes And Consequences. United Nations. Economic And Social Council. Heise,

Pitanguy And Germain (1994). Violence Against Women: The Hidden Health

Burden. World Bank Discussion Paper. Washington. D.C. The World Bank. United Nations Department Of Public Information (1996) Human Rights. Published By United Nations Department Of Public Information DPI/1772/HR-February 1996. Downloaded From The Website Http://Www.Un.Org/Rights/Dpi1772e.Htm  Ahuja (1998). Chapter 5: Wife Battering. In: Violence Against Women. Jaipur And New Delhi, Rawat Publications. P 151-181. Sharma (1997). Chapter 6 : Domestic Violence And Women. In: Women: Marriage, Family, Violence And Divorce. Jaipur, Mangal Deep Publications. P 82-101. Heise (1998). Violence Against Women: An Integrated Ecological Framework. Violence Against Women, 4(3), 262-290. Panos Briefing (1998). “ The Intimate Enemy: Gender Violence And Reproductive Health. Volume 27. Population Information Program And CHANGE (1999). Ending Violence Against Women. Population Reports, XXVII (4). Rao (1997). Wife Beating In Rural South India: A Qualitative And Econometric Analysis. Social Science And Medicine, 44(8), 1169-1180. Abstract Obtained From MEDLINE. Jejeebhoy (1998). Wife-Beating In Rural India: A Husband’s Right? Evidence From Survey Data. Economic And Political Weekly, 33(15),855-862. Jejeebhoy And Cook (1997). State Accountability For Wife Beating: The Indian Challenge. The Lancet, Women’s Health Supplement (March). ***  78 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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HUMANITY FOR THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF OLD AGE PERSONS    SHARMA, SONIA DUTT  School of law, NIMS University, Jaipur, India     ABSTRACT  The human race is characterized by long childhood and by a long old age. Throughout history  this has enabled the older persons to educate the younger and pass on values to them; this  role has ensured man's has ensured man's survival and progress. The presence of the elderly  in  the  family  home,  the  neighborhood  and  in  all  forms  of  social  life  still  teaches  and  irreplaceable lesson of humanity. Not only by his life his death, has the older person taught  us all a lesson. Through grief, the survivors come to understand that the dead do continue to  participate in the human‐community, by the results of their labor, the works and institution  they leave behind them, and the memory of their words and deeds. This may encourage to  regard  our  own  death  with  greater  serenity  and  to  grow  more  fully  aware  of  the  responsibilities towards future generations. As regards the aged how meaningful are these  words used in International plan on Ageing and United Nations Principles for Older Persons,  (1998).  However,  in  reality  a  large  majority  of  the  aged  are  poor  and  destitute  who  are  bereft  of  even  the  necessities  of  life,  namely,  food  shelter  and  clothing.  Most  of  them  are  from the unorganized sector meaning thereby who after the age of 60 are not the recipients  of pension, gratuity or provident fund, etc. This also means they have to continue working to  earn their livelihood, as a labor, vendors, cobblers, rickshaw pullers and domestic worker. It  is a pathetic situation that those elderly people who gave their best to their families and to  their  country  are  being  ignored.  With  every  increase  in  urbanization,  liberalization,  easy  mobility,  changes  in  Indian  family's  basic  structure  and  consequently  weakening  of  the  traditional  family  ties,  materialistic  trend  of  the  society,  elderly  persons  will  become  more  vulnerable, ignorant and going in miserable conditions.  Key words : Humiliation, Dignity, Domestic, Liberalization and Vulnerable.    "Human  Rights  “Definition  as  per  Article  25  of  Universal  Declaration  of  Human  Rights.  “Everyone  has  the  right  to  a  standard  of  living  adequate  for  the  health  and  well‐being  of  himself  and  of  his  family,  including  food,  clothing,  and  housing  and  medical  care  and  79 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness,  disability,  widowhood,  old  age  or  other  lack  of  livelihood  in  circumstances  beyond  his  control”.    As regards the aged how meaningful are, the words: used in International plan of Action on  Ageing and United Nations Principles for older Persons.     “The  human  race  is  characterized  by  long  childhood  and  by  a  long  old  age.  Throughout  history  tills  has  enabled  the  older  persons  to  educate  the  younger  and  pass  on  values  to  them; this role has ensured man's survival and progress. The presence of the elderly in the  family home, the neighborhoods and in all forms of social life still teaches and irreplaceable  lesson of humanity. Not only by his life, but indeed by his death, the older person teaches us  all a lesson. Through grief the survivors come to understand that the dead do continue to  participate  in  the  human  community,  by  the  results  of  their  labour,  the  works  and  institution  they  leave  behind  them,  and  the  memory  of  their  words  and  deeds.  This  may  encourage to regard our own death with greater serenity and to grow more fully aware of  the responsibilities towards future generations”.    Indian Constitutional Perspectives :  The Directive Principles contained in Article 41 of Constitution of India cast a legal obligation  on  the  State  to  make  effective  provision  within  limits  of  its  economic  capacity  for  giving  social support to old, sick and disabled.   Article 41 ‐ Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases‐The State  shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provisions  for  securing  the  right  to  work,  to  education  and  to  public  assistance  in  cases  of  unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want.  Article 51C ‐ is one of the Directive Principles of State Policy expecting the State 'to respect  international law and treaty obligations.  Article 51 ‐ Promotion of international peace and security: ‐ The State shall endeavor to:  (c)  

Foster  respect  for  international  law  and  treaty  obligations  in  the  dealings  of 

organized people with one another;  80 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Economic and Social development, improvement in income and standards of living, increase  in  availability  of  health  services,  medical  advances  and  improvement  in  nutrition  and  development  of  education  in  the  last  few  decades  led  to  an  increase  in  number  of  older  persons and it is still increasing according to a United Nations estimate, in 1950 there were  approximately 200 million persons of 60 years of age and over throughout the world and by  1975  their  numbers  increased  to  350  million.  United  Nations  projections  indicate  that  the  number will increase by 2025 to over 1100 million, that is an increased of 224 percent since  1975. According to another estimate by 2025, 165 million Indians (or more than 12 percent)  will be of 60 and older. Indian population has approximately tripled during the last 50 years,  but the number of elderly Indians has increased more than fourfold.  The 2001 census has  shown that the elderly population (60+) of India accounted for 77 million and census 2011  projections indicate that elderly population has crossed the 100 million marks.   The  General  Assembly  of  the  United  Nations  on  16th  December,  1991  declared  the  principles for Protection of human rights of older persons called "United Nations Principles  for  Older  Persons".    Bearing  in  mind  increasing  problems  of  older  persons  with  their  increasing number, the General Assembly made a formal declaration of Principles of Older  Persons and has chalked out a Plan of Action on Aging during world Assembly on Aging was  convened at Vienna from 26th July to 6th August, 1982.    Objects of this plan  The  International  Plan  of  Action  on  Aging  aims  at  "to  strengthen  the  capacities  of  Governments  and  civil  society  to  deal  effectively  with  the  ageing  of  population  and  to  address  the  developmental  potential  and  dependency  needs  of  older  people.  It  promotes  regional and international cooperation.    Contents of the International Plan of Action  Plan  of  action  contains  62  recommendations  for  action  addressed  to  research,  data  collection and analysis, training and education as also the following sartorial areas:  •

health and nutrition; 



protection of elderly consumers; 



housing and environment; 

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family; 



social welfare; 



income security and employment; and 



Education. 

The  United  Nations  not  only  formulated  principles  but  encouraged  Governments  to  incorporate them into their domestic law.     The Principles of Older Persons declared by General Assembly are as under:  Independence  •

Older persons should have access to adequate food, water shelter, clothing and health 

 

care through the provision of income, family and community support and self‐help.  



Older persons should have the opportunity to work or to have access to other income 

 

generating opportunities. 



Older  persons  should  be  able  to  participate  in  determining  when  and  at  what  pace 

 

withdrawal from the labor force takes place.  



Older persons should have access to appropriate educational and training programmes. 



Older  persons  should  be  able  to  live  in  environments  that  are  safe  and  adaptable 

 

personal preferences and changing capacities.  



Older persons should be able to reside at home for as long as possible. 

Participation  •

Older persons should remain integrated in society, participate actively in the formulation 

 

and implementation that directly affect their well being, and share their knowledge and 

 

skills with younger generations.  



Older  persons  should  be  able  to  seek  and  develop  opportunities  for  service  to  the 

 

community  and  to  serve  as  volunteers  in  positions  appropriate  to  their  interests  and 

 

capabilities.  



Older persons should be able to form movements or associations of of older persons. 

Care  •

Older  persons  should  benefit  from  family  an  community  care  and  protection  in 

 

accordance with each society's system of cultural values. 

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Older persons should have access to health care to help them to maintain or regain the 

 

optimum level of physical, mental and emotional well‐being and to prevent or delay the 

 

onset of illness. 



Older  persons  should  have  access  to  social  and  legal  services  to  enhance  their 

 

autonomy, protection and care.  



Older persons should be able to utilize appropriate levels of institutional care providing 

 

protection,  rehabilitation  and  social  and  mental  stimulation  in  a  humane  and  secure 

 

environment. 



Older  persons  should  be  able  to  enjoy  human  rights  and  fundamental  freedoms  when 

 

residing to any shelter, care or treatment facility, including full respect for their dignity; 

 

beliefs, needs and privacy and for the right to make decisions about their care and the 

 

quality of their lives. 

Self‐fulfillment   •

Older persons should be able to pursue opportunities for the full development of their 

 

potential. 



Older persons should have access to the educational, educational, cultural, spiritual and 

 

recreational resources of society.  

Dignity  •

Older persons should be able to live with dignity, and security and be free of exploitation 

 

and physical or mental abuse.  



Older  persons  should  be  treated  fairly  regardless  of  age,  gender,  racial  or  ethnic 

 

background, and be valued independently of their economic contribution. 

  Indian Legislative Aspect   Indian Legislation gave us a new Law regarding old Age Persons. Maintenance and welfare  of parents and Senior Citizens Act‐2007 with Govt. of Rajasthan Maintenance of Parents and  Senior Citizens Rules 2010.    The Preamble of the Act :  makes it manifest that it is a step by the Legislature to provide  for more effective provisions for maintenance of parents and senior citizens guaranteed and  recognized under the Constitution.  There is no  mention in the preamble of the Act to the  83 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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United Nationals Principles for Older Persons which contains comprehensive suggestions for  extending social support and security to older persons, as their fundamental human right of  life, liberty, equality and dignity.   Definition  The best part of this Act is definition clause under Section 2 contains definitions of various  words  an  expressions  used  in  the  text  of  the  Act  the  definition  of  word  children  is  not  restricted to only sons and daughters as is to be found in Section 125 of Code of Criminal  Procedure  where  under  liability  to  maintain  father  or  mother  is  only  on  the  sons  and  daughters, if they are not minors.   In the definition of Parent are included father and mother whether biological, adoptive and  also step‐father and step‐father and step‐mother. The provisions of the Act can be availed  of for seeking maintenance by parents of all age groups and not only such parents who have  attained or crossed the age of 60 years.   The Act also defines the word Relative create obligation to provide maintenance to a needy  childless  senior  citizen.    In  the  definition  of  relative  the  legal  heir  of  the  childless  senior  citizen who is not minor and is in possession of or would inherit his property after his death'  are included to cast a legal obligation on them to maintain childless senior citizen.  The Act is applicable to all Indian citizens of different religions. Personal laws of inheritance  applicable to Hindus, Muslims Christians Parsees and others are not the same or similar.   Procedure  Section‐12 of the Act provides on option to a parent to make a claim for maintenance under  section 125 of the code of criminal procedure or Hindu Adoption and maintenance Act 1956  and other Similar Personal Laws applicable to citizens of different religious faiths.   Section‐4  Confers  a  right  to  claim  for  maintenance  of  Senior  citizens,  and  Section.‐5  &  6  contain the elaborate procedure for interim and final maintenance with section‐7‐11.  Amount  Section‐2 of Section‐9 ‐ Maximum amount of maintenance which can be ordered to be paid  to a senior citizen or a parent is not to exceed ten thousand rupees per month. Compared to  the  above  provision,  Section  125,  as  amended  with  effect  from  24‐9‐2001,  enables  Magistrate, subject to his pecuniary jurisdiction, to grant maintenance even more than Rs.  10,000  per  month  keeping  into  consideration  the  needs  and  standard  of  life  of  Senior  Citizen/Parent and the paying capacity of the children' or the relative as the case may be.   84 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Old Age Home  Section 19‐ of the Act expects every state to establish and monition in each district on old  Age home. Mere setting up of Old Age Homes in itself may not achieve the noble objectives  contained  in  the  'United  Nations  Principle  for  Older  Persons'  which  are  guidelines  to  help  them to lead a happy, contented and dignified life. It is necessary that civil society should  cooperate  with  the  Government  in  various  programmes  so  that  the  inmates  of  Old  Age  Homes receive care and affection like in a family.   A directory complied in 1995 by the centre for the welfare of the Aged listed only 482 Old  Age Homes. Even if one is optimistic theme are no more than 700 homes for the aged today,  which can handle, at the most 30000 persons at a time. So the nation’s needs 217 lakh more  homes to shelter all the elderly.   The  recent  policy  announcement  of  the  Central  Government  is  highly  promising  that  Old  Age Home in each district will be set up near the Children's Home, so that children may feel  as  if  they  are  in  the  company  of  their  parents  and  senior  citizens  will  have  a  mission  and  occupation to help the children to develop their personalities to become good citizens.  Medical Aid  The  Act  bestows  very  little  consideration  to  United  Nations  principles  for  older  persons.  Under Section 20 of the Act there is a mere promise by the State of providing some medical  support to senior citizen like providing them separate beds in the Government hospitals or  State aided hospitals, separate queues for sick senior citizens, facilities for chronic, terminal  and degenerative diseases and earmarked facilities for geriatric patients in every district.  Legal Aid  Right  to  legal  aid  for  seeking  protection  of  human  rights  has  been  held  to  be  a  part  of  fundamental  right  under  Article  21  of  the  constitution  read  with  Directive  Principle  contained  in  Article  39A.  Article  39A  requires  the  State  to  provide  free  legal  aid  to  poor,  needy and weak. The complete ban on legal aid through lawyers therefore would violate the  constitutional right of the Senior Citizen/Parent.    A  large  majority  of  the  aged  are  poor  and  destitute  who  are  bereft  of  even  the  basic  necessities of life, food, shelter and clothing. Most of them are from the unorganized sector  meaning  thereby  who  after  the  age  of  60  are  not  the  recipients  of  pension,  gratuity  or  provident fund, etc. This also means they have to continue working to earn their livelihood.  85 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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They include farm labours, vendors, cobblers, rikshawpullars and Domestic workers etc. Old  Age  Pensioners  presently  have  no  satisfactory  facility  for  obtaining  substantial  economic  protection. The "Varishtha Pension Bima Yojana" was launched on 14th July 2003 by the P.M.  of India, for the 55 plus age bracket but practically there are so many Technical, clerical and  documentary formalities which convert the Pension plans into the Tension Plans. So many  time they have to prove that they are still alive to get a very few pecuniary Amount.     Role of NGO's  Although the government is endeavoring to provide this segment of society but is limited by  resource constraints. Hence, much of the burden of proving the quality of the life has fallen  on private initiative and non‐governmental organizations (NGO's) and most of them donor  driven implementations of funded programmes. One very important NGO is Help Age India,  which  started  functioning  in  1978.  It  had  in  1998,  21  regional  and  area  offices  to  extend  services to elderly people throughout India by providing consultancy, training and financial  support  to  voluntary  organization.  It  has  its  own  mobile  vans  and  employs  doctors,  pharmacists,  social  workers  and  drivers  to  deliver  medicines  free  at  the  door‐steps.  They  have tie up with hospitals for those who need hospital treatment. They do not take a single  penny from the government and work solely through donations.   Another important NGO in this are is 'Indian Federation on Ageing' Both Help Age India and  Indian  Federation  on  Ageing,  are  affiliated  to  international  organizations.  These  groups  present  monthly  programmes  and  publish  news  letters.  Mention  many  also  be  made  of  Centre for the Welfare of the Aged (CEWA).  At this age, when they need family support most, they have to live on their own. Even basic  needs  &  rights  of  many  of  them  are  not  addressed.  Social  marginalization,  loneliness,  isolation and even negligence in old age lead violation of Human Rights of Older Persons, it  is a practical Scenario, shown by a survey conducted by Age well Foundation’s volunteers in  March  2011,  of  50,000  old  age  persons  (29000  from  rural  areas  and  21,000  from  Urban  areas) across 300 districts of 25 states and Union territories of India.     The Major findings are following ‐   Popularity  of  Nuclear  families  is  the  main  reason  of  violation  of  Human  Rights  of  older  person  60.54  %  of  older  persons  found  living  alone  or  in  nuclear  families.  30272  older  86 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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persons out of 50,000 said that they don't live in joint families, but 22250 said they world  like to live in joint family and only 8022 said that they are happy living alone. Violation of HR  of older persons is lighter in urban Areas of the country in comparison to rural areas. 

  Illiteracy is the most important reason for lake of awareness of Human Rights More than  half‐ approx 53 % older persons are found illiterate, 28.2 % are just literate and only 18.8 %  are educated. Overall 47 % older persons were found literate in all age groups.  

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85.9 % older persons had never heard about Human Rights of Older Persons. Only 14.1 %  older persons said that they know about Human Rights or heard about Human Rights. 42948  older  persons  (85.9  %)  out  of  total  50000  older  persons  expressed  their  ignorance  about  Human Rights.    Over  23.3  %  older  persons  were  found  living  in  inhuman  conditions,  facing  violation  of  their human rights in old age. It was also found that human Rights of 11652 older persons  out  of  total  50,000  older  persons  were  not  being  protected  Approximately  30%  alderpersons (2988 out of 10,000) were living in inhuman conditions.     12.9 % older persons revealed that they are not getting proper food in old age. 6444 older  persons  out  of  total  50000  older  persons  (12‐9  %  older  persons)  comprising  of  3101  rural  elderly and 3343 urban elderly said that they are not getting proper food in old age.     Approx. every third older person in the country is not getting proper medicine/health care  in  old  age.  On  analysis  of  data  obtained  from  50000  respondents,  it  was  found  that  only  68.8 % older persons have access to necessary medicines health care and medical facilities  while 31.2  % older persons said that they are not getting proper medicines/health care in  old age.     Every  second  older  person  is  not  getting  due  respect  or  good  treatment  from  his/her  family member/society. Survey shows that overall 48.6 % elderly (44.5 % in rural areas and  54.81  %  in  urban  areas)  in  our  country  are  not  being  respected  by  their  family  members/  relatives  and  society.  According  to  survey  data,  12350  rural  older  persons  (out  of  29000  rural  older  persons)  &  5481  urban  older  persons  (out  of  21000  urban  older  persons)  reported  that  their  family  members/relatives  do  not  respect  them  and  invariably  ill‐treat  them. Mostly they are made to feel that they are redundant because of their Old Age.     47.4 % older persons were discriminated because of their age 52‐35 % in urban areas and  44.1  %  in  rural  areas.  53.4%  older  men  in  comparison  to  41.4  %  older  women  faced  discrimination  in  employment,  family  matters  and  functions  or  participation  in  social  cultural activities etc.   88 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Most common problems being faced by older persons due to their old age are ‐   •

33.65 % older persons were found marginalized/isolated. 



23.6 % older persons were found ill treated.  



26.1 % older persons have no easy access to medicine/healthcare. 



32.5 % older persons have no safety & security concerns.  

  Almost 1/3rd older persons (33.65 %, 16824 persons) gave 1st priority to marginalization and  neglect as their cause of Pain, while 12,1988 older persons (22 %) indicated it their 2nd most  upsetting Problem.  

  89 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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CONCLUSION  To decrease the incidences of age‐discrimination age‐discriminatory policies like retirement  policies  in  both  Government  and  Public  sector,  various  reservation  policies  need  to  be  amended. Today, we urgently need an inclusive social security program for older persons at  grass  root  level  while  utilizing  tools  like  value  based  education,  awareness  generation,  research & advocacy in order to protect Human Rights of Older Persons. In undertaking any  programme for protection of human rights of senior citizen, it cannot be lost sight of that  mere providing a needy older citizen, food, clothing, water and medical help is not all that  he  needs.  He  starves  for  love  and  respect  and  an  opportunity  to  lead  a  dignified  life.  It  is  necessary  that  senior  citizens  should  feel  integrated  in  the  society  their  knowledge  and  experience should  be  utilized  by  giving  them  opportunity  to  mingle  with  people  of  all  age  groups. A senior citizen needs affection and respect as his or her personality demands. The  State  and  society  should  feel  committed  to  fulfill  that  desire.  A  young  citizen  of  today  is  senior citizen of tomorrow and both should care for and respect human rights of each other.     REFERENCES  Phoepe S. Siebig ‐ "Aging with Dignity‐"Span‐July‐Aug. 1998‐ p.36  Vienna International Plan of Action on Ageing.  The Indian Express, New Delhi‐Edu. dt. 21/7/2002  General Assembly Res. No. 33/52‐dated ‐14th Dec. 1978.  Report of the UN world Population conference Bucharest, 19‐30 Aug. 1974.  Sensus‐2011 of Indian Population.   Help Age Indian ;‐ (Major Gen. S.S. Sandhu‐ Director)   Anuradha Kumar‐"Why do we neglect our old folk''   Agewell Foundation‐Research & Advocacy centre.   ***  90 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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IS THE BSE SENSITIVE INDEX BETTER THAN THE NATIONAL INDEX    JAIN, ANIL 1  AND  SAXENA, NIDHI 2  1

 Department of Commerce, Govt. R. V. College, Manasa, Madhya Pradesh, India 

2

 Research Scholar, Government Post Graduate College. Neemuch, Madhya Pradesh, India 

  ABSTRACT  Stock  price  indices  are  used  extensively  by  investors,  brokers  and  portfolio  managers  as  a  general  indicator  of  the  stock  market  conditions.  Anecdotal  evidence  suggests  that  the  Sensex is by far the more popular index among brokers and lay investors while the index of  choice  among  mutual  funds,  professional  investors,  foreign  investment  agencies  and  academics. This paper studies the two BSE indices and their inter‐relationship. The analysis in  this  paper  indicates  ‐  The  Natex  is  a  sluggish  index  which  responds  too  slowly  to  market  conditions. Changes which are reflected in the Sensex on any day are completely reflected in  the  Natex  only  by  the  next  day,  Sensex  is  more  volatile  than  Natex,  but  this  difference  is  accounted  for  by  two  factors  –the  autocorrelation  of  the  Natex  which  conceals  the  true  volatility  of  Natex,  and  a  higher  beta  of  Sensex  relative  to  Sensex.  Therefore,  the  excess  volatility  of  Sensex  is  not  a  matter  of  serious  concern.  In  many  applications,  however,  the  higher beta of Sensex is worrisome, but it is easy to correct for it. The conclusion, therefore,  is that those who follow the Natex because of its greater comprehensiveness and theoretical  appeal  may  be  mistaken.  The  Sensex  needs  to  be  taken  more  seriously  as  a  sound  market  index.  Keywords : BSE, Sensex, Index and National.    INTRODUCTION  Stock  price  indices  are  used  extensively  by  investors,  brokers  and  portfolio  managers  as  a  general indicator of the stock market conditions. The financial newspapers publish several  different  indices  every  day.  Some  indices  are,  in  fact,  available  virtually  on  a  minute  to  minute  basis  as  the  trading  goes  on.  The  stock  price  indices  are  also  used  extensively  in  finance theory. The popular Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) gives a special place to the  91 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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market portfolio consisting of all asset traded in the market. Accounting to the CAPM, the  risk of a security in defined as the responsiveness of the security to movements in the value  of this market portfolio as this measures the component of risk which cannot be diversified  away by distributing one's wealth across a large number of securities.     The  concept  of  market  portfolio  is  operational  through  a  market  index.  The  underlying  theory suggests that the market index should ideally be a value weighted index of all stocks  in  the  market.  The  theoretical  literature  (Roll,  1977)  suggests  that  the  use  of  the  correct  market index is of considerable importance. Thus the choice of index to be used is a matter  of equal importance to academics and practitioners. While there is a profusion of stock price  indices  in  the  Indian  market,  in  recent  years,  the  indices  published  by  the  Bombay  Stock  Exchange (BSE) have become extremely popular with academics and practitioners alike. The  BSE publishes two indices :  (a)  the  30  share  sensitive  index  (henceforth  called  Sensex)  which  consists  of  the  most  heavily traded stocks in the BSE which is the country's premier stock market, and   (b)  the  100  shares  national  index  (henceforth  called  Natex)  which  includes  the  100  most  important stocks nation‐wide.     Anecdotal evidence suggests that the Sensex is by far the most popular among brokers and  lay  investors  while  the  Natex  is  the  index  of  choice  among  mutual  funds,  professional  investors, foreign investment agencies and by academics. (Many academics, of course use  the older Economic Times, Financial Express and Reserve Bank of India indices, sometimes  by  force  of  habit,  more  often  because  these  indices  are  available  for  a  much  longer  time  period). This of course, is similar to what is observed in other countries. For example, in the  United States, the Dow Jones index is widely used by lay investors and the 500 share S&P  index is preferred by professionals and academics.  In this context, this paper seeks to examine the two popular BSE indices in greater detail and  study their inter‐ relationships. This analysis would help both researchers and practitioners  decide which index is more suitable for their purpose.   92 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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CONSTRUCTION AND COVERAGE OF THE TWO INDICES  The  Sensex  is  a  market  value  weighted  average  of  30  shares  from  the  Bombay  Stock  Exchange. The shares have been chosen on the basis of the volume of trading activity with  due representation to major industry groups (Bombay Stock Exchange, 1991a). The Natex is  a  broader  index  covering  100  shares  form  all  major  stock  exchanges  in  the  country.  The  price is taken form the exchange in which the share is actively traded; where there is more  than  one  such  exchange,  the  average  of  these  prices  is  taken  (Bombay  Stock  Exchange  1991b). The Natex is also market value weighted.    DATA  Statistical Characteristics of a Good Index The main choice in designing an index is that of  sensitiveness versus comprehensiveness. A comprehensive index may respond sluggishly to  rapid  movements  in  the  market  while  a  sensitive  index  of  a  few  scripts  may respond  very  rapidly  but  may  be  buffeted  around  by  factors  specific  to  its  constituent  companies  and  therefore show a lot of random fluctuations unconnected with the broader market trends .     These conflicting considerations can be summed up in two statistical measures.   1.

Volatility  :  This  statistical  measure  is  the  standard  deviation  of  daily  percentage 

changes  in  the  index.  A  narrowly  constructed  index  will  display  excessive  volatility  representing random movements specific to constituents of the index.  2.

Autocorrelation  :  A  broad  based  index  would  typically  include  a  large  number  of 

poorly  traded  stocks  whose  prices  do  not  immediately  respond  to  rapid  changes  in  the  market. This failure to respond may be because the share has not traded at all on that day  or because the trades that did take place were on the basis of old orders placed before the  market movement was known. At the same time, the more active stocks in the broad based  index  would  respond  immediately  to  sharp  changes  in  the  market.  The  result  of  this  divergence between some stocks responding immediately while other respond only the next  day or later is an autocorrelation in the broad based index. If the broad based index goes up  today, chances are that some stocks in the index   93 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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CONCLUSION  The analysis in this paper indicates ‐  1.  The  Natex  is  a  sluggish  index  which  responds  too  slowly  to  market  conditions.  Changes  which are reflected in the Sensex on any day are completely reflected in the Natex only by  the next day. This manifests itself statistically in an autocorrelation of Natex returns and a  positive correlation with lagged Sensex returns.   2. Sensex is more volatile than Natex, but this difference is accounted for by two factors ‐ (a)  the autocorrelation of the Natex which conceals the true volatility of Natex, and (b) a higher  beta of Sensex relative to Sensex. Therefore, the excess volatility of Sensex is not a matter of  serious concern. In many applications, however, the higher beta of Sensex is worrisome, but  it is easy to correct for it.    The  conclusion,  therefore,  is  that  those  who  follow  the  Natex  because  of  its  greater  comprehensiveness and theoretical appeal may be mistaken. The Sensex needs to be taken  more  seriously  as  a  sound  market  index.  The  observed  deficiencies  of  the  Natex  raises  several disturbing questions for finance theorists and researchers. Is the market for the less  well traded securities in the market inefficient? Do the scrips constituting the Sensex lead  the other scrips? If so, can this relationship be used to make extra normal returns. Does the  Bombay market lead other exchanges which are also represented in the Natex? These issues  call for further research.    REFERENCES  Bombay Stock Exchange (1991b). The Stock Exchange National Index of Equity Prices (1983‐ 84 =100).  Roll, R. (1977). "A Critique of the Asset Pricing Theory's Tests:  Part I: On Past and Potential  Testability of the Theory", Journal of Financial Economics, 4(2), 129‐176.  Scholes, M. and Williams, J. (1977). "Estimating Betas from Asynchronous Data", Journal of  Financial Economics, 5, 309‐327.  ***  94 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RIGHT OF CHILDREN TO FREE AND  COMPULSORY EDUCATION ACT OR RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACT (RTE) IN  INDIAN CONTEXT  SHRIVASTAVA, PALLAVI   Dept of Education, The Bhopal School of Social Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India    ABSTRACT  Education  leads  to  individual  freedom  and  empowerment,  which  yields  significant  societal  development  gains  and  makes  an  individual  self‐reliant.  It  is  seen  as  the  foundation  of  society,  enabling  economic  wealth,  social  prosperity  and  political  stability.  Education  is  therefore  increasingly  being  viewed  as  a  fundamental  right  across  the  globe  and  essential  for  the  exercise  of  all  human  rights.  All  individuals  are  entitled  to  education.  Elementary  education  forms  the  foundation  for  all  levels  of  learning  and  development..  It,  therefore,  plays a pivotal role in improving the socioeconomic condition of the nation. For any country  to  grow,  it  is  imperative  that  it  has  in  place  a  strong  elementary  school  driven  education  system.  Keywords : Right, Education, Children, Compulsory and Act.    PROGRESS IN ELEMENTARY EDUCATION OVER THE YEARS  The  evolution  of  India’s  education  system  has  been  driven  by  increased  focus  on  basic  elementary  education.  One  of  the  key  achievements  of  India’s  education  system  since  Independence  has  been  the  consistent  rise  in  the  country’s  literacy  rate,  which  has  risen  from  18%  in  1951  to  74%  in  2011.  Significant  efforts  have  been  made  to  universalize  elementary  education  in  these  60  years.  The  number  of  elementary  schools  and  teachers  grew  significantly  during  the  period  1950–51  and  2004–05.    This  growth  in  elementary  education in India has largely been the result of the Government’s initiatives.    The  Right  of  Children  to  Free  and  Compulsory  Education  Act or Right  to  Education  Act  (RTE), is an http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Indian_federal_legislation Indian legislation   enacted by the parliament of India on 4 August 2009,  India became one of 135 countries to  95 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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make Education  as  a  fundamental  right of  every  child  when  the  act  came  into  force  on  1  April  2010.  This  amendment,  however,  is  only  the  beginning  —  not  the  end  —  of  the  struggle to universalize elementary education. Legislation alone cannot make up for half a  century of neglect. As this report brings out, the schooling system is nowhere near ready to  provide education of decent quality to every child.    This  paper  deals  with  the  myths  and  facts  of  basic  education  in  India  ,  highlighting  the  practical restraints in successful implementation of Right To education Act in India.    The Challenges....  About  35  %  of  the  world’s  illiterate  population  is  in  India.  Despite  all  the  efforts  of  the  Government  of  India,  there  are  several  challenges  in  achieving  universalization  of  elementary  education  in  the  country  after  the  introduction  of  RTE  some  of  them  are  discussed below ‐   1.  There is lack of awareness about the Act at the community level.:‐ people in india are  largly ignorant about constitutional laws and various act.They are stil blinded by social  evils as a result they either don’t know their rights or do not accept changes easily.this  leads to failure in spreading educational awareness.  2. Problem related to finance the educational institutions:This included various problems  which are discussed below ‐   •

Establishment of new neighborhood schools and upgrading of school infrastructure  would entail significant expenditure in a short span of time on the basis of the time  lines mandated.    Figure :  Time lines mandated under the RTE Act  Establishment of neighborhood schools 

3 years

Provision of school infrastructure 

3 years

Provision for teachers (required under the prescribed pupil: teacher ratio)  3 years Training of untrained teachers 

5 years

  •

Heavy Financial expenditures are to be made in the following areas ‐  

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• Teachers’ salaries, 

           

• Civil works, 

           

• Children’s entitlements, 

           

• School facilities, 

           

• Mainstreaming children, 

           

• Inclusive education for disabled children, and 

           

• Management costs and development of teachers. 

  3.  Lack Of Basic Infrastructure Facilities  Infrastructure development is the key driver for providing universal elementary education to  India’s children. The ASER study on rural education indicates that one of the major reasons  for  children  staying  out  of  school  or  being  pushed  out  is  inadequate  infrastructure.  According to the RTE Act, the following infrastructure facilities have to be made available to  students by schools within a time frame of three years from the period of notification of the  Act. All‐weather school buildings should consist of :          •  One  ‐  teacher  classrooms  and  a  head  teacher‐cum‐office  room  with  barrier  ‐  free   

access, 

        • Separate toilets for boys and girls,          • Safe and adequate drinking water facilities for all children,          • A kitchen where the mid‐day meal is cooked in the school,          • Playground, and          • Arrangements for securing the school building by a boundary wall  Despite  tremendous  efforts  being  made  on  infrastructure  development,  some  of  the  significant shortages in the provision of infrastructure facilities are highlighted below ‐          •  Few  classrooms  available  :  According  to  the  DISE  Flash  Statistics  2009  –  10  reports,  there were only 3.6 classrooms per school on an average. Furthermore, almost 25 % of the  total  enrolment  in  2009  –  10  was  in  schools  with  a  student  classroom  ratio  >  60.  The  average number of classes in government schools was 3.8, and this figure for private schools  was more than double (7.8).         • Lack of sanitation : Only 58 % the schools had toilets for girls in 2009 – 10.          •  Lack  of  computer  facilities  :  Only  39  %  schools  have  electricity  connection  and  only  16.65% have computer facilities.  97 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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       •  Lack  of  transport  facilities  and  safety  features  :  Most  government  schools  do  not  provide transport facilities, and therefore, students living in rural areas or difficult terrains  find it difficult to commute and drop out of school. Furthermore, in such schools, admission  of girls is minimal. Almost 50 % of the schools do not have boundary walls.    4. Lack Of Trained Teachers  The RTE Act attaches immense importance to the role of teachers in improving elementary  education by making available professionally trained teachers for the school system.          •  According  to  RTE rules,  children  have  the  right  to  at least  one  qualified  and  trained  teacher  for  every  30  pupils.  Currently,  there  is  about  one  teacher  for  every  34  students.  Around 1.2 million additional teachers need to be recruited to fill this gap.           • Furthermore, today, around one out of five primary school teachers do not have the  required minimum qualification to ensure children’s right to quality learning . Section 23(2)  of the Act provides a time frame of five years to ensure that all the teachers in elementary  schools  are  professionally  trained.  The  Ministry  of  Human  Resource  Development  has  estimated that currently there are 0.67million untrained teachers in India.           •  The  National  Council  for  Technical  Education  has  laid  down  the  minimum  qualifications for teachers in schools in 2001 on the basis of the National Council for Teacher  Education Act and the RTE Act, according to which teachers appointed by the government  or  employing  authority  should  be  trained  and  have  minimum  qualifications  for  different  levels  of  school  education.  Within  the  five‐year  period,  all  teachers  need  to  acquire  the  academic  and  professional  qualifications  prescribed  by  the  academic  authority  under  the  RTE Act. This is a difficult task.     5. Teacher Absenteeism  A  major  challenge  the  Act  faces  is  to  address  is  the  high  level  of  absenteeism  among  teachers. While the average of teacher absenteeism is around 20% worldwide, India has the  highest teacher absenteeism in the world at 25 % (according to the UNESCO’s International  Institute  of  Educational  Planning  study  on  corruption  in  education).  The  level  of  absenteeism  among  government  primary  school  teachers  ranges  from  15  %  –  40  %,  with  higher rates in the case of the poorer states. Difficult access to schools (particularly in rural  areas) is a major disincentive for getting suitable qualified teachers to provide education in  98 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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such areas. Some of the other reasons identified include lack of basic toilet facilities, poor  electricity supply, lack of well‐established criteria for recruitment of teachers and lack of a  uniform policy on promotion.    6. Disparity Between Enrolment And Attendance  Registrations  are  there  but  lack  of  attendance  still  persists  as  due  to  family  pressures  children still devote time in earning money rather than learning , moreover social evils still  exists like considering  girl child only as a burden and hence discouraging their studies. There  are wide disparities in enrolment of students at the upper primary level, as compared to the  primary level. Furthermore, there are disparities among students by gender, caste and class,  rich and poor, and rural and urban due to the socio‐economic and cultural context.    7. Gender Bias  Discrimination  against  girls  being  enrolled  in  and  attending  schools  is  based  on  the  wider  social economic and cultural inequalities. Historically, it has been seen that females have a  disadvantage  in  enrolment  for  primary  education  because  the  opportunity  cost  of  a  girl  child’s time is high as compared to boys, since girls spend more time on domestic chores.  This  has  been  the  primary  cause  of  fewer  enrolments  and  high  dropouts  among  girls.  Although  the  gender  parity  index  in  education  has  improved  considerably  over  the  years,  there  are  still  certain  sections  of  society  where  the  problem  prevails.  Some  of  the  facts  highlighting the gender disparity in the country are detailed below –  •

According to census 2011, the literacy rate for men is 82.14 % and for women 65.46 %. 



The  gender  gap  is  significantly  larger  in  the  case  of  scheduled  castes  and  tribes  as  compared  to  the  rest  of  the  population.  Rural  girls  belonging  to  disadvantaged  communities  are  adversely  affected  due  to  the  triple  minus  points  of  caste,  class  and  sex, and therefore, form the bulk of the country’s illiterate population. 



Discrimination based on caste and class.  



Members  of  scheduled  castes  and  tribes  have  been  historically  disadvantaged  economically,  socially  and  educationally,  and  their  participation  in  schools  in  terms  of  enrolment and retention has been low. By caste or tribe, the proportion of women who  have never attended school is highest (44% for women belonging to scheduled tribes, 32 

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%  for  those  belonging  to  scheduled  castes  and  29%  for  those  belonging  to  other  backward classes). In recent years, the enrolment percentage figure for this group has  improved,  but  the  situation  is  still  critical  in  certain  regions  of  the  country,  with  enrolment  in  classes  I  to  VII  /  VIII  standing  at  20  %  for  scheduled  caste  women  at  the  national level.    8. Deterioration In Quality Of Education  Deterioration  in  quality  of  education  imparted  as  too  much  burden  on  teachers.  In  places  where  there  are  not  B.  Ed.  qualified  teachers,  other  lower  qualification  teachers  are  adjusted  this  has  further  degraded  the  quality  of  education.  Teacher’s  are  forced  to  work  overtime and many a times they carry work even at home. A teacher is grilled for everything  she is overburdened with work. She is expected to do multi tasking for her  survival she is  also judged on the basis of the performance of a child who takes his education for granted,  considering his security to get promoted and his parents having a strong holding in school  administrations.    9. Too much interference of parents  It is recommended to have a school management committee in which 3/4th members would  be parents / guardians and out of which 50 % would be women. This has created confusion  and  havoc  among  schools  and  parents  both.  There  has  been  increasing  interference  of  parents in administrative and managerial activities of the school. This has also given undue  shelter to a child as for now a child has taken things for granted as their parents have strong  holding in the administration.    10. Discipline  Students  have  become  more  indiscipline  and  disobedient.  The  loss  of  fear  of  punishment  has given wings to a child which has taken him far from school.    11. Curriculum Ignored  Not much emphasis has been given to curriculum restructuring which actually is the need of  the hour.  100 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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12. Further it stresses that teacher must conduct special classes for the weak students and if  they fail to qualify class in which they are studying then they need to be trained separately  but the teacher is so burdened that she fails to give that special attention.    13. Challenge to Find Qualified Teachers  Not much emphasis is  given on teacher’s training , teacher’s time management , teacher’s  salary  (  esp  in  private  organizations  )  and  holidays  for  teachers.  The  dearth  of good  and  qualified teachers is going to be one of the most crucial challenges faced in implementing  the act. In the absence of competent teachers who are considered the pillars of education, it  would  be  next  to  impossible  for  the  Act  to  realistically  achieve  its  goals.  As it is evident from the Act that school drop outs and others would be brought back into  the  education  stream  again,  it  would  require  almost  double  the  number  of  teachers.  It  would be a challenge to find quality teachers without any performance based salaries or any  incentives.  The  salary  mechanism  will  need  some  serious  revisions  and  the  disparities  removed before any influx of efficient teachers can take place. It is going to be a challenge  to bridge the gap even by introducing teacher's training programs. According to a teacher of  a reputed school in Delhi, there are hundreds of students in one class and there is a huge  gap between the training imparted to teachers and what they practice on ground. Our HRD  Minister himself has acknowledged that there is a shortage of about five lakh teachers. In  the face of this, how will it fulfil its promise of providing quality education to all? It is going  to be a huge challenge.    14. Challenge to Enforce 25 % Quota for Weaker Sections It remains to be seen whether this clause to reserve 25 % of seats for weaker sections by Private unaided schools will turn out to be a boon or a bane. On one hand the Act aims at removing this bipolarity in education and on the other it is feared that interfering in the functioning of private schools will have an adverse effect on the quality of education. These institutes claim to have brought some semblance of order to the education system in our country. It is going to be a challenge for the government to work out modalities which can strike a balance between a six year old child who has just entered school and a child who has been to a school since the age of 3. It will be a cultural and social shock for him. Since it will be mandatory not to fail any child till standard 8th, the classes would be full and ensuring 101 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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quality education in the light of this a huge challenge. The biggest challenge in this is going to be the definition of weaker sections. This is where malpractices can creep in. A monitoring mechanism will also have to be set up to ensure its fair implementation. What will happen when a child belonging to the quota category wants to change school in higher classes? Logistics need to be worked out for a smooth transition there also. Will this help in eradicating the socioeconomic divide? It is tough task to bring together children from varying economic and social backgrounds on the same platform. It would indeed be challenging for the teachers to maintain equilibrium and create an environment for them to blend together.   RECOMMENDATIONS  A    small  interview  was    and  conducted  many  educators  were  asked  to  give  their  recommendations  and  opinion  regarding  RTE.  Suggestions  given  by  respondents  maybe  categorized under four broad areas ‐   1. Awareness 

Are ignorant about the law specially in rural areas. People Awareness among communities  about the Act is one of the key aspects for its successful implementation.    2. Capacity development  Capacity development is required at various levels to operational the Act. At the community  level, SMCs and Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs) need to be trained about their roles and  responsibilities; strengthening of systems and human resource development is also needed  to  make  efficient  use  of  available  resources,  and  most  importantly,  teachers  should  be  trained  to  impart  child‐cantered  education.  “The  main  reason  for  the  poor  quality  of  education centring around teachers include lack of delegation and authority given to them,  their  accountability,  inadequate  pre  service  and  almost  non‐existent  in‐service  training,  their  low  status  and  motivation  levels,  and  lack  of  support  in  terms  of  pedagogy,  infrastructure and content.” Dr. Shashank Vira, Independent Consultant.    3. Administration and Management  Administration  and  Managerial  modifications  are  needed  at  all  levels.  Making  practically  achievable  plans,  organizing  and  fully  and  efficiently  utilizing  of  resources,  recruitment  of  102 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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skilled  workers(teachers),  proper  co‐coordination  and  co‐operation  and  communication  at  all  levels  along  with  effective  control  is  needed  desperately.  Changes  would  not  come  suddenly  proper  planning  and  gradual  and  continuous  efforts  are  needed.  monitoring  of  programs  is  as  important  as  improving  the  quality  of  education  imparted.  “The  education  department should have two distinct functions – one to regulate the grants in aid and the  other  to  set  educational  standards.  At  present  the  focus  is  more  on  regulation  than  improving the educational standards”. Prof. Babu Mathew, National Law University.    4. Public Private Partnerships   Diverse  views  are  expressed  about  PPP,  reflecting  the  discomfort  of  civil  society  organizations and expectations of corporate organizations.    • PPP in “socially good” sectors should be undertaken by the public sector. Private agencies  can contribute to the process, but not take the lead.    • The private sector has a very limited presence in inaccessible areas. Therefore, providing  education should largely be the responsibility of the state.    •  Participation  of  the  private  sector  in  education  should  not  be  open  to  all  and  partners  need to be selected with caution. Only organizations with credibility should be considered.  Once selected, they should be given the flexibility to plan implementation of good quality  education in selected areas at the cost incurred by the Government. The Government can  pilot  this  in  the  new  schools  that  need  to  be  set  up.  This  will  have  a  spill  over  effect  on  existing  schools.  Furthermore,  parameters  should  be  set  to  monitor  the  performance  of  schools run by private stakeholders.    • There should be mutually defined outputs and outcomes, as well as accountability at all  levels, with the implementation of transparent and efficient procedures.    •  Partnership  with  the  private  sector  is  usually  seen  as  a  source  of  funding,  only  for  infrastructure development or to meet shortage of teachers.    103 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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•  If  the  aim  of  the  RTE  Act  is  to  improve  the  quality  of  education  imparted,  the  private  sector can be encouraged to sign PPPs and take on municipal schools. The Government can  reimburse corporate organizations the cost for running these schools. In other words, this  would mean following the Charter School model, which has been working successfully in the  US.    • There is a shortage of 2,00,000 secondary schools in India. These cannot be set up with  government resources alone. Therefore, there is a need for encouraging the private sector  to open schools in remote and difficult areas or where no public education institution exists.  The cost incurred by the state to educate children in public schools should be provided to  corporate  organizations  as  an  incentive,  and  there  should  be  reasonable  returns  on  investment.  Furthermore,  opportunities  need  to  be  created  whereby  private  players  can  participate on a cost‐neutral basis.    • There should be clarity of roles and the process should be transparent. The focus of MoUs  should be on child‐based contracts rather than on infrastructure‐based ones.    REFERENCES  Quality  Interventions  And  Other  Provisions  With  Effect  From  The  Notification  Of  The  Act  Implementation Of Right To Education Act In India, R Govinda, NUEPA.   “India  Has  A  Third  Of  The  World’s  Illiterates”,  Times  Of  India,  2004‐11‐09,   http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/India‐has‐a‐third‐of‐worlds,  lliterates/articleshow/916814.cms, retrieved 2009‐09‐20.Right to education  “Govt To Help Train Teachers”, Deccan Herald, 04 June 2011.  “RTE  In  India,”  RTE  India  Website,  Www.Rteindia.Com,  Accessed  7  August  2011.Right  To  Education  http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY‐Right‐to‐education/$FILE/EY‐Right‐to‐ education.pdf  Ram  Sarvapalli  Right  To  Education:  Role  Of  The  Private  Sector  March  2012,  Published  By  Ernst And Young.    ***  104 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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NEW HISTORICISM : A SIMPLIFIED CRITICAL OVERVIEW VEERAMANI, S. 1 AND DURGA DEVI, P. K. 2 1

Department of English, St. Joseph’s College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli – 620 002, Tamil Nadu, India E mail [email protected] 2

Department of English, Cauvery College for Women, Tiruchirappalli – 620018, Tamil Nadu, India E mail [email protected]

ABSTRACT New historicism is a part of cultural studies. It is critically a theoretical method to have read literature with a parallel study of literary texts and non-literary texts. Though it emerged during the heyday of post modernism, it rejects the concept of a historical which is decommissioned by post structuralist reading. And it borrows the ideation of the critical method of what is unread in the practice of deconstruction. Keywords : Cultural Products ,Historicity, Renaissance, Textuality and Text.

INTRODUCTION New historicism is a part of cultural studies. It is critically a theoretical method to have read literature with a parallel study of literary texts and non-literary texts. Though it emerged during the heyday of post modernism, it rejects the concept of a historical which is decommissioned by post structuralist reading. And it borrows the ideation of the critical method of what is unread in the practice of deconstruction.

During the heyday of postmodernism the term/movement meticulously acclaimed by American and English Critics is New historicism, which came into exist in 1980s. The term New historicism is coined by Stephen Green Blatt through his re-reading of Renaissance texts. Stephen Green Blatt is well-renowned and acknowledged cultural critic in America. For Renaissance studies Green Blatt makes a well-said, term is ‘early modern culture’. New historicism is transatlantic which passes across the world and deposits its qualitative critical method in other texts of many kinds. 105 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Formalist criticism and poststructuralist criticism refute historical concept and context when the above said critical views applied to interpret a text. On the complete contrary to Formalism and post structuralism, the unshaken movement New historicism rehabilitates ‘history’ and its fixation and re-fixation in the cultural products like cinema, movies, advertisements, sign boards and the like.

HISTORICISM : OLD AND NEW A literary text is evaluated from the mode of history. In the older historicism history forces in literary critic to sustain the conventional practices of interpretation. The Elizabethan World Picture a work by E.M.W. Tylliard. This work involves maintaining the reading practice with conventional and existing order of interpreting a text.

Where as the word ‘New’ in New historicism is differed from the older reading. New historicism makes a literary critic read and interpret with a parallel study of literary text and non-literary text. This way of new historicist reading, it is understood that a literary text is not a single entity and a mere sole product of an author. An author is influenced by historical and cultural codes, texts, contexts. From this point of view due can understand that a literary text reflects the degree of the relationship of an author with his society.

In New historicism the concept of ‘Power’ is marginalized. This movement rejects the ‘authority’. From this stand point of view this method takes its wings from deconstruction. This movement rejects ’authority’ and ‘power’ over history, literary texts and culture. Mostly Shakespearean dramas are reread with the perspective of new historicism to make readers have full-fledged cultural meanings. Therefore, a literary text belongs to its given era and history.

In accordance with this method literature and history are inter over together. In its simple sense of explanation one can find that literary and non literary texts are separable.

CHIASTIC PHRASE Louis Montrose who is acclaimed as a leading critic of New historicism has clearly stated that the chiastic phrase: ‘The historicity of text and textuality of history’. Explaining the above said chiastic phrase : 106 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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The historicity of text : A text has its own relevance with the cultural and social contents. And a literary text belongs to a specific culture and historical era. A literary text is embedded and a strata of a specific historical contexts. Historicity, historical context, cultural references are fused in a text.

The textuality of history : This phrase states a questionable mark in historical traces. This phrase emphasis that the past history, the knowledge of past and past historical and cultural references are existing only in the available cultural products, materials, and texts.

In his phrase ‘textuality of history’, Montrose questions whether the history is reliable or isstory?

Text : meaning from new historicism From the perspective of New historicism a text can be classified in to three a)

Literary text,

b)

Non-Literary text, and

c)

Cultural text

Text means that when any object aims at representing any kind of meaning in the cosmos called ‘text’. Literary text states that what literary students and teachers teach and study at the educational institutions level. (e.g.) A Book of Poetry, Hamlet, Pamela, Midnight’s Children.

Non - literary text stats that the texts other than literary can be classified in this category. The texts students and teachers of chemistry, physics, even history and mathematics can be. (e.g.) Special Theory of relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Inorganic chemistry, Anatomy and physiology , News paper , Magazines

Cultural text means that an event a happening, a festival, rituals, rites can be classified in this category. This kind of cultural text can involve people’s celebrations customs. (e.g.) bull-taming, cock-fighting, stone-lifting ‘Gana – song’ the meaning of bull-taming is to seek for bridge groom for one’s daughter. A Gana - song, expresses a person’s sufferings especially the other side of dalit people. 107 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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CRITICAL PRACTICE OF NEW HISTORICISM In the book Introducing Literary Theories: a Guide and Glossary edited by Julian Wolfreys, John Brannigan has criticized Shakespear’s The Tempest. In his essay ‘History Power and Politics in Literary Artifact: New historicism’ says that: ‘one of the most common methods used by New historicist critics to do this is to situate literary texts in relation to other texts of the same period, and to construct a kind of dialogue between a wide range of texts’. (Brannigan, 170)

Therefore a literary text is not a simply a sole product of an author. And there will be proper relation with literary and non literary texts of the same period. There is a complex and comprehensible networks of literary semiotics and non literary semiotics even with bio semiotics. This complex and comprehensible network can be called dialogue with more texts. The Tempest, this play is well to most of the people across the world. Therefore this critical overview discloses that The Tempest is an example to highlight the new historicist aspects. The Tempest negotiates and circulates the social energy among audience and the readers across the world.

In general, in colleges and other educational institutions the play The Tempest is taught in the perspective of conventional Shakespeare :

As the play of reconciliation As the play of usurpation As the play of Shakespeare’s last play

From the prospective of the political Shakespeare the same play is taught as new historicist text.

“Shakespeare based the events of the play… a ship that was wrecked in the Bermudas on its way to English Colony in Virginia in 1609” (Brannigan, 170)

Shakespeare also has taken the raw materials for his play The Tempest from the ‘Bermuda Triangle Ship Wrecked’. 108 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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PARALLEL STUDY

Historical / Cultural Context

Historical / Cultural Contexts

referred to the Play

Ship wrecked on Island between

Ship wrecked in 1609 in Virginia

Tunis and Naples

Ship wreck meant for colonial encounter

Play meant for colonial encounter (Prospero and Caliban)

Myth? Colonizers got magical powers

Prospero got magical powers

(believed by native American)

(Prospero = Colonizer)

English people civilized and colonized

Miranda and Prospero taught Caliban and Colonized

CONCLUSION From the new historical prospective a literary text must be studied on par with other non literary texts to make full – fledged understanding of a literary text. Historicism may be an obsolete term but new historicism is needed at present to make comprehensive. Even a piece of news in dailies and cartoon would influence an author to reverberate those in his literary work. Therefore, all the non-literary texts and cultural texts carry a specific meaning. Because, it belongs to its specific history and culture of a particular era. This article suggests the literary folks to read the books and articles of Louis Montrose, Stephen Green Blatt, Alan Sinfield, Catherine Gallagher, John Drakakis for further satisfaction.

References: Drakakis, John. Alternative Shakespeare. London: Routledge, 1985. Print. Waugh, Patricia. Literary Theory and Criticism. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print. Wolfreys, Julian. Introducing Literary Theories: A Guide and Glossary. Delhi: Edinburgh University Press, 2001. Print. *** 109 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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THE FORGOTTEN SPIRIT OF HUMANITY AND HUMAN RELIGION  MAHESH DATTANI’S FINAL SOLUTION     TANEJA, JYOTI  Department of English, Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee Government Arts and Commerce College,  Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India    ABSTRACT  Drama in India has always had a celebrated rich tradition. He is a playwright of the modern  times  who  has  made  a  substantial  standing  in  today’s  world  by  focusing  on  the  burning  issues  that  take  over  the  glare of  publicity.  Final  Solutions can  be  said to  be  custom‐made  very  close  to  Babri  Masjid  demolition  in  1992  and  so  was  erroneously  regarded  the  playwright’s response to the demolition. The play brought Dattani the ‘Academi Award’, it  transcends  the  limitations  of  a  specific  historic  moment  participating  in  a  framework  of  modernity despite shifts in societal patterns. Final Solutions is a stage play of three acts, it  goes deep into the historical past and lays its accolade in acknowledging the similarity and  respecting the differences of the two religions. It is a play connecting the current to the past  unforgettable  and  unforgiving  trauma  of  1947.  The  paper  is  an  attempt  to  heighten  and  analyze  the internal  conflicts  of  the play.  The  fanatics,  prejudiced  and  the  fundamentalists  are so blinded as to not see the real truth. Their actions are illogical, foolish, thoughtless and  unguarded by the spirit of true faith in humanity and human religion. Dattani has used this  literary genre to reflect and understand the contemporary socio‐political issues through the  process of the play. (and the psyche of his characters)The script persistently questions and  makes  the  audience  ponder  over  the  urgent  need  to  use  effective  and  sensible  communication to solve burning issues like communalism.   Keywords  :  Historic  Moment,  Religion,  Babri  Masjid,  Socio  ‐  Political  Issues  and  Communalism.     It is a widely acknowledged fact that literature is a reflection of the society. Since ages the  writers  have  been  transporting  the  real–life  in  their  society  into  poetry,  fiction  or  drama.  Drama in India has always had a celebrated rich tradition. Dramas portray human life and  110 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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action  through  characters  who,  by  their  words,  action  and  reaction,  convey  certain  messages for the purpose of education, information and entertainment. It is the most direct  form of performing arts and forms an immediate bond with the audience while maintaining  aesthetics of the art. Badal Sircar, Vijay Tendulkar, Girish Karnad were dominating the Indian  Theatre  for  a  long  time  prior  to  Mahesh  Dattani  bringing  his  plays  for  Indian  audience.  Dattani a playwright of the modern times made a substantial standing in today’s world by  focusing on the burning issues that take over the glare of publicity. He is a versatile genius, a  director,  actor,  dancer,  teacher  and  a  writer.  Dattani’s  plays  are  not  to  be  read  in  the  drawing room they are to be staged, the magic of words to be heard, the emotions of the  characters  to  be  felt  as  they  dive  down  to  show  up    the  reality  of  life,  the  reality  of  the  society..      Mahesh Dattani’s plays are based on various themes like crime, unusual love relationships,  on  gay  personalities  containing  the  essentials  of  drama  i.e.  misery,  passion,  human  emotions  which  touch  the  very  essence  of  a  human  being.  The  play  brought  Dattani  the  ‘Academi Award’; it transcends the limitations of a specific historic moment participating in  a  framework  of  modernity  despite  shifts  in  societal  patterns.  Indian  history  witnessed  the  horrible bloodshed of partition on one hand and the pleasure of independence on the other.  The partition suddenly made the two communities bitter enemies and people became blood  thirsty in the name of religion. This communal enmity did not end here and further clashes  were  witnessed  time  to  time.  Final  Solutions  was  written  very  close  to  Babri  Masjid  demolition  in  1992  and  so  was  mistakenly  regarded  the  playwright’s  response  to  the  demolition. Whereas it is not just a play dramatizing the present India but deals with issues  dealing  with  hatred,  aggression  exploitation  of  communal  riots  and  the  outlook  of  the  fanatics in the context of the India in 1940s combined with the present India.     Final Solutions is a stage play of three acts connecting the current to the past unforgettable  and  unforgiving  trauma  of  1947.  It  goes  deep  into  the  historical  past  and  lays  its  seething  review in conceding the similarity and respecting the differences of the two religions. Loss of  identity,  memory,  sufferings  and  loss,  human  weaknesses,  selfishness,  greed  and  deviousness  woven  together  are  the  issues  taken  up  by  Dattani  in  the  play.  The  play  was  first performed at Guru Nanak Bhawan, Banglore, on 10 July 1993. It was later performed at  111 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Tara Theatre, Mumbai in December 1993, under Alyque Padamsee’s direction. It is a stage  play  with  a  story  of  engrossing  communalism  in  a  country  of  cultural  and  communal  diversity. In the Note on the Play the director Alyque Padamsee expresses his bitterness ‐   ‘  The  demons  of  communal  hatred  are  not  out  on  the  street…they  are  lurking  inside  ourselves. ’    He also talks about ‘ the transferred resentments… about looking for a scapegoat to hit out  at when we feel let down, humiliated.’     The  character  of  Daksha  has  been  used  very  dexterously  by  Dattani  as  she  connects  and  analyses  the  past  and  present  through  her  diary.  The  play  is  in  three  acts,  in  the  first  act  introduces the situation and in the second the action arises leading to the climax in the third  when the play turns philosophical with Javed and Bobby arriving at the final solution of the  communal hatred. The fanatic Hindu mob chases Javed and Bobby and they take refuge in  Ramnik Gandhi’s house. There is panic outside riots have broken down because of the rath  yatra. All kinds of rumors create fear in the mind of the people. Ramniks wife is a religious  lady  and  their  daughter  Smita  is  a  liberal,  a  humanitarian.  Hardika  (Daksha)  is  the  oldest  character  in  the  house.  The  play  is  set  up  in  the  house  of  Ramanik,  kitchen  and  a  prayer  room are visible with a ramp where the masks of Hindu and Muslims keep moving with their  identities as required according to the scene.      The  play  takes  up  the  issues  of  major  communities  in  different  contexts  and  situations.  It  talks of cultural supremacy, how the two communities fight and how Hindu’s suffer at the  hands  of  the  Muslim  majority  like  Daksha  in  Hussainabad  and  how  Javed  suffers  where  Hindus  are  in  majority.  Such  riots  become  a  hindrance  to  the  nation’s  progress,  and  the  question  of  pseudo  secularism  is  raised  for  the  audience  to  ponder  over  the  spirit  of  humanity which seems to have long lost.  Dattani has used theatrically devices effectively.  The ‘mob’ in the play is symbolic of collective hatred not individual hatred. And the ‘chorus’  wears sometimes the ‘Hindu’ mask and sometimes the ‘Muslim’ masks continuously singing  and  revealing  the  hatred  of  the  two  communities.  Act  III  makes  use  of  theatrical  devices  flawlessly. The Act starts with Muslim Chorus singing on the highest level of the ramp ‐     Chorus 1 ‐ Should we be swallowed up ? Till they cannot recognize us ? Should we meld into  112 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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anonymity so they cannot hound us ? Lose ourselves in shapeless mass ? Should we ? Can  we ?   In deep philosophical tones they go on praying with musical slow drumbeats ‐   Chorus 1 ‐ A drop of oil cannot merge with an ocean of milk. One reality cannot accept other  reality.     The other two stage spaces are occupied by Bobby and Javed on the floor and Daksha on  the other side. Daksha is a young girl who writes her feelings in a diary and the story of the  play  moves  through  her  eyes.  Daksha  grows  up  to  be  Hardika,  the  grandmother.  Daksha  with her past recollections, Javed with his guilt and the predicament of the relationship all  stand together. Daksha ( Hardika) reads her diary aloud to accentuate her feelings about the  celebrations over the country in 1947 and regrets at the communal riots which took place  immediately after that. She reads from her diary:   Like last year, in August, a most terrible thing happened in our country. We… (tries hard to  read her handwriting)…gained independence. You should have seen it. Everyone was awake  midnight‐like  children  on  the  last  day  of  school,  waiting  for  the  last  bell  of  the  last  class  before vacation. And their rushing out and screaming and shouting and fighting.   (CP 166)      Daksha has not just witnessed violence in her community but also within the boundary walls  of  her  own  home.  She  also  recalls  the  days  when  her  friendship  with  Zarine  is  distortedly  presented; she loved Zarine and says ‐‘Out of all the girls, I like Zarine…Khoja women are the  prettiest in the whole world’ (CP 175). On another instance she talks about her enjoying the  songs of Noor‐Jehan at Zarine’s house.   Zarine  and  I  talked  and  laughed  for  at  least  ten  minutes  before  I  mentioned  the  gramophone.  I  told  her  my  in‐laws  did  not  allow  me  to  play  gramophone…..We  both  listened and along with Noor Jehan. (CP 203)    Her personal pain and suffering fuse with the men in general, which miss the days of peace  and  love  only  to  feel  loss  of  identity,  the  human  spirit  which  bound  them  and  has  lost  its  way into hatred and violence. Daksha says ‐   All  my  dreams  have  been  shattered……………..Hari’s  parents  are  against  my  singing  film  113 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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songs.  His  parents  heard  me  told  him  to  tell  me…….I  am  just  a  young  girl  who  does  not  matter to anyone outside her home. May be I should talk about more important   things.  Like  last  year,  in  August,  a  most  terrible  thing  to  our  country.  We…….gained  independence… (CP 166)     The chorus as mentioned plays a considerable role in portraying the inner most feelings of  the  two  communities.  The  psyche  of  people  of  both  the  communities  is  revealed  in  this  unique manner. There are five men each in a chorus holding masks of the Hindus and the  Muslims  symbolic  of  the  masks  we  human  wear  in  the  name  of  secularism  and  humanity.  The  human  spirit  is  the  same  it  is  only  the  mask  that  keeps  changing.  The  Gandhi  house  becomes a symbol of the nation accommodating both the religions. Both the Muslim boys  come here and it is through the chorus that the resentment of the Hindus is expressed ‐    Chorus All. Throw them out! Give them to us !   Chorus 1. Before they do harm.   Chorus All. Thwart them. So we may live in peace.( CP 180‐181).    Such dialogues by the chorus express the fear, the threat, which is also expressed time and  again through  Hardika’s diary ‐   My father had fought for that hour. And he was happy when it came. He said he was happy  we were rid of the Britishers. He also said that before leaving, they had her loose the dogs. I  hated to think that he was talking about my friends’ fathers…But that in Hussainabad in our  ancestral house‐ when I heard them outside‐ I knew that they were thinking the same of us.  (CP 167).    She feels that things have not changed much even after forty years. Much has changed and  yet the conflicts, the enemity remain the same‐ as the young Daksha leaves her diary with  her older self‐Hardika ‐   Hardika. After forty years…I opened my diary again. And I wrote. A dozen pages before. A  dozen pages now. A young girl’s childish scribble. An old woman’s shaky scrawl. Yes, things  have not changed that much. (CP 167).    Smita, Aruna and Ramnik’s daughter is a rationalist and a humanist in her attitude. She asks  114 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Javed to fill God’s water and is not able to understand how water can be contaminated by a  Muslim’s hand touching the water.    Aruna  (to Javed). We don’t allow anyone to fill our drinking water. No outsiders.    Smita. Mummy, please !   

Aruna.  We  bathe  our  God  with  it,  Smita.  It  has  to  be  pure.  It  must  not  be  contaminated.                            (CP 209).    It  is  through  Smita  and  Bobby,  Dattani  is  conveys  to  the  audience  the  message  of  acceptance of the differences and to live peacefully. Smita and Bobby are both humanists in  the true sense of the word. They have understood that prejudice and narrow‐mindedness  are  unreasonable,  illogical  and  make  people  inhuman.  It  is  through  these  two  characters  Humanism and the lost Spirit of Humanity in the play becomes visible when Smita says to  Aruna‐   Smita. Because you know they don’t believe in all things that you feel are true. Doesn’t that  make your belief that much more weak….We would have never spoken about what makes  us  different  from  each  other.  We  would  have  gone  on  living  our  lives  with  our  petty  similarities. (CP211).    And Bobby tells Smita ‐   Bobby  (to  Smita).  I  never  could  express  my  feelings  as  well  as  you  do.  Maybe  my  religion  oppressed me far more. (CP 213).     Bobby is the one who in the end untangles the communal conflict as a Muslim, he opens his  shoes and walks towards the pooja room where as Javed stiffens. Aruna tries to stop him,  but he says, “See ! See !  I am touching God !”   Your God !  My flesh is holding Him! Look, Javed ! And He does not mind !   He does not burn me to ashes! He does not cry out from the heavens saying He has been    contaminated !   Look how he rests in my hands! He knows I cannot harm Him. He knows His strength! I don’t  believe in Him but He believes in me. He smiles! He smiles at our trivial pride and our trivial  shame. (CP 224).    115 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Like  true  humanists,  the  two  keep  the  spirit  of  human  religion  above  their  respective  religions. Bobby philosophizes in the end ‐   …..You can bathe Him day and night, you can splash holy waters on Him but cannot remove  my  touch….my  smell...................because  it  belongs  to  a  human  being  who  believes,  and  tolerates, and respects what other human beings believe. That is the strongest fragrance in  the world! ( CP 225).    Thus  making  use  of  all the  theatrical  devices  Dattani  through  the  mob,  chorus,  Daksha’s  /  Hardika’s diary which moves in the past and present, showing internal conflicts, the play has  conveyed the pain, loss, turbulence in the minds of people. The fanatics, prejudiced and the  fundamentalists are so blinded as to not see the real truth. Their actions are illogical, foolish,  thoughtless  and  unguarded  by  the  spirit  of  true  faith  in  humanity  and  human  religion.  Dattani  has  used  this  literary  genre  to  reflect  and  understand  the  contemporary  socio‐ political issues through the process of the play and the psyche of his characters. The script  persistently questions and makes the audience ponder over the urgent need to use effective  and  sensible  communication  to  solve  burning  issues  like  communalism.  The  answers  are  given indirectly to be thought over through the characters. The earlier it is understood the  better it is for the ‘Spirit of Humanity’ and for the one religion encompassing all the religions  ‐ the Human Religion.      REFERENCES   Dattani, Mahesh. ‘Final Solutions’ Collected Plays, Vol.1. New Delhi : Penguin, 2000.   Das,  Bijay  Kumar.  Form  and  Meaning  in  Mahesh  Dattani’s  Plays.  N.  Delhi  :    Atlantic  Publishers, 2008. Google Book Search. 8 January 2013.  Myles,  Anita.  Contemporary  Indian  English  Drama  an  Overview.  New  Delhi:  Sarup  Book  Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 2010. Google Book Search. 17 January 2013.     ***  116 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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DIASPORA IN BERNARD MALAMAUD’S NOVEL ‘THE FIXER’

KUMAR, SANTHOSH L. I M. A. ENGLISH LANG & LITREATURE, MADRAS CHRISTIAN COLLEGE TAMBARAM, CHENNAI - 600 059, India

ABSTRACT The word Diaspora derives from the Greek words dia (‘through’ or ‘over’) and sperio (‘dispersal’ or ‘to sow’), and is a complex and contested word understandably so, given its specific historical association with the dispersions of the Jewish People. Bernard Malamaud was an American author of novels and short stories. He was one of the best known American Jewish authors of the twentieth century. His notable works include Baseball, The Natural. His 1966 novel THE FIXER, about anti-Semitism in Tsarit Russia, won both the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize. In the Novel THE FIXER he presents the character of Yakov Bok as a diasporic personality . The word carried Connotations of Violence, Catastrophe, alienation, loss, exile and return; and concepts never remain static, and it is true through the Bernard Malamaud’s Novel THE FIXER . The Diasporic discourse is largely political as it involves an unequal power-relationship. Keywords : Diaspora, Dispersions, Bernard Malamaud and Yakov Bok.

Diasporic or expatriate writing occupies a place of great significance between countries and cultures. Diasporic writers live on the margins of two countries and create cultural theories. The term diaspora is used to refer to any body of people or ethnic population who are forced or induced to leave their traditional homeland forming a community in the land of their own choice. Living in diaspora means living in forced or voluntary exile and living in exile usually leads to severe identity confusion and problems of identification with and alienation from old and new cultures and homelands.

Diaspora today has become an umbrella term absorbing a variety of experiences of alienation, political compulsions, ambition and material pursuits. Bernard Malamaud, an American has 117 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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authored many novels and short stories. He is one of the best known American Jewish authors of the twentieth century. Being a Jew he expresses the sufferings faced by his community and the Jews are primarily said to be the chosen people of God. Diasporic writing brings into focus, as a matter of fact, not merely the role of the intellectual or the relationship of teaching to the evolution of democracy, but also the intellectual’s need to move away from a mere language of critique for a redefinition as part of language of transformation and hope. It is only on this premise that the struggle against racism,class structure, sexism, and other forms of oppression would gather new momentum.

THE FIXER begins in shtetl in Russia where Yakov lives near his father- in law Shmuel. Before the beginning of the story Yakov’s wife Raisl left him. There was a friction in their marriage because the couple did not have a child. Yakov Bok decides to move out of his place and settle in a different place and lead a comfortable life. The name Yakov Bok means a scapegoat. It is evident because being a Jew he is being oppressed in his work place and he is not able to reveal his own identity and he is said to be experiencing Victim Diaspora. Through him the Victim Diaspora speaks. Dislocation, disjunction, instability and double vision have generally characterized the diasporic writing. Yakov Bok started to work in the brickyard and this is the offer given to him by Lebdev. The work place seems to be an alienated land for Yakov Bok because the place which he is residing is strictly forbidden for the Jews. The people around him were not in good terms with him because being a Jew they thought that he is a sinner and his deeds will not be pure. Through Yakov Bok it is evident that for the diasporic people both the native land and the alien land seems to be uncomfortable. Diasporic writing acquires significance because they deal with universal problems.

Proshko is said to be a man of follies because he would be selling the bricks illegally and Yakov Bok did not like his actions and he warns Proshko not to indulge in these activities. The next day Proshko is killed by someone and everyone is disturbed; and people believed that since Yakov Bok and Proshko were not in good terms Yakov Bok would have killed him. This upsets Yakov Bok and the higher authorities of the government inspect the place 118 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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and they suspect Yakov Bok. They believe that being a Jew Yakov Bob should have done this deed and the authorities arrest him. Being a victim in the alienated land makes the victim to get dejected. Diasporic writing too is double faced as there is the preoccupation with home for a variety of different reasons, but there is also the cultural representation of a society in statis.

True enough, migrations will continue to take place as they have always been; diasporas have the capacity to exert political pressure on host nations. Political pressure matters a lot in this novel because a Jew cannot live independently on earth and the life which he wishes to live is not accepted and this attitude is not an healthy one. If a particular religion has committed the sin means the entire people of that religion are not the sinners. To put it in the words of Karl Mark Religion is nothing but the opium of masses. Religion does not give identity to an individual and through religion we cannot judge the character of an individual. The entire fiction deals with the corrupted minds of the people who think that the Jews are malignant.Loss of identity is a theme discussed by the author in this fiction and it is the theme which is being discussed generally by the diasporic or expatriate writers.

It is true that Diasporic sensibility aims at the study of the author’s dilemma in accepting a new culture and tradition. Out of Rootlessness the authors create characters , who always suffer. Thus the culture collision is the major theme of an expatriate writer.

Bernard

Malamaud being a Jew how his people are being suppressed and the sufferings faced by the Yakov Bok clearly resembles the sufferings of the entire Jewish Community. Bibikov the investigating magisterate is a fair person and he believes that Good should be rewarded and bad should be punished. He knows the truth that Yakov Bok did not commit any sin and the authorities had made him the scape goat because he is a Jew and Bibikov is of the view that Yakov Bok should be released. The authorities want the Yakov Bok to repent for his sins which is actually not done by him and if he do his confession means that will bring the end of the investigation. Yakov is transferred to another prison and then to a solitiary cell. Another person is put in near by Yakov’s cell. Yakov was interacting with him and in a matter of few

119 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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days. Yakov discovered that the person who was in next to his cell was found dead and he is none other than Bibikov.

Bibikov is being arrested by the authorities because they found that he had a good opinion about Yakov Bok. These happenings made the authorities angry and they pronounce capital punishment to Bibikov. As time passes Yakov slowly gives up hope of receiving an indictment. Until he is indicted, he cannot have the aid of the lawyer and he will be left in the prison without any outcome. Despite this, with or without hope of a trial, Yakov refuses to confess.

Yakov remains stubborn against admitting what he did not do. He even refuses the offer of forgiveness of his crime as a part of an amnesty decree in celebration of three hundred years of Romanov rule. Accepting Amnesty would imply that he knows that he is guilty. It is tempting, in that he may be set free from prison, but he is innocent and the acceptance of amnesty would not sit right in his heart. Finally, Yakov receives an indictment for the crime and is allowed to speak with the lawyer. Slowly, the time of trial approaches. As Yakov rides to the trial in a carriage, he knows that he has achieved his goal.

Cultural identity is certainly the treasure of personhood. There is an implicit way of thinking in the supposition that globalization troubles one’s identities. Before the era of globalization, there existed native, independent, discrete and well-defined, and culturally supporting associations amid locality and cultural experience. These relations determined one’s community and ‘cultural identity’. This identity was treated as an uninterrupted existential inheritance of traditional continuity. Identity, then, was not just an account of cultural belonging. In fact, it was a kind of communal wealth of local cultures.

The sense of Homelessness and nostalgia for lost home is one of the important themes of the diasporic writings. While some writers regret the loss of land they left behind mythologizing through memory, nostalgia and imagination, others make expatriation a positive act of distancing, conducive to an expanded view of human experience and diverse cultures. In this 120 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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respect, diasporic writing achieves the purpose of celebrating marginality and embracing at the same time multiculturalism and diversity.

Globalization, in common knowledge, is a phenomenon of the late twentieth century but some people include the first phase of European expansion in the 15th and 16th centuries on its definition. There is now a similar expansiveness associated with the word diaspora. The immigrant’s individualism is gradually at stake. He/she is unable to adapt to the settled country’s culture, society, politics, etc. Therefore he/she feels dislocated. The collision of globalization is, no doubt the interplay of an institutionalized and technology-driven impulsion towards globalism with ‘localizing’ forces. This drive encounters oppositions in the hands of diverse traditions, conventions, processes and practices signifying multifaceted orders of ‘locality’.

Diaspora is a journey towards self realization, self recognition, self knowledge and self definition. Migrants and diasporics encounter new epistomoligies and new ways of living. The diasporic writings also known as theory of migrancy helps generate aesthetic evaluvation, negotiates with cultural constructs and aid the emergence of new identity. Bernard Malamud has cleverly penned the psychological sufferings faced by his people and who are being victimized for unwanted reasons is brought to light through the character of Yakov Bok. It is Bernard Malamaud who speaks through the character of Yakov Bok.

WORKS CITED LAL .V BRIJ: The Encyclopedia of the Indian Diaspora University of Hawaii Press ISBN: 9780824831462 Print. SINGH INDER MANJIT: Contemporary Diasporic Literature Pemcraft International Delhi Vinoda. T Shailaja.P : The Expatriate Indian Writing in English Vol.2 Prestige Books New Delhi ISBN: 81-7551-182-6 Print. Malamaud, Bernard THE FIXER. Russia: Farrar , Straus & Giroux Publishers 1966. Print.

*** 121 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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AN APPLE PIE ANALYSIS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES IN TAMIL NADU AMUTHAN, AROCKIA V. Ph. D. Research Scholar, Department of Economics, Madras Christian College (Autonomous), Tambaram, Chennai – 600059, Tamil Nadu, India E mail [email protected] Mobile + 91 99658 44792

ABSTRACT This research study background of the planning process lays great stress on addressing the problem of rural development in all its dimensions. The spectre of rural poverty, infrastructural gaps, unemployment, and provision of basic amenities, low asset base are issues that warrant appropriate interventions. Rural development must be viewed against the fact that more than half of the population in Tamil Nadu (56 per cent) still live in rural areas spreading over 12,618 village panchayats. Hence, this paper examine to relationship between budgetary allocation for rural development and total budgetary expenditure in Government of Tamil Nadu. Secondly, broad view of analyse to the functions of major central and state rural welfare development schemes in Tamil Nadu. This study makes use of secondary data relating to budgetary expenditure on Tamil Nadu, various development schemes related data in Tamil Nadu from Rural Development and Panchayat Raj Reports, Budgetary Documents, Tamil Nadu Development Report and Planning Commission Reports. This present study attempts to contextualize regression work in budgetary expenditure on rural development. The last section concludes the discussion. Keywords : Infrastructure, Budgetary Allocation, Regression and Employment. JEL Classification : C12, C35, H53, I38. INTRODUCTION A district of dichotomy exists between rural and urban areas. The dichotomy finds expression in terms of social dualism, technological dualism and financial dualism. The governments both at the centre and the state have been initiating a number of schemes and programmes and redoubling their efforts to make the rural sector more dynamic, vibrant and resilient. The efforts taken by the Government paid much dividend in the field of education, health, water supply, rural connectivity, tele-density, communication network, technology, distribution of 122 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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banking services, poverty reduction and employment generation. Although, the rural sector is being revitalized. The idea of providing urban facilities in rural areas is gaining much currency and momentum. Provision of basic amenities in rural areas occupies a centre stage in the planning of rural development. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The present study attempts to examine the socio-economic impact of the rural welfare schemes in Tamil Nadu. It examines how far the programmes have helped in raising the income and levels of living of the rural poor and in enabling them to overcome the poverty line. The study would provide a framework for drawing suitable guidelines for the empowerment of rural people through various welfare schemes in Tamil Nadu. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1.

To examine relationship between budgetary allocation for rural development and total budgetary expenditure in Government of Tamil Nadu.

2.

To analyse the functions of major central and state rural welfare development schemes in Tamil Nadu.

SOURCES OF DATA This study makes use of secondary data relating to budgetary expenditure on Tamil Nadu, various development schemes related data in Tamil Nadu from Rural Development and Panchayat Raj Reports, Budgetary Documents, Tamil Nadu Development Report and Planning Commission Reports. STATISTICAL TOOLS USED Frequency tables were used to understand the divergence in various levels of growth of MGNREGA Scheme Self Help Groups Scheme.

Various functional forms of Linear

Regression Model were used to estimate the cause and effect relationship between the dependent and independent variables. INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT The village panchayats are vested with powers to develop infrastructural facilities in the villages to bridge the urban rural divide in respect of standard of living, availability of 123 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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facilities like education, health, basic amenities and housing. The target group being the rural poor, efforts is taken up to get them out of the miasma of poverty by providing all their needs. To improve the infrastructure development of the villages in the Stat as a whole, Government of India has framed Central and State schemes such as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, Indira Awaas Youjana, like Swarna Jeyanth Gram Swarazgar Yojana (SGSY) and Anaithu Grama Marumalarchi Thittam (AGMT), etc. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT The endeavor of both state and central Governments has been to alleviate poverty and uplift the poorest of the poor through various programmes o income generation, wage employment and asset building.

The strategies for providing self-employment generation income

imparting technology and skill upgradation constitute the core of the rural development programmes. The state is providing substantial funds in addition to central allocation to rural areas to carry out rural development activities. TABLE – 1 BUDGETARY EXPENDITURE ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT (RS. IN LAKHS) Rural

Total

Rural

Total

Development

Expenditure

Development

Expenditure

2001 - 02

60851

531890

2006 - 07

145327

1243926

2002 - 03

56381

584105

2008 - 09

178006

1627510

2003 - 04

84918

708832

2009 - 10

202935

1783350

2004 - 05

75091

828584

2010 - 11

359254

2046477

2005 - 06

117258

967585

2011 - 12

300620

2353502

Year

Year

Source : Annual Financial Statement (various reports), Government of Tamil Nadu. The state budgetary expenditure for rural development for the year 2001 - 02 constituted Rs. 60,851 lakhs which accounted for 11.44 per cent of the total budgetary allocation. This trend increased to for the year of 2011-12 in rural development expenditure Rs. 3,00,620 which contribute for 12.7 per cent of the total budgetary allocation. 124 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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TABLE – 2 BUDGETARY AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURE – LINEAR REGRESSION RESULTS

Model

Un standardized

Standardized

Coefficients

Coefficients

Std.

Β

Butoexp

0.151

26137.1 0.019

Sig

-0.290

0.233

8.156

0.001

R2

F

Beta

Error

(Constant) - 33708.846

T

-0.945

0.893 66.517

Dependent Variable : Budgetary Rural Development Expenditure (in Rs. Lakhs). Independent Variable : Butoexp : Budgetary Total expenditure (in Rs. Lakhs). Yi = β1 + β2 Xi + Ui = β1 + β2 (Butoexp) + ei = -33708.846 + 0.151(Butoexp) + ei t

(8.156)

2

r = 0.89

sig (0.001)

F = 66.57

First, let us interpret this regression. As expected, there are no perfect linear relationships between total budgetary expenditure and rural development expenditure by Government of Tamil Nadu. If total expenditure went up by additional rupees one lakh in total budgetary expenditure, the estimated increase in the mean or average rural development expenditure amounts to Rs. 15,000. If total budgetary expenditure were zero, the average rural development expenditure would be about Rs. - 33708.84 lakhs. Because of zero budgetary expenditure value is out of the range of values, government are working with many development projects in rural area if budgetary expenditure goes to zero the rural development works need to additional amount for Rs. 33,708.84 lakhs in subsequent years. Of course, this mechanical interpretation of the intercept may not make much economic sense. The value of r2 of 0.89 means that about 89 per cent of the variation in the rural development expenditure and budgetary expenditure is highly positively correlated.

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REVIEW OF CENTRALLY SPONSORED SCHEMES MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE SCHEME

This is one of the flagship programmes of Government of India. The main objective of this scheme is to enhance the livelihood security in rural areas by providing 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to any rural household whose adult members are willing to do unskilled manual work. The MGNREGA was launched in Tamil Nadu in February 2nd 2005 as per provisions of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005. The scheme had been implemented in the State in phased manner covering all the 30 districts. The phase – I covers six district in the state. The phase – II was introduced and implemented covering four districts from 1st April 2008. In the phase – II, the remaining 20 districts were covered except in the Chennai in the state. TABLE – 3 MGNREGA FUNDS RELEASED, EXPENDITURE AND MANDAYS GENERATED Allocation Year

(Rs. in Crores)

Expenditure

Number of Mandays

(Rs. in Crores)

Target

% of

Achievement Achievement

2008 - 2009

1757.76

1005.15

2152.00

1203.60

55.90

2009 - 2010

2355.08

1676.37

2391.95

1963.00

82.10

2010 - 2011

2997.10

2354.56

2895.00

2685.63

92.80

Source

:

Department of Rural Development and Panchayat Raj (Various Reports), Chennai.

The MGNREGA in Tamil Nadu which is a wage employment programme has been getting a higher allocation year after year and the expenditure incurred for this scheme was also on the increase. This scheme is intended to generate employment the target had been fully achieved during 2012-13. As of March 2012, a total number of 77.47 lakh households were cumulatively registered and job cards were issued by the village panchayat council’s concerned. A total number of 49.69 lakh households had received wage employment under this scheme. Nearly, a sizeable portion of 83 per cent of total employment generated under MGNEGA was shared by women during 2010-11. 126 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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INDIRA AWAS YOJANA (IAY) The IAY is a scheme for rural BPL families and has been in operation since May 1985. Initially the IAY was under the Jawagar Rozgar Yojana (JAY) as a sub scheme and became independent since 1997-98.

The basic objective of the scheme is to help

construction of new dwelling units as well as conversion of unserviceable kutcha houses into pacca/semi pacca houses to the marginalized sections of the society who are living below the poverty line by extending them grants-in-aid. The scheme is funded by the center and state in the ratio of 75:25. This unit cost each house is fixed by the Government of India Rs.33,750 and state contribute Rs. 11,250. Besides, the Government of Tamil Nadu gives an addition amount of Rs. 55,000 for cement concrete roofing of the house form 2010-11. Thus, the unit cost of the house had been increased from Rs. 45,000 toRs. 1,00,000 and also subsidy of Rs. 2,200 out of the total sanitation funds provided to enable each beneficiary to construct a toilet in the IAY house. This scheme had gone a long way in reducing the problem of acute housing shortage in rural areas. SWARNA JEYANTHI GRAM SWAROZGAR YOJANA (SGSY) This is implemented since April 1999 as a major anti-poverty and self-employment scheme for the rural poor, by organizing them into Self Help Groups (SHGs), providing them the skill development training and helping them to get credit linkage with financial institutions, to make them self-employed and providing infrastructure and marketing support for the products produced by them. The Government of India and State Government share the cost in the ratio of 75:25. The SGSY fund is used to provide subsidy for revolving fund assistance and economic loan assistance to Self Help Groups. Part of the scheme component is also utilized for formation of groups and conduct of training for capacity-building and skill upgradation. After the first grading, the SHGs are provided with a revolving fund of Rs. 10,000 for first linkage, Rs. 1,00,000 for second linkage and Rs. 1,50,000 for third and subsequent linkages; after the second grading, the successful SHGs are provided with economic loan assistance. 127 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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TABLE – 4 YEAR- WISE ALLOTMENT UNDER SGSY IN GOVERNMENT OF TAMIL NADU

Year

Financial Allocation ( Rs. in Crores )

2005 - 2006

62.56

2006 - 2007

69.39

2007 - 2008

105.87

2008 - 2009

125.16

2009 - 2010

128.14

2010 - 2011

148.04

Source : Rural Development & Panchayat Raj Department Report, 2011. In 2010 - 11, a sum of Rs. 148.04 cores was allocated for the implementation of this scheme with a credit target of Rs. 243.936 crores. A major portion of the scheme component was utilized for the disbursement of the subsidy component of revolving fund to the eligible SHGs formed under Mahalir Thittam. Encouragement was provided for the marketing of products produced by SHGs. There were 5.35 lakh SHGs with 82.84 lakh members having a total savings of Rs. 3,225 crores in Tamil Nadu. They obtained Rs. 15,015 crores of assistance under Mahalir Thittam. PRADHAM MANTRI GARAM SADAK YOJANA (PMGSY) – RURAL ROAD CONNECTIVITY This was launched in 2000 to provide all weather access to unconnected habitations. PMGSY is a centrally sponsored scheme. The objective programmes are to provide round the year connectivity by all weather roads with necessary culverts and cross drainage structures. In the year of 2001 to 2008 for 4,949 roads had been taken up for a length of 9,984.32 kilometer at a cost of Rs. 2,204 crores. Out of this 4801 works had been completed. The remaining works would compete shortly in various villages around Tamil Nadu.

128 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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REVIEW OF GOVERNMENT OF TAMIL NADU RURAL DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES

ANNAITHU GRAMA ANNA MARUMALARCHI THITTAM (AGAMT) This is a State scheme which aims at a substantial injection resources into the Village Panchayats in the stat in five years so that they can provide the statutory services and provide infrastructure in rural areas. The scheme was formally inaugurated in 2007. TABLE – 5 AGAMT FUND ALLOTMENT IN YEAR-WISE Year

Funds Allotted (Rs.in crores)

Village Covered (in numbers)

2006 - 07

513.08

2540

2007 - 08

511.87

2534

2008 - 09

509.04

2520

2009 - 10

507.02

2510

2010 - 11

507.83

2514

Source : Tamil Nadu Rural Development & Panchayat Raj Report : 2012 - 13. Under this scheme, priority is given to the poorest village panchayats in terms of per capita income. In the year 2009 - 10, the scheme was taken up in 2,520 villages at an outlay of Rs. 507.02 crores. During the year 2010 - 11, the scheme was implemented in 2,514 village panchayats at an outlay of Rs. 507.83 crores. MEMBER OF LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY CONSTITUENCY DEVELOPMENT SCHEME (MLACDS)

This is a scheme fully funded by the State Government. The main objective of the scheme is to take up works to bridge the critical infrastructural gaps in the Assembly Constituencies. Under this scheme, each MLA proposes the works that are to be executed in his constituency. The District Collector gives administrative sanction for the works. The allocation per consistency was Rs. 1.70 crores, 50 per cent of the allocation is earmarked for priority works specified by government. Out of remaining 50 per cent MLA can choose works of their choice not falling within the negative list prescribed in the guidelines. During the year 2011129 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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12, a sum of Rs. 470.54 crores had been allotted under this scheme and 13,776 works had been taken up. NAMAKKU NAAME THITTAM This is being implemented as a state sponsored scheme with a minimum of one third amount as public contribution and two third contributions from government as grants in both rural and urban areas. Under this scheme, the public themselves can select works as they need and execute it as per the provisions and guidelines of the scheme. Constriction of local body Government School buildings, Libraries, Primary Health Centers (PHCs), etc., are some of the predominant works. A worth of Rs. 50 crores work completed for financial year of 201112. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. On the lines of industrial estate development, Government should develop SHGs estates so that infrastructure like building, water, electricity, warehouse etc., should be made available to the SHGs. 2. To bring more land under cultivation in rural areas. 3. The government should remove the exploitation of tenants, and should distribute surplus land small marginal farmers in such a way that there would be some degree of equality and justice in the rural areas. 4. Banking sector should be ensuring timely and adequate flow of credit to the self help groups. 5. It should be extent on the linkages between MGNREGA and other development programme. 6. Providing only unskilled manual labor work through the scheme does not seem to be a health idea in the long-run. Provision for the semi-skilled and skilled workers should be incorporated into the Scheme. Some mechanism should be evolved to restrict political interface in the programme and the 100 days ceiling limit may be re-considered for the benefit of workers regularly engaged with MGNREGA. CONCLUSION The health of the whole economy depends on the rural and urban sectors. Going by the socio economic indicators, urban sector is well placed as compared to rural sector. Proactive strategy includes convergence and synergy in programme implementation through 130 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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dovetailing of programmes, pumping of sizeable resources into the rural sector by the Government, public private sector partnership and involvement of the people in programme implementation, honoring of the salient features of the 73rd constitutional amendment in letter and spirit, tackling of waste lands which is heart of the ecosystem for productive farming, establishment of knowledge centers for the villages and rural connectivity, building up of sound social and economic infrastructure, changing of the negative mindset of the people, translation of the PURA into practice, etc., Every village has to possess knowledge centre. This will ensure connectivity, the key to empowering rural India. Horizontal connectivity is needed between villages to harness and share local resources and best practices. Vertical connectivity is indispensable at the administrative level. Links are to be created between villages and the information and communication technology is to be pervasive. REFERENCES Abraham, Vinoj (2009), ‘Employment Growth in Rural India: Distress Driven?’, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 44, No. 16. Amartya Sen (1999), Development and Freedom, Oxford University Press, New York. Arockia Amuthan, Muthusubramanian (2014), Women Empowerment through Self-help Groups in Tamil Nadu, Dr. Jeyaseelan (Edited), ‘Women in Society’, APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi. Damodar N Gujarathi (2014), Basic Econometrics, McGraw Hill Education (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. Government of India (2005), Tamil Nadu Development Report, Planning Commission, New Delhi. Government of Tamil Nadu, State Budget Documents, Ministry of Finance, Government of Tamil Nadu (various issues). Government of Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu – An Economic Appraisal, Evaluation and Applied Research Department , Chennai. (various issues). Jearanjan (2012), A Study on the Rural Non-Farm Employment in Tamil Nadu, Institute of Development Alternatives, Chennai. Manickam S. (2006), Economic Development of Tamil Nadu in Perspective, Uyirmmai Publications, Chennai. Devender Singh (2013), ‘Effectiveness of gender Budgeting for Women Empowerment : Evidence from India’, Finance India, Vol. 22, No. 04. *** 131 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON EDUCATION THROUGH DISTANCE MODE SAIN, SUNIL KUMAR 1 AND KAWARE, SUDHIR SUDAM 2 Department of Education, Guru Ghasidas Central Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur, Chhatisgarh, India 1 2

Mobile + 91 99261 96776 E mail [email protected]

Mobile + 91 89650 65989 E mail [email protected]

ABSTRACT Information technology is an amalgam of some wonderful inventions of the 20thCentury in electronics and communication. During a very short span of time it has acquired an important place in almost all aspects of human life and particularly in the field of education. India has taken some bold steps to adapt and absorb the advances in information technology by constitution of national task force. Having missed the benefits of the industrial revolution as a result of more than two centuries of colonization, the country is overtaken by the information revolution. At the same time globalization having opened the doors wide to alien influence, the government has decided to take all steps to make India and IT super power by adoption of IT as a national program so as to enable personal and national growth. This article focuses on the impact of information technology on education through education. Keywords : Information and Communication Technology, Virtual, Networking, Distance Mode and Web.

INTRODUCTION The Action Plan′ intends to involve all walks of life e.g. industry and commerce, banking and insurance, finance, revenue, communication, media, human resource development, defense etc. The steps taken facilitates in providing effective education in almost all disciplines and particularly for the business schools, to use newer technologies so as to ensure better management education to all. The increasing demand for management education, change in nature of business and industry within the newly created borderless market environment, and the revolution in information technology provide an opportunity to change the curricula and delivery system of management education so as to provide prospective managers an edge to successfully face the challenge in globally competitive setting. Therefore, management 132 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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education and IT has to develop a mutually supportive relationship for achieving excellence. We, in India, are using multi-technologies in imparting management education. At the one end, some premier institutions are having access to all facilities in terms of educational technology such as multimedia system, LAN, WAN, and World Wide Web on the other hand a large number of business school are still depending only on stereotyped lecture method in imparting knowledge. Therefore the existence of technology gap provides an opportunity to use IT supported education technologies for better delivery of education, easier access to a number of knowledge sources, sharing through networks and quality distance learning in management education.

IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON DELIVERY SYSTEM In most of the business schools knowledge and information are delivered with teaching aids like slide projector, overhead projector and LCD projector. However, in distance mode of learning various other tools like audio-visual tapes, broadcast on radio and telecast through T.V., teleconferencing through satellite, floppy diskettes and CD-ROMS, networking via ERNET and INTERNET and direct to home DTH technology are being used or may be used in a big way to impart management education in remote areas also. With access to internet, the learners have a reach to an unrestricted pool of knowledge, through the Web T.V. while operating at their home. Hence the homes will come to harbor the ‘Virtual′ classroom. With the help of broadcast T.V. the best available professionals, emeritus professors and functional specialists can interact directly to a large number of learners. In remote areas where networking is not available or may not prove cost effective CD-ROMS run on a multimedia PC are treated to be the best option of taking business education. Huge information, data, figures, pictorials, documents, graphics may be stored within them along with audio and video effect. Further internet communication is a very useful medium of imparting knowledge as classroom situations may be created at home with the access to E-mail and web browsing on the World Wide Web, which is now commonly available due to the launch of web television. Computers play a useful role in creating learning material. Through multimedia a symbiotic advantage may be gathered by integration of various types of information such as clip art, animation graphics, music, voice and live interaction that makes the delivery effective. Digital multimedia has made T.V. interactive. It has elevated its functionality to information delivery and education. The consumers of this information have 133 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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a choice to call for information they need. A selected program can be viewed at the convenience of the viewer and not when relayed. Multimedia computer can be used for training on management education in a one-to-one situation with the student. Multimedia system is treated to be more learner friendly as compared to T.V. as it enables to control the response of instruction transfer process as per the pace of the learners grasping capacity and preference so as to purposive and situation specific interface with the available information package. This creates an identical condition to the classroom on computer monitor without engaging a teacher and the given package can be browsed again and again by the learner to match with his or her own learning process. In management discipline students come with mature personality. Computer based learning provides them an opportunity for self growth rather than being taught which stimulates the as they themselves make an appraisal of their achievements in the learning process. On the other hand teachers may also concentrate themselves on development and research related activities as they are relieved from routine monotonous tasks such as tasking, drill, practice and sharing of information. Hence, the new system reduces dependence on conventional and less cost effective infrastructure on elements of learning and also avoids wastage of time to assemble in a class room. It is now realized that IT tools have some relative advantages as compared to conventional mode of information sharing. This generates the need for computer which is not only useful in sharing knowledge but also imbibes skills required in a prospective manager such as conceptual, behavioral, analytical and administrative. In business schools case studies, workshop, project work, business games supplements conceptual learning. To develop the ability to apply knowledge in real life and hypothetical situations different soft wares are developed. Now-a-days most of the management literature is also published with CDROM to provide visual effect to printed material.

ELECTRONIC LIBRARY AND NETWORKING The impact of IT on University libraries and more so on the business school libraries is bound to be drastic, if not detrimental. The print material is forced to beat a retreat. The libraries of future will be called electronic libraries. Instead of books, these will have optical disks which could be used at home or anywhere through a small portable electronic reader. Computer 134 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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applications to library and information field increase the efficiency of the day to day library work. An electronic computer network connecting millions of computers all over the world is the Internet. It provides the path for the continuous flow of data among computers using protocol software. It is the information super highway. Its basic applications like ftp, email and remote log-in allow flow of information. Its various tools like Gopher, WWW and Archie allow for fast access to reliable data. Its various services like Usenet service, Telnet service etc. further enhance its capabilities. Internet is the fastest medium of access to information of all types at the click of a mouse. It is an essential element in libraries today, which is providing new dimensions to the way libraries acquire process, store and disseminate information. Today most of the business school libraries have access to online information service and have acquired CD ROMs and have mounted them on networks with wider access. The goal of better management education, however, can be served by taking a more focused approach of building internet that connects the management institutions similar to Indian Institutes of Management and can be utilized by member institutions only. The intranets may be implemented to connect business schools in each state or those on common platforms. The tools necessary to share resources will include use of internet connectivity through DOT, VSNL, or other ISPs, web browsers and security firewall as the heart of Intranet. It will require software packages for discussion forums, network electronic bulletin boards and list servers for low volume discussion groups as well as for member institutions with the limited connectivity and bandwidth. Many applications can be administered on the business educational Intranet such as sharing of library resources, projects and research work, faculty interaction and collaboration, student placement.

INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND VIDEO CONFERENCING

To conclude with, through libraries today we have moved from documentation to information and in the next decade will move from information to knowledge. Impact of IT on Distance Education, we are passing through the age of information technology. The new technology likewise other areas have helped in improving distance education for management program. With advanced communication technology, teaching learning process has become faster, non conventional and interesting. Distance education is the fore-runner in exploiting the potential 135 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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of information technology so as to reach the learners, teach them, while assuring also its future, especially in the third world countries like India. Distance education acts as a social catalyst in developing countries and supports the objectivist model of knowledge transmission. Peters has observed three important features of distance education: first, the use of technical media; second, the mass education of students at a distance,; and third, the industrialization of teaching process. It is felt that distance education must adapt new technology tailored to individual learner within the Indian environment. However, the technology should be cost-effective, interactive and innovative. During last 20 years the Open University system has shown substantial growth and development, both quantitative and qualitative. At present there are ten open universities in the country including the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). Most of them are offering management education. IGNOU is the fastest growing education system in the world, with over six hundred thousand students, more than fifty programs comprising over six hundred courses. It is the largest university in the country and the second largest in the world. The cataclysmic changes taking place in the telecom and IT sector are being increasingly absorbed by the university and now it plans to install VSAT based terminal across the country. In an attempt to implement an interactive ETV for distance learning program for management, the IGNOU has conducted teleconferences for 1. Distant students 2. Counselors handling counseling sessions at study centers 3. Regional Directors and supporting staff of the university. The interactive network system has three basic components viz.: 1. The teaching end, 2. The receiving end, and 3. The space craft In addition to IGNOU some other experiments have taken place in India on educational teleconferencing such as ISRO-UGC National Talk ñ Back Experiment, 1991, Indo-US sun commission project; classroom 2000+, 1993; CEC-ISRO-UGC-IGNOU teleconference, 1994; NOS-DECU-ISRO talk back experiment, 1996. These experiments were conducted to 136 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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appreciate both way interactions in distance learning. Within this back drop, the impact of information technology is appreciable to identify the effect on distance education for management discipline, which is as follows: • The teacher and learner of management education are not required to assemble in class rooms. There are no regular classes and peer group interactions. • It has no time and space limitation. Learners are not requires to complete all the courses in a given time frame. The pace of learning may be decided by the student at his own. Likewise no campus infrastructure is needed. •Digital or electronic library may reach to the learner without physical boundaries. Integrated library with online multimedia support can solve the problems of students. • Various packages such as for general information, for advice to students, í for choice of subjects, for library holdings and for date-sheet of term-end examinations and related information may be developed for achieving excellence in management education through distance mode. These packages can be made available to the management student at university home pages on the web-site, videocassettes and CD ROMs. •There is a growing trend that management institutions are launching distance education program. They may use internet by opening their web-sites to reach to the students who are having access to internet. •Telephone counseling may be organized by arranging a counseling counter with STD facility for answering student queries. Students may be given this facility free of charge by dialing a certain code during pre-decided counseling hours. If connected through computer they may ask immediate clarifications through the network. • Initially for the assignments and later for the term end examinations, traditional examination system may be replaced through online computer assessment system.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION FOR PROSPECTIVE MANAGERS

With the advent of the new millennium, Internet based computer hardware and software will usher in. Most of the business schools in India are now plentifully supplied with PCs and related technologies. However, most of the machines are underutilized. After earning degree in management, majority of the students aspires for employment in industry, commerce and service sector. Employers in these areas with that their prospective managers should not only qualified in different functional areas of management but also possess necessary knowledge 137 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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regarding popular application software packages, application programming and also understanding about how the PCs may be used optimally at their placement situations. It is suggested that initially an exposure of basic concepts of hardware and software, word processing, spreadsheets, Database, Network and Internet is adequate. Simultaneously, students should be encouraged to solve real life problems with the help of spread sheet and data base packages. For those who wish to make advance use of computers, knowledge of data and file structure, UNIX operating system and programming methodology using computer languages C, C++, or Visual C++ and application of programming viz. in numerical analysis and computational techniques may be given. The purpose is to enable the prospective managers to develop their knowledge of computer potentiality and skill building for better placement. In employment market demand exists and likely to grow for those who are IT literate. Knowledge of web technology (particularly Java application E-Commerce) and programming in COBOL will be other desirable and attractive qualifications. • There exists a common feeling among different stakeholders that IT literacy of management students may provide four benefits • The technologies that are learnt can be applied directly to useful ends. • The skills which are sharpened may increase analytical abilities, insight, creativity and problem solving capacity of the students. • Managers who are computer literate will feel at ease in the new millennium of innovation, vision and cybernetics. • Lucrative placement opportunities for the IT educated managers.

CONCLUSION In developing societies like India the problem is not poverty, low production, low level of per capita income or GNP. The real problem is that we are not adequately and professionally managed. Most of our industrial and service sector units are either under-managed or unmanaged. Therefore, what we need is managerialisation of all the institutions in our ecosocial system. This requires a large number of professionally qualified managers. In India there is a need of management education for all. The growing demand of managers in various 138 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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segments of economy may not be met with campus centric management education. Through open and distance mode of learning equipped with advent of modern information technology we may develop a cadre of qualified managers to solve most of grave problems of the country. With the liberalization, privatization and globalization (LPG) of economy, we are in the transformation process from being a technically backward country towards being at par with rest of the world in the 21stcentury. This transition phase has thrown up many challenges and opportunities which need to be exploited and managed to restructure the education system in general and management education in specific for a bright future. The strengths of IT advancements can be harnessed for re-framing the management education during this process.

REFERENCES Aiyer, S.S. (1987) Management Of Education: Efficiency Of Computer Based Training, Proceedings Of Seminar On International Training And Development Conference, New Delhi, 1987. IT Action Plan (1998) National Task Force On IT And Software Development, Government Of India. July 4, 1998. Khurana, R. (1997) Emerging Trends In Educational And Training Methodologies, Including Satellite Based Techniques, Interactive Techniques, Technical Support For Learning, Seminar-Cum-Workshop On Systems Approach To Training And Modern Instructional Techniques, Military College Of Telecommunications Engineering, Mhow (M.P.), September 23, 1997. Leider, Dorothy E (1995) The Use Of IT To Enhance Management School Education: A Theoretical View. MIS Quarterly, September, 1995. Prashant, Praveen (1997) Technology And Management Education Delivery, Best Student Paper Competition Of Association Of Indian Management Schools, 1997. Rawlings, B. (1988) New Technology- New Problems: The Knowledge Gap Between Management And Computing, The New Management Challenges, 1988. Guidelines For Courses In Emerging Areas ÖUGC (1993) Scheme For Computer Application Papers At Postgraduate Level In Certain Disciplines Ñ UGC Assistance Therefore, , New Delhi. ***  139 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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A STUDY OF PROBLEMS OF TEACHERS IN GOVERNMENT AND NON  GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS UNDER RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACT   

SHARMA, CHITRA   Reader, Sant Hirdaram Girls College,  Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India 

ABSTRACT  In recent years proposal for giving free and compulsory primary education law seems to be  like a dream which will not be able to come in action but to make it possible in mid of 19th  century western countries gave slogan for free and compulsory primary education by some  intense effort’s result it was introduced in India on 1 April 2010, just three years before. So it  is necessary to bring pros & cons of this policy on fore front so that necessary amendments  should  be  made  in  the  favour  of  country.  For  “Study  of  problems  of  teachers  working  in  classes which are under right to education act and not under RTE act” selected 100 teachers  from  which  50  teachers  are  from  schools  where  class  first  is  under  RTE  act  and  rest  50  teachers are from the schools where class first is free from RTE act. Hence keeping this goal  in  to  consideration  in  research  the  study  of  difference  in  problems  of  teachers  median  of  standard deviations  standard error,  error  of  difference  in median  T‐Audit  and  independent  unit significance level were extracted (Known) in which founded that there is a significance  difference in the different problems of teachers from the schools which are under RTI Act and  teachers from school which are free from RTE Act.  Keywords : Schools Under RTE Act , Free From RTE Act  And Teachers.    INTRODUCTION  Primary education plays key role in development of any country it is the first step through  which  a  country  can  achieve  its  desired  goal.  Secondary  education  and  higher  education  does not have any close relations with nations life as primary education have an important  role  to  build  nations  ideology  and  character,  neither  even    any    other  social,  political  or   educational practices .Its relation is with not only specific  person or category but to whole  population.  When  primary  education  commission  was  formed  it  had  one  of  the  Japanese  members in it once a question was asked to him that in your country which person comes at  140 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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first  place  he  answered  “  In  JAPAN  first  is  the  king  and  second  is  the  teacher  of  primary  school. ”    RESEARCH OBJECTIVES  1. Study  of  various  problems  of  Female  teachers  of  institutions  under  right  to  education  act.  2. Study of various problems of Male teachers of institutions under right to education act.  3. Study  of  problems  of  teachers  in  government  and  non  government  institutions  under  right to education act.    HYPOTHESIS  1. There  is  no  significant  difference  in  various  problems  of  male  and  female  teachers  working in government schools under the RTE act.  2. No  significant  difference  in  the  deviation  of  learning  levels    related  problems  of  the  students, teacher working in non government schools under RTE act.  3. No  significant  difference  in  educational  environment  of  the  class  teachers  working  in  schools under RTE act.    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  The motive of this research is to study male & female teachers working in the schools under  RTE act.100 male and female teachers  were selected from 14 schools in this a questionnaire  based  on  various  problems  like  deviations  in  learning  level  and  educational  environment  related  problems  were  prepared  Questions  were  based  on  5  points,  for  correct  answer  1  point and for wrong answer 0 point was given.    RIGHT TO EDUCATION  In December 2002 using annexure 21‐A(part‐3) In 86th Amendment bill  free and compulsory  education for the age group of 6 ‐ 14 years of all children’s made as fundamental right and  this bill is also important because   •

It has legal provision for free and compulsory primary and secondary education. 



Provision for a school in each area. 

141 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Under this a provision to build a school governing society which will govern working  procedure of the school through elected representatives. 



A provision not to appoint any child of the age 6‐14 as a worker. 

  LEARNING LEVEL RELATED PROBLEMS  Student classification is very important in collective education. this classification is done on  the  basis  of  mental  age,  interest,  capability  and  ability.  Student  classification  makes  education learning process easy and effective. As opposite to this several reason like disdain  of  capability  ,ability  and  interest  of  the  student  by  parents  and  only  take  the  decision  of  admission in any class preferring the age. Because of above reasons there is huge difference  in the deviation of learning levels of the current class’s students relatively so it is named as  learning level problems of students.    PROBLEMS RELATED TO TEACHING ENVIRONMENT  Everyday a teacher has to complete several goals within limitations of completing proposed  curriculum  for  this  they  have  to  follow  various  responsibilities  class  should  be  disciplined  and motivated, teaching should be impact able and grooming of personality of students is  the liability of a teacher.    DELIMITATION  •

In this only CBSE schools were selected. 



Only female teachers were selected . 



Only two problems were choose. 



Problems of deviation in learning levels of students. 



Problems related to teaching environment. 

  VERIFICATION OF HYPOTHESIS    Hypothesis  1  There  is  no  significant  difference  in  various  problems  of  male  and  female  teachers working in government schools under the RTE act.    142 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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S.No 

Government 





School  Male  teachers  Female  teachers 

No  Mean 

50 

89.4 

Standard 

T ‐

Degree Of 

Deviation 

Value 

Freedom 

75.07  3.10 

50  76.06 

55.74 

98 

Table  Value  Of T 

Significance  Level 

0.01 ‐

Significant 

2.63 

difference 

0.05 ‐ 

Significant 

1.98 

difference 

   

    EXPLANATION  The degree of freedom 98 on significance level 0.05 is 1.98 and on significance level 0.01 is  2.63  the  T‐  Value  is  3.10  which  is  more  than  the  calculated  T‐  Value  at  both  significance  level.  There  is  null  hypothesis  is  being  rejected.  Therefore  there  is  significant  difference  between problems of  Male and Female Teacher  working in Government Schools under the  RTE act.    HYPOTHESIS 2 There is No significant difference in the deviation of learning levels related  problems of the students, teacher working in non government schools under RTE act.  143 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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S.No 

Group 

Sample  Mode 

Standard 

T ‐

Deviation  Value

Degree 

Table 

Of 

Value 

Freedom 

Of T 

Male &  1 

Female 

50 

25.9 

8.37 

Teachers 



Students 

1.10  50 

21.7 

23.67 

98 

Significance  Level 

0.01 

NO 

On 

Significant 

2.63 

Difference 

0.05 

No 

On 

Significant 

1.98 

Difference 

 

    The degree of freedom 98 significance level is 0.01 is 1.183 the T ‐ Value is 1.98 which is less  than  the  calculated  T  ‐  Value  at  both  significance  level.  Therefore  the  null  hypothesis  is  being  not  rejected.  it  means  there  is  no  significant  difference  between  the  deviation  of  learning  levels  related  problems  of  the  student,  teacher  working  in  the  non‐government  school under the RTE Act.     144 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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HYPOTHESIS  3  ‐  There is  No  significant  difference  in educational  environment  of the  class  teachers working in schools under RTE act.   

S.NO 



Group 

Male  Teachers 

Sample 

50 

Mean  N 

13.76 

Standard  deviation  SD 

T ‐

Value  freedom 

10.37  2.19 



Female  Teachers 

50 

17.6 

Degree of 

6.89 

98 

Table  value  of T 

Significance  level 

0.01 

No 

On 

Significant 

2.63 

Difference 

0.05 

NO 

On 

Significant 

1.98 

Difference 

 

    The degree of freedom 98 significance level is 0.01 is 2.63 the T ‐ Value is 1.98 which is less  than the calculated T ‐ Value at both significance level. Therefore the null hypothesis is not  145 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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rejected. it means there is no significant difference in Educational environment of male and  female class teachers working in school under RTE Act.     Results  1 There is significant difference between problems of male and female teacher working in  Government Schools under the RTE act.  2  There  is  no  significant  difference  between  the  deviation  of  learning  levels  related  problems of the student, teacher working in the non‐government school under the RTE Act.     3  There  is  no  significant  difference  in  educational  environment  of  male  and  female  class  teachers working in school under RTE Act.     Suggestions  1. Further  study  is  possible  to  know  the  problems  of  students  of  2  different  classes  of  schools working under RTE act and free from RTE act.  2. Further  study  is  posible  to  know  the  study  problems  of  students  and  teachers  schools  working under RTE act and free from RTE act.  3. Further  study  is  possible  to  know  the  effect  of  minimum  learning  levels  on  education  achivements of students studying in schools working under RTE act.    REFERENCES  Shukla,  S.  (2007).  Bharat  Mein  Shiksha  Pranali  Ka  Vikas.  International  Publishing  House,  Meerut.  Gupta,  S.  (2004).  Bhartiya  Shiksha  Ka  Itihas,  Vikas  Aur  Samasyaye.  Sharda  Pustak  Bhavan,  Allahabad.  Kapil, H.K. (2007). Anusandhaan Vidhiya, H P Bhargava Book House, Agra.  Singh, R. And Sharma, O.P. (2005). Shaikshik Anusandhaan Sankhiyiki, Vinod Pustak Mandir,  Agra.  http://www.google.co.in/url?q=http://www.indg.in/prikmary‐ducation/policiesandscheme/  http://hindi.in.com/latest‐news/money‐and‐life/2‐Years‐After‐Right‐To‐Education‐No‐One‐ Accontable‐1377522.html     ***  146 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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USE OF LIGHT IN INDIAN CULTURE AND HUMAN HEALTH KHAN, SABA 1 AND KHAN, FEMINA 2 1

Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

B7 Abdullah Apartment, Near women’s College, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India E mail   [email protected] 2

Mobile + 91 81269 51507

Research Scholar, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India E mail [email protected]

ABSTRACT Indian culture is about divine experiences; expression of warmth and compassion; respecting each other’s faith; and providing an autonomous sphere within which the feeling of unity and belongingness prevail. In Indian culture light holds an important position. It was considered as deity in early civilizations and it is an inevitable part of present lifestyle. It is an unforgettable element of spirituality, decoration and expression. Light enables people ‘to see.’ It also helps to create festive, productive and spiritual environment; levitate mood; and convalesce health. Its proper arrangement and availability improves melatonin levels, health status of Alzheimer patients and growth of neonates. Lack of light defoliates cortisol levels, increase proneness to cancer cell development and Seasonal Affective Disorders. The purpose of this review paper is to correlate the scientific literature with the cultural and spiritual importance of light in India and its relation with human health. The objective of the paper is to identify the impact of light on human physiological and psychological health. In all it can be concluded that light has an omnipotent role in human physiological and psychological health. Keywords: Indian Culture, Light, Sight, Psychological Health, Physiological Health.

Burnett Tylor, in his two volume study entitled Primitive Culture (1871) writes: “Culture, or civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society" According to him culture and civilization are synonymous. It is development and progress. Humanistic think culture as a way of life. Dilthey suggest that “culture” represents a “second centre” capable of unifying “all that happens to man, what he creates and does, the systems of purposes through which he lives and the outer organization 147 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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of society in which individuals congregate.” On this view culture is that which holds experience, expression, and understanding together, providing an autonomous sphere within which the “common experience” takes shape (Adam Muller 2005).

Culture of India is about Dharma, beliefs, customs, traditions, languages, ceremonies, arts, and the way of life of Indian people. India is a multi-linear genealogical tree as described by Max Weber, where people are of different faith but belong to single family-India. The Indian cultural hallmarks are its life-cycle rituals and festivals. Each element has a special meaning in the life of Indian people. People celebrate by lighting their homes which signifies optimism, new beginning, festivity and happiness; distributing sweets which means sharing and compassion; and arranging social gatherings which imply to socialization and bonding. It is a significant part of people’s social and religious life. Almost in every religion there is a festival of lights or a festival which canvass lighting. Whether it’s Christmas, Barawafat, Diwali, Guru Parv, New Year, marriage ceremony or any other occasion of celebration, it is marked by beautiful arrangements of light.

Robert Urich said that a healthy outside starts from the inside. This statement implies the importance of different aspects of health. It determines the level of metabolic and functional efficiency of living being. The status or level is influenced by the environment, lifestyle, economic status, eating habits and daily routine, etc. The bio-physical environmental conditions of housing and offices affect human health directly and indirectly. Lighting and human health are two intrigued elements of living. Where, light is the element of design, and health is the element of existence. Generally, light is the illumination available in a room and to an individual. It is individual and work specific. Thereby arrangements and designing are influenced by the individual choices and requirements. Lighting influences individual’s psychological and physiological aspects of health. It affects his melatonin levels, cortisol levels; increase risk of cancer cell development; emotional state; stress level; efficiency; mood, etc. But on the flip side, lighting also has a positive impact on neonatal weight growth, Alzheimer’s patient treatment, and postural control in older people, efficiency and even treatment of several disorders or diseases. So, lighting not only has cultural and spiritual importance but it has physiological significance too. The purpose of this review article is to correlate the scientific literature with the cultural and spiritual importance of light in India and its relation to human health. The objective of the paper is to identify the impact of light on human physiological and psychological health. 148 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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LIGHT AND SIGHT

The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) defines light for illuminating purposes as a radiant energy that is capable of exciting the human retina and creating a visual sensation. As a physical quantity, light is defined in terms of its relative efficiency throughout the electromagnetic spectrum lying between approximately 380 and 780 nm. Various theories like Corpuscular Theory of Sir Isaac Newton; Wave theory by Christian Huygens; Electro Magnetic Theory by James Clerk Maxwell; Quantum Theory by Max Planck; and Unified Theory by Louis de Broglie and Werner Heisenberg describe light as an energy transfer from one location to another. In a gist, light is an electromagnetic wave that has amplitude, which is the brightness of the light; wavelength, which is the color of the light and an angle at which it is vibrating, called polarization.

Light creates the sensation of perception which is both a psychological and physiological phenomena. Physiologically, photoreception (this is the biological response of the organism to stimulation of light) helps to make an image on the retina with the help of Photoreceptors. Photoreceptors are of two types i.e. Visual and non-visual and they are situated in the retina of the human eye. Both types require ocular light perception (Koorengevel, 2001). Visual photoreceptors enable humans to see and they consist of rods and cones. Rods serve vision in dim light and cones serve high resolution color vision in light. Non-visual photoreception affects the circadian rhythm and directly stimulates parts of the brain that influence e.g. the cognitive functions and operating capacity (Aries, 2005). As recently as 2001, a new receptor cell (ganglion) was discovered in the human eye that senses slowly changing light patterns (Brainard et al., 2001; Thapan, Arendt, & Skene, 2001). These ganglion cells are neither rods nor cones and are not involved in vision per se. Instead, they signal light changes to nerves in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, which synchronizes the brain’s and body’s response to circadian rhythms. The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) which is located in the hypothalamus is responsible for regulating the bodily functions like body temperature, sleep pattern, and the release and production of hormones, viz. Melatonin and cortisol. Melatonin is the sleep hormone and Cortisol is the stress hormone. This system provides cues that in turn affect the body’s endocrine, immune, cardiac, metabolic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses. Both are significant and important for human health, mood, well-being and performance (Aries, 2001). 149 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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USE OF LIGHT IN HUMAN HEALTH Human health is a broader area of well-being. It is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (Preamble of the constitution of WHO, 1946). Health could be achieved by proper eating, living in a proper environment and by maintaining mental, physical and spiritual balance. Striking balance between work, leisure, rest, family and self communication leads to healthy living. Where we live and what types of conditions prevail make the foundation of our health system. Lighting is the key element of the surroundings. Some recent researches have proclaimed that improper lighting leads to lethal health problems whereas some have asserted that lighting can be used as a medicine, treatment or as an enhancing agent. Based on the referred studies and their findings lighting aspects can be categorized as under : •

Physiological



Psychological

PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECT Light is a physical element. It is an electromagnetic radiation which enables sense of sight. It ranges from 380nm to 720nm. It is produced naturally or artificially. Both types of light have an influence on human activity and health. It influences melatonin levels; increases chances of cancer cell development, Seasonal Affective Disorder; improve the health status of Alzheimer patients, neonates and older adult’s movements.

MELATONIN LEVEL AND LIGHT Melatonin is a pineal hormone which regulates the sleep, body temperature and influences cognitive performance (Reiter, 1991). In human beings melatonin concentration exhibits a clear circadian rhythm, with low values during day and high values at night (Aries, 2001). Due to technological advances, the difference between availability of light during the day and night has been markedly reduced. Lamps or luminaries are the artificial light sources whose primary function is to generate light. Previously used, incandescent lamps were dimmer and emitted yellow light. They did not significantly affect circadian mechanism, whereas currently used light sources emit more of the blue wavelengths (Paule, 2001). Brainard et al (2001) and Thapan et al. (2001) found that human melatonin levels were reduced most during exposure to monochromatic blue light at =464/459 nm. Researchers investigated the intensities at which melatonin suppresses. McIntyre, Norman, Burrows and Armstrong 150 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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(1989) reported that approximately 1000 lux intensity was sufficient to suppress melatonin to nearly daytime levels. There is no gender difference in melatonin suppression by light (Nathan, Wyndham, Burrows, & Norman, 2000). It was also concluded that melatonin suppression by light is only intensity dependent. The Compact Fluorescent Lamps also emit radio frequency radiation and Ultraviolet radiation. These frequencies have been associated with adverse health in numerous scientific studies (Havas, 2008). As reported by Philleppe Laroche, Media Relation Officer for Health Canada, Compact Fluorescent Lamps unlike fluorescent bulbs do not contain diffusers to filter Ultraviolet Radiations. Therefore there may be a skin sensitivity issue especially in people with certain skin diseases. World health Organisation classifies 24-100 kHz frequency range as an Intermediate Frequency (IF) which is within the radio frequency band of the electromagnetic spectrum. Compact Fluorescent Lamps operate within the same range. Havas (2008) reported that there can be adverse health effects of Intermediate frequency.

According to Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) report 2012, opines that a combined assessment of natural and artificial sources of light shows that generally probability of any acute pathological conditions due to these sources is quite low. Because common exposure situation of household lighting involves a low illumination level which is considered negligible to potentially hazardous radiation. Whereas, Brainaird et al. (1997) explained that it was initially thought that only very bright photic stimuli could suppress melatonin secretion and induce other circadian responses but lower luminance (less than or equal to 200lux) can suppress melatonin or entrain and phase shift melatonin rhythms when exposure conditions are optimized. However, another study conducted by Ruger, Gordijn, Beersma, Vries, and Daan (2005) established that 100 lux of bright white light is strong enough to affect the photoreceptors responsible for the suppression of melatonin but not strong enough to have a significant effect on sleepiness and core body temperature.

CANCER AND LIGHT According to WHO, "Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body. One defining feature of cancer is the rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs." The causative reason could be biological, chemical or environmental. The Biological and Environmental factors are interrelated. The humans are in 151 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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continuous interaction with the environment in which they live. So, the conditions prevailing in the environment will affect the people living in it. Nowadays, people spend majority time in their home or offices, cause of which lighting is the key element of the environment. It has been found particularly, that the breast and colorectal cancer are influenced by the lighting condition (Figueiro et al. 2008; Figueiro, Rea, & Bullough, 2006; Schernhammer, et. al., 2006; Stevens & Rea, 2001).   According to David Blask (a neuroendocrinologist with the Bassett Research Institute), tumors are largely dependent on a nutrient called linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, in order to grow. Melatonin interferes with the tumor’s ability to use linoleic acid as a growth signal, which causes tumor metabolism and growth activity to shut down. Based on this principle research was conducted and it was proved, that light has a direct effect on the melatonin levels, which in turn increases the rate of growth of the cancer cells. He also said that, melatonin disrupts circadian clock and this disruption of one’s circadian clock is associated with cancer in humans, and that interference with internal timekeeping can tip the balance in favor of tumor development (Blask, et al. 2005). Mark Rollag supported the thought and expressed concerns for night shift workers, as their light exposure is more which make them more vulnerable to cancer cell development.

Women who work as night shift workers have shown higher rates of breast cancer (Schemhammer, et al. 2001), whereas blind women, who are not able to perceive light at night have shown decreased risk (Hahn, R.A. 1991). In 2007, the International Agency for Cancer Research declared shift work a probable human carcinogen. The study, conducted by University of Connecticut epidemiologist Richard Stevens and colleagues at the University of Haifa, showed that higher population-weighted country-level Light at night levels were associated with higher incidence of breast cancer (Kloog, et al. 2010). A sensitivity test indicated a 30–50% increased risk of breast cancer in countries with the highest versus the lowest light at night levels. No such association was found between light at night and incidence of non-hormone-dependent lung, colorectal, larynx, or liver cancers in women. Most studies have associated the light at night with the hormone based cancers but there are also evidences of association of colorectal cancer and light at night. Like Shernhammer, et. al. (2003) conducted a study on night shift nurses from 1988 to 1998. The study suggested

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that working in rotating night shifts for at least three nights per month, and for fifteen or more years may increase the risk of colorectal cancer in women.

SAD AND LIGHT Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent depressions that occur annually at the same time each year. The study describes 29 patients with SAD; most of them had a bipolar affective disorder, especially bipolar II, and their depressions were generally characterized by hypersomnia, overeating, and carbohydrate craving and seemed to respond to changes in climate and latitude (Norman E.R. et al 1984). These symptoms usually occur in winter with remissions in summer (Lurie, Gawinski, Pierce, & Rousseau, 2006). Espiritu and colleagues (1994) equipped 106 volunteers with a device that monitors illumination exposures (daylight and electric lighting) and activity. After data analyses, they found that subjects who were scoring higher on Season Affective Disorder (SAD) mood symptoms spent less time in bright illumination. This suggested that many humans may be receiving insufficient light exposure. Data of Jewett, et. al. (1997) indicated that, “the human circadian pacemaker is sensitive to light at virtually all circadian phases, implying that the entire 24-hour pattern of light exposure contributes to entrainment.”

The treatment of depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern, commonly known as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) can be done through lighting. It was first, described by Rosenthal et al. (1984). Light therapy is now well established as an effective, nonpharmacological treatment for seasonal mood and guidelines for its use have been established. Evidence also exists to support its use for people with the subsyndromal form. While the pathophysiology of SAD and the mechanism underlying the treatment effect are not yet known, an abnormality in the regulation of serotonin has received much support (Lam, Lee, Tam, Grewal, & Yatham, 2001; Rosenthal, 1984; Johansson, et. al., 2003). One of the study reported that severely depressed in-patients in sunny hospital rooms had shorter stays than those in dull rooms (Beauchemin & Hayes, 1996). This observation reflects an effect of the exposure to a broad spectrum source, or could have other associations with light intensity, window view, or other variables.

Eating disorders with seasonal patterns also respond to light therapy (Lam & Goldner, 1998). Lam (1989) reported that a patient given bright Full Spectral Fluorescent Light therapy showed improvement in the mood and had fewer binge-eating episodes than during a 153 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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crossover trial with dim Full Spectral Fluorescent Lighting. Lam and his colleagues followed this case study with a controlled trial (Lam, Goldner, Solyom, & Remick, 1994) in which patients with bulimia nervosa with or without a seasonal pattern who underwent light therapy with dim red lights versus those using bright Cool White Fluorescent Lamp showed improved mood and reduced binge/purge episodes and relapse. As in the literature on SAD, it does appear that Full Spectral Fluorescent Lighting is necessary for effective treatment.

ALZHEIMER’S PATIENT AND LIGHT Persons with various forms of dementia suffer from a progressive disease in which memory and the ability to function independently are lost. During moderate to late-stage dementia, individuals experience increased difficulty with eating and require more feeding assistance (Stockdell & Amella, 2008). Jessica, Alice, Bonnie, and Janet (2001) conducted a study in a Veterans Affairs Alzheimer's unit, to evaluate noise and lighting conditions at mealtimes and to assess the food intake of ambulatory dementia residents. The study identified the need to decrease the noise and increase the lighting in the Alzheimer’s unit. As it can improve intake which in turn may promote improved nutritional status. Alzheimer’s disease patients exhibit periodic patterns of rest and activity rather than consolidated sleep/wake cycle found in normal, older people. Researchers have shown that exposure to very bright light in the day and darkness at night can consolidate rest and activity patterns in Alzheimer’s patients (Someren, Kessler, Mirmirann, & Swaab, 1997). This pilot study proved the significance of blue light exposure on consolidating the rest/activity rhythms of people with Alzheimer’s disease (Roenneberg & Foster, 1997; Jewett M. et al. 1997).   NEONATAL GROWTH AND LIGHT Bright lights in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit have been identified as a source of excessive stimulation in the neonate resulting in physiological instability (Als, 1982; Lotas, 1991). Neonates, irrespective of gestational age, demonstrate changes in heart rate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, and body movements in response to excessive stimulation (Gibbins et al. 2008). The premature neonate, however, is more susceptible to the effects of increased stimulation than term neonates. Between 25 to 40 weeks gestation, there is a period of rapid brain growth (Oheler J.M. 1993) as well as changes in the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems as a result of environmental stimulation. (Als et. al., 1986; Lotas, 1991). Excessive environmental stimulation such as bright lights may place the premature 154 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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neonate at increased risk of insult or injury to their continuing development (Als et. al, 1994; Blackburns, 1998). While in the hospital, the neonate is exposed to a variety of ambient and environmental light sources.

Exposing the neonate to bright lights has been shown to

increase heart and respiratory rates (Shiriowia, et al., 1986) and decrease oxygen saturations (Shogan & Schummann 1993). The effects of lighting on the neonate’s physiological stability have been studied for over five decades, yet questions continue to be raised about light level exposure and the degree of influence on the neonate’s development.  

POSTURAL CONTROL AND LIGHT Older adults have reduced visual capabilities due to normal changes that occur in the aging eye. Consequently, falls are of great concern especially during the night time, when they need to get out of bed and navigate in a dim environment and visual information is also low. The visual system acquits sensory information about self-position and location of objects in the environment and, together with sensory input from the vestibular and somatosensory systems, helps maintain balance. The dependence on visual information for the maintenance of postural stability and control increases with age due to age related changes that occur in the vestibular and somatosensory systems. Visual information is important for postural control in seniors and postural control is affected by the light level. Moderate ambient illumination might be effective for postural control, but might compromise subsequent sleep efficiency and quality for seniors. In addition to safety concerns, a night lighting system must also be accepted by seniors. Researchers investigated if a self-luminous, night lighting system that provided horizontal and vertical clues could positively affect postural control in older subjects. The results showed that the night lighting system was effective for maintaining postural control in the critical, early phase of the sit-to-stand task and that it was preferred over conventional night lights (Figueiro et al. 2008).

Working with the American Institute of Architects, the Lighting Research Centre has proposed a 24-hour lighting scheme for older adults that can have a positive impact on the visual, circadian, and perceptual systems. The proposed lighting scheme was designed to provide, high circadian stimulation (CS) during the day and low stimulation at night, good visual conditions during waking hours, and night lights that provide perceptual cues to increase postural control and stability. It was suggested that high Circadian Stimulation by light could be achieved by providing at least 400 Lux at the cornea of a circadian-effective 155 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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white light source (i.e., more short-wavelength energy) during the daytime. Light levels recommended in the study were high enough and long enough to assure an effect on the circadian system of older adults, based on a model of human circadian photo transduction by Rea and colleagues (2005). The recommended dose also considers the normal changes in the aging eye and was based on estimated melatonin suppression as a function of CS after one hour exposure. No more than 100 Lux at the cornea of a less circadian-effective white light source (i.e., Less short wavelength energy), such as a 2700 K lamp, is recommended for evening hours.

PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT Light is not only a physical element it is also a cultural and spiritual element too. Similarly, light not only has physiological effects but significant psychological effects also. Psychology of human mind is the state of soul, mind and behavior. All these things are influenced by the culture, and spirituality of the individual.

LIGHTING AND SPIRITUALITY The spiritual aspect of lighting provides hope, comfort, and inner peace in life. Feng Shui and Vaastu Shastra are the popular ways of gaining spirituality. Vaastu Shastra is a way of harnessing the power of several metaphysical philosophies and combining them scientifically to bring changes which encourage the attraction of wealth; emotional and physical health; and cultivate overall peace and prosperity. It is an ancient Indian art of decoration and design which aims to restore a balanced flow of energy to human life and environment (Khanna & Sharma). Feng Shui is Chinese Vaastu Shastra. It is an almost five thousand year old science of China. It aims at creating the right balance between these two elements for the purpose of peace, prosperity and happiness. Another important aspect of Feng Shui is creating balance between Yin (positive) and Yang (negative) energies of mental peace, health, prosperity and happiness (Saluja, 2009).

Vaastu and Feng Shui both are art with a scientific basis. Both require a proper coordination of knowledge of the elements and directions. Each art has its own directional map (namely PaKua of Feng Shui and Vaastu Purush of Vaastu Shastra), representing the directions, elements, colors and deities. Pa Kua map has four main directions (south, north, east, and west) and four secondary directions (Southeast, south-west, northeast and north-west). On the 156 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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contrary Vastu Shastra has four directions (Purav, Pashchim, Uttar and Dakshin) along with four angels (Ishaan, Agneya, Nairutya and Vayavya) (Saluja, 2009).

Feng Shui and lighting go hand-in-hand, as there's no better enhancing agent than fire energy and lights represent just that. Whenever an area is illuminated with light, the area is activated and imbued with precious Yang Chi. Similarly in Vaastu Shastra, light has got different energies which are identified as around forty-five different deities. Both suggest that each type of energy is suitable for a particular task. Accordingly, the place where the energy falls is allotted for living room, kitchen, dining room, bedroom, etc. This provides a basic framework for dividing the land for a specific purpose.

Given below are the main aspects that should be considered for light arrangements to procure better psychological and spiritual health : INTENSITY OF LIGHT In terms of intensity, there is hard and soft lighting. Generally, direct light or fluorescent lighting are considered hard lighting, whereas indirect and yellow lighting as soft. Hard lighting is better suited for offices and work/study areas in the home. Hallways, landings and porches are also best when brightly lit. However, when it comes to the bedroom and rest areas of the home, using lights that are too bright will imbue the room with too much harsh energy, making it difficult to relax. According to Feng Shui for activating a corner within a room, it is best to use soft lighting in the form of a lampshade or lava lamp. Bright lights should be reserved for just the very public areas, or when used to widen a space such as a narrow corridor. Vaastu Shastra also has a deep relationship with light sources. It is considered that where the bright lights are used, the sense of electromagnetic energy produces an illusion of active environment, where work and energy level rises and human ambitions are more likely to focus by human minds. Accordingly, bright lights are recommended for work area, whereas, too bright lights in a residential area are not suggested because these are the areas of comfort and rest (Saluja, 2009).

COLORS OF LIGHT Feng Shui promotes the use of white light (which contains the energies of all five colors) or use of a color which is associated with the element of the sector. Accordingly there are five elements - fire, earth, metal, water and wood. Fire signifies red and associated with the South. Earth signifies yellow and is associated with the South-West, North-East and centre. Metal 157 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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indicate white and is associated with the West and North-West. Water connotes blue and is associated with the North. Wood denotes green, and is associated with the East and SouthEast. Lighting colors according to Vaastu should be Red, Blue, Orange, Green, White and Yellow. These are main hues which can be used in lights to brighten place and spirit. So, color lights should be incorporated in interiors for prosperity and balance.

Use of light in Indian Culture Indian culture is about divine experiences, expression of warmth and compassion, understanding each other’s belief, respecting each other’s faith and providing an autonomous sphere within which the feeling of unity and belonging prevail. Light holds an important place in Indian culture. Every Indian Dharma has at least one festival dedicated to lights, symbolizing the necessity of positivity, happiness and vivacity in life. Light procures the most important place in the festivity and celebrations. Whether it is Diwali, Christmas, EidMilad-Un-Nabi, Prakash Utsav, New Year or even marriages etc., Lighting is the most appreciated medium of expressing joy, happiness and gaiety. Though technology is making the foot hold by replacing the traditional light sources like lamps, dia's and candles with light bulbs, LED’s etc. but the feelings remain the same.

The word Diwali is derived from the Hindi word ‘Deepawali’, which means a line of dia’s (a kind of traditional Indian oil lamps made up of mud). It has a historical and mythological significance. According to Ramayana, it is said that, when Lord Ram, Seeta and Laxman came back after fourteen years of exile and also by defeating Ravana then the people of Ayodhya welcomed them by lighting dia’s as an expression of happiness, joy and triumph of good over evil. Since then festival became a part of Indian culture. So, the festival of Diwali is truly an Indian “Festival of Lights”, as it not only involves lighting of Lamps but, it brings the light of happiness, togetherness, spiritual enlightenment and prosperity for everyone. It is believed that with the sounds of crackers all bad-omens are killed, the lighted lamps light the lives of people, the prayers and Pujas create an atmosphere full of goodness and purity. The festival of Diwali indeed fills the atmosphere with an aura of goodness. Another, festival of significance is GuruParv and Prakash Utsav. It is the Sikh festival of lights, which is actually the congregation of Anniversaries associated with the lives of the Sikh Gurus. Gurpurbs are part and parcel of Sikhism. They are celebrated with intense devotion and dedication. It symbolizes the spirit of service and equality. The Prabhat Pheri, Langer, Puja, Karseva and lectures constitute the celebration of the occasion. The light, food and hymns denote the 158 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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importance of service, sacrifice, equality, purity and salvation. Further, Christmas is an annual commemoration of the birth of Jesus Christ. The feast, gifts, carols, Christmas tree, leaves and Santa Claus are the symbols of Christmas. Each epitomizes the sacrifice, eternal life, service, joy and happiness. It is a Christian festival but it is celebrated all over the country with equal zeal and compassion. Lights are used to decorate Christmas trees, houses and churches to mark the birth of Jesus Christ. It is a way to articulate the ecstasy, exhilaration and delight. Eid-Milad-Un-Nabi is the birth anniversary of Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him). In India along with a few countries in Egypt etc. It is not observed all over the world as Islam does not favor the celebration of death or birth. The day is marked with the remembrance of the character of the Prophet; on his teachings, sufferings, and how he forgave even his most bitter enemies; and leadership of the Prophet, his bravery, wisdom, preaching’s. Though it is not celebrated in most part of the world but in India due to cultural influences it is celebrated by lighting the house.

The practice of employing, a specific decoration as per the occasions is quite prevalent and it also has an associated emblematic meaning. The oil lamps on Diwali, lights on Guru Parv, candles on Eid-Milad-un-Nabi and Christmas, epitomizes the optimism, forgiveness, happiness, equality, sacrifice, service and way of life. Not only the festivals signify the importance of light in culture but also the daily rituals add to it. The lighting of oil lamps in the Mandir, lighting a candle in church and putting on the lights at Maghrib, all connote to the worth of lighting in culture. Culture is the civilization; it is all about the experience and expression. Lighting whether as a decoration or medium of expression is a way to create an experience rather a common experience of positivity, harmony and satisfaction. This common experience culminates in a complete state of every aspect of well-being, as several researchers have positively associated bright lights with mood levitating.

CONCLUSION According to James Turrell, “Light is not so much something that reveals, as it is itself the revelation.” The words of James Turell explain the purpose and nature of light very aptly. Light is the physical element in its nature but has several utilitarian, psychological, cultural and spiritual aspects associated with it. From its inception to present state, lighting has been used to dovetail the purpose of perception and health. Scientifically, light is a kind of energy that enables people to see. Spiritually, lighting is a positive energy which activates environment for prosperity, health and happiness, and culturally. Lighting is the medium to 159 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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showcase the festivity, happiness and optimism. Its main purpose is perception but it also helps to create (festive, productive and spiritual environment), levitate (mood) and convalesce (health). Several researchers have studied the impact of improper lighting on physiological health aspects like alteration in melatonin level, cortisol level, and stress level and cancer cell development and found that lighting influences them significantly which has a bad impact on health. Positively, according to some researchers light acts as an aid to Alzheimer patients, improvement in postural control in older adults and neonatal growth. Furthermore, lighting has a spiritual as well as cultural significance. Culturally and spiritually, bright lights are considered to activate the positive energies and create the environment of festivity, happiness and prosperity. In Indian culture light holds an important position in festivals and rituals. Feng Shui and Vaastu provide the ways to maintain better spiritual status of mind. Hence, it can be rightly said that, in India light is considered to be the element of well-being incorporating the physical, spiritual and cultural significance.

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efgyk l'kfDrdj.k lksguh] lat;

Hkwxksy foHkkx] Hks:yky ikVhnkj 'kkldh; LukrdksRrj egkfo|ky;] egw] ftyk bUnkSj] e/;izns’k] Hkkjr ukjh! dsoy rqe J)k gks] fo’okl jtr ux ixry esaA ih;w"k L=ksr lh cgk djks] thou ds laqnj lery easAA

lkjka’k oSfnd ;qx ls gh ukjh J)s; dh ik= jgh gSA thou ds nqxZe&yEcs ;k=k iFk esa og iq:"k dh vuqxkfeuh u jg dj lgxkfeuh FkhA xkxhZ] eS=s;h rFkk v:U/kfr ml ;qx esa efgykvksa esa fo’ks"kdj fo[;kr gSA oSfnd ;qx ds ckn jkek;.k vkSj egkHkkjr dky esa Hkh ukjh dks xkSjoiw.kZ in izkIr gksrk jgkA lekt esa ifjorZu vk;k vkSj ukjh dk lkekftd LRkj izHkkfor gqvkA mnkgj.kkFkZ & lhrk] vfgY;k] 'kdqaryk] jk/kk] ;’kks/kjk vkfn bl izdkj ds ukjh ik= gS] tks iq:"k iz/kku lekt esa lEekfur gksdj Hkh vkthou nq%[k vkSj la?k"kZ dh vkap esa Lo.kZ dh rjg rirh jgh vkSj lekt ds fy;s vius pj.k fpUg iznku djrh jghA efgykvksa dk lkekftd] jktuhfrd vkSj lkoZtfud thou esa izfrfuf/kRo] n{krk esa vfHko`f} ,oa lkekftd lqj{kk dh izkfIr dks gkfly djds mUgsa l'kDr cuk;k tk ldrk gSA efgykvksa dk l'kfDrdj.k mUgsa f{kfrt ij fn[kkus dk iz;kl gS] ftlesa os u;h {kerkvkas dks izkIRk dj Lo;a dks u;s rjhds ls ns[ksxha] ?kjsyw 'kfDr lEcU/kksa dk csgrj lek;kstu djsxh rFkk ?kj ,oa i;kZoj.k esa Lok;Rkrk dh vuqHkwfr djsaxhA ySafxx vlekurk] ngst] LokLF; vkfn dqN igyqvksa dh fn'kk eas iz;kl djds gh efgyk l'kfDrdj.k fd;k tk ldrk gSA efgyk l'kfDrdj.k dh xfrfof/k;ksa ds }kjk ukjh lekt ds uotkxj.k vkSj dY;k.k dh Bksl 'kq:vkr dh tkrh gSA efgyk l'kfDrdj.k vk/kqfud ifjorZu esa lkekftd U;k; dh tM+ksa dks etcwr djrk gSA blds ek/;e ls lekt ds joS;s esa cqfu;knh ifjorZu ykdj efgykvksa ds foosd] lke;Z ,oa ;ksX;rkvksa dks feyus okyh pqukSfr;ksa ds chp mUgsa izksRlkfgr djuk gSA rkfd os viuh {kerkvksa dks igpku dj mUgsa O;ogkj esa rCnhy dj ldsa] ftlls lekt dk mRFkku gksA efgykvksa dk l'kfDrdj.k ,d yxkrkj pyus okyh xfr'khy izfØ;k gS] bldk ewy mn~ns'; ;g gS fd gkf'k;s ds yksxksa dks eq[; /kkjk esa yk;k tk lds] rkfd lRrk lajpuk ,oa fodkl esa mUgsa Hkkxhnkj cuk;k tk ldsA ’kCndqath % ukjh] 'kfDr] ifjorZu ,oa Hkkjr A 165 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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izLrkouk lfn;ksa rd vcyk dgykus okyh ukjh vkt **efg"kklqj enZuh** ds uke ls iz[;kr gSA xkxhZ vkSj eS=;h tSlh izfl} efgyk nk'kZfud u;h Lok/khurk vkanksyu esa Hkh efgykvksa dk ;ksxnku iq:"kksa ls FkksM+k Hkh de ugha FkkA efgyk l'kfDrdj.k ,d yxkrkj pyus okyh vuojr~ vkSj xfr'khy izfØ;k gS] bldk ewy mn~ns'; gkf'k;s ds yksxksa dks eq[; /kkjk esa yk;k tk lds vkSj lRrk lajpuk esa Hkkxhnkj cuk;k tk ldsaA l'kfDrdj.k ,d y{; gS vkSj la;ksftr fodkl dh vko';d n'kk Hkh gSA fL=;ksa dk lkekftd] jktuSfrd vkSj lkoZtfud thou esa izfrfuf/kROk n{krk esa vkeo`f}] dk;Z {kfr vkSj vU;= muds vU; fd;s tk jgs cqjs O;ogkj dh lekfIr] lkekftd lqj{kk dh izkfIr vkfn os dk;Z gS] ftudh iw.kZrk }kjk l'kfDrdj.k dk okLrfod Yk{; ikuk lEHko gSA efgyk l'kfDrdj.k ds fy, dqN egRoiw.kZ o uhfrxr fu.kZ; ysus dh vko’;drk gS tSls & 1- Lkekt dh ekufldrk esa ifjorZu yk;k tk, L=h dks flQZ vkSjr dh fuxkg ls u ns[kk tk, lkFk gh lkFk L=h dh Lo;a dh ekufldrk esa Hkh ifjorZu dh vko’;drk gS og le; dks vcyk ugha lcyk le>sA 2- Ekfgyk f’k{kk dh fn’kk esa Bksl iz;kl fd, tk,A 3- efgykvksa dks vkfFkZd :i ls vkRefuHkZj cukus dk iz;kl fd;k tk;sA 4- efgykvksa ds fo:) vijk/kksa ij izHkkoh jksd yxk;h tk,] ftlesa muesa lqj{kk dh Hkkouk de gks ,oa os gj {ks= esa vkxs c<+sA 5- mRihfM+r efgykvksa dks ljdkjh ,oa xSj ljdkjh laxBuksa }kjk i;kZIr lgk;rk nh tk,A 6- Lojkstxkj ;kstukvksa dks vf/kd egRo fn;k tk,A 7- efgykvksa esa tkx`fr ykbZ tk, ,oa muesa vkRefo’okl txk;k tk,] ftlls os dRRkZO;ksa ds lkFk&lkFk vf/kdkjksa dks Hkh le>s ,oa mUgsa ikus ds fy, ltx jgsaA efgykvksa dh ldkjkRed lgHkkfxrk iq:"k iz/kku lekt esa dk;Z {ks=ksa dk vkarfjd ¼fL=;ksa ds fy,½ vkSj ckº; ¼iq:"kksa ds fy,½ foHkktu gksaA u;s ifjn`’; esa tcfd mUgsa volj feyk gS] mudh ldkjkRed Hkwfedk visf{kr gS] lkekftd] vkfFkZd jktuSfrd {ks=ksa esa fL=;ka inkiZ.k dj pqdh gSA lkekftd vfHktu] jktuhfrd vfHktu ds :i esa os vU; efgykvksa dh lgHkkfxrk lqfufpr djrh gSaA L=h ’kfDr dks tkuuk lqfo[;kr efgykvksa jkuh y{ehckbZ] vfgY;kckbZ gksYdj] jkuh xSfn[;w] ljkstuh uk;Mw] vkfn ds uke ij fn;s tkus okyk L=h ’kfDr iqjLdkj bl rF; ds |ksrd gS fd bfrgkl ds iUuks ds fy, ;g uke orZeku esa Hkh blh Hkwfe ij dk;Z dj jgs gSA L=h ’kfDr vc Hkh fo|eku gS] mls igpkuus vkSj 166 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

dfe;ksa dks ifjf.kr djus dh vko’;drk gSA 1999 esa [ksrhgkj etnwjksa dks vlaxfBr dj mUur rjhdksa dk bLrseky dj lkewfgd [ksrh ds iz;klksa ds fy, fPkUu ftgybZ us ththckbZ L=h ’kfDr iqjLdkj izkIr fd;k gSA leUo;kRed n`f"Vdks.k L=h vkSj iq:"k thou :ih xkM+h ds nks ifg;s gSaA ifjokj muds vkilh leUo; ls gh dk;e jgrk gSA ;gh leUo; lekt esa fn[kk;h ns] blds fy, vko’;d gS fd iq:"k Hkh LoLFk ekufldrk ls efgykvksa dk izxfr dk izkjaHk vius ?kj ls djsaA Hkkjrh; efgykvksa dss thou ij xjhch] fuj{kjrk] ikfjokfjd ikfjfLFkfr] ijEijkvksa ds ikyus esa QwVrh vk¡[ks Lo;a dks foyhu djds Hkh mUgsa foosdiw.kZ jkLrs ryk’kus gksxsaA l’kfDrdj.k gS D;k esjh n`f"V esa l’kfDrdj.k dk vFkZ gS & vkRe lEeku] vkRefuHkZjrk vkSj vkRefo’okl] ;fn dksbZ efgyk vius vkSj vius vf/kdkjksa ds ckjs esa ltx gS] mldk vkRe lEeku c<+k gqvk gS] rc l’kDr gS leFkZ gSA O;kid vkSj O;kogkfjd rkSj ij efgyk l’kfDrdj.k dk vFkZ ,d ,slh lkekftd izfØ;k,s gS] ftlesa efgykvksa ds fy, loZ lEiUu vkSj fodflr gksus gsrq laHkkoukvksa ds }kjk [kqys ,oa u;s fodYi rS;kj gksaA MkW- Hkhejko vEcsMdj ds izLrko ij lafo/kku us ’kq: ls gh efgykvksa dks oksV nsus dk vf/kdkj fn;kA lafo/kku izkjEHk ls gh efgykvksa dks lekt dk ,d detksj oxZ ekudj py jgk gS vkSj lHkh iapo"khZ; ;kstukvksa esa muds fodkl dks egRo fn;k tk jgk gSA izFke iapo"khZ; ;kstuk esa efgykvksa dh fodkl dh O;k[;k dY;k.kksUeq[k FkhA f}rh;] r`rh; vkSj prqFkZ ;kstuk esa LkHkh efgykvksa dh f’k{kk dks izkFkfedrk nh xbZA NBh ,oa lkroh ;kstuk eas efgykvksa ds laca/k esa iqu% vo/kkj.kkRed var vk;k vkSj fodkl dh txg mUgsa ’kfDr vkSj vf/kdkj lEiUu cukus ij tksj fn;k tkus yxkA nloha ;kstuk esa LokjF; vkSj LoLFk lekt dh lajpuk esa buds fof’k"V ;ksxnku dh igpku dj mUgsa vkSj vf/kd ’kfDr lEiUu cukus dk fu.kZ; fy;k x;k rFkk X;kjgoha ;kstuk esa iqu% muds f’k{kk vkSj jgu lgu ds Lrj dks lq/kkjus dks y{; j[kk x;kA efgykvksa dh vkSlr vk;q 1951 ls 2001 rd 31-6 o"kZ ls c<+dj 62 o"kZ gks x;hA efgyk vkj{k.k dh njs 1951 esa 8-9 izfr’kr ls c<+dj 2004 esa 54 izfr’kr rFkk 2006 esa c<+dj 58-2 izfr’kr rd gks x;h gSA iapo"khZ; ;kstukvksa ds ek/;e ls ljdkj us efgyk f’k{kk dks c<+kok nsus dk Hkjiwj iz;kl fd;k vkSj lQyrk Hkh feyhA blh ifjorZu ds laca/k esa f’k{kk ’kkL=h ds- uVjktu us dgk lkS o"kZ iwoZ ejus okyk O;fDr vkt fQj thfor gks mUgsa rks mls vk’p;Z pfdr djus okyk loZizFke vkSj lcls egRoiw.kZ ifjorZu fL=;ksa dsh fLFkfr esa Økafrdkjh ifjorZu gksxkA b/kj fiNys dqN o"kksZ esa fL=;ksa ds izfr ;kSu fgalk ds vykok L=h fojks/kh nwljs rjg dh fgalkvks tSls] ekjihV ngst mRihM+u gR;k] vigj.k vkSj rstkc Qsdus tSls ekeyks esa c
The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

Hkkjrh; lafo/kku u dsoy efgykvksa dkss leku volj iznku djrk gS] cfYd ljdkj dks ;g ’kfDr iznku djrk gS fd og efgykvksa ds i{k esa ldkjkRed Hksn&Hkko ds fy, dne mBk ldsA orZeku le; esa efgykvksa l’kfDrdj.k dh mldh gSfl;r ds fu/kkZj.k dks dsUnzh; fo"k; ekuk tkus yxk gSA iqu% efgykvksa ds fodkl ij tksj fn;k x;kA bl rjg ;g lqfuf’pr djus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k Fkk fd fofHkUu {ks=ksa ls gksus okys ykHkksa ls efgyk,a oafpr u jgsA efgykvksa ds fy, fu;kstu dh lajpukRed O;wg jpuk esa mYys[kuh; ifjorZu fd;s x;sA lkekftd ifjorZu ,oa fodkl ds vfHkdrkZ ds :i esa efgykvksa ds l’kfDrdj.k dh j.kuhfr izeq[krk ls tkjh jghA X;kjgoha iapo"khZ; ;kstuk ¼2007&2012½ esa efgykvksa dh l’kfDrdj.k dh tks ifjdYiuk dh x;h gS] mlesa lekos’kh vkSj vfHk;ksftr fodkl] lkekftd vkSj jktuhfrd l’kfDrdj.k ds lkFk&lkFk L=h ds fy;s leku U;k; dks izeq[krk nh x;h gSA fodkl dh Åaph nkSM+ esa tgkW dkjiksjsV lsDVj dh nqfu;k cM+s&cM+s egkuxjksa rd fleV dj jg x;h gS] jkstxkj vc os gh ns jgs gSA ;g ,DV ,d vk’kk txkrk gS fd vkus okys o"kkZs esa iapk;r vkSj l’kDr gksxh vkSj xkWoksa uxjks ds chp Hkh [kkbZ ikVus esa lgk;d gksxhA Ekfgykvksa dks lkekftd] jktuhfrd vkSj lkoZtfud thou esa izfrfuf/kROk] n{krk esa vfHko`f} ,oa lkekftd lqj{kk dk izkfIr dks gkfly djds mUgsa l’kDr cuk;k tk ldrk gSA efgykvksa dk l’kfDrdj.k mUgsa f{kfrt ij fn[kkus dk iz;kl gS] ftlesa os u;h {kerkvksa dks izkIr dj Loa; dks u;s rjhds ls ns[ksxha] ?kjsyw ’kfDr lECkU/kksa dk csgrj lek;kstu djsxh rFkk ?kj ,oa i;kZoj.k esa Lok;rrk dh vuqHkwfr djsaxhA ySafxd vlekurk] ngst LokLF; vkfn dqN igyqvksa dh fn’kk eas iz;kl djds gh efgyk l’kfDrdj.k fd;k tk ldrk gSA efgyk l’kfDrdj.k dh xfrfof/k;ksa ds }kjk ukjh lekt ds uotkxj.k vkSj dY;k.k dh Bksl ‘’kq:vkr dh tkrh gSA efgyk l’kfDrdj.k vk/kqfud ifjorZu esa lkekftd U;k; dh tM+ksa dks etcwr djrk gSA blds ek/;e ls lekt ds joS;s esa cqfu;knh ifjorZu ykdj efgykvksa ds foosd] lkeF;Z ,oa ;ksX;rkvksa dks feyus okyh pqukSfr;ksa ds chp mUgsa izksRlkfgr djuk gSA rkfd os viuh {kerkvksa dks igpku dj mUgsa O;ogkj esa rCnhy dj ldsa] ftlls lekt dk mRFkku gksA efgykvksa dk l’kfDrdj.k ,d yxkrkj pyus okyh xfr’khy izfØ;k gS] bldk ewy mn~ns’; ;g gS fd gkf’k;s ds yksxksa dks eq[; /kkjk esa yk;k tk lds rkfd laRrk lajpuk ,oa fodkl esa mUgsa Hkkxhnkj cuk;k tk ldsA ns'k ds vkfFkZd fodkl esa efgykvksa ds ;ksxnku dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, ljdkj us efgyk dY;k.k rFkk muds fodkl ds fy, le;≤ ij fodkl dk;Zdzeksa rFkk ifj;kstukvksa dk fØ;kUo;u fd;k] ftuesa dLrwjckxk¡/kh f’k{kk ;kstuk ¼1996½] L=h ’kfDr iqjLdkj ;kstuk ¼2000½] efgyk Lo/kkjk ;kstuk ¼2001½] jk"Vªh; iks"kkgkj fe’ku ¼2000½] thou Hkkjrh; efgyk lqj{kk ;kstuk ¼2003½] tuuh lqj{kk ;kstuk ¼2003½] ekSykuk vktkn jk"Vªh; efgyk Nk=o`fr ;kstuk ¼2004½] cans ekrje~ ;kstuk ¼2004½] 168 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

dLrwjck xkW/kh fo|ky; ;kstuk ¼2004½] vkaxuckMh fo’ks"k chek ;kstuk ¼2005½] vk’kk;kstuk ¼2005½] ckfydk f’k{kk izksRlkgu ;kstuk ¼2006½] vkfn izeq[k ;kstukvksa dk fØ;kUou ljdkj }kjk izsfjr LokLF; ,oa ifjokj dY;k.k ea=yk;] Je ea=ky;] lekt dY;k.k foHkkx rFkk xzke fodkl ea=ky; vkfn }kjk mi;ksxh ;kstukvksa dk lapkyu fd;k tk jgk gSA ;g lHkh ;kstuk,W efgykvksa dks vkfFkZd rFkk lkekftd :i ls Lora= cukus rFkk mudh vk; esa fujarj o`f} ds fy, f’k{kk rduhdh o O;olkf;d izf’k{k.k dh n’kk o fn’kk dh vksj izHkkoh gSA efgyk l’kfDrdj.k ls tehuh lPpkbZ ls tqMs izlax le;≤ ij pfpZr gksrs jgs gSA lk{kjrk vkSj loZ f’k{kk gsrq pyk;s x;s vfHk;kuksa ls efgykvksa esa tkx:drk vkSj xR;kRed izsj.kk mRiUu gqbZ gSA mUgsa Hkh viuh ’kfDr vkSj egRo dk ,glkl gqvk gS] vc os vU;k; ds f[kykQ mlh cgknqjh ls vkokt mBkrh gS] ftl cgknqjh ls dksbZ iq:"k mBkrk gSA vkt efgykvksa us vius vkidks fl} fd;k gS fd efgyk;as dsoy ?kj gh ugha cfYd ns’k dh ckxMksj Hkh laHkky ldrh gSA dbZ efgyk;sa gSa] ftUgksaus L=h tkfr dks xkSjo iznku fd;k gSA muesa dYiuk pkoyk] fdj.k csnh] v:U/krh jk;] ih-Vh m"kk vkfn egRoiw.kZ uke gSA vc efgyk;sa ch,l-,Q-cVkfy;u esa ’kkfey gksdj ns’k dh lhek dks lqj{kk iznku dj jgh gSA efgykvksa us ;g fl} fd;k gS fd os fdlh ls fdlh Hkh {ks= esa detksj ugha gSA bfrgkl ds iUus myVs tks gesa dbZ ckj ,slh fL=;k¡ ns[kus dks feysxh ftuds ’kkS;Z dks ns[krs gq, cMs&cMs ;ks)k Hkh nkWrksa rys mxafy;k nck ysrs FksA jkuh y{eh ckbZ] jkuh nqxkZorh] pk¡nchch] jft;k lqYrku vkfn us vius ’kkS;Z ls L=h tkfr dks xkSjokfUor fd;k gSA ;fn l’kfDrdj.k dks O;kid n`f"V ls ns[kk tk;] tks vkt dh nqfu;k esa mudk leUo; rc dfBu gks tkrk gS] tc izR;sd jk"Vª viuh ,d vyx L=h izFkk] L=h dkuwu] L=h :f<+okfnrk] izR;sd ns’k efgyk ds fy, ,d vy vkpj.k] laLdkj rFkk ca/ku j[krk gSA Hkkjr ds gh fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa fL=;ksa ds fy, fofHkUu izFkk;sa ik;h tkrh gSA ,sls esa l’kfDrdj.k dks dkuwuh tkek igukuk dfBu gh ugh vlaHko izrhr gksrk gSA dqN fcUnq tks vkt Hkh izHkkoh gS] tSls efgykvksa dh vkfFkZd ijra=rk]lhek c)rk] drZO; cyrk vkSj lkFk esa ijEijkvksa dk fuoZgu djuk HkhA okLro esa efgykvksa dh bl fLFkfr dk ftEesnkj dkSu gS\ lekt ;k ljdkj rks viuh fofHkUu uhfr;ksa ds ek/;e ls l’kfDrdj.k ykuk pkgrh gSA lekt dh viuh nksgjh Hkwfedk gSA lgh ek;us esa efgyk;sa l’kfDrdj.k pkgrh gS rks mUgsa viuh lksp] fu.kZ; dh {kerk] viuh nksgjh Hkwfedk ds lkFk rky&esy cSBkuk vkSj viuh ’kfDr dks fodflr dj l’kfDrdj.k dk igyk dne Lo;a mBk;s fQj lekt izksRlkfgr djsa] ljdkj jkLrk fn[kk;s] bu rhuksa ds feys&twys iz;kl ls gh laHko gSA Hkwe.Myhdj.k Hkh izcy ek/;e cu ldrk gSA D;ksfd blds ek/;e ls {ks=okn] jk"Vªokn vkSj /khjs&/khjs dk;Zokn /kjk’kk;h gksrk tk jgk gSA vr% mi;ZqDr foospuk ds ckn dgk tk ldrk gS] ukjh vc flQZ okn&fookn dk fo"k; ugha gS og rks dzkfUr :i cu pqdh gSA efgyk l’kfDrdj.k] lEeku vkSj vf/kdkj izkIr djus dk ukjk cu x;k gSA ;gka ;g fo"k; ugha gS fd L=h dks fdrus vf/kdkjh izkIr gS\ iz’u rks ;g fd mu ij fdruk 169 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

vey gks jgk gSA vc flQZ vf/kdkj dh yM+kbZ ugha jg xbZ gSA L=h dh mis{kk djds ekuo iw.kZrk dks izkIr ugha dj ldrkA efgyk l’kfDrdj.k ds fy;s vko’;d gS fd lekt dk izR;sd oxZ mlesa Hkkxhnkj cusA ukjh ifjokj ,oa lekt dh uhao gSA bls lqn`<+ djuk ge lHkh dk dRrZO; gSA ,d ,slk iz;kl fd;k tk,a] ftlesa lEiw.kZ lekt tkx`r gks mBs] lfn;ksa dh mis{kk dks ,d fnu esa cnyk ugha tk ldrk] fdURkq fu;ksftr iz;kl fd;k tk, vkSj efgyk,¡ vius vf/kdkjksa ds izfr tkx:d jgs rks l’kfDrdj.k gksuk laHko gSA gesa cM+kas dks lkspuk gksxk] [kksbZ izfr"Bk ,ao lEeku ykSVkuk gksxkA ukjh dks Hkh vius vfLrRo dh igpku cukuh gksxhA dfo nq";ar ds 'kCnksa esa & ^^,d fpaxkjh dgha ls
The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa ij gksus okys mRihM+u dk lekt’kkL=h; v/;;u ¼ bankSj rglhy ds fo’ks"k lanHkZ esa ½ cMksys] liuk 1

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,oa ekgkSj] lq’khyk

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ih,p-Mh- 'kks/kkFkhZ] thokth fo’ofo|ky; Xokfy;j] e/;izns’k] Hkkjr bZ&esy & [email protected]  2

izkpk;Z] 'kkldh; dU;k egkfo|ky;] nfr;k] e/;izns’k] Hkkjr

lkjka’k vuqlwfpr tkfr leqnk; ¼nfyr½ ,d ,slk leqnk; gS ftlus lalkj esa Hk;adjre vR;kpkjksa dks lgu fd;k gSA 'kks"k.k] mRihM+u o vR;kpkjksa dks lgrs & lgrs vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa ds thou ewY; iwjh rjg cny x;sA le; ds bl funZ;h cgko esa ;g leqnk; viuh laLÑfr] thou ewY;] fopkj vkfn lc Hkwy x;kA bl lewg us oks ns[kk] tks mls mPp oxZ us fn[kk;k] og lquk] tks lquk;k x;k] og fd;k tks djk;k x;kA vr% ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd bl lewg dh viuh dksbZ igpku 'ks"k u jgh cfYd lc dqN mlds Åij Fkksi fn;k x;kA 'kCn dqath & vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa ij 'kks”k.k] mRihM+u rFkk vR;kpkjA izLrkouk e/;izns’k ds ekyok esa fLFkr bankSj ftyk ftldh dqy tula[;k o"kZ 2011 dh tux.kuk ds vuqlkj 3272335 gS ftlesa iq:"kksa dh tux.kuk ds vuqlkj vuqlwfpr tkfr dh dqy tula[;k 388]459 FkhA iq:"kksa dh 200344 rFkk efgykvksa dh tula[;k 188]115 FkhA ijarq vc 2011 dh tux.kukuqlkj vuqlwfpr tkfr dh dqy tula[;k 369546 gSA ftlesa ls iq:"kksa dh tula[;k 193653 ,oa efgykvksa dh tula[;k 175893 gSA vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa ij vR;kpkj ls vk’k; lHkh izdkj ds vU;k;] 'kks"k.k] ihM+k o =kl gS tks lekt ds mPpoxhZ;] lk/ku lEiUu o jktuSfrd O;fDr ds b’kkjksa ij fuEu o detksj oxksZa tks viuh j{kk djus esa vleFkZ gksrs gSa mu ij
The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

thou thus ds fy, ck/; fd;k tkrk jgkA lHkh lkekU; o lkoZHkkSfed ifjorZuksa ds vfrfjDr Hkkjr ds bl {ks= rFkk leqnk; ls lacaf/kr dqN fof’k"V ?kVuk,¡ o dkj.k ,sls Hkh jgs gSa ftudk Li"V o izR;{k izHkko bl leqnk; ij iM+k gSA vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa esa vius vf/kdkjksa ds izfr c<+rh tkx:drk rFkk orZeku lkekftd] vkfFkZd ifjos’k esa bUgsa izkIr djus ds fy, muds }kjk fd;s tk jgs la?k"kZ ls mith fLFkfr rFkk mldk vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa ds thou ij izHkko rFkk ifjorZu gq,A Lora=rk ds 67 o"kZ chr tkus ds ckn Hkh vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa ij lokZaxh.k {ks=ksa esa fiNM+siu ds dkj.k vk;s fnu vR;kpkj gks jgs gSaA Hkkjr esa c<+rs vijk/kksa ds lanHkZ esa e/;izns’k vxz.kh gSA bankSj ftys esa Hkh vuqlwfpr tkfr ds fo:) vR;kpkjksa esa yxkrkj o`f) gks jgh gSA 'kks/k ds mn~ns’; 1-

vR;kpkjksa ds izdkj ,oa izÑfr dk v/;;u djukA

2-

mRihfM+r O;fDr dh lkekftd] vkfFkZd] lkaLÑfrd fLFkfr dk fo’ys"k.kA

3-

vR;kpkjksa dh ,sfrgkfld i`"BHkwfe ,oa iwoZ rFkk i’pkr dh fLFkfr dk vk¡dyu djukA

4-

mRihfM+rksa ds lkFk iz’kklu] dkuwu dh Hkwfedk ,oa vU; dk;Z iz.kkfy;ksa dh foospukA

5-

mRihfM+rksa ds iquokZl ,oa jkgr dk;ksZa dh foospuk djukA

6v/;;u dh midYiuk,¡ 1-

vuqlwfpr tkfr oxZ dh lkekftd] vkfFkZd] jktuSfrd fLFkfr fuEu gksus ds dkj.k Hkh vR;kpkj gksrs gSaA

2-

vuqlwfpr tkfr oxZ dh efgykvksa ds lkFk 'kkfjfjd vR;kpkj vf/kd gksrs gSaA

3-

vuqlwfpr oxZ ds lkFk vijk/k mu {ks=ksa esa vf/kd gksrs gSa] tgk¡ mudh la[;k de gksrh gSA

4-

vf’k{kk ds dkj.k vuqlwfpr tkfr oxZ ij vR;kpkj vf/kd gksrs gSaA

fun’kZu 'kks/k dk;Z gsrq e/;izns’k ds bankSj ftys ds vuqlwfpr tkfr ij mRihM+u ds izdj.kksa dks vuqlwfpr tkfr ,oa vuqlwfpr tutkfr fo’ks"k iqfyl Fkkus esa ntZ 526 izdj.kksa dks ysdj lwphc) fd;k x;k gS ,oa ntZ izdj.kksa esa ls nSo fun’kZu dh ykWVjh fof/k }kjk 100 izdj.kksa dk p;u fd;k x;kA vuqla/kku ds midj.k izkFkfed vk¡dM+ksa ds laxzg.k ds fy, ,d lqO;ofLFkr lk{kkRdkj vuqlwph dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k rFkk vuqla/kku ds vU; midj.k tSls lewg ppkZ] voyksdu o mRrjnkrkvksa ls lk{kkRdkj dk mi;ksx fd;k x;k gSA 172 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

vuqlwfpr tkfr oxZ ds fo:) gq, mRihM+u ds o"kZokj dk dqy fooj.k lu~ 2008 ls 2013 rd

vR;kpkj dk izdkj

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2012

dqy ;ksx

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gR;k dk iz;kl xaHkhj pksV

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L=ksr & ftyk vuqlwfpr tkfr ,oa tutkfr fo’ks”k iqfyl Fkkuk] bUnkSj ¼e-iz-½ lacaf/kr lkfgR; dk v/;;u =mMs fiYybZ us vius 'kks/k esa egkjk"Vª ds vgenuxj ftys dh egkj tkfr dh efgykvksa dk v/;;u fd;k gS vkSj fu"d"kZ fudkyk gS fd laLÑfrdj.k ds izHkko ds dkj.k efgykvksa dh leL;k,¡ c<+h gS rFkk yM+ds dk egRo vkSj pkg c<+h gSA izks- lh-Mh- ukbZd us vius ,d 'kks/k esa crk;k gS fd vuwlwfpr tkfr;ksa dh fLFkfr esa vHkh visf{kr lq/kkj ugha gqvk gS vkSj xzkeh.k {ks=ksa esa bUgsa vHkh Hkh NqvkNqr dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gS rFkk bu tkfr;ksa ds yksx vius ls Å¡ph le>h tkus okyh tkfr;ksa dk vuqdj.k djrs gSa vkSj muds nsoh&nsorkvksa dh iwtk djrs gSaA jkeI;kjs us vius v/;;u esa mRrjizns’k ds okjk.klh 'kgj ds f’k{kk laLFkkvksa esa f’k{kk xzg.k djus okys fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh c<+rh gqbZ jktuhfrd psruk] jktuhfrd lgHkkfxrk rFkk lkekftd leL;kvksa ds izfr mudh izfrfØ;k dk v/;;u fd;k gS vkSj ik;k fd leL;kvksa dk gy u feyus dh fLFkfr esa nfyr ;qodksa esa vkØks’k c<+ jgk gSA fdj.k HknkSfj;k us vius v/;;u ** cykbZ tkfr ds cnyrs izfreku % ftyk bUnkSj] e/;izns’k ds fo’ks"k lanHkZ esa** esa vuqlwfpr tkfr dh ,d mitkfr cykbZ tkfr dk v/;;u fd;k gS rFkk vius fu"d"kZ esa ik;k fd cykbZ tkfr fganq /keZ dh cafn’kksa rFkk lo.kZ lekt ds vR;kpkjksa ls ihfM+r gSA 173 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

vHkh Hkh cykbZ;ksa rFkk lo.kZ tkfr;ksa ds chp var%fØ;k cgqr de gSA fu"d"kZ ds vuqlkj vHkh dsoy lksyg izfr’kr cykbZ gh lkoZtfud dqvksa ;k uydwiksa dk mi;ksx dj ikrs gSaA lwpuknkrkvksa ds ifjokj ds O;olk; dh fLFkfr dk fooj.k ekfld vk; :i;ksa esa O;olk; dk

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Li"V gS fd 49 izfr’kr lwpuknkrk etnwjh dk;Z esa layXu gS ftudh ekfld vk; 0 ls 10]000 rd gS rFkk 3 izfr’kr lwpuknkrk ouksit ,oa pkjkiky dk;Z djrs gS ftudh vk; 30]000 ls 40]000 rd gSA vR;kpkj @ mRihM+u ds izdkjksa dk fooj.k mRihM+u @ vR;kpkj dk izdkj

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174 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

ekufld izrkM+uk

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Li"V gS fd 22 izfr’kr lwpuknkrkvksa ds lkFk cykRdkj tSlk vR;kpkj fd;k x;k gS rFkk 3 izfr’kr lwpuknkrkvksa dks ekufld :i ls izrkfM+r fd;k x;k gSA vr% v/;;u ls irk pyrk gS fd mRihfM+rks ds lkFk lokZf/kd ?kVuk;sa cykRdkj dh gqbZ gSA mRihfM+rksa dh enn ds fy, vkxs vkus okys O;fDr;ksa dk fooj.k enn ds fy, vk;s

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Li"V gS fd 66 izfr’kr tkfr ds yksx mRihfM+r mRrjnkrkvksa dh enn ds fy;s vkxs vk;s rFkk 4 izfr’kr mRihfM+r mRrjnkrkvksa ds ikl dksbZ Hkh enn ds fy;s ugha vk;k] vr% ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd fdlh Hkh lekt ;k tkfr ds yksxksa ds lkFk gksus okys nq[k nnZ esa mlh lekt ;k tkfr ds yksxksa }kjk Hkh vf/kdka’k enn dh tkrh gSA vf/kfuf;e dh tkudkjh dk fooj.k dkuwu

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175 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

vuq-tkfr vkSj vuq-tutkfr

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Li"V gS fd 42 izfr’kr mRrjnkrkvksa }kjk Hkkjrh; n.M lafgrk dh tkudkjh j[krs gS tcfd 3 izfr’kr mRihfM+r mRrjnkrkvksa dks vIk`’;rk fuokj.k vf/kfuf;e dh tkudkjh gS ,oa 29 izfr’kr mRihfM+r mRrjnkrkvksa dks bl izdkj ds fdlh Hkh vf/kfu;e dh tkudkjh ugha gSA mRihM+u ds i’pkr~ O;ogkj dk fooj.k O;ogkj dk Lo:i

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8

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Li"V gS fd 57 izfr’kr mRihfM+r mRrjnkrkvksa ds lkFk mRihM+u ds i’pkr~ ifjokj] tkfr lnL; o vU; leqnk; ds yksxksa }kjk lkekU; O;ogkj fd;k x;k tcfd 8 izfr’kr mRihfM+r mRRkjnkrkvksa dks vogsyuk dk f’kdkj gksuk iM+k blls Kkr gksrk gS fd mRihM+u ds mijkar Hkh bUgsa viuksa ,oa ijk;ksa ls leL;k dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gSA mRihM+u ds dkj.kksa dk fooj.k dkj.k

la[;k

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176 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

iqjkuh nq’euh

11

11

iSlksa dk ysunsu

16

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;ksx

100

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Li"V gS fd 28 izfr’kr mRrjnkrkvksa ds lkFk NqvkNqr ds dkj.k mRihM+u dk f’kdkj gksrs gSa tcfd 9 izfr’kr mRrjnkrk jktuSfrd fookn ds dkj.k mRihM+u dk f’kdkj gksrs gSA mRihM+u ds dkj.k {kfr dk fooj.k dkj.k

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Li"V gS fd 33 izzfr’kr mRrjnkrkvksa dks py @ vpy lEifRr dh gkfu gqbZ gS tcfd 3 izfr’kr mRrjnkrkvksa dks ekufld izrkM+uk dh gkfu @ {kfr gqbZ gSA 'kklu }kjk mRihM+u ds i’pkr~ izkIr gtkZus ds izdj.kksa dk fooj.k gtkZuk

la[;k

izfr’kr

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Li"V gS fd v/;;u gsrq p;fur 100 izdj.kksa esa ls 84 izdj.k esa ftldk izfr’kr 21 gS ftUgsa gtkZuk izkIr gqvk gS tcfd 79 izfr’kr mRihfM+r mRrnkrkvksa dks gtkZuk ugha feykA fu"d"kZ v/;;u ds nkSjku ik;k x;k fd 49 izfr’kr mRihfM+r mRrjnkrk dh ekfld vk; U;wure gSA mRihM+u ds izdj.kksa esa 22 izfr’kr efgykvksa ds lkFk cykRdkj dh ?kVuk gqbZ gSA 66 izfr’kr lekt o tkfr ds lnL; enn ds fy, lkeus vk;sA mRihM+u ds i’pkr~ 7 izfr’kr mRrjnkrkvksa ds lkFk 177 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

lkekU; O;ogkj ik;k x;k tcfd 43 izfr’kr ds lkFk lkekftd cfg"dkj] fuank djuk] vogsyuk djus dh ?kVuk,¡ gqbZA 33 izfr’kr mRrjnkrkvksa dh py ,oa vpy laifRr dh gkfu gqbZ] tcfd 14 izfr’kr dks lkekftd {kfr] 9 izfr’kr dks vkfFkZd {kfr] 29 izfr’kr dks 'kkjhfjd {kfr] 12 izfr’kr ifjokj ds lnL; @ eqf[k;k dh gR;k ,ao 3 izfr’kr ds ekufld izrkM+uk dh ?kVuk gqbZA 13 izfr’kr mRrjnkrkvksa dks Hkkjrh; naM lafgrk] 1 izfr’kr vi`’;rk fuokj.k vf/kfu;e ,oa 17 izfr’kr dks vuqlwfpr tkfr] tutkfr vR;kpkj fuokj.k vf/kfu;e dh tkudkjh gS] tcfd 69 izfr’kr mRrjnkrkvksa dks vf/kfu;eksa dh dksbZ tkudkjh ugha gS] blls ;g fl) gksrk gS fd vf/kdka’k mRrjnkrk vf’kf{kr gS ;k tkx:d ugha gSA 79 izfr’kr mRihfM+rksa dks ’kklu }kjk vR;kpkj ds i’pkr~ fdlh izdkj dk gjtkuk izkIr ugha gqvk tcfd 21 izfr’kr dks gtkZuk izkIr gqvkA lanHkZ fiYybZ] =mMs ¼1999½- vEcsMdlZ MkVlZ % , LVMh vkWQ egkj meSu bu vgenuxj] fMfLVªDl vkWQ egkjk”Vª ifCy’ku bu nfyRl bu ekWMuZ bfUM;k & fotu ,.M oSY;wl ¼lEiknd % ,l- ,eekbdy½- ubZ fnYyh % foLrkj ifCyds’kUkUl A ukbZd] lh- Mh- ¼2003½- FkkWV~l vkWQ fQyklQh vkWQ MkW- ch- vkj- vEcsMdj- ubZ fnYyh % Lo:i ,.M lUl ifCyds’kUkUlA jkeI;kjs ¼1991½- gfjtu ;qodks dk jktuhfrd lekthdj.k- ubZ fnYyh % feRry ifCyds’kUlA HknkSfn;k] fdj.k ¼2003½- cykbZ tkfr ds cnyrs izfreku % e/;izns’k ds bUnkSj ftys ds fo’ks"k lanHkZ esa MkW- ckck lkgsc jk"Vªh; lkekftd foKku laLFkku] MkW- vEcsMdj uxj egwA dkeyksj] xksihukFk ¼1991½- Hkkjr esa xzkeh.k vijk/k vkSj iqfyl dh Hkwfedk**- ubZ fnYyh % Lo:i ,.M lUl A ek.Mfyd] vjfoan ¼1993½- **e/;izns’k esa fL=;ksa ds izfr fgalk ls lacfa /kr vijk/k fiNM+s {ks=ksa ds fo’ks"k lanHkZ esa ** bUnkSj % nsoh vfgY;k fo’ofo|ky;- vizdkf’krA dikfM+;k] izse ¼2001½] **ubZ lnh Hkh rksM+ ugha ik;h mRrjizns’k esa vNwriu dks** ubZ fnYyh % Hkkjrh; lkekftd laLFkku A /kkous] ,l- ¼2004½- nfyrksa ij vR;kpkj gfj;k.kk ds >Ttj ftys ds lanHkZ esa** ¼ladyu½ MkW- ckck lkgsc vEcsMdj jk"Vªh; lkekftd foKku laLFkku] MkW- vEcsMdj uxj ¼egw½ A nqcs] vHk;dqekj ¼2005½- **vk/kqfudrk ds vkbZus esa nfyr** fodkl’khy lekt v/;;u ihB] t;iqjA f=Hkqou] T;ksRluk ¼1989½- **vuqlwfpr tkfr] tutkfr vf/kfu;e 1989 ,oa vf/kfu;e 1995 ykW fjysfVax Vw owesu** bUnkSj % bf.M;k ifCyf’kax dEiuh A *** 178 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

Hkkjrh; ijEijk esa efgyk l'kfDrdj.k lksguh] lat; 1

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,oa ckFke] vfurkjk;

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Hkwxksy foHkkx] Hks:yky ikVhnkj 'kkldh; LukrdksRrj egkfo|ky;] egw] ftyk bUnkSj] e/;izns’k] Hkkjr 2

x`gfoKku foHkkx] Hks:yky ikVhnkj 'kkldh; LukrdksRrj egkfo|ky;] egw] ftyk bUnkSj] e/;izns’k] Hkkjr

lkjka’k Uksiksfy;u cksukikVZ us ukjh dh egRrk crkrs gq, dgk Fkk fd ^^eq>s ,d ;ksX; ekrk ns nks eSa rqedks ,d ;ksX; jk"Vª nwaxkA** fdlh Hkh lekt dk Lo:i ogka dh ukjh dh fLFkfr ij fuHkZj djrk gSA ;fn mldh fLFkfr lqn`<+ ,oa lEEkkutud gS] rks lekt Hkh lqn`<+ ,oa etcwr gksxkA ;fn efgykvksa dh fLFkfr dks Hkkjrh; lanHkZ eas ns[ksa rks ge ikrs gS] fd izkphudky esa lekt esa mldh fLFkfr dkQh vPNh FkhA lHkh lkekftd] /kkfeZd fdz;kDykiksa esa mldh lgHkkfxrk FkhA /khjs&/khjs mldh fLFkfr esa gzkl vkSj vkt Hkh fLFkfr esa efgyk l’kfDrdj.k dk fo"k; cu x;kA fdlh Hkh lekt vkSj jk"V dh izxfr ds fy, ukjh 'kfDRk dk fo'ks"k egRo gSA ukjh] Loa; ,d 'kfDr gh ugh] ,d tuuh Hkh gS vkSj ek dh xksn cPps dh igyh ikB'kkyk gksrh gSA ek¡ dh xksn esa feyh f'k{kk gh fdlh Hkh lekt vkSj jk"Vª ds fuekZ.k ds fy, vko';d gS] ysfdu efgykvksa ds lkFk lkfn;ksa ls gks jgs HksnHkko ls fodkl dh izfd;k dks Bsl igqprh gSA efgykvksa ds lkFk HksnHkko lekt esa ifjokj ls ysdj fofHkUu Lrjksa ij gksrk jgk gSA ySafxd fo"kerkvksa dks izksRLkkfgr djus okyh ijaijkxr laLFkkvksa o lajpkukvksa esa gksus okyk ,slk ifjorZu ftlls fd efgykvksa dh lekurk lqfuf'pr gks ldsa] efgyk l'kfDrdj.k dk vk/kkj ekuk x;k gSA 'kCndqath % efgyk] 'kfDr] ijaijk ,oa lekurk A efgyk l'kfDrdj.k ds dqN ifjHkkf"kr ekud bl izdkj ekus x;s gS & efgykvksa ds vkRe lEeku o vkRe fo'okl dh Hkkouk fodflr djuk] efgykvksa dh ldkjkRed Nfo dk fuekZ.k & ;g dk;Z lkekftd vkfFkZd thou esa muds ;ksxnku dks ekU;rk iznku dj fn;k tk ldrk gS] efgykvksa esa vkykspukRed fparu dh {kerk dk fodkl djuk fu.kZ; ysus dh {kerk o iks"k.k o mls mUur djuk] fodkl izfØ;k esa leku Hkkxhnkjh lqfuf'pr djuk] vkfFkZd lekurk gsrq lwpuk] Kku o dq'kyrk miyC/k djkuk]efgykvksa ds dkuwuh Kku dk fodkl rFkk Loa; ds vf/kdjksa laca/kh lwpukvksa rd mudh igq¡p dks lqfuf'pr djuk] lkekftd] vkfFkZd thou ds LkHkh {ks=ksa esa leku :i ls mudh lgHkkfxrk esa o`f} gsrq iz;kl djukA* 179 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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l’kfDrdj.k dk vFkZ & l’kfDRkdj.k ,d cgq vk;keh izfdz;k gS ;g efgyk esa tkx:drk ykrh gS] fd og 'kfDr dks izkIRk djsa ,oa mlesa lkekftd vkfFkZd lalk/kuksa ij fu;a=.k izkIRk djus dh {kerk dk fodkl gksA efgyk l'kfDrdj.k ds iz;kl fiNys dqN o"kksaZ esa efgykvksa esa Kku foKku ds gj {ks= esa viuh lQyrk dk ijpe ygjk;k gSA vkt ns'k o nqfu;k dk dksbZ ,slk {ks= ugh tgkW efgykvksa us viuh mifLFkfr u ntZ djkbZ gksA vkt mlh dk ifj.kke gS fd vc ljdkj vfUre ik;nku ij [kMh efgykvksa ds fy, Hkh vius fodkl ds ekun.Mksa esa cnyko yk jgh gSA igys efgykvksa ds fy, ljdkj ds ikl dsoy dY;k.kkksUeq[kh ;kstuk;sa FkhA ckn esa fodkl dk;ZØekas dks cus dh ctk; izxfr ds ekxZ esa leku Hkkxhnkj ekuk tkus yxk gSA bl fo"k; ij ljdkj dh xaHkhjrk dk vanktk blh ls yxk;k tk ldrk fd jk"Vªh; U;wure lk>k dk;ZØe ds Ng ewy m}s';ksa esa ,d m}s'; efgykvksa dk jktuSfrd] 'kSf{k.kd] vkfFkZd vkSj dkuwuh n`f"V ls l'kDr cukuk j[kk x;k gSA ljdkj dh bl ekeys esa efgykvksa dk iquZokl ls ysdj vkRe fuHkZj cukus rd dh igy gSA blds fy, ljdkj ljdkjh ra= ds vykok xSj ljdkjh laxBuksa vkSj Loa;lsoh laLFkkvksa ls Hkh gkFk feyk jgh gSA blesa vc ljdkj dh utj esa os jkT; izkFkfedrk ij gksaxs] tks vc rd vyx Fkyx iMs FksA tSls iwoksZRrj jkT;ksa esa fiNys o"kZ dh 'kq:vkr esa 60 dkedkth efgyk gksLVyksa dh LFkkiuk dh xbZA bllsa 3087 efgykvksa dks ykHk feysxkA blds vykok vkbZ-Lkh-Mh-,l]jk"Vªh; efgyk dks"k ¼vkj-,e-ds-½ Loa; fl}k] lokoyECku] LokLF;] fuiflM] lsi vkSj l'kfDr tSls ljdkjh o xSj ljdkjh rU=ksa ds ek/;e ls ljdkj iwoksZRrj dks** fpfM+;k?kj** dh rLohj ls fudkyus dh iwjh dksf'k'k dj jgh gSA Lkjdkj us efgykvksa dh lqj{kk vkSj fodkl ds fy, dbZ laLFkkvksa dk xBu fd;k gS] ftlesa jk"Vªh; tu lg;ksx ,oa cky fodkl laLFkku efgykvksa esa l'kfDrdj.k vkSj lacaf/kr ekeyksa ds lexz {ks=ksa esa LosfPNd dk;Z] vuqla/kku] izf'k{k.k ,oa izys[khdj.k ds mUu;u esa layXu ,d 'kh"kZLFk laLFkku gS] ;g efgyk ,oa cky fodkl foHkkx ds v/khu dk;Z djrk gS] bu lcds vykok efgykvksa esa vkRe fo'okl cuk jgs blds fy, mUgsa vkfFkZd] 'kS{kf.kd nksuksa :iksa esa etcwr gksus gh t:jr gSA efgyk f'k{kk dh ppZ dh tkrh gS rks Li"Vr% ns[kk tk ldrk gS fd bl fo'oHkj eas efgykvksa dh fLFkfr lq/kkjus ds fy, fd;s x;s vkanksyuks esa mudh fuEUk fLFkfr dk cnyus ds fy, f'k{kk dks ,d egRoiw.kZ lk/ku ekuk x;k gSA blds Øe esa efgykvksa ds fy, f'k{kk ds laf{kIRk ikB~;Øe tSls iz;kl dsUnzh; lekt dY;k.k cksMZ lu~ 1958 ls dj jgk gS bl ;kstuk dk y{; 15 o"kZ ls vf/kd vk;q dh yM+fd;[email protected] dks dkS'ky 180 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

mUu;[email protected];olkf;d izf'k{k.k ds vykok 'kS{kf.kd volj iznku djuk gSA bl dk;ZØe dk mn~ns'; izkS<+ efgykvksa dks 'kfDr iznku djus ds fy, mlesa izfØ;kvksa rd mudh igq¡p dks c<+kuk Hkh gSA ;g dk;ZØe efgyk& iq:"k lekurk o efgyk l'kfDrdj.k dks c
Lora=rk blh oSf’od Hkkouk ds lkFk ckn esa Hkkjr esa L=h iq:"k lekurk dh xbZA 1955 ds

fgUnq fookg vf/kfu;e] 1954 ds fo’ks"k fookg vf/kfu;e] 1956 ds iqufoZokg vf/kfu;e] 1956 esa ikfjr fgUnq nRrd xzg.k ,oa iks"k.k vf/kfu;e ds }kjk ogka ukjh dks lkekftd vf/kdkj iznku fd, x;sA ogh 1956 ds fgUnq mRrjkf/kdkj vf/kfu;e iznku fd;s x;sA ogha 1956 ds fgUnq mRrjkf/kdkj vf/kfu;e }kjk mls lEifRr vf/kdkj iznku fd;k x;kA QSDVªh vf/kfu;e 1948 ,oa ikfjJfed vf/kfu;e 1976 ds }kjk mlds vkfFkZd vf/kdjksa ds lkFk&2 lEeku dks lqj{kk iznku dh xbZA f’kf{kr ,oa vf’kf{kr lHkh efgykvksa dks erkf/kdkj iznku fd;k x;kA blds vfrfjDr ngst fu"ks/k ,DV 1961 ,oa v’yhy fp=.k fuokj.k ,DV 1986 Hkh ikfjr fd;s x;sA efgyk l'kfDrdj.k dkuwu vkt ds vk/kqfud dgs tkus okys lekt esa fL+=;ksa dks cktkj dh oLrq cuk fy;k x;k gSA vkt fQYesa curh gSa] rks mlesa Hkh tks fn[krk gS] ogh fcdrk gS dk QkeZwyk gh fQV gksrk gS] lekt vius uSfrd ewY;ksa] xfjek f'k"Vrk ls dkslksa nwj pyk x;k gSSA cky fookg] lrhizFkk] oS';ko`fr] cgqvks dks ngst ds fy, tykdj ekj nsuk vkSj u tkus fdrus vijk/k ljdkjh iz;klksa ds ckcwtn bl lekt dh tM+ksa esa xgjs rd te pqds gSA ijUrq lPpkbZ ;g Hkh gS] fd dsoy ljdkjh iz;klksa ;k dkuwu ls rc rd fdlh Hkh leL;k dk gy ugha fudy ldrk] tc rd fd ge Loa; lfØ; vkSj tkx:d u gksA ljdkj efgykvksa dh lqj{kk ds fy, dkuwu ls rc rd fdlh Hkh leL;k dk gy ugh fudy ldrk] tc rd fd ge Loa; lfØ; vkSj tkx:d u gksA ljdkj efgykvksa dh lqj{kk ds fy, u, dkuwuksa dk fuekZ.k Hkh dj jgh gSA ngst gR;k] ckykRdkj] lrh izFkk vkSj ?kjsyw fgalk tSls fofHkUu izdkj ds dkuwu efgykvksa dh lqj{kk ds fy, ikfjr fd, x,A gky gh es ?kjsyw fgalk dks efgykvksa dks futkr fnykus ds fy, ,d u;k dkuwu ykxw fd;k x;kA ?kjsyw fgalk dsk efgykvksa dk laj{k.k vf/kfu;e 2005 uke ds vf/kfu;e dks 14 flrEcj 2005 dks Hkkjr ds jkti= es izdkf'kr fd;k x;kA laln ds nksuks lnuksa us bl vf/kfu;e dks 2005 dks jk"Vªifr 181 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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dh Hkh Lohd`fr bls izkIRk gqbZ vkSj egkefge us bl ij gLrk{kj fd;sA dqN dkj.kksa ls bls ykxw djus esa fcyao gqvk] ;|fi 26 vDVwcj 2006 ls bls ykxw fd;k x;kA ?kjsyw fgalk ls efgykvksa dk laj{k.k vf/kfu;e esa efgykvas dks ?kjsyw fgalk ls cpkus ds fy, fofHkUu izko/kku fd, x, gSA izFke] bl dkuwu esa ?kjsyw fgalk dh tks ifjHkk"kk nh xbZ gS] mlesa okLrfod nqO;Zogkj vFkok 'kkjhfjd] ;kSu] 'kkfCnd] vkfFkZd nqO;Zogkj dh /kedh vkSj HkkoukRed mRihM+u dks 'kkfey fd;k x;k gSA efgyk dh xfjek dks Bsl igqp a kuk] cPps u gksus vFkok iq= ds tUe u ysus ij rkus ekjuk vkSj viekfur djuk Hkh bl dkuwu ds izko/kkuksa esa 'kkfey gSA f}rh; blesa ihfM+r efgyk ds llqjky vFkok la;qDr ifjokj eas jgus ds vf/kdkj dk mica/k Hkh fd;k x;k gS] pkgs ,slk ?kj ;k ifjokj izfroknh efgyk dk LokfeRo gks vFkok u gksA ;fn izfroknh efgyk ugh gS] rks mls og ?kj NksMus ds fy, ftlesa f'kdk;rdrkZ efgyk ds lkFk jg jgk gS vFkok mlds tSLks oSdfYid vkokl efgykvksa dks nsus ;k mlds fy, ,slk ?kj fdjk;s ij ysus dk funsZ'k bl vf/kfu;e ds varxZr fn;k tk ldrk gSA bl izdkj efgyk dks vkokl dh leL;k ls nks& pkj ugh gksuk iM+sxk] D;ksafd vkokl ewyHkwr vko';drkvksa esa ls ,d gSA r`rh;] bl vf/kfu;e esa nqO;Zogkj djus okys O;fDr dks ?kjsyw fgalk ;k vU; fdlh fufofnZ"V dk;Z es lgk;rk djus vFkok ,sls fdlh vU; LFkku tgka lkekU;r%ihfM+r efgyk dk vkuk tkuk gks] ,sls LFkku ij izos'k djus] ihfM+r efgyk ls ckr djus dk iz;kl djus nksuksa i{kksa }kjk iz;qDr dh tk jgh ifjlaxfr;ksa ij dsoy viuk vf/kdkj LFkkfir djus ls Hkh jksdus dk izko/kku Hkh bl fo/ks;d esa fd;k x;k gS pkSFkh ckr tks bl dkuwu esa gS] og fd blesa mu efgykvksa dks Hkh fd;k x;k gS ftudk nqO;Zogkj djus okys O;fDr ls dksbZ lac/a k gS vFkok jgk gSA l;qDr ifjokj esa jgus okys ifjtuksa ds laca/kksa dks Hkh dkuwu ds varxZr ihfM+r efgyk dks jkgr iznku djus ds fy, tkjh fd, tkus okys vkns'kksa esa laaj{k.k vkns'k] vkokl vkns'k] vkfFkZd jkgr lac/a kh vkns'k vkokl vkns'k] vkfFkZd jkgr laca/kh vkns'k vfHkj{kk rFkk {kfriwfrZ vkns'k lfEefyr gSA efgykvksa dks vU; lqfo/kk,as tSls fpfdRlk tkap] dkuwuh lgk;rk] lqjf{kr vkJ; vkfn izkIRk djkus ds fy, lsok iznkrkvksa ds :i esa laj{k.k vf/kdkfj;ksa dh fu;qfDr dk izca/k fd;k x;k gSA dkuwu es ,d o"kZ dh dSn 20 gtkj :i;s tqekZuk ;k nksuksa dk izko/kku gSA efgyk l’kfDrdj.k ds fy;s 1985 esa efgyk ,oa cky fodkl dh LFkkiuk dh xbZA 31 tuojh 1992 dks jk"Vªh; efgyk vk;ksx dk xBu fd;k x;k ,oa varjk"VªhZ; efgyk fnol euk;k tkus yxkA lokZaxh.k fodkl gsrq efgyk mRFkku uhfr 2001 dk fØ;kUo;u vkfFkZd vkSj lkekftd fodkl esa cjkcj dh Hkkxhnkjh ds volj iznku djus ds izeq[k m}s'; dks ysdj dsUnz ljdkj }kjk 20 ekpZ 2001 dks** jk"Vªh; efgyk mRFkku uhfr] 2001** dh ?kks"k.kk dh xbZ] blesa fd, 182 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

x, izko/kkuksa dks rHkh ls Hkyh Hkkafr ykxw djus ij Hkh fo'ks"k cy fn;k tkrk gS] bl uhfr esa efgykvksa ds leqfpr fodkl vkSj mUgsa i;kZIRk laj{k.k iznku djus dk vk'oklu Hkh fn;k x;k gS vkSj dqN dks ewrZ :i Hkh iznku fd;k x;k gSA vkfFkZd & lkekftd l'kfDRkdj.k gsrq fiNys 6 & 7 o"kksZ es ljdkj }kjk lapkfyr ;kstuk,¡ Ekfgykvksa ds fy, dqN ubZ fodkl vkSj dY;k.kdkjh ;kstukvksa dh ?kks"k.kk djrs gq, mUgsa lapkfyr fd;k x;k gS] blds fy, iwoZ ls lapkfyr fo'ks"k ;kstukvksa ;Fkk LokoyEcu dk;ZØe ¼1982½] jkstxkj rFkk izf'k{k.k gsrq lgk;rk dk;ZØe ¼LVSi½ ¼1986½] U;w ekWMy p[kksZ ;kstuk ¼1987½] jkt jkts'ojh chek ;kstuk ¼1997½] LOkkjF; l[kh ;kstuk ¼1997½] xzkeh.k {ks= esa efgyk ,oa cky fodkl dk;ZØe

(DWCRA)

;kstuk

¼1997½] vkfn dks le; le; ij vf/kd iSekus ij lapkfyr djus ds iz;kl fd, x, gS] ubZ lnh esa lapkfyr dh xbZ ;kstukvksa esa fd'kksjh 'kfDr ;kstuk efgyk LOka; fl) ;kstuk] efgyk LOkk/kkj ;kstuk] efgyk m|fe;ksa gsrq _.k ;kstuk] oansekrje ;kstuk] dLrwjck xka/kh ckfydk fo|ky; ;kstuk] vk'kk ;kstuk] vkaxuckMh fo'ks"k chek ;kstuk fo'ks"k vkoklh; fo|ky; ;kstuk]]ckfydk f'k{kk izksRlkgu ;kstuk] bdykSrh dU;k ;kstuk Nk=o`fr ykMyh y{eh ;kstuk vkfn izeq[k :i ls mYYks[kuh; gSA buds vfrfjDr dbZ ,slh vU; ;kstukvkssa dks Hkh lapkfyr fd, tkus ij fofHkUu Lrjksa ij fopkj fd;k tk jgk gS] ftlls vU; t:jrean efgykvksa dks Hkh fofHkUu dY;k.kdkjh ;kstukvksa ds varxZr vkPNkfnr fd;k tk ldsA* efgyk 'kfDRk iqjLdkjksa dh O;oLFkk Ekfgykvksa vkSj efgyk [email protected] dks ftUgksaus {kss= esa mRd`"V Lrj dk ;ksxnku fd;k gS] dks dsUnz ljdkj }kjk izfro"kZ **Jh 'kfDr iq:Ldkj** ls lEekfur fd;k tkrk gS] rkfd muds mRd`"V d`R;ksa dh lekt esa tkudkjh gks lds vkSj mUgsa igpku fey lds bu iqjLdkjksa dks ns[k dh 5 'kh"kZ Lrjh; ohjkaxukvksa ds uke ij j[kk x;k gSA blesa nsoh vfgY;kckbZ gksYdj iqjLdj] >kalh dh jkuh y{ehckbZ iqjLdkj] ekrk thtkckbZ iqjLdkj] jkuh xSnfUr;q tsfy;kx iqjLdkj] dUuxh iqjLdkjA f'k{kk rFkk izf'k{k.k] d`f"k rFkk xzkeks|ksx dk;kZs es yxh efgykvksa dks lgk;rk nsus ,slh rduhdh dks izksRlkgu nsuk] ftlesa de esgur yxrh gks] i;kZoj.k laj{k.k] LOkns'kh fpfdRlk i}fr;ksa ds izpkj izlkj lkfgr LOkkLF; ds {kss= esa dyk vkSj fefM;k lfgr leqnk; vk/kkfjr dk;ZØeksa ds ek/;e ls efgykvksa dh leL;kvksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh rFkk tkx:drk iSnk djus tSls {ks=ksa esa mRd`"V dk;Z djus okyh efgykvksa dks izfro"kZ 8 ekpZ dks vUrjk"VªhZ; efgyk fnol ds volj ij iznku fd;k tkrk gSA 183 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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jktuSfrd l'kfDRkdj.k gsrq efgyk vkj{k.k fo/ks;d dks laln esa ikfjr djkus dk lQy iz;kl fd;k x;k & ;g fo/ks;d dqN jktuhfrd ikfVZ;ksa ds }kjk fofHkUu oxkZZs vkSj tkfr;ksa dh efgykvksa ds fy, vyx vyx vkj{k.k dh O;OkLFkk djus tSls dqN eqnnksa ij fojks/k izn'kZu ds dkj.k ikl ugha gks ldrk Fkk ysfdu dsUnz ljdkj }kjk o"kZ 2007 eas gh ikl djus gsrq izfrc}rk iznkf'kZr dh xbZ Fkh] fyax vk/kkfjr ctV dh O;oLFkk o"kZ 2001 esa dh xbZ FkhA dsUnz ljdkj }kjk fyax vk/kkfjr ctV ij o"kZZ 2001&2002 esa vkfFkZd losZ{k.k eas ,d iwjk v/;k; igyh ckj rS;kj djk;k x;k Fkk] xr rhu rhu o"kksZ ls yxkrkj dsUnzh; ctV esa efgyk vkoaVu dks izkFkfedrk iznku dh tk jgh gSA o"kZ 2007&08 esa 50 ea=ky;ksa vkSj foHkkxksa }kjk vius&vius ;gk¡ **efgyk ctV lSy** LFkkfir dj fy;s x, gSA o"kZ 2007&08 ds dsUnzh; ctV esa efgyk dsfUnzr ;kstukvksa gsrq 8795 djksM+ :i;s dk vkcaVu fd;k x;k FkkA blds vfrfjDr ftu ;kstukvksa esa de ls de 33 izfr'kr efgyk,¡ gksxh] mUgs 22382 djksM+ :i;s dh /kujk'kh iznku dh xbZ gSA Hkkjr easa efgykvksa ls lacaf/kr leL;kvksa dh ns[k &js[k ds fy, jk"Vªh; efgyk vk;ksx dk xBu 31 tuojh 1992 dks jk"Vªh; efgyk vk;ksx vf/kfu;e 1990 ds varxZr fd;k x;kA ;g efgykvksa dk 'kh"kZLFk laoS/kkfud fudk; gSA ;gk¡ dh leL;k dks lquk] le>k vkSj laa oS/kkfud rjhds ls gy fd;k tkrk gSA jk"Vªh; efgyk vk;ksx efgykvksa ls lacaf/kr egRoiw.kZ dkuwuksa dh dk;Zdq'kyrk esa lq/kkj dh laLrqfr;ka ljdkj ds le{k izLrqr djus ds fy, mudh leh{kk dj jgk gSA gky dh esa ykxw fd;k x;k ?kjsyw fgalk ls efgykvksa dh lqj{kk gsrq vf/kfu;r esa jk"Vªh; efgyk vk;ksx dh egrh Hkwfedk jgh gSA vHkh rd vU; egRoiw.kZ vf/kfu;eksa dh leh{kk Hkh vk;ksx }kjk dh xbZ gSA lrh izFkk ¼fuokj.k½ vf/kfu;e 1987] L=h vf'k"V :i.k ¼fu"ks/k½ vf/kfu;e 1986] ngst ¼fu"ks/k½ vf/kfu;e 1961 vkSj vuSfrd O;kikj ¼fuokj.k½ vf/kfu;e 1956] leh{kk lwph esa izeq[k :i ls 'kkfey gSA efgykvksa dk ;kSu mRihM+u ls laj{k.k fo/ks;d 2005 dks Hkh jk"Vªh; efgyk vk;ksx dk iz'kaluh; dk;Z gh ekuk tk,axkA jk"Vªh; efgyk vk;ksx dk ,d vU; egRoiw.kZ dk;Z vfHkj{kkRed U;k; lqfuf'pr djuk Hkh gSA efgykvksa ls lacaf/kr LkHkh fo"k;ksa dk v/;;u ,oa izcks/ku] ekStwnk dkuwuksa dh leh{kk] tgka Hkh vko';d gks] laa'kks/kuksa dh flQkfj'k vkSj u tkus fdrus dk;Z] jk"Vªh; efgyk vk;ksx dk dk;Z efgyk,¡ thou ds lHkh {ks=ksa esa iq:"kksa ds leku ntkZ izkIRk djsa rFkk jk"Vª ds fuekZ.k esa leqfpr Hkkxhnkjh fuHkk ldsa] rHkh Hkkjr ,d etcwr jk"Vª cu ldsxkA Ekfgykvksa esa fnuksfnu c<+rh xjhch] fu.kZ;] fuekZ.k esa vleku lgHkkfxrk] lalk/kuksa ds izca/ku vkSj i;kZoj.k ds laj{k.k eas efgykvksa dk vYi ;ksxnkuA fo’ks"kdj xzkeh.k efgykvksa dk] mRiknu izfØ;k] uhfr fuekZ.k vkSj vk/kkjHkwr lajpuk esa efgykvksa dh Hkkxhnkjh dh vlekurk] LokLF; dh vi;kZIr vkSj vleku lqfo/kk;sa vkfn dqN ,slh ewyHkwr leL;k,¡ gS] ftuds fcuk efgyk l’kfDrdj.k dk y{; iwjk gksus esa lansg gSA fuf’pr rkSj ij ;g leL;k,¡ gekjs lekt dh :f<+oknh O;oLFkk dh gh nsu gSA efgykvksa dks xzkeh.k 184 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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vkSj ’kgjh nksuksa {ks=ksa esa laxfBr dj] mudks vius vf/kdkjksa ds izfr tkx:d dj vkSj lHkh LFkkuksa ij muds lgHkkfxrk ds Lrj dks c<+kdj gh efgyk l’kfDrdj.k gks ldsxk vkSj viuk ns’k rFkk lekt Hkh l’kDr gks ldsxkA efgyk l’kfDrdj.k gsrq vR;Ur vko’;d gS fd iz’kklfud lajpuk ds izR;sd Lrj ij efgykvksa dh xq.kkRed ,oa lkFk gh lkFk la[;kRed lgHkkfxrk Hkh vfuok;Z :i ls gksA ’kfDr lajpuk esa efgykvksa dh lgHkkfxrk dks lqfuf’pr djuk] mUgsa lekurk fnykus ;k muds vkuqikfrd o foLr`r lkekftd eqn~nks dks] efgykvksa o lekt ds lanHkZ esa le>us dk iz;kl Hkh djuk gksxkA ,d U;k;ksfpr o ekuoh; lkekftd O;oLFkk ds fuekZ.k gsrq ges efgykvksa dh lgHkkfxrk ds egRo dk le>uk gksxkA foxr o"kksZ esa efgykvksa ds l’kfDrdj.k gsrq ljdkj }kjk fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa vusd dne mBk, x, gS] ftues ls dqN izeq[k iz;klksa dk fooj.k Åij fn;k x;k gS] bl fooj.k ls bl fu"d"kZ ij igqapk tk ldrk gS fd bl vof/k esa bl fn’kk es dkQh dksf’k’ksa dh xbZ gS ftuesa ls dqN ds lkFkZd ifj.kke fn[kkbZ nsus yxs gS] rFkk dqN ds ifj.kke vkxs vkus okys o"kksZ esa Li"V :i ls fn[kkbZ nsus pkfg;sA lanHkZ eksnh] vuhrk ¼2009½- iapk;rh jkt ,oa efgyk l’kfDrdj.k- Ckqd bUDyso ifCyl’kZ- i`"B 72[kaMsyoky] ekupan ¼2008½- efgyk l’kfDrdj.k fl}kar ,oa O;ogkj- vfo"dkj ifCyds’ku- i`"B 51vfXugks=h] ,- ,u- ¼2008½- efgyk l’kfDrdj.k vkSj dkuwu- ljLorh izdk’ku- i`"B 39oekZ] vatyh ¼2009½- Hkkjr esa dk;Z’khy efgyk;sa- vksesxk ifCyds’kUl- i`"B 47dqekj] fofiu ¼2009½- oS’ohdj.k ,oa efgyk l’kfDrdj.k fofo/k vk;ke- jhxy ifCyl’kZ- i`"B 62’kekZ] jkuw ¼2007½- y{; ls nwj xzkeh.k ukjh- jk/kk ifCyds’ku- i`"B 59Dqekj] ifo= ¼2009½- ukjh ’kks"k.k ds fofp= igyw- ’kekZ Xyksfj;l ifCy’klZ- i`"B 69izfr;ksfxrk niZ.k ¼ekfld if=dk½ØkSfudy ¼ekfld if=dk½dq:+{ks= ¼ekfld if=dk½tulRrk ¼lekpkj i=½;kstuk ¼ekfld if=dk½nSfud HkkLdj ¼lekpkj i=½nSfud tkxj.k ¼lekpkj i=½lfjrk ¼ekfld if=dk½fgUnqLrku VkbZEl ¼lekpkj i=½lgkjk ¼lekpkj i=½***  185 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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efgyk l'kfDrdj.k esa f'k{kk dh Hkwfedk dk lekt'kkL=h; fo'ys"k.k dkfdMsZ] lqyHkk lekt'kkL= foHkkx] 'kkldh; dyk ,oa okf.kT; egkfo|ky;] bUnkSj] e/;izns'k] Hkkjr

lkjka'k orZeku lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ds ;qx esa efgykvksa dh f'k{kk o mudh {kerkvksa dk lao/kZu u dsoy vius vki esa egRoiw.kZ gSa cfYd ns'k ds lexz fodkl dk ,dek= o loksZRre fodYi gSA ns'k ds izFke mijk"Vªifr o f'k{kk'kkL=h MkW- loZiYyh jk/kkd`".ku us dgk Fkk fd ^^f'kf{kr efgyk ds fcuk f'kf{kr iq:"k gks gh ugha ldrkA** loZfofnr rF; gSa fd efgykvksa dks f'kf{kr fd, fcuk mUgsa fodkl dh eq[;/kkjk ls tksM+uk laHko ugha gSaA efgykvksa dks l'kDr LokoyEch o vkRefo'oklh cukus esa f'k{kk dk ;ksxnku egRoiw.kZ gSa efgyk f’k{kk ls gh efgyk l'kfDrdj.k dh izkfIr laHko gSaA efgykvksa ds l'kDr gksus ij gh ifjokj lekt] jk"Vª ds pgqeq[kh fodkl esa iq:"kksa ds lkFk efgykvksa dh lfØ; Hkkxhnkjh lqfuf'pr dh tk ldrh gSaA blh Øe esa xzkeh.k efgyk f'k{kk ls u dsoy efgykvksa dks vfirq lEiw.kZ lekt o ns'k dks ykHk gksxkA vkn'kZ ukxfjdksa dk fuekZ.k gksxk ukscy fotsrk izksveZR; lsu us viuh iqLrd ^^bfYiu bdksukWfed MoyiesaV ,.M lks'ky viksZP;qfuVh** esa dgk gSa fd efgyk l'kfDrdj.k ls u dsoy efgykvksa ds thou esa fuf'pr :Ik ls ldkjkRed vlj iM+sxk cfYd iq:"kksa o cPpksa dks Hkh bldk ykHk feysxkA o"kZ 1995 esa phu esa vk;ksftr pkSFks fo'o efgyk lEesyu esa Hkh ;g Lohdkj fd;k x;k fd f'k{kk ls l'kfDrdj.k gksrk gSa thou i;ZUr o fujUrj f'k{kk ekuo thou dh mUufr ds fy, vko';d gSA 'kCn dqath & efgyk] f'k{kk] l'kfDrdj.k ,oa lektA izLrkouk fdlh Hkh lekt ;k ns'k ds fodkl ds cqfu;knh ekunaMksa esa f'k{kk vFkok lk{kjrk dk egRoiw.kZ LFkku gSA f'k{kk ,slh 'kfDr gSa tks O;fDr] ifjokj vkSj lekt ds mRFkku esa ,d lkFk mi;ksxh Hkwfedk fuHkkrh gSaA f'k{kk u dsoy gekjs uSfrd fodkl esa ennxkj gksrh gSa] cfYd gekjh HkkSfrd o vkfFkZd izxfr ds fy, t:jh gSA dqN dkj.kksa ls gekjk ns'k f'k{kk ds egRo dks Hkwyrk x;k vkSj /khjs&/khjs f'k{kk dsoy dqyhu vkSj mPp oxZ rd lhfer gks xbZA Kku lw;Z dh rjg loZO;kih u gksdj nhi dh rjg vYiO;kih gks x;k gSA f'k{kk dh mi;ksfxrk lkekftd rFkk vkfFkZd HksnHkko ds nq"pØ dks rksM+dj varr% lekt ls vius dks vkRelkr djus esa fufgr gSaA f'k{kk dks ,d lexz thou n`f"V ds

186 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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:Ik esa ns[kus ij gh ifjokj rFkk lekt dk dY;k.k lqfuf'pr gSA vr% f'k{kk dh vykSfddrk ls efgyk dks eg:e ugha j[kk tk ldrk] D;ksafd efgyk l'kfDrdj.k dh dqath f'k{kk gh gSA mn~ns'; 1-

efgyk l'kfDrdj.k esa f'k{kk dh Hkwfedk tkuukA

2-

D;k efgyk f'k{kk ls lkekftd mUufr gksxhA

midYiuk f'k{kk ls gh efgyk l'kDr gksxhA i)fr iqLrdky;] voyksdu fof/k dk iz;ksxA 1- Hkkjr dh 15oha tux.kuk 2011 tula[;k

dqy

1210569573

efgyk 587447730 iq:"k

623121843 Table  1  f'k{kk  

fyax

Hkkjr ¼

%  esa

½

e-iz- ¼

%  esa

efgyk

64-64

59-2

iq:"k

80-89

78-73

dqy

72-99

69-32

dqy tula[;k esa 72-99 % f'kf{kr gSa ftlesa efgyk 64-64

%

gSa tks 100

%

ls 35-36

½

%

de gSaA

2- Literacy  1901&2011 Table ‐ 2 

187 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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The table lists the " Crude Literacy Rate " in India from 1901 to 2011  188 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

3‐ Literacy Rate  Graph ‐ 1 

(Table – 2) ‐

esa 107

%

1901 esa tgkWa efgyk dh lk{kjrk 60

%

Fkh ogha 2011 esa 64-64

%

gks x;h gSa 110 o"kksZa

dh o`f) gqbZ gSA

(Graph  –  1)  ‐

1907 esa dqy lk{kjrk 5-35

efgyk,as 29

ihNs gSA

%

%

esa 2011 esa 72-99

%

esa 136

%

dh o`f) gqbZ ;gka

,d Lo;a lsoh laxBu us vius los{Z k.k esa ik;k fd izkFkfed fo|ky; esa ukekafdr dqy 100 ckfydkvksa esa 5oha d{kk rd igqWaprs mudh la[;k 40] 8oha rd 10] o 12oha rd 1 jg tkrh gSaA ftldk dkj.k ;k rks i<+kbZ NqM+ok fn;k tkuk gksrk gSa ;k 'kknh dj fn;k tkuk gSA f'k{kk dh Hkwfedk efgykvksa dks lk{kj] f'kf{kr djds gh mudh lqIr ;ksX;rk] n{krk o {kerkvksa dk fodkl fd;k tkuk laHko gSA 1-

efgykvksa dks l'kDr Lokoyach] vkRefo'oklh cukus esa vge~ HkwfedkA

2-

f'k{kk ds cy ij xzkeh.k lekt esa O;kIr ySafxd vlekurk HksnHkko] 'kks"k.k] mis{kk tSls na'kksa dk eqdkcyk dj ldrh gSA

189 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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3-

efgykvksa dks vius vf/kdkjksa] drZO;ksa] ftEesnkfj;ksa ds ckjs esa txk:drk lqfuf'prrk gksxhA

4-

efgyk f'k{kk] fu/kZurk] mUewyu] mRikndrk] o`f) o iztuu nj esa deh ykus dk ,d l'kDr o izHkkoh ek/;e gSA

5-

'kks/k v/;;uksa ls ;g rF; lkeus vk;k gSa fd efgyk f'k{kk o tula[;k o`f) nj esa _.kkRed lglaca/k gSA

6-

vf/kdka'k] lkekftd] vkfFkZd leL;k dk lek/kku efgyk f'k{kk gh gSA

fu"d"kZ vkt Hkh f'k{kk ds lanHkZ esa mPp ySafxd vUrj cuk gqvk gSa rFkk fuj{kj efgykvksa dh la[;k 35-36 % gSa] efgyk lk{kjrk o f’k{kk ds ekxZ esa vusd vojks/kd gSa ftudks nwj djds gh visf{kr lQyrk izkIr dh tk ldrh gSaA loZizFke xjhch o fuEu vk; Lrj xzkeh.k efgyk f'k{kk ds fy, lcls cM+k jksM+k gSaA ns'k dh yxHkx 26 djksM+ tula[;k xjhch js[kk ds uhps thou;kiu dj jgh gSA lkekftd] lkaLd`frd folaxfr;ksa o dqjhfr;ksa dh otg ls Hkh efgyk f'k{kk ls oafpr jg tkrh gSA cky fookg] inkZizFkk] ngstizFkk ,oa f'k{kk ij O;; dks vuqRiknd o fQtwy [kphZ ekuuk tSls rRo efgyk f'k{kk ij udkjkRed izHkko Mkyrs gSA ^csVh ijk;k /ku gSa* ;g ladh.kZ ekufldrk Hkh efgyk f'k{kk dks grksRlkfgr djrh gSa] blds vfrfjDr fo|ky;ksa dh deh] nwjh] ikB~;Øeksa esa jkspdrk o laca)rk dk vkHkko] ?kjsyw nkf;Ro ,oa vfHkHkkodksa esa tkx:drk dk vkHkko tSls rRo efgyk f'k{kk] l'kfDrdj.k esa ck/kd gSA ns'k ds fodkl] l'kDrrk dh dqath efgyk lk{kjrk gh gSaA bl rF; dks n`f"Vxr j[krs gq, efgykvksa ds izfr HksnHkko] mis{kk] nks;e ntsZ ds O;ogkj dks ifjofrZr djuk t:jh gSa bl ifjorZu ds fy, lekt ds lHkh oxksZa dk lg;ksx] laosnuk o lgkuqHkwfr vko';d gSA xSj ljdkjh o Lo;alsoh laxBuksa dks Hkh efgyk f'k{kk esa lfØ; ;ksxnku gsrq izsfjr fd;k tk ldrk gSaA ;s laxBu efgykvksa esa mudh {kerk] ;ksX;rk o vf/kdkjksa ds izfr tkx:drk mRiUu djus esa egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkk ldrs gSa] fu%lansg :Ik ls efgyk f'k{kk dh mUufr gh efgykvksa dks l'kDr cuk ldrh gSa ,oa ^^efgykvksa dk l'kfDrdj.k] Hkkjr dk l'kfDrdj.k** 'kCnksa dks pfjrkFkZ dj ldrh gSA lnaHkZ Census of India 2011, Press Information Bureau, Government of India.  

dq:{ks=] xzkeh.k fodkl ea=ky;] ubZ fnYyhxqIrk ,.M 'kekZ] lekt'kkL=] lkfgR; Hkou izdk'ku] vkxjkik.Ms rstLdj ,oa laxhrk] Hkkjr esa lkekftd leL;k,as] Vh-,e-,p- ifCyds'ku] fnYyhHkqjkfM;k] fueZyk] ukf;dk] ubZ nqfu;k] tkxj.k izdk'ku] bUnkSj***  190 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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larqfyr fodkl vkt dh loksZPp izkFkfedrk lksguh] lat; Hkwxksy foHkkx] Hks:yky ikVhnkj 'kkldh; LukrdksRrj egkfo|ky;] egw] ftyk bUnkSj] e/;izns’k] Hkkjr

lkjka’k ekuo tkfr ds fy, eaMy dk v/;;u vkSj mldh folaxfr;ka ,d xw< jgL; Fkh ftls le>u mld ckSf}d Lrj ds ij FkkA /khjs&/khjs foKku ,oa rduhdh dk lgkj ysdj ekuo us thou dh /kkjk dks fodkl vkSj vkS|ksfxdhdj.k ls tksMrs gq, Lo;a viuh tula[;k dk Hkj.k&iks"k.k djus gsrq fofHkUu tSfod ,oa vtSfod vo;oksa dks vlkekU; :Ik ls ’kq: esa NsMNkM djrs gS rks ikfjfLFkfrdh ra= dk larqyu izkd``frd :Ik ls fcxM tkrk gS] tks ekuo tkfr ds fy, ?kkrd gSA euq"; ,oaa mldk iz;kZoj.k fdlh ,d {ks= ds laxBu ,oa mld fodkl ds fy, egRoiw.kZ mRrjnk;h dkjd gSA izkd`frd okrkj.k ds lHkh rRo viuk&viuk dk;Z ,d fu/kkZfjr O;oLFkk ds vUrxZr tSodh; eaMy dh jpuk djrs gq, mls fujUrj laj{k.k iznku djrs gSA i;kZoj.k iznw"k.k laca/kh leL;k,a orZeku le; esa ekuo dks lcls vf/kd izHkkfor esa vlaarqyu iSnk dj jgh gS fodkl dh izfrLi/kkZ] ekuoh; vko’;drkvksa] fufgr LokFkhZ] Hkkoh nq"ifj.kkeksa dh vogsyuk ,o vlekurko’k i;kZoj.kh; leL;k,a mRiUu gqbZ gSA 'kCndqath % larqyu] ifjfLFkfrd] fodkl] i;kZoj.k ,oa tula[;k A fodkl’khy ns’kksa esa vkfFkZd mnkjhdj.k dh uhfr;ksa ds dkj.k Lons’kh ,oe fons’kh iwath fuos’k c
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fjlkbfDyax gksrh gS] ftlls dqN mi;ksxh /kkrq,a rks fey tkrh gSa] ij ’ks"k cps inkFkZ bu xjhc ns’kksa dh feVVh esa Mky fn;s tkrs gSaA bl rjg dh fjlkbfDyax lqfo/kkvksa dh NwV ;k vuqefr fodflr ns’kksa esa ugh gSa] D;ksafd os vius LokLF; vkSj i;kZoj.k laca/kh ekudks esa dksbZ le>kSrk ugha djrsA ;gh dkj.k gS fd vkWLVªsfy;k;k vU; fodflr ns’k vius m|ksxksa ls fudys dpjs dks fu;kZIr djuk T;knk lLrk vkSj lqyHk ekurs gSaA xjhc ns’k FkksMh lh ykyp esa bl dpjs dks ysdj lSdMksa eqlhcrsa eksy ysrs gSA izkIr rkts vkadMksa ds eqrkfcd vkWLVªsfy;k us Hkkjr dks dsoy N% ekg esa 50 yk[k fdyksxzke /kkrqvksa dk dpjk Hkstk Fkk] ftldh O;kikfjd dher 22 yk[k MkWyj gSA fiNys o"kZ blls Hkh T;knk dher dh tgjhys dpjs dk fu;kZr fd;k x;k Fkk] ftlesa eq[; :i ls dkWij] tLrk o lhls dh jk[k ds vo’ks"k FksA Hkkjr tSls fo’kkl’khy ns’k esa bl rjg ds vkS|ksfxd dpjs dk vk;kr rHkh rd Bhd gS] tc rd mlds mfpr fjlkbfDyax dh O;oLFkk gkss blds fy, i;kZIr lqjf{kr rduhd dk gksuk csgn ykfteh gSA dsoy mu vkS|ksfxd bdkb;ksa }kjk bl dpjs ds vk;kr dh NwV feyuh pkfg,] ftuds ikl fjlkbfDyax ds lqjf{kr izca/k gkas] vU;Fkk i;kZoj.kh; {kfr dh n``f"V ls ;g vR;ar ?kkrd gksxkA ns’k esa rsth ls vkS|ksfxdhdj.k gksus ds dkj.k mRiknu {kerk ,oa jkstxkj ds lk/ku rks c
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bu Hkkjh /kkrqvksa tSls ysM] vklsZfud] ejdjh] dSMfe;e] ftax bR;kfn dk ekuo tkfr ij izfrdqy izHkko dk v/;;u fd;k tk pqdk gS vkSj ;fn budh vR;f/kd ek=k o`{kksa dks nh tk,] rks mudh Hkh tSfod fØ;k,a izHkkfor gks ldrh gSaA bl ‘’kks/k ds vuqlkj bu Hkkjh /kkrq ds d.kkas dk rkipkfyr fo|qr la;a=ksa ds vkl&ikl ds o`{kksa ij feyk&tqyk vlj ns[kk x;k gSA dqN o`{k bu d.kksa dks vius tSfod fØ;kvksa esa lekfgr dj fofHkUu fØ;kvksa esa lekfgr dj fofHkUu fØ;kvksa ds QyLo:Ik de gkfudkjd ;k gkfu jfgr inkFkksZ esa cny Mkyrs gSaA bl iwjh izfØ;k esa mudh fdlh Hkh tSfod fØ;k esa dksbZ ifjorZu ugha ns[kk x;k vkSj muesa ,df=r Hkkjh /kkrq ds d.k dh ek=k dh vU; iztkfr ds o`{kksa ls vf/kd Fkh] tcfd dqN o`{kksa esa bldk feyk tqyk izHkko ns[kk x;kA dqN o`{kksa dh tSo jklk;fud fØ;k,a cqjh rjg ls izHkkfor gqbZ gSaA ouLifr oxZ ds leqnk; esa Hkh gj iztkfr dh ,d viuh igpku gS vkSj og okrkoj.k ls fofHkUu izdkj dh izfrfØ;k djrk gSA dHkh &dHkh ;gk¡ rd ns[kk x;k gS fd vyx&vyx o`{kksa dk fdlh fo’ks"k izdkj ds iznw"k.k ds izfr vyx&vyx O;ogkj fn[kkrk gSA blh otg ls vyx&vyx ikS/ks] vyx&vyx iznw"k.kjks/kh {kerk dk izn’kZu djrs gSaA dsUnzh; iznw"k.k fu;a=.k cksMZ }kjk v/;;u; fd;s x;s ikS/ks esa muds tSo jklk;fud fØ;kvksa ,oa Hkkjh /kkrq ds d.kksa ds ,d=hdj.k dh {kerk ds vk/kkj ij dksjck rkipfyr fo|qr la;a= ds vkl&ikl ds v/;;I ij dksjc rkipfyr fo|qr la;a= ds vkl&ikl ds v/;;u fd;s x;s ikS/kksa dks fuEukuqlkj oxhZd`r fd;k x;k gS &

nwf/k;k ¼gksykjfguk ,.VhfMlksf.Vªdk½ izfrjks/kh iztkfr

ve:n ¼flfM;e xqvkok½ ihiy ¼Qkbdl fjtkftvkslk½

lktk ¼VfeZuusfy;k VksesUVkslk½ iznw"k.k laosnu’khy iztkfr e/;orhZ izfrjks/kh iztkfr

xqyeksgj ¼MsyksfuDl bfUMdk½ ljbZ ¼lksfj;k jkscLVk½ csaj ¼ftftQ~l eksfjfV;kuk½

193 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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vkS|ksfxd {ks= esa /ofu izn"w k.k LOkkLF; ds fy, u;s [krjs euq"; dk ’kjhj izd`fr dh tfVyrk jpuk gSA gekjk ’kjhj pkSchlksa ?kaVs yxkrkj lkS ls vf/kd ’kkjhfjd vkarfjd fØ;kvksa esa yxk jgrk gSA ’kjhj dks lkekU; :Ik ls dk;Z djus ds fy, lkekU; vuqdwy izkd`frd ifjfLFkfr;ka pkfg,A fdarq vkt lc dqN cny jgk gS] u rks LoLF; ’kjhj j[kus ds fy, ’kq} ok;q miyC/k gS vkSj u ihus ds fy, ’kq} tyA fiNys dqN o"kksZ ls euq"; ds lkekU; LokLF; esa yxkrkj fxjkoV rks vkbZ gh gS] lkFk gh rjg&rjg dh chekfj;ka Hkh iuih gSaA dSalj o ,M~l tSls jkssx izkd`frd vlarqyu dk gh ifj.kke gSA b/kj fiNys n’kd ls ,d ubZ leL;k dk tUe gqvk gS] og gS vkS|ksfxd [krjukd chekfj;ksa dhA e-iz- ds mTtSu o nsokl dh vkS|ksfxd cfLr;ksa esa vkS|ksfxd ’kksj ls mitkus okys nq"ifj.kke ,oa LokLF; [krjksa ij foLr`r v/;;u fd;k gSA bl v/;;u esa vkS|ksfxd {ks=ksa ds vklikl jgus okys fuokfl;ksa eas LokLF; laca/kh dqN u, rjg ds [krjs izdk’kp esa vk, gSA bu {ks=ksa esa euq"; dh lkekU; p;kip; vkSj vkarfjd fØ;kvksa esa dkQh ifjorZu uksfVl fd, x;sA vfunzk] cgjkiu efgykvksa ds lkekU; ekfld pØ esa xM+cM+h jDrpki vkfn dh f’k;dk;rsa vke ikbZ xbZA

teZu oSKkfud jkcZV dkWp dk dguk gS fd ;fn ’kksj blh xfr ls c<+rk jgk rks ,d fnu gesa dkyjk] psapd vkSj vU; laØked chekfj;ksa dh rjg ’kksj ds f[kykQ yM+kbZ yM+uh gksxhA lkekU; ckrphr esa 30&50 Mslhcy dk ’kksj gksrk gSA Hkkjr esa ,slk vuqeku gS fd gj o"kZ yxHkx ,d Mslhcy ’kksj c<+ tkrk gSA 25 ls 45 o"kZ dh vk;q ds gtkjksa yksxkas ¼tks vkS|ksfxd {ks=ksa esa jgrs gS½ ds LokLF; ijh{k.k ds nkSjku ik;k tkrk x;k fd os ogjsiu f’kdkj gks jgs gS tgka ’kksj dh lhek 67 ls 70 Mslhcy gSA bl ’kksj dk lokZf/kd izHkko QSDVªh esa dke djus okyksa ij iM+kA ,slk vuqeku gS fd 75 Mslhcy dk vkB ?kaVs yxkrkj ’kksj cgjk cukus ds fy, dkQh gSA vkS|ksfxd {ks=ksa esa 54 izfr’kr yksxksa us vkaf’kd cgjsiu dh f’kdk;r dh vpkud fljnnZ ¼55 izfr’kr½ o 19 izfr’kr ’kksj ls ukM+h laLFkku ij izfrdqy izHkko iM+rk gSA ifj.kkeLo:Ik ,Mªhusyhu uke ds ,d gkeksZu dk vfrlkzo gksrk gSA ,sMªhusyhu uke ds ,d gkeksZu dk vfrlzko gksrk gSA ,sMªhusyhu gn; dh dk;Ziz.kkyh dks izHkkfor djrk gSA QyLo:Ik eqDr olh; vEy jDRk esa igq¡p tkrs gSaA rst ’kksj gn;

194 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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xfr rFkk jDr pki dks Hkh c<+krk gSA vkS|ksfxd {ks=ksa esa gn; o jDrpki 25 izfr’kr ls vf/kd yksx xzflr ik;s x;sA

’kks/kdrkZvksa ds v/;;u esa izHkkfor O;fDr;ksa ds dkyØfed ,oa O;ogkj esa ifjorZu Hkh fjdkMZ fd, x,A blds vUrxZr [kh>] Fkdku] cksyus esa vlqfo/kk rFkk ekufld ruko laca/kh cgqr lh chekfj;ka ikbZ xbZA ;knnk’kr de gksuk rFkk vfu;fer ekfld pØ gh f’kdk;rsa efgykvksa esa vke FkhA ;knnk’kr ijh{k.k ls ;g urhtk lkeus vk;k gS fd vkS|ksfxd {ks=ksa esa yxHkx 81 izfr’kr yksx vaf’kd Lrj ij viuh ;knnk’kr [kks cSBrs gSaA vf/kd ’kksj dk izfrdwy izHkko euq"; ds iztuu laLFkku ij Hkh iM+rk gSA efgykvksa esa vfu;fer ekfld pØ ds dkj.k vU; chekfj;ka gks tkrh gSaA c
lanHkZ Sen, Amartya (1999). Development as freedom (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Sen, Amartya (2001). Development as freedom (2nd ed.). Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. Tungodden, Bertil (2001). A balanced view of development as freedom. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Michelsen Institute (Working Paper Series). Sandbrook, Richard (December 2000). "Globalization and the limits of neoliberal development doctrine". Third World Quarterly (Taylor and Francis) 21 (6): 1071–1080. doi:10.1080/01436590020012052 *** 195 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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ifjokj lfgr vkRe?kkr dh izo`fRr dk lekt'kkL=h; fo'ys"k.k iztkifr] vtsUnz ukFk ih,p- Mh- fjlpZ LdkWyj] lekt'kkL= foHkkx] 'kkldh; dyk ,oa okf.kT; egkfo|ky;] bUnkSj] e/;izns'k] Hkkjr

lkjka'k o"kZ 2012 dqy vkRe?kkr 135445] ikfjokfjd vkRe?kkr 25-6 % ifjokj dks vius gh gkFkksa ekSr dh uhan lqykus ds ckn vkRe?kkr dk fopkj crkrk gSa fd vkneh cgqr vdsyk gks x;k gSaA ;g fdlh ,d ifjokj ds fc[kjus dh gh d:.k O;Fkk ugha gSa cfYd VwVrs lekt dk b'kkjk Hkh gSaA Hkkjr esa ,YlVsafMM lqlkbM dh izo`fRr c<+ jgh gSa gekjs vklikl gh lekt dks >d>ksjus okyh ?kVuk,a gks jgh gSa ifjokj ds lkFk vkRe?kkr ds ekeys djhc&djhc gj 'kgj esa gks jgs gSa tks fparktud gSa bu c<+rh ?kVukvksa dk dkj.k ns'k esa la;qDr ifjokj dk if'pe dh rtZ ij ,dy ifjokjksa esa caVuk gSA la;qDr ifjokj ls ,d ifjokj dh vksj vkrs gq, geus os NksVs&NksVs liksVZ flLVe [kks fn, gSa tks fdlh Hkh O;fDr dks grk'kk vkSj fujk'kk ls mckjrs gS eqf'dy ekSdksa ij mls lgkjk nsus okys gkFk gh tc ugha jgs rks dksbZ Hkh O;fDr ijs'kkfu;ksa ds chp [kqn dks vdsyk vkSj vlgk; ikus yxk ;g vlgk;rk o vdsykiu dk dksbZ fodYi u feyus ij vkRe?kkr gh ,d fodYi ds :Ik esa cprk gSA 'kCn dqath & ifjokj] vkRe?kkr] izo`fRr ,oa lektA izLrkouk vkRe?kkr ^Lo;a dks lekIr djuk* tks ,d rhoz ekufld fodkj gSaA lekt'kkL=h nw[khZe us ^^vkRegR;k dks ,d oS;fDrd ?kVuk ugha vfirq lkekftd ?kVuk ekuk gSa muds vuqlkj vkRegR;k 'kCn dk iz;ksx ,slh fdlh Hkh e`R;q ds fy, fd;k tk ldrk gSa tks fd Lo;a e`r O;fDr ds }kjk dh xbZ fdlh ldkjkRed ;k udkjkRed fØ;k dk izR;{k ;k vizR;{k ifj.kke gSA** vkRe?kkr ds lk{; Hkkjr esa ,sfrgkfld dky ls gh fo|eku gSa Hkys gh blds uke ifjofrZr jgs gks tSls & lrh izFkk] tSgj izFkk] ifr dh e`R;q i'pkr~ ifr ds 'ko ds lkFk ty dj HkLe gksuk vkRegR;k gh rks gSA jktkvksa }kjk fn, x, dk;Z esa folaxfr mRiUu gksus ij deZpkjh dks tgj dk I;kyk fiykuk ;g Hkh vkRegR;k Fkh vkSj uke oQknkjh] drZO; ijk;.krk dk fn;k tkrk FkkA jk"Vªh; vijk/k fjdkMZ C;wjks ds fjiksVZ vuqlkj e-iz- esa fiNys o"kZ ds nkSjku 28 ifjokjksa }kjk vkRegR;k ds ekeys lkeus vk,s gSa vkadM+ksa esa e/;izns'k izFke o f}rh; vka/kizns'k gSaA e/;izns'k esa ,d o"kZ ds nkSjku 9446 yksxksa us vkRegR;k dh ftuesa ls 4238 yksxksa us ejus ds fy, Qkalh dks pwukA e/;izns'k esa lokZf/kd vkRe?kkr 196 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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egkuxjh esa gh gSa izFke bUnkSj 540] f}rh; Hkksiky 384] r`rh; tcyiqj 304 ekeys ntZ fd, x,A fiz;tuks dh e`R;q ij vkRe?kkr djus okyksa dh la[;k esa e/;izns'k izFke o f}rh; LFkku ij gSA orZeku HkkSfrd ;qx eas tgka ij gj fodYi dk fodYi ekStwn gSa ogka ,d O;fDr] ifjokj dk eqf[k;k] x`fg.kh ,slk fodYi D;ksa pqurh gSa ftldk ifj.kke 'kwU; gksrk gSA mn~ns'; 1- Ifjokj lfgr vkRe?kkr dh izo`fRr dk dkjd tkuukA 2- D;k vkRe?kkr gh thou dk vafre fodYi gS\ midYiuk vkRe?kkr dk izeq[k dkjd la;qDr ifjokj dk ,dy ifjokj esa cnyuk gSA i)fr iqLrdky;] voyksdu] fof/k dk iz;ksxA 1. Incidence of suicides, growth of population and rate of suicides during 2008 to 2012.  Figure ‐ 1 

2008 esa 125017 o 2012 esa 135445 us vkRe?kkr fd;k ftlesa 2008 ls yxkrkj o`f) ntZ gks jgh gSA 2. Percentage share of various causes of suicides during 2012.  197 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Figure ‐ 2 

o"kZ 2012 esa vkRe?kkr djus okyksa esa lokZf/kd izfr'kr ikfjokfjd leL;k ls xzflr 25-6% yksxksa esa vkRe?kkr fd;k gSA 3. Suicide victims by sex & age group during 2012  Figure ‐ 3 

198 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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fofHkUu oxZ lewg esa iq:"k 30&44 o"kZ] efgyk 15&29 o"kZ] lewg esa lokZf/kd vkRe?kkr dh ?kVuk,a gqbZ gSa ;g iq:"k o L=h dh egRoiw.kZ thou o"kZ gksrs gSA

orZeku ?kVuk,as] dkj.k o ifj.kke 1- fnlEcj 2011 & uks,Mk & csjkstxkjh & ifr] ifRu] csVh lesr vkRe?kkrA 2- twu 2012 & eSlwj & dtZ cks> & pkj csVh] ek¡ }kjk vkRe?kkrA 3- ekpZ 2013 & vyoj & ?kjsyw fookn & ifr] ifRu] cPph lesr vkRe?kkrA 4- flrEcj 2013 & bUnkSj & fj'rksa esa ruko & ifr] ifRuh] lkl] llqj] iq=h lesr vkRe?kkrA 5- Qjojh 2014 & psUubZ & iq=h dk fookg u gksuk & firk] ekrk] iq=h lesr vkRe?kkrA 6- ekpZ 2014 & dPN & vkfFkZd ijs'kkuh & nks HkkbZ] nksuksa dh iRuh] cPpksa lesr vkRe?kkrA 7- vizSy 2014 & bUnkSj & ikfjokfjd] lekt] vkfFkZd & ifr] iRuh] cPpksa ds lkFk vkRe?kkrA

;s oks ?kVuk,as gSa ftls ehfM;k o iz'kklu ds dkj.k lekt ds lkeus vkbZ jkst dbZ ,slh ?kVuk,as gksrh gSa tks LFkkuh; Lrj ij gh nc tkrh gSA

fu"d"kZ vkRe?kkr dh ?kVukvksa esa ns'k ds 84 ifjokj izfrfnu ,oa dqy la[;k dk 25-6% izfro"kZ leL;k ds dkj.k vkRe?kkr djrs gSa tgka vkRe?kkr dk dkj.k ikfjokfjd] vkfFkZd] csjkstxkjh] vijk/kcks/k] ruko] fookn] fookg] detksj fj'rs] c<+rk vdsykiu] vfuf'prrk vkSj Hkfo"; dh vk'kadk] vlqj{kk ds Mj ls ftUnxh ls iyk;u pkgs dksbZ Hkh dkj.k gks var vkRe?kkr gh gSA O;fDr bruk Øwj dSls gks ldrk gSa fd iwjs ifjokj dks lekIr dj nsa] bl ekufldrk dks le>uk vko';d gSa tgkWa lekt esa la;qDr 199 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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ifjokj VwV jgs gSa ogha ifjokj esa lqj{kk] vkilh fo'okl dh deh vk jgh gSa] vkilh laca/kksa dk rkuk&ckuk detksj gks jgk gSa ftlls O;fDr vdsykiu o vlqjf{kr eglwl djrk gSA orZeku esa lks'ky usVodZ ds ;qx esa Hkh O;fDr vdsyk gSa D;ksafd ;g vkHkklh nqfu;k gSa vkids nksLr rks gtkjksa gSa ij ;s psgjkfofgu fe=rk gSa tgka Hkkouk,a o leL;k,a 'ks;j ugha gksrh ogha nwljh vksj vkRe?kkr dks ehfM;k }kjk XySejl fd;k tkrk gSa ftls ;g fodYi u irk gks rks og blds rjhdksa dks tku viuh leL;k ml ?kVuk ls tksM+ vkRe?kkr dk fu.kZ; ysrk gSA thou esa dksbZ fodYi vafre fodYi ugha gksrk gj leL;k viuk lek/kku ysdj vkrh gSA vkt vko';drk gSa ifjokjksa dks tksM+us dh] laca/kksa dks lq/kkjus dh] vR;f/kd egRodkaNh u cu] NksVs&NksVs y{; dks izkIr djus dh] lkekftd lEidZ c<+kus dh] thou dh ck/kkvksa dks pqukSrh le> eqdkcyk djus dh] vkt ftUnxh dks ogk¡ lgkjk nsus dh t:jr gSa tgk¡ og fQlyrh gSa] yM+[kM+krh gSa] ifj.kke Lo:Ik O;fDr vafre fodYi ds :Ik esa vkRe?kkr dks ugha ftanxh dks pqusaA D;ksafd O;fDr;ksa ls ifjokj dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSa] vkSj ifjokj gh lekt dh ewy bdkbZ gSa] ;fn ifjokj ugha jgk rks l`f"V ls lekt vfLrRo foghu gks tk,xkA

lanHkZ us'kuy Økbe fjdkMZ C;wjks] fjiksVZ] 2012ubZ nqfu;k] 2 tqykbZ 2014] tkxj.k izdk'ku] bUnkSjeq[kthZ johUnzukFk] lkekftd fopkjd] foosd izdk'kd] fnYyhosYl fteh] fodhihfM;k] fodhihfM;k Qkm.Ms’ku-

***  200 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Hkw & ty esa vklsZfud iznw"k.k % Hkfo"; dh xaHkhj pqukSrh lksguh] lat; ,oa ikVhnkj] iou Hkwxksy foHkkx] Hks:yky ikVhnkj 'kkldh; LukrdksRrj egkfo|ky;] egw] ftyk bUnkSj] e/;izns’k] Hkkjr

lkjka’k i`Foh ij thou dh lHkh fØ;k,¡ vkSj izfØ;k,¡ ty ls gh laHko gSA ekuo blds fcuk vius thou dh ifjdYiuk Hkh ugha dj ldrk gSA oLrqr% ouLifr txr esa 40 & 50 %  ty esa ik, tkus okys ikS/kksa esa 90

%

rFkk gekjs ’kjhj esa yxHkx 65

%

ek=k ty gh rks gSA izd`fr us gesa ty ls le`}

cuk;k gS] ij ge bls lgstus esa ykijokg gSA QyLo:Ik vkt ns’k dk cM+k tyL=ksr iznwf"kr gks pqdk gS] ufn;ksa xans izokgksa esa rCnhy gks xbZ gS o dq,a dpjk?kjksa esa cny x, gSA vfr izkphu dky ls gh ekuo us Hkwfexr&ty dk mi;ksx vfrfjDr lalk/ku ds :i esa fd;k gS ij vk/kqfud ekuo rks tyiwfrZ ds fy, Hkwfexr ty ij vkfJr gks pqdk gSA Hkwfexr ty QyksjkbM o vklsZfud tSls dbZ rRoksa ls iznwf"kr gks jgk gSA Hkkjr tSls fo’kky tula[;k okys ns’k esa] ,d fxykl ’kq} ikuh dh dYiuk Hkh dfBu gksrh tk jgh gSA i`Foh ds **ty pØ** esa Hkwfexr ty ,d egRiw.kZ dkjd gSA bldk Lrj ,oa xq.korka fofHkUu xgjkba;ksa ij fOkfHkUu gksrh gS tks fd okrkoj.k] ekSle ifjorZu vkSj vkl&ikl dh pV~Vku lajpuk ij fuHkZj gSA vkt Hkwfexr ty iznw"k.k dk iz’u gekjh ih<+h ds fy;s ,d ubZ pqukSrh ds :i esa lkeus gSA vr% bl ys[k ds ek/;e ls Hkkjr esa vklsZfud ;qDr ty dh leL;k dk mYys[k fd;k tk jgk gSA 'kCndqath % Hkwty] iznw"k.k] Hkfo"; ,oa pqukSfr A Hkkjr esa Hkw & ty iznw"k.k lcls igys vklsZfud iznw"k.k dh leL;k lu~ 1980 esa if’pe caxky esa n`f"Vxkspj gqbZ vkSj mldk dqizHkko ekuo thou ij ns[kus feykA vc ;g leL;k vU; jkT;ksa vle] fcgkj] m-iz] f=iqjk] ef.kiqj] v:.kkpy izns’k] ukxkyS.M vkSj e-iz- esa Hkh QSyrh fn[kkbZ ns jgh gSA orZeku esa ,d fjiksVZ ds vuqlkj Hkwfexr ty esa vklsZfud dh leL;k] if’pe esa caxkys esa 9 {ks=ksa esa ¼eqj’khnkckn] eynk] ukfn;k] mRrj vkSj nf{k.k ijxkuk] o/kZeku[k gojkg] gqxyh vkSj dydRrk½] iwohZ m-iz- esa ¼Hkkstiqj] 201 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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cDlj vkSj lkfgcxat½] fcgkj] >kj[k.M] vle esa ¼tksjgV] /ksekth] xksy?kkV vkSj y[kheiqj½] f=iqjk esa ¼iwohZ vkSj if’pe f=iqjk] /kkybZ½] ef.kiqj esa ¼Fkqvkcy½]fncax osyh v:.kkpy izns’k esa] ukxkyS.M esa eksdksdqpax vkSj eksu½ vkSj e/;izns’k esa ¼jktukan xk¡o½ vkfn {ks=ksa esa gSA vklsZfud ds L=ksr i`Foh ij vklsZfud nks :iksa esa gS & 1- izkd`frd] ,oa 2- ekuo fodklh; 1- izkd`frd izkd`frd vklsZfud dk forj.k lk/kkj.kr% dkcZfud ;k vdkcZfud feJ.k ds :i esa gSA vdkcZfud feJ.k esa *vklsZukbV* vkSj *vklsZusV* gS ftlesa igyk T;knk gkfudkjd gSA vkXus; PkV~Vuksa o [kfutksa esa ;g ek=k vyx &vyx gksrh gS] tSl  Ultrmafic  esa 2-8    maflc  2,  feldspar  1.5ppm vkSj voklnh pV~Vuksa esa tSls  Shale 4 ppm rd vklsZfud ik;k tkrk gSA vklsZfud eq[; :i ls vklsZuksik;jkbV (Feass)

vksfjiesaV

(As2 S3 fj;yxkj (Ass)

vkSj vklsZuksykbV

(As2o3)

[kfutksa esa fo|eku gSA izd`fr esa

;g vk;ju lYQsV] vk;ju vklsZusV vkSj dYdsfj;l ;qDr e`nk esa dYdsfj;e vklsZuksykbV ds :i esa mifLFkr jgrk gSA vkSj mldh ek=k 56 ls 156

mg/kg

rd gksrh gSA vklsZfud ds L=ksr rRo tSLks

Qsfjd vklsZusV] vklsZuksik;jkbZV ds ifjorZu ls feyrk gS] tks fd Hkw&oSKkfud ifjogu Transport)

(Geological 

}kjk gksrk gSA gkbMªksfyfll o tSfod fØ;kvksa }kjk Hkh Hkwfexr vklsZusV] vklsZusfl;l

vEy esa ifjofrZr gksdj vf/kd vkWDlhtu okys Hkw&ty L=ksrksa dks iznwf"kr dj ldrk gSA Hkw&ty dk rkRdkfyd vklsZfud iznw"k.k vkl &ikl dh pV~Vuksa ;k ykSg vklsZusV dk Hkw &oSKkfud dkj.kksa ls vklsZuksik;jkbV esa ifjorZu caxky csfly o vle ?kkVh esa vklsZfud iznw"k.k dk dkj.k ekuk tkrk gSA 2- ekuo fodklh; blds varxZr vklsZfud izkS|ksfxd dpjk] QkLQsV] moZjd d`f=e [kkn] dks;yk] rsy] lhesUV] LesyfVax]/kkrq fudkyuk /kkrq ’kqf}dj.k] jklk;fud m|ksx] dk¡p peM+k] {kkj] isVªksfy;e] vEy dh

202 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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[kku] /kkrq dh feykoV vkSj mRIkzsjd bR;kfn ds :i esa ik;k tkrk gSA dqN [kfut tSls lksuk] rk¡ck vkSj ;wjsfu;e bR;kfn esa lYQkbM ds :i esa vklsZfud mifLFkr jgrk gSA vklsZfud vkSj Hkwfexr ty dk lac/a k Hkwlrg ds uhps ’kSy ja/kzksa ;k njkjksa esa tks ty lafpr jgrk gS] mls Hkwfexr ty

(Ground  Water)

dgrs gS] o"kkZs dk dqN fgLLkk Hkwlrg ds uhps ’kSy ja/kzksa ;k njkjksa esa izfo"V gksrk gSA Hkwfexr ty dh ek=k ’kSyksa dh ikjxE;rk (Permeability) ij fuHkZj djrh gSA vr% os ’kSy tks vf/kd ikjxE; gksrs gS] muesa o"kZ dk ty vf/kd ek=k esa izos’k dj ldrk gS] ftlls Hkwfexr ty dh ek=k Hkh c<+ tkrh gSA vklsZfud iznfw "kr ty ls ekuothou ij izHkko Hkwfexr ty dk mi;ksx d`f"k esa flpkabZ ds fy;s vkSj ekuo mi;ksx nksukas ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSSA ;fn ;g ty iznwf"kr gksxk rks fu’fpr gh bldk izHkko ekou thou ijh iM+sxkA fo'o cSad dh fjiksVZ ds vuqlkj ns’k esa izpfyr lHkh chekfj;ksa esa ls 31 rFkk 90

%

%

dk laØke.k ty ds ek/;e ls gksrk gS

ls vf/kd vkcknh bl iznfw "kr ty dh pisV esa gSA jktho xka/kh jk"Vªh; is;ty fe’ku us

dqN o"kZ iwoZ fjiksVZ esa crk;k Fkk fd ns’kHkj esa 4 djksM+ 40 yk[k yksx ty vR;f/kd vk;ju] ukbVªsV QyksjkbM vkSj vklsZfud feyus ls [kkjs ty dh leL;kvksa dks lkeuk dj jgs gSA vklsZfud dh ek=k 0-05

mg/1

mg/day

ty esa

fu/kkZfjr gSA blls Lrj ds Åij ds ty dks vklsZfud iznwf"kr ty

ekuk tk ldrk gSA ckyksa esa bldh ek=k 0-08&0-25 Mg/kg, uk[kwu esa 0-43&1-08 5-40

WHO }kjk

mg/kg

vkSj ew= esa

gSA ty esa vklsZfud dh ek=k blls T;knk gksus ij vkSj mlds mi;ksx ls chekjh ds

y{k.k fn[kkbZ nsus yxrs gSA vklsZfud iznfw "kd ty ls gksus okyh chekfj;k¡ vklsZfud ;qDr ty dk lsou djus ls tks chekfj;k¡ gksrh gSA mlus y{k.k Ng eghus ls nks lky ;k T;knk ¼;g fuHkZj djrk gS fd ikuh esa vklsZfud dh ek=k fdruh gS½ esa fn[kkbZ nsus yxrs gS] ftlesa uk[kwu] cky] ew= vkSj ;d`r Ård izHkkfor gksrs gSa] ftlds y{k.k lk/kkj.kr% ’kjhj esa dkys ;k gYds jax ds :i esa bl izdkj gS% 1 ’kjhj dh Ropk ;k gFksyh ij dkys nkx

(Melanosis),;g

igyk y{k.k gSA

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2 dbZ ckj ;s nkx Nkrh] Hkqtk ;k ihB ij jaxhu ;k dkys :i esa fn[kkbZ nsrs gSA 3 lQsn nkx

(Leucomelanosis)

;k dkys nkx ikl &ikl gksuk ftlds lokZf/kd y{k.k if’pe

caxky ds ukfn;ksa {ks= esa ¼;g leL;k½ gSA 4 thHk] elw
(i)  conjunctival    Congestion  (ii) 

iSjksa ij

Non‐pitting  (iii)

lwtu

(Solid  Oedema),

dHkh &dHkh ik;s tkrs gSA 6 cgqr ls O;fDr;ksa esa] yhoj dk c
(Aseities)  bR;kfn

(Spleen) dk

y{k.k Hkh fn[kkbZ fn;s x;s gSA

c
(Splenomegaly)

Bowen  s  disease  QsQMksa]

xHkkZ’k;] ew= iz.kkyh vkfn esa dSaljA ’kks/k dk;Z ;g crkrs gS fd ’kjhj ds vU; Hkkxkas ij] vklsZfud ;qDr ty dk udkjkRed izHkko vkus okys nl lkyksa esa fn[kkbZ nsxk vFkZr~ vklsZfud gh vf/kdrk dk fdruk Hk;kog :i gks ldrk gS bldh vHkh rd lgh dYiuk Hkh ugha dh tk ldrh gSA ty esa vklsZfud dk fo’ys"k.k o ty dks vklsZfud jfgr cukus dh fof/k igys vklsZfud ;qDr ty dk fo’ys"k.k  Inductively Coupled Atomic Emmission Spectrometry (ICP‐ AES) 

fof/k ls fd;k tkrk FkkA vc

Absorption Spectrometry dk

dh ek=k esa

0‐05mg/I

CHCI3    gsDlk

(Fi  –  Hg‐  AAs)  Flow  Injection  Hydride  Generation‐  Atomic 

mi;ksx ew= vkSj tSfod uewuksa ds fo’ys"k.k esa fd;k tkrk gSA ty esa

vkadfyr dh xbZ gS] vkSj vkdyu ds fy;s

Spectrometry Method  esa Ag‐DDTC  

& feFkk;yhu VªsDVªkekbu dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA iznwf"kr ty gkfudkjd gksrk

gS] vr% geasa vklsZfud ;qDr ikuh dk mi;ksx ugha djuk pkfg,A vklsZfud dh ek=k vyx&vyx HkkSety ¼V~;wCk cSy½ esa vyx &vyx gksxh] xgjs V~;wcoSy es vf/kd o mFkys V~;wcoSy esa de gksxhA D;ksfa d og ty vf/kd le; rd ml ’kSy ds lac/a k esa jgk gksxkA blfy;s gesa vius vkl &ikl ds mFkys ¼ij lkekU;r% ds vuqlkj 30 QhV ls de xgjs ugh½ V~;wc oSy ds ikuh dk mi;ksx djuk pkfg,] D;ksafd lrgh ty tSls unh] rkykc ;k mFkys V~;wc oSy esa vklsZfud tSls rRoksa dh ek=k de gksxhA vklsZfud iznwf"kr ty {ks=ksa esa cjlkr ds ekSle esa ty dk mckydj gh ihuk pkfg, ;k vU; dk;ksZ esa mi;ksx djuk pkfg,A vzrr% lHkh ckrsa vklsZfud ds L=ksr dh HkwoSKkfud jpuk esa ls vklsZfud

Leaching dh

gSA Hkkjr esa vklsZfud ;qDr lrg vkSj  Leaching process ds }kjk vklsZfud dk izfr’kr

ij vk/kkfjr Aquifer 

esa

fdruk gS] bldh Hkh [kkst dh tk jgh gSA 204 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

vkt vko’;drk gS] ¼1½ vklsZfud ds L=ksrksa]

Aquifer  esa

ls vklsZfud dk ljyrk ls fuxZeu] vklsZfud dh jklk;fud

lajpuk vkSj xaxk o czgkiq= unh csflu ds Hkwfexr ty ls T;knk ek=k esa vklsZfud dh mfifLFkfr vkfn dks ’kks/k }kjk le>us dh] rkfd bl fujarj c<+rh ty iznw"k.k leL;k ls le; jgrs fuiVk tk lds] ¼2½ ty L=ksrks dks iznw"k.k ls cpkus ds fy;s fujarj ty vfHk;ku pykus] ty dk jlk;fud fo’ys"k.k djus ds lkFk&lkFk dkuwuh izko/kku cukus o mUgsa l[rh ds lkFk ykxw Hkh fd;s tkus pkfg,] vkSj ¼3½ ljdkjh vkSj xSj & ljdkjh laxBuksa }kj nqfu;k ds vke vkneh dks bl pqukSrh ds fofHkUu igyqvksa ls ifjfpr djk;k tk, rkfd mlds vfLrRo dks ladV esa Mkyus okys rF;ksa dh mls le; jgrs tkudkjh gks tk, vkSj fLFkfr dks lq/kkjus ds mik; xaHkhjrk ls fd;s tk ldsA ;fn geus ty iznw"k.k dks jksdus dk iz;kl ugha fd;k rks vkus okys le; esa yksx Hkw[k dh ctk; iznwf"kr ty ls ;k mlls chekfj;ksa ls ekSr ds f’kdkj gksaxsA lanHkZ Cooper, Russell, and John, Andrew, "Coordinating Coordination Failures in Keynesian Models," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 103,3:441-463, Aug. 1988. Gordon, Roger, and Li, David, "Government Distributional Concerns and Economic Policy during the Transition from Socialism," mimeo, University of Michigan, 1996. Hendley, Kathryn, Ickes, Barry, Murrell, Peter, and Ryterman, R., "Observations on The Use of Law by Russian Enterprises," Post-Soviet Affairs, 13:1, pp. 19-41, 1997. Hirschman, Albert, The Strategy of Economic Development, Yale University Press, 1958. Kornai, Janos, "Transformational Recession: General Phenomenon Examined through the Example of Hungary's Development," in J. Kornai, Highway and Byways, MIT Press, pp.161-208, 1995. Laban, Raul, and Wolf, Holger, "Large Scale Privatization in Transition Economies," American Economic Review, 83,5:1199-1210, Dec. 1993.

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Hkkjr esa jkstxkj ij oS’ohdj.k dk çHkko ,oa pqukSfr;kWa lDlsuk] lq/khj lekt'kkL= foHkkx] 'kkldh; dyk ,oa okf.kT; egkfo|ky;] bUnkSj] e/;izns'k] Hkkjr

lkjka’k oS’ohdj.k ds bl nkSj esa jkstxkj foghu fodkl ls tks vkfFkZd fo"kerk dh fLFkfr iSnk gks jgh gS] mlls ns’k ds
The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

Je 'kfä esa o`f) gqbZ gS ,oa vkcknh esa 12 djksM+ dhA ljdkjh vkadMksa ds vuqlkj lHkh iath—r csjkstxkjh dh la[;k o"kZ 1997&98 ds nkSjku 3-56% vkSj 1998&99 ds nkSjku 3-13% c<+hA 1988&89 ,oa 1990&91 esa 12 yk[k yksxksa dks jkstxkj feyk Fkk ijUrq oS'ohdj.k dh çfØ;k ds nkSjku 1991] 1992&93 esa flQZ 2 yk[k yksxksa dks jkstxkj feykA 1993 ls 2004 ds chp 11 o"kksaZ esa jkstxkj o`f) nj 2-04

%

Fkh] ns’k dh 21-2 djksM+ vkcknh 15&24

ds chp dh gS] ftles 10-7 djksM+ yksxksa ds ikl dke ugha gS] 23-6

%

yksx csjkstxkj gSA lu~ 2004

esa 5 djksM+ yksx jkstxkj pkgus okys FksA lu~ 2000 esa tc fodkl nj c<+dj 6-2 djksM+ yksx csjkstxkj Fks vHkh 6

%

%

Fkh rks 1-5

ls mij gS] rks yxHkx 4-2 djksM+ ds ikl jkstxkj ugha gSA

ubZ vkS|ksfxd ,oa Je&uhfr;ksa }kjk jkstxkj dh fofo/krk ij egRoiw.kZ ifjorZu ykus ds fy, dne mBk, x, gSA Lojkstxkj ,oa fu;fer etnwjh çkIr djus okys etnwj ?kVs gSa D;k blds foijhr fo'ks"khÑr ¼dq'ky½ etnwjksa dh la[;k c<+h gSaA dk;Z fo'ks"khdj.k dh ?kVuk vkfFkZd mnkjhdj.k ,oa oS'ohdj.k dh uhfr;ksa dks ykxw djrs le; ,slk vuqeku Fkk fd u, m|ksx /kU/ks [kqysaxs vkSj jkstxkj ds volj c
%

Fkh ;g ?kVdj o"kZ 1991&92 esa 1-44

%

vkSj o"kZ 1992&93 esa 0-4

ea=ky; ds vkadM+ksa ds vuqlkj bl {ks= esa o"kZ 2000 esa jkstxkj o`f) dh nj 0-15

%

%

jg xbZA Je

jgh gSA vFkkZr~

yxHkx 45000 jkstxkj ds volj ?kV x,A tcfd mnkjhdj.k ds iwjs n’kd esa ;g 0-73 çfr'kr jghA Hkkjr esa jkstxkj dh ubZ pqukSfr;ka gky gh esa ,d vksj 27 tuojh 2014 dks varjkZ"Vªh; Je laxBu ¼ vkbZ ,y vks ½s us viuh uohure fjiksVZ esa dgk gS fd vxys nks o"kkZsa esa csjkstxkjh c<+us dh vk’kadk gS] tcfd nwljh vkSj fiNys fnukas nkvksl esa oYMZ bdksukWfed Qksje esa ljdkj us dgk gS fd o"kZ 2022 rd ldy ?kjsyw mRikn ¼thMhih½s esa eSU;wQSDpfjax lsDVj dh fgLlsnkjh c<+kdj 25 Qhlnh dh tk,xh vkSj 10 djksM+ u, jkstxkj iSnk gksaxsA oLrqr% tks 'kks/k v/;;u fjiksVZ izLrqr dh gS] mlesa dgk x;k gS fd foRrh; o"kZ 2013 ls 2019 ds nkSjku xSj Ñf"k jkstxkj dh nj esa 25 fQlnh ls vf/kd dh deh vk,xh vkSj xSj Ñf"k {ks= esa jkstxkj dh la[;k 5-2 djksM+ ls ?kVdj 3-8 djksM+ jg tk,xhA okLro esa jkstxkj ds ckjs esa ;g fjiksVZ pkSdkus okyh gSaA xSj Ñf"k {ks= ds jkstxkj esa deh dk vFkZ ;g gksxk fd vizSy 2013 ls vkxs ds N% lkyksa ds nkSjku 1-4 djksM+ yksx nksckjk Ñf"k ;k lsok {ks= dks viuk,axsA 207 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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fØfly dh fjiksVZ eas ;g Hkh crk;k x;k gS fd o"kZ 2005 ds ckn yxkrkj fofuekZ.k {ks= dh jkstxkj nj esa deh vk jgh gSaA fØfly dh fjiksVZ ls ,d ladsr ;g Hkh feyrk gS fd Ñf"k {ks= ij jkstxkj dk ncko gksxk vkSj Ñf"k {ks= dks ,sls yksxksa ij fuHkZj gksuk iM+ ldrk gSa] ftuds ikl vU; dke dk dksbZ fodYi gh ugha gksxkA okLro esa vxj jkstxkj dk ifjn`’; fØfly dh fjiksVZ ds vuq:i cnyrk gS rks blls ns’k dh vFkZO;oLFkk vkSj lkFk gh lekt ds fy, cM+h leL;k fufeZr gks tk,xhA bruk gh ugha ;fn ns’k esa fodkl dh nj dk :[k lkykuk 6 fQlnh ds vklikl jgrk gS rks ,d vksj yksxksa dks xSj Ñf"k jkstxkjksa esa tksM+us esa eqf’dy gkFk yxsxh] ogha nwljh vksj fofuekZ.k {ks= esa Hkh de fodkl ds dkj.k jkstxkj de jgsxkA bruk gh ugha foRrh; lsokvks]a vpy lEifRr vkSj dkjksckjh lsokvksa ds {ks= esa Hkh jkstxkj voljksa dh eqf’dysa gksxhA ;gka ;g mYYks[kuh; gS fd Hkkjr ljdkj ds jk"Vªh; uewuk losZ{k.k dk;kZy; ¼,u,l,lvks½ }kjk ns’k esa csjkstxkjh ds ckjs esa fd, x, 68 osa pØ losZ{k.k ij vk/kkfjr fjiksVZ esa dgk x;k gS fd tuojh 2012 dks ns’k esa iw.kZ csjktxkjh dh la[;k 1-08 djksM+ Fkh] tcfd tuojh 2010 esa ;g vkadM+k 98 yk[k FkkA ;|fi ns’k dh thMhih esa rks o`f) gks jgh gS] ysfdu jkstxkj voljksa esa Ik;kZIr o`f) ugha gks jgh gSaA 1991 esa vkfFkZd mnkjhd.k dh uhfr ykxw gksus ds ckn ns’k esa tks fons’kh fuos’k vk;k gS] og jkstxkj esa rCnhy ugha gks ldk gSA Ñf"k {ks= eas jkstxkj yxkrkj de gq, gSaA eSU;wQSDpfjax lsDVj esa jkstxkj ds volj eanxfr ls c<+ jgs gSaA cqfu;knh
The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 - 4702

tkrs gSaA fjiksVZ ds eqrkfcd csjkstxkjh dk ,d vge dkj.k n{krk dh deh Hkh gSaA geas fØfly dh fjiksVZ dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, ;qokvksa esa n{krk c<+kdj jkstxkj o`f) djuk gksxhA ;fn ge ,slk dj ik, rks ns’k jkstxkj dh ubZ fparkvksa vkSj pqukSfr;ksa ls cp ik,xk vkSj ns’k ds djksM+ksa ;qokvksa ds psgjs ij jkstxkj dh eqLdqjkgV Hkh gksxhA fu"d"kZ NaVuh] LoSfPNd lsokfuo`fr] lkoZtfud {ks=ksa esa v/kZdq’ky] dq’ky o vdq’ky Jfedksa dks jkstxkj dh vo/kkj.kk Hkh oS'ohdj.k dh gh nsu gSA vc ns[kuk ;g gS fd oS’ohdj.k [kklrkSj ij vkfFkZd {ks= dh j{kk dSls djrk gS \ bl ubZ vkfFkZd uhfr dk bfrgkl flQZ 15 lky iqjkuk gS] blds vkxeu ij leh jktuSfrd nyksa dh ljdkj us bldk Lokxr fd;k Fkk ijUrq xSj&ljdkjh laxBu Hkh blds le{k detksj utj vk jgs gSaA dqy feykdj oS'ohdj.k vkSj mnkjhdj.k dh orZeku uhfr us ns’k ds Jfedksa dks jkstxkj ds LFkku ij csjkstxkjh vkSj fuEu Lrjh; etnwjh dh lkSxkr nh gS] tks jk"Vª ds O;kid fgrksa esa ugha dgh tk ldrhA lq>ko bl fn'kk esa oS’ohdj.k ls çkIr udkjkRed ifj.kkeksa dks tu&lkekU; rd igqapkus gsrq dk;ZØe vk;ksftr fd;s tkus pkfg,] lewgkRed Lrj ij yksdrkaf=d laxBuksa }kjk lw{e ls lw{e çHkkoksa dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, ,dh—r #i ls /khjs&/khjs oS’ohdj.k dh bl /kkjk ls vyx dj vFkZO;oLFkk dh eq[;/kkjk ls tksM+uk pkfg,A laxfBr {ks=ksa esa jkstxkj dk fodkl vkfFkZd&lq/kkj ds ek/;e ls gh laHko gSA vkfFkZd&lq/kkjksa dks vFkZO;oLFkk ds gj {ks= esa fujUrjrk ls ykxw fd;k tkuk pkfg,A lkFk gh jkstxkj ij vkfFkZd lq/kkjksa ds ifj.kkeksa dks /;ku nsrs jguk vko';d gSA lanHkZ HkknqM+h vfer ,oa uS;j nhid] ^^mnkjhdj.k dk lp] jktdey izdk’ku] ubZ fnYyh**A Hkkjrh; m|ksxksa ij oS’ohdj.k] gM+rky rkykcanh ij vk;ksftr jk"Vªh; lsfeukj & ,d fjiksVZA Hkkjrh; vkfFkZd uhfr] ch- ,u- ch- ifCyds’kUl] vkxjkA fl)dhj vkQrkc vgen] ^^jkstxkj vkSj xjhch ij mnkjhdj.k ds izHkko** dq:{ks=] uoEcj 2001Je ea=ky; dh fjiksVZ] 1992&93] Je ea=ky;] Hkkjr ljdkj] ubZ fnYyhA Je ea=ky; dh fjiksVZ] 2000] Je ea=ky;] Hkkjr ljdkj] ubZ fnYyhA jk"Vªh; tukns’k] 12 twu 2005***  209 THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at www.gass.org.in

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Invitation to Scholars  It gives us immense pleasure to inform you that we are bringing THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF  SOCIAL  SCIENCES  AND  HUMANITIES  ,  An  Official  International  Double  Blind  Peer  Reviewed  Referred  Recognized Indexed Impact Factor Open Access Monthly Scientific Research Journal of The Global Association  of Social Sciences included in The International Serial Directories . The IRJSSH provides instant , worldwide and  barrier ‐ free access to the full ‐text of all published manuscripts to all interested readers in the best interests  of the research community. IRJSSH do not sell published manuscripts and offer all published manuscripts free  of  cost  to  all members,  researchers,  libraries,  organizations, companies  and  universities.  Open  access  allows  the  research  community  to  view,  download,  print,  and  redistribute  any  manuscript  without  a  subscription,  enabling far greater distribution of an author's work than the traditional subscription‐based publishing model.  Authors may also use their published .pdf's on their own or institution's website. Many authors in a variety of  fields  have  begun  to  realize  the  benefits  that  open  access  publishing  can  provide  in  terms  of  increasing  the  impact of their work, because there is at all NO CHARGE to access its research content. The publication costs of  a manuscript are paid from an author's research budget, or by their supporting institutions.  It is further to inform to your good‐self that the Full Copy of the upcoming issue will be duly available on the  Home page and as the time passes , the FULL COPY of the previous issues will be made duly available on the  home page of respective journal on our website i.e. www.gass.org.in  You may download any of them free of  cost. It is important to mention here that we have taken all measures to publish quality Research Papers / Case  Studies etc. belonging to latest research in the field of Social , Behavioural Sciences and Humanities . You may  submit  unpublished  novel,  original,  empirical  and  high  quality  research  work  pertaining  to  recent  developments & practices in the all the areas of Social Sciences and Humanities and in allied subjects as well  .You can submit the soft copy of manuscript anytime in M.S. Word format after preparing the same as per our  submission guidelines at the email addresses: irjssh@gmail.com .   Please encourage your faculties and research scholars and students to submit original research papers. If your  good‐self have any queries, please feel free to contact us at irjssh@gmail.com     

Online Enquiry and Feedback  At the very outset, The Global Association of Social Sciences and The International Research Journal of Social  Sciences and Humanities acknowledges & appreciates your efforts in showing interest in becoming member /  viewing  ,  watching  and  participating  in  our  events  and  activities  and  contributing  to  publish  your  research  papers  .  We  would  like  to  request  you  to  give  your  constructive  comments  and  suggestions  about  the  Association  as  a  whole,  on  our  e‐mails  i.e.  irjssh@gmail.com  for  further  improvements  in  the  interest  of  research. If you have any queries please feel free to contact us . We are sure that your feedback and our effort  would make future better .   Hoping an appropriate consideration by your good‐self.   With kind regards and best wishes,   Yours sincerely,      International Editor – in – Chief ( Hon. )   The International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities   An  Official  International  Double  Blind  Peer  Reviewed  Referred  Open  Access  Monthly  Scientific  e  Research  Journal of The Global Association of Social Sciences included in the The International Serial Directories  Registered India Office  Sector FH / 369 , Vijay Nagar , Scheme No. 54 , Behind Shekhar Residency ,   Indore , Madhya Pradesh , PIN 452010 , INDIA  Mob. + 91  94253  82228  e mail  irjssh@gmail.com  sunilgoyal1967@gmail.com   Website: www.gass.org.in      

We  are  in  search  of  a  good  team  of  Patron  ,  Co  –  Patrons  ,  Coordinators  ,  Editors  ,  Managing  Editors  ,  Executive Editors , Consulting Editors , Country Editors , Subject Editors , Conference Editors , Research and  Evaluation  Editors  ,  Policy  and  Practice  Editors  ,  Associate  Editors  ,  Co  –  Editors  ,  Advisors  ,  Academic  Advisors  ,  Financial  Advisors  ,  Legal  Advisors  ,  Faculty  and  Subject  Experts  etc.  throughout  the  world.  Scholars  interested  in  getting  nominated  as  Member  of  Editorial  ,  Advisory  and  Academic  Board  of  THE  INTERNATIONAL  RESEARCH  JOURNAL  OF  SOCIAL  SCIENCES  AND  HUMANITIES    may  send  their  resume  /  curriculum vitae / bio data by e mail to irjssh@gmail.com  ,  sunilgoyal1967@gmail.com     vi  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Indexed Impact Factor Recognized Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

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SUBMIT YOUR RESEARCH PAPER ONLINE    Important   Please see that you submit processing fees or membership subscription ( fellow or life or annual ) along with  membership  form  within  10  days  otherwise  it  will  not be  possible  for  us  to  process  your  manuscript.  Your  manuscript will be sent for blind review to two experts anywhere in the world and their decision will be final  and binding. Please note that membership subscription or processing fees will not be returned by us whether  your manuscript is accepted or rejected by the experts. Decision of experts will be informed within a month of  receipt of membership subscription or processing fees. If your manuscript is accepted, it will be published soon  in coming issues. If your manuscript is rejected, you will be permitted to submit to another journal.  Declaration to be given by authors    The  facts  and  views  in  the  manuscript  are  ours  and  we  are  totally  responsible  for  authenticity,  validity  and  originality  etc.  I  /  We  undertake  and  agree  that  the  manuscripts  submitted  to  your  journal  have  not  been  published elsewhere and have not been simultaneously submitted fully or partly to other journals , nor is  it  under  review  for  publication  elsewhere.  I  /  We  also  declare  that  manuscripts  are  our  original  work  and  we  have  not  copied  from  any  where  else.  There  is  no  plagiarism  in  our  manuscripts.  Our  manuscripts  whether  accepted  or  rejected  will  be  property  of  the  publisher  of  the  journal  and  all  the  copyrights  will  be  with  the  publisher  of  the  journal.  I  have  read  and  downloaded  the  Instructions  from  Publishers  ,  Guidelines  for  Submission of Manuscript and Ethical Guidelines on the website and agree to abide to it .   Manuscript  should  be  strictly  according  to  our  format  and  authors  should  read  Instruction  from  Publishers  while preparing and submitting the manuscript.    Processing Fee    As  costs  are  involved  in  every  stage  of  the  publication  process,  like  manuscript  handling  ,  submission  to  publication , peer‐review , copy‐ editing , typesetting , tagging and indexing of articles , Electronic composition  and  production  ,  hosting  the  final  article  on  dedicated  servers  ,  electronic  archiving  ,  server  and  website  update  and  maintenance  ,  supporting  sales  and  marketing  costs  to  ensure  global  dissemination  and  administrative and overheads , the author is asked to pay an article Processing Fee .  The amount of fee charged by the Journal is quite lower than most of the e‐journals. The Processing Fee must  be  paid  prior  to  publication.  There  is  no  restriction  on  the  length  of  research  papers  and  reviews,  although  authors  are  encouraged  to  be  concise.  There  is  no  extra  charge  for  color  figures.  The  article  accepted  for  publication will be processed further toward publication after the author pays the Processing Fee .  

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Institutional Membership  Fellow Member  Head  of  the  Institution    and  Librarian  can  submit  maximum  of  five  research  papers  in  a  calendar  year  without paying any processing fee till they are associated  with the same Institution.  Life Member  Head  of  the  Institution    and  Librarian  can  submit  maximum  of  three  research  paper  in  a  calendar  year  without paying any processing fee till they are associated  with the same Institution.  Non Member  Non Member  Can submit any number of research paper in a  Head  of  the  Institution    and  Librarian  can  submit  any  calendar  year  by  paying  processing  fee  @  Rs.  number  of  research  paper  in  a  calendar  year  by  paying  600 or US Dollar $ 60 or EUR €  60 or British £  processing fee @ Rs. 600 / US Dollar $ 60 or EUR €  60 or  60  per research paper.  British £ 60 per research paper .  vii  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Indexed Impact Factor Recognized Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702 

Please note that membership subscription or processing fees will not be returned or refunded if your  manuscript is not accepted for publication .  Membership subscription or processing fees is a must  while submitting the manuscript otherwise it will not be processed. All Author and co – authors have  to  submit  processing  fees  .  While  submitting  the  membership  subscription  in  cash  or  by  demand  draft or by multi city at par cheque , please do submit membership form as well.    If anybody do not have funds to pay publication fee, he / she will have an opportunity to request the  Editor  for  fee  waiver  through  the  Head  of  his  /  her  Institution  /  Department  /  University  with  the  reasons,  because  IRJSSH  does  not  want  fees  to  prevent  the  publication  of  worthy  work,  however  Processing Fee waivers or discounts are granted on a case‐by‐case basis to authors who lack funds.  To apply for a waiver or discount, one can request during the submission process.   Failure to pay the Publication fee makes a manuscript liable to be placed back under access control,  losing its open access status.    Research Paper Received    1. After  receipt  of  the  paper  online,  we  will  check  first  whether  it  is  as  per  format  of  the  journal. If not, author will be asked to submit it again as per instructions to authors.  2. Declaration  to  be  given  by  the  authors  regarding  manuscript  is  must.  If  authors  do  not  provide the declaration, manuscript will not be processed.  3. Membership ( Life or Fellow ) Subscription or Processing Fees should be received within ten  days of receipt of manuscript by cheque or by draft. Those who are paying by wire transfer,  or by Paypal or by western union or by internet banking should submit proof of payment to  us by email or by post within ten days of receipt of manuscript.  4. After  receipt  of  declaration  and  membership  subscription  or  processing  fees,  your  manuscript will be sent to two experts for review.  5. Manuscript accepted or rejected will be notified at the website in this section. within 30‐45  days of receipt of the manuscript.  6. Acceptance  letter  will  be  sent  to  corresponding  author  after  45  days  of  receipt  of  manuscript.     Manuscript will be published in the coming issues of the journal at earliest.    Acceptance    As  soon  as  you  submit  the  paper  online,  it  will  appear  in  heading  "  Papers  Received  ".  When  we  receive the paper along with "Declaration of Authors" and membership subscription of all authors /  co  authors  and  processing  fees,  we  will  send  your  paper  for  peer  reviewing  of  its  merits  to  two  anonymous experts any where in the world. After acceptance by both the experts, we will try our  best  to  inform  you  regarding  acceptance  within  one  month.  If  it  is  accepted,  we  will  send  you  acceptance  letter  and  your  paper  will  be  published  at  earliest  in  coming  issues.  If  your  paper  is  rejected,  you  can  submit  to  other  journal  with  our  prior  permission.  Please  note  that  your  membership subscription or processing fees will not be refunded in any case whether your paper is  rejected or accepted.      The journal gives acknowledgement w.r.t. the receipt of every email and in case of non‐receipt of  acknowledgment  from  the  journal,  w.r.t.  the  submission  of  manuscript,  within  two  days  of  submission, the corresponding author is required to demand for the same by sending separate mail  to the journal . 

viii  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Indexed Impact Factor Recognized Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702 

INSTRUCTIONS FROM PUBLISHERS    All manuscripts submitted to the Journal –  1. 2. 3.

are original ones ,   have not been published and sent elsewhere for publication  authors  agree  that  rights  to  produce  and  distribute  ,  taking  and  circulating  reprints  ,  microfilming  ,  scanning  ,  photographic reproduction have been transferred ,  4. authors shall be solely responsible for reliability , authenticity , validity , originality etc. of the facts , figures and  views expressed in their article .   No part of this publication can be reproduced , copied or stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any  means , without written permission from the publishers , except for citing references.   

General Instructions    This journal  publishes research papers , short communications  containing original research work of good standard and review  papers of contemporary relevance from all over the world. Following types of contributions are also considered for publication : ,  brief reports,  comments & replies on the published articles, book reviews , obituaries ,  monographs , letters to editors , notices  etc   • RESEARCH PAPERS (Full Length ‐  Maximum of 12 pages – A / 4 size ) ,   • SHORT COMMUNICATIONS  ,   • REVIEW PAPERS including Mini Reviews .    We also publish information about latest products and practices in Industry, Recent Research, Information about Awards/  Prizes,  Scholarships , News and Views , Seminars , Conferences , Appointments etc.    1. This is a multilingual Journal . Papers are accepted in English , Hindi or any other recognized language. English spelling  and punctuation is preferred. All the matter and information should be submitted online or by e ‐ mail as attachment.  Soft copy format should be in MS word only ( pdf. version is liable to be rejected without any consideration ). Charts,  Tables  and  Diagrams  should  be  in  MS  Excel  or  MS  Word  and  images  in  JPG  format  using  maximum  possible  high  resolution.  The  total  size  of  the  file  containing  the  manuscript  should  be  below  500  KB.  Abstract  alone  will  not  be  considered for review and the author is required to submit the complete manuscript in the first instance.    2.  Full length Research Papers must not exceed Maximum of 12 pages in A/4 size . Tables and Figures must be in separate  sheet , Pages should be properly numbered. Mathematical data must  be provided strictly in APA style .  3.  Authors and co‐authors must be members of Journal. If authors are not members, they should pay processing fees.   4. After receipt of research paper and membership subscription of all the authors or processing fees, your paper will be  referred  to  two  experts  for  Double  Blind  Peer  Review.  Both  experts  should  approve  the  paper  and  their  decision  regarding acceptance will be final and binding. The editorial board reserves the right to condense or make changes in  the paper.  5. Manuscripts should be strictly in accordance with prescribed FORMAT of the journal. They will not be returned in any  case  whether  accepted  or  rejected.  Manuscripts  and  all  other  correspondence  should  be  addressed  to  Editor  .  Acceptance communication will be sent to authors in one month time. Rejected manuscripts can be sent by authors to  other journals only after our prior permission. Please note that your membership subscription or processing fees will  not be refunded in any case whether your paper is rejected or accepted.   6. Declaration to be given by authors : The facts and views in the manuscript are ours and we are totally responsible for  authenticity,  validity  and  originality  etc.  I  /  We  undertake  and  agree  that  the  manuscripts  submitted  to  your  journal  have not been published elsewhere and have not been simultaneously submitted fully or partly to other journals , nor  is it under review for publication elsewhere. I / We also declare that manuscripts are our original work and we have not  copied from any where else. There is no plagiarism in our manuscripts. Our manuscripts whether accepted or rejected  will be property of the publisher of the journal and all the copyrights will be with the publisher of the journal.  7.  Acceptance ‐ As soon as you submit the paper online, it will appear in heading " Papers Received ". When we receive  the paper along with "Declaration of Authors" and membership subscription of all authors / co authors and processing  fees, we will send your paper for peer reviewing of its merits to two anonymous experts any where in the world. After  acceptance  by  both  the  experts,  we  will  try  our  best  to  inform  you  regarding  acceptance  within  one  month.  If  it  is  accepted, we will send you acceptance letter and your paper will be published at earliest in coming issues. If your paper  is rejected, you can submit to other journal with our prior permission. Please note that your membership subscription  or  processing  fees  will  not  be  refunded  in  any  case  whether  your  paper  is  rejected  or  accepted.   The  journal  gives  acknowledgement  w.r.t.  the  receipt  of  every  email  and  in  case  of  non‐receipt  of  acknowledgment  from  the  journal,  w.r.t. the submission of manuscript, within two days of submission, the corresponding author is required to demand for  the same by sending separate mail to the journal .  8. Proofs  ‐  Proofs  will  be  sent  to  the  corresponding  author  via  e‐mail  as  an  Acrobat  PDF  (Portable  Document  Format  )  which should be returned to the Editorial office within 2 working days. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read  the PDF.  9.  Please correspond by email and mention your requirements in subject.  10. All correspondence should made at  irjssh@gmail.com    or   sunilgoyal1967@gmail.com  

ix  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Indexed Impact Factor Recognized Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702 

GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING MANUSCRIPT  1.   

COVERING LETTER must accompany with all Manuscripts: 

THE EDITOR                   DATED: DD – MM – YEAR  IRJSSH    Subject  ‐  Submission of Manuscript for Review / Publication .          DEAR SIR ,  Please find attached herewith our / my Manuscript entitled “  ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ” for review  and publication there after in your journal.   The facts and views in the manuscript are ours and we are totally responsible for authenticity, validity and originality etc. I / We undertake  and  agree  that  the  manuscripts  submitted  to  your  journal  have  not  been  published  elsewhere  and  have  not  been  simultaneously  submitted fully or partly to other journals , nor is it under review for publication elsewhere. I / We also declare that manuscripts are our  original work and we have not copied from any where else. There is no plagiarism in our manuscripts. Our manuscripts whether accepted  or rejected will be property of the publisher of the journal and all the copyrights will be with the publisher of the journal.   I affirm that all the author (s) have  seen and agreed to the submitted version of the  manuscript and their inclusion of name  (s) as  co‐ author (s).   NAME OF CORRESPONDING AUTHOR  :   Designation:   Affiliation with full Address, Contact Numbers & Pin Code:   Residential Address with Pin Code:   Mobile Number (s):   Landline Number (s):    E‐mail Address:   Alternate E‐mail Address:    

2. 

MANUSCRIPT TITLE 

The title of the paper should be in a 12 point Calibri Font. It should be Bold typed , Centered and CAPITALIZED.  3.  AUTHOR  NAME  (  s  )  &  AFFILIATIONS:  The  Author  (  s  )  Full  Name  in  Bold  (  Surname  or  Family  Name  First  )  ,  Designation , Affiliation ( s ) , Address , Mobile / Landline Numbers and e mail / alternate e mail  ID should be in Italic & 11 ‐ Point Calibri  Font. It must be Centered underneath the Title.  

4. 

ABSTRACT 

Abstract should be in fully Italicized text , not exceeding 200 words. The abstract must be informative and explain the Background , Aims ,  Methods , Results & Conclusion in a single para. Abbreviations must be mentioned in full.  

5. 

 KEY WORDS 

Abstract must be followed by a List of Keywords ( Maximum of Five ) arranged Alphabetically separated by Commas and Full Stop at the  end.  

6. 

MANUSCRIPT 

Manuscript  must  be  in  BRITISH  ENGLISH  prepared  on  a  Standard  A4  Size  PORTRAIT  SETTING  PAPER.  It  must  be  prepared  on  a  Single  Space and Single Column with 1” Margin for Top , Bottom , Left and Right. It should be Typed in 8 Point Calibri Font with Page Number  at the Bottom and Centre of every page. It should be free from grammatical , spelling , punctuation errors and must be thoroughly edited. 

7. 

HEADINGS 

All the headings should be in a 10 point Calibri Font. These must be Bold ‐ faced, Aligned Left and fully CAPITALIZED. Leave a blank line  before each heading.  

8.   

SUB ‐ HEADINGS 

All the sub – headings should be in a 8 Point Calibri Font. These must be Bold – faced, Aligned Left and fully CAPITALIZED. 

9.   

MAIN TEXT 

The main text should follow the following sequence :    INTRODUCTION  ( including REVIEW OF LITERATURE , NEED / IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY , STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM , OBJECTIVES  and HYPOTHESES )   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY     RESULTS  &  DISCUSSION  (  including  FINDINGS  ,  RECOMMENDATIONS  /  SUGGESTIONS  ,  CONCLUSIONS  and  SCOPE  FOR  FURTHER  RESEARCH )   

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS   REFERENCES    APPENDIX / ANNEXURE    The  Main  Text  should  be  in  a  8  Point  Calibri  Font  ,  Single  Spaced  and  Justified.  The  manuscript  should  preferably  not  exceed  5000  WORDS. Use Italics , rather than underlining when appropriate . Abbreviations should be explained at first appearance in the text. 

10.  

FIGURES &TABLES 

These should be Simple , Crystal Clear , Centered , Separately Numbered & Self Explained , and Titles must be Above the Table / Figure.  Sources of data should be mentioned below the Table / Figure. It should be ensured that all Tables / Figures are in JPG format of good  resolution ( 300 dpi ) are referred to from the main text.    

11.  

EQUATIONS 

These should be Consecutively Numbered in Parentheses , Horizontally Centered with equation number placed at the Right. 

x  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Indexed Impact Factor Recognized Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702 

12.  IN ‐ TEXT CITATIONS   Standard format ( Single Author ) ‐ Author’s last name & year of publication   Example  ‐  Organizational  structures  are  loosely  coupled  to  the  actual  outcomes  that  they  produce,  so  that  they  can  satisfy  demands for legitimacy from important actors in their environments ( Goyal , 2012 ) .     Goyal ( 2012 ) postulated that organizational structures are loosely …   In case of Two Authors – always cite both names as Goyal and Swami ( 2012  ) postulates ... In case of 3, 4, or 5 Authors  ‐ cite all  authors first time in your paper. Subsequent citations include only first name of first author followed by “ et al .”   First in‐text citation – Goyal , Swami and Shukla ( 2012 ) found …   Subsequent citation per paragraph thereafter – Goyal et al. ( 2012 ) found …    After first citation within a paragraph, omit the year in subsequent citation ‐ Goyal et al. also determined …      13.  

REFERENCES:  

The list of all references must be serially numbered and should be alphabetically arranged by family name (surname) first. The author (s)  should  mention  only  the  actually  utilised  references  in  the  preparation  of  manuscript  and  they  are  supposed  to  follow  APA  Style  of  Referencing. The author (s) are supposed to follow the references as per the following:   Alphabetical arrangement within list ( Each source retains its original order ) , starts on a New Page immediately after the last main text  page of the paper , Double – Spaced , Introduced by the word “ References ” at Top of First Reference Page Only , Centered with No  Quotes .     Basic format  ‐      Authors    Publication date    Title ( of article or book )    Journal information for articles or publisher information for books.     Standard formats ( books & journal / research articles ( pdf format ) )  

One author ( book ) : 

 

Goyal, S. ( 2003 ). Industrial Sociology. Jaipur : RBSA Publishers.  

Two authors ( scholarly journal article ) :    Goyal,  S.,  &  Swami,  S.G.  (  2002  ).  Institutionalized  organizations:  Formal  structure  as  myth  and  ceremony.  “  International  Journal  of  Sociology  ”, 83(2), 340‐363.  

Three or more authors ( scholarly journal article ) :    Goyal, S., Swami, S. G., & Shukla, R. N. ( 2004 ).  Services for victims: A market research study [Electronic version]. International Review of  Sociology, 6, 101‐115.    First citation in paper ‐  ( Goyal, Swami, & Shukla, 2004 )   Second citation in paper ‐ ( Goyal et al., 2004 )    All works cited in the text ( including sources for tables and figures ) should be listed alphabetically. Use (ed.) for one editor, and (ed.s) for  multiple  editors.  When  listing  two  or  more  works  by  one  author,  use  ‐‐‐  (20xx),  such  as  after  Kohl  (1997),  use  ‐‐‐  (2001),  etc,  in  chronologically ascending order.    Indicate (opening and closing) page numbers for articles in journals and for chapters in books. The title of books and journals should be in  italics. Double quotation marks are used for titles of journal articles , book chapters , dissertations , reports , working papers , unpublished  material, etc. For titles in a language other than English, provide an English translation in parentheses. The location of endnotes within the  text should be indicated by superscript numbers.  Spell out org’s name the first time & abbreviate thereafter   ( The Global Association of Social Sciences [GASS], 2012)   Subsequent text citation ‐  (GASS, 2012)   

References   The Global Association of Social Sciences. (2012). Victim rights and services: A legislative directory. India: Author.  

References (electronic version)   Central  Bureau  of  Investigation.  (2007,  September).  Crime  in  the  India,  2006.    Retrieved  November  5,  2007,  from  http://www.cbi.gov.in/ucr/cii2006/   Always indicate the date that the source was accessed, as online resources are frequently updated or removed. 

References ( Legal Materials )   Court Decisions  ‐ Standard format : Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date).   Citation: Lessard v. Schmidt (1972) or (Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972)   Reference: Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Suppl. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972)   U.S. Supreme Court reference examples   Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).   Maryland v. Craig, 110 S.Ct. 3160 (1990).    

CONFERENCE PAPERS   Goyal, S. (2012): " Research Ethics" Paper presented at the 1 st International Conference of Social Sciences and Humanities for The Global  Association of Social Sciences, Indore, India, 19–22 June.  

UNPUBLISHED DISSERTATIONS AND THESES   Goyal, S. (1995): "A Sociological Study of Workers in Textile Industries in Madhya Pradesh," Thesis, Devi Ahilya University, Indore.   Disclaimer: This is a rough overview. Scholars are responsible for consulting APA for correct citations and references . See APA book for  more detailed instructions and example . 

xi  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Indexed Impact Factor Recognized Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702 

ETHICAL GUIDELINES    Ethical guidelines accepted by the Editorial , Advisory and Academic Board of  The  IRJSSH : April , 2012   

1.0 Statement of Purpose    The purpose of this document is to enhance the quality and protect the integrity of scientific publishing in addiction specialty journals. It is  written in the interests  of all those  who engage in the scientific endeavor and those who put trust in the  truthfulness of the scientific  output. To that end, this document provides guidance to authors, editors and other individuals regarding ethical and procedural issues  that affect the integrity of scientific publishing. These guidelines were developed to deal with the growing complexity of decision‐making  in addiction journal publishing, which often requires critical judgment on the part of editors, reviewers, authors, publishers  and others  with regard to ethical issues.   The guidelines address two broad areas :  1) the responsibilities of authors, and   2) the responsibilities of editors, journal staff and journal owners.   

2.0 Responsibilities of Authors    The responsibilities of authors include but are not limited to study design, ethical approval of research, data analysis, authorship credits,  conflict of interests, redundant publication, and plagiarism.   2.1 Study Design and Ethical Approval Research reported in IRJSSH should be well justified, well planned, appropriately designed,  ethically approved when necessary or appropriate to do so, scrupulously analyzed and honestly interpreted.  Formal supervision, usually the responsibility of the principal investigator, should be provided for all research projects. 

2.2 Authorship Credits  Authorship of a scientific report refers to the origin of a literary production, not just to the experimentation, data collection or other work  that led up to it.   All persons named as authors should   1) have made a major contribution to the work reported, and   2) be prepared to take public responsibility for its contents.  Early agreement on the precise roles of the contributors and collaborators, and on matters of authorship and publication, is advised. All  contributors  to  a  research  project  or  other  scholarly  publication  should  be  advised  of  their  authorship  responsibilities  and  given  the  opportunity  to  participate  in  the  drafting  of  the  manuscript.  Initial  inclusion  in  the  planning  of  a  scientific  paper  does  not  necessarily  warrant  authorship  credit  unless  the  prospective  author  makes  a  substantive  contribution  as  described  below.  The  lead  author  should  periodically  review  the  status  of  authorship  credits  and  substantive  contributions  with  all  prospective  collaborators,  in  order  to  avoid  disputes.  The award of authorship should balance intellectual contributions to the conception, design, analysis and writing of the study against the  collection  of  data  and  other  routine  work.  If  there  is  no  task  that  can  reasonably  be  attributed  to  a  particular  individual,  then  that  individual should not be credited with authorship.  All listed authors on a paper should have been personally and substantially involved in the work leading to the paper. Involvement in data  collection and other routine tasks does not necessarily warrant authorship credit. Similarly , merely granting access to clinical samples or  being the head of a research unit or grant is not by itself sufficient to justify a share in authorship.  If  professional  writers  employed  by  pharmaceutical  companies,  medical  agencies,  or  other  parties  have  written  the  paper,  then  their  names should be included, and any conflicts of interest declared.  Authors should not allow their name to be used on a piece of work merely to add credibility to the content. 

2.3 Redundant Publication  Redundant publication occurs when two or more papers, without full cross‐reference, share any of the same data. Authors are expected  to ensure that no significant part of the submitted material has been published previously and that it is not concurrently being considered  by another journal. An exception to this general position may be made when previous publication has been limited to another language,  to local publication in report form, or to publication of a conference abstract. In all such instances, authors should consult the editor.  Publication in different papers of subsets of data from the same population of subjects in a study may be acceptable if publication in one  article would render it unreasonably long and complex. In such cases, cross‐ referencing to the other relevant publication(s) must occur.  Re‐publication of a paper in another language is acceptable, provided that there is full and prominent disclosure of its original source at  the time of submission and provided that any necessary copyrights are respected.  At the time of submission, authors should disclose details of related papers, even if in a different language, and similar papers in press.  When in doubt, authors should provide the editor at the time of submission with copies of published or submitted reports that are related  to that submission. 

2.4 Plagiarism  Plagiarism  ranges  from  the  unreferenced  use  of  others'  published  and  unpublished  ideas,  including  research  grant  applications,  to  submission  under  "new"  authorship  of  a  complete  paper,  sometimes  in  a  different  language.  It  may  occur  at  any  stage  of  planning,  research, writing, or publication; it applies to print and electronic versions.  All sources should be disclosed through appropriate citation or quotation conventions, and if a large amount of other people's written or  illustrative material is to be used, permission must be sought. 

2.5 Conflict of Interest  A  conflict  of  interest  is  a  situation  or  relationship  in  which  professional,  personal,  or  financial  considerations  could  be  seen  by  a  fair‐ minded person as potentially in conflict with independence of judgment. It has also been described as a situation or relationship which,  when revealed later, would make a reasonable reader feel misled or deceived. A conflict may be personal, commercial, political, academic  or financial. "Financial" interests may include employment, research funding, stock or share ownership, payment for lectures or travel,  consultancies, and company support for staff. Conflict of interest is not in itself wrongdoing. 

xii  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Indexed Impact Factor Recognized Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702 

The potential for conflict of interest in the addiction field is enhanced by any relationship or funding connected with the tobacco industry,  the  alcohol  beverage  industry,  for‐profit  health  care  systems,  private  hospitals,  the  pharmaceutical  industry,  and  "social  aspect  organizations" that receive their primary support from these sources.  There  are  three  levels  of  conflict  of  interest:  real,  apparent,  and  potential.  A  real  conflict  of  interest  means  that  the  author,  or  the  administrative unit with which the author has an employment relationship, has a financial or other interest that could unduly influence  the author's position with respect to the subject matter being considered. An apparent conflict of interest exists when an interest would  not necessarily influence the author but could result in the author's objectivity being questioned by others. A potential conflict of interest  exists with an interest that any reasonable person could be uncertain whether or not it should be reported.  Each author should declare to the editor any interests that could constitute a real, potential or apparent conflict of interest with respect  to his/her involvement in the publication, between   (1) commercial entities and the participant personally, and    (2)  commercial  entities  and  the  administrative  unit  with  which  the  participant  has  an  employment  relationship.  "Commercial  entity"  refers to any company, association (e.g., trade association), organization, or other unit with commercial interests.  Sources of funding for the study, review, or other item should be declared in the final publication.   

3.0 Responsibilities of Editors/ Journal Staff/Journal Owners    Journal editors can have a significant influence on the practice of addiction science, as well as treatment and prevention. Editors need to  promote  the  highest  standards  of  ethical  practice  in  order  to  advance  addiction  science  and  to  maintain  the  trust  of  the  people  their  journals serve. The ethical responsibilities of editors include the ethical decision‐making, the peer review process, advertising, conflict of  interest, and how to deal with scientific misconduct.  Editors' decisions to accept or reject a paper for publication should be based only on the paper´s importance, originality, and clarity, and  the study’s relevance to the remit of the journal.  All  original  studies  should  be  peer  reviewed  before  publication,  taking  into  full  account  possible  bias  due  to  related  or  conflicting  interests.  Studies that challenge previous work published in the journal should be given an especially sympathetic hearing.  Studies reporting negative results should not be excluded.  Editors must treat all submitted papers as confidential.  When  a  published  paper  is  subsequently  found  to  contain  major  flaws,  editors  must  accept  responsibility  for  correcting  the  record  prominently and promptly. 

3.1 Peer Review  Addiction journals should be committed to peer review, and research reports and scientific reviews should go through this process. As  regards the extent to which other material (e.g., commentary, book reviews) will be so reviewed, we see that as a matter for editorial  discretion.  Peer  reviewers  are  external  experts  chosen  by  editors  to  provide  written  opinions,  with  the  aim  of  improving  the  study.  Reviewers  are  also  expected  to  behave  in  an  ethical  manner  and  the  editor  should  consider  breaches  of  the  following  guidelines  as  instances of misconduct no less serious than comparable actions by authors. Editors must treat all submitted papers as confidential. The  duty  of  confidentiality  in  the  assessment  of  a  manuscript  must  be  maintained  by  expert  reviewers,  and  this  extends  to  reviewers'  colleagues who may be asked (with the editor’s permission) to give opinions on specific sections. Referees should be told that their access  to  the  papers  on  which  they  have  been  requested  to  comment  is  in  strict  confidence.  Confidentiality  should  not  be  broken  by  pre‐ publication statements on the content of the submission. Manuscripts sent to reviewers should be returned to the editor or destroyed.  Reviewers  and  editors  should  not  make  any  use  of  the  data,  arguments,  or  interpretations,  unless  they  have  the  authors'  permission.  Reviewers  should  provide  speedy,  accurate,  courteous,  unbiased  and  justifiable  reports.  If  reviewers  suspect  misconduct,  they  should  write  in  confidence  to  the  editor.  To  enhance  the  quality  and  efficacy  of  the  peer  review  system,  addiction  journals  should  audit  the  quality of peer review on a continuous basis, and where possible, provide training to enhance the quality of peer review. Journals should  publish accurate descriptions of their peer review, selection, and appeals processes. Journals should also provide regular audits of their  acceptance rates and publication times. In refereeing journal supplements, an editorial note should be published to indicate whether or  not the papers have been peer‐reviewed. 

3.2 Conflict of Interest  Referees should be asked to declare to the editor if they have a conflict of interest in relation to the material which they are invited to  review, and if in doubt they should consult the editor.' Conflict of interest ' is defined as a situation in which professional, personal, or  financial  considerations  could  be  seen  by  a  fair‐minded  person  as  potentially  in  conflict  with  the  editor's  independence  of  judgment.  Conflict of interest is not in itself wrongdoing.  To  protect  the  independence  of  the  editorial  process,  the  owner  or  another  body  that  may  influence  the  editorial  process  should  be  declared, and sources of support from the alcohol, tobacco, pharmaceutical or other relevant interests should be published in the journal.  When a journal publishes journal supplements, an indication will be given of sources of support for their production. Editors should also  disclose relevant conflicts of interest to their readers. Sometimes editors may need to withdraw from the review and selection process for  the relevant submission.  Conflicts of interest, where relevant, must be declared to editors by researchers, authors, and reviewers.  To further enhance the integrity of science, editors are urged to adopt a more complete disclosure policy. Such a policy should require  contributors to disclose to journal editors at least the following information:  Sources of funding for the study, review, or other item being published. Sources of funding for the submitted paper must be declared and  should be published.  Financial or other significant relations (e.g., consulting, speaker fees, corporate advisory committee memberships, expert testimony given  in legal cases) of the author and the authors' immediate family in the last 5 years with companies, trade associations, unions, or groups  (including  civic  associations  and  public  interest  groups)  that  may  gain  or  lose  financially  from  the  results  or  conclusions  in  the  study,  review, editorial, or letter.    If an editor considers he/she may be subject to Conflict of Interest, advice from a co‐editor may be sought and a co‐editor or guest  editor should have full responsibility for editing the manuscript. 

 

xiii  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Indexed Impact Factor Recognized Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

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Double Blind , Open and Ethical Peer Review Referral Process    MANUSCRIPT SUBMITTED TO THE JOURNAL IS SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING DOUBLE BLIND ETHICAL PEER  REVIEWING AND REFERRAL PROCESS:  1. 2.

3. 4.

5.

Each  manuscript  will  be  initially  evaluated  by  the  editor  /  co  ‐  editor,  who  may  make  use  of  appropriate  software  to  examinethe originality of the contents of the manuscript.   The  manuscripts  passed  through  screening  at  above  noted  level  will  referred  to  two  experts  for  blind  peer  review,  each  ofwhom  will  make  a  recommendation  to  publish  the  article  in  its  present  form/modify/reject.  During  this  period  referees  shalltreat the contents of papers under review as privileged information.   The review period varies from a week to one month (Maximum two months in extra ordinary circumstances).  Reviewers and editors shall   a. read and evaluate the article   b. Reviewers submit their reviews back to the journal editor  c. The journal editor takes all comments, including their own, and communicates this  feedback to the original author  (or authors) .  Both experts should approve the paper and their decision regarding acceptance will be final and binding. The editorial board    reserves the right to condense or make changes in the paper.     

Jurisdiction    All legal disputes are subject to territorial jurisdiction of District Indore , Madhya Pradesh , India Only.   

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xiv  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Indexed Impact Factor Recognized Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

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  xvi  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Indexed Impact Factor Recognized Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

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xviii  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Indexed Impact Factor Recognized Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

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  Publications of Dr. Sunil Goyal ‐ International Editor – in – Chief  :  Publication of Books ‐ As Author  S.No.  Year  24 

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Title of Book 

Name of Publisher 

Place 

Nation 

Poverty in India , Book of Abstracts (Ed.)  Dept. of P. G. Studies and Research  Centre in Sociology  Social Anthropology   ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 410 ‐ 3  Criminology  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 405 ‐ 7  Social Thought   ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 404 ‐ 9  Advanced Social Research  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 285 ‐ 2  Elementary Social Research  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 284 ‐ 4  Advanced Sociological Theories  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 220 ‐ 8  Sociological Essays  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 209 ‐ 7  Crime in India  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 252 ‐ 6  Sociology B A III rd Year , Chhatis Garh  Sociology  B A III rd Year , Madhya  Pradesh  Sociology B A II nd Year , Madhya  Pradesh  Industrial Sociology  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 205 ‐ 4  Social Change In India  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 202 ‐ X  Women In Indian Society  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 200 ‐ 3  Indian Social System  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 186 ‐ 4  Basic Sociological Concepts  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 064 ‐ 7  Globalisation and Strikes and Lock Outs    in Indian Industries , Book of Abstracts (  Ed. )  Great Sociological Thinkers  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 164 ‐ 3  Indian Society  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 141 ‐ 4  Elements of Social Research  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 108 ‐ 2  Sociology of Organisation  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 0768 ‐ X  Urban Sociology  ISBN 81 ‐ 7611 ‐ 062 ‐ 0  Rural Sociology 

Government Narmada P.G.      (Exc.) College , Hoshangabad 

H’bad 

India 

M/s RBSA Publishers 

Jaipur 

India 

M/s RBSA Publishers 

Jaipur 

India 

M/s RBSA Publishers 

Jaipur 

India 

M/s RBSA Publishers 

Jaipur 

India 

M/s RBSA Publishers 

Jaipur 

India 

M/s RBSA Publishers 

Jaipur 

India 

M/s RBSA Publishers 

Jaipur 

India 

M/s RBSA Publishers 

Jaipur 

India 

M/s Ram Prasad and Sons  M/s Ram Prasad and Sons 

Agra  Agra 

India  India 

M/s Ram Prasad and Sons 

Agra 

India 

M/s RBSA Publishers 

Jaipur 

India 

M/s RBSA Publishers 

Jaipur 

India 

M/s RBSA Publishers 

Jaipur 

India 

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Jaipur 

India 

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Jaipur 

India 

Dept. of P. G. Studies and  Research Centre in Sociology ,  Government College  M/s RBSA Publishers 

Sarni 

India 

Jaipur 

India 

M/s RBSA Publishers 

Jaipur 

India 

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Jaipur 

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Jaipur 

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Jaipur 

India 

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Jaipur 

India 

xix  THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES  An Official International Double Blind Peer Reviewed Referred Indexed Impact Factor Recognized Open Access Monthly Scientific Research  Journal of THE GLOBAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES included in the International Serial Directories , Visit us at  www.gass.org.in  

The Int. Res. J. Soc. Sc. Hum. _________________________________________________________ Vol. 3 (8) Aug ( 2014 ) ISSN 2320 ‐ 4702 

 

  Government Registration No. 03 / 27 / 03 / 15269 /12       Registered Publisher of International ISBN Agency , London, UK                  Under Category 5 / 2012 – ISBN , Dated 8 th Dececember , 2012 

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  Publish your Scholarly Work  on any Subject / any Discipline in Hindi or English as Double Blind Peer Reviewed , Referred ,  Recognised and Scientific ISBN numbered International Reference Book.  Research Reports of Minor / Major Projects , Ph.D. Research Work , Manuscript of Text Book  /  Reference  Book  ,  Conference  /  Seminar  /  Workshop  Proceedings  ,  Edited  Volume  of  Chapters written by different Authors , Novels / Stories etc.  The  double  blind  peer  reviewing  ,  referring  and  scientific  processing  of  manuscripts  is  done  by  the  Association on nominal Processing Charges on No Profit ‐ No Loss basis . 

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