Outline

Basics of HMM-based speech synthesis Background HMM-based speech synthesis Advanced topics in HMM-based speech synthesis Flexibility Improve naturalness Neural network-based speech synthesis Feed-forward neural network (DNN & DMDN) Recurrent neural network (RNN & LSTM-RNN) Results

Lecturer

• Heiga Zen

• PhD from Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan (2006)

• Intern, IBM T.J. Watson Research, New York (2004–2005)

• Research engineer, Toshiba Research Europe, Cambridge (2009–2011) • Research scientist, Google, London (2011–Present) Heiga Zen

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

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Outline

Basics of HMM-based speech synthesis Background HMM-based speech synthesis Advanced topics in HMM-based speech synthesis Flexibility Improve naturalness Neural network-based speech synthesis Feed-forward neural network (DNN & DMDN) Recurrent neural network (RNN & LSTM-RNN) Results

Text-to-speech as sequence-to-sequence mapping

Automatic speech recognition (ASR) Speech (real-valued time series) → Text (discrete symbol sequence)

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Text-to-speech as sequence-to-sequence mapping

Automatic speech recognition (ASR) Speech (real-valued time series) → Text (discrete symbol sequence) Statistical machine translation (SMT) Text (discrete symbol sequence) → Text (discrete symbol sequence)

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Text-to-speech as sequence-to-sequence mapping

Automatic speech recognition (ASR) Speech (real-valued time series) → Text (discrete symbol sequence) Statistical machine translation (SMT) Text (discrete symbol sequence) → Text (discrete symbol sequence) Text-to-speech synthesis (TTS) Text (discrete symbol sequence) → Speech (real-valued time series)

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Speech production process

modulation of carrier wave by speech information

freq transfer char

voiced/unvoiced

fundamental freq

text (concept)

speech

frequency transfer characteristics magnitude start--end

Sound source voiced: pulse unvoiced: noise

fundamental frequency

air flow

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Typical flow of TTS system

TEXT Sentence segmentaiton Word segmentation Text normalization Part-of-speech tagging Pronunciation

discrete ⇒ discrete NLP Frontend

Text analysis Speech synthesis

Prosody prediction Waveform generation

SYNTHESIZED discrete ⇒ continuous Speech SPEECH Backend

This presentation mainly talks about backend Heiga Zen

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Concatenative, unit selection speech synthesis All segments

Target cost

Concatenation cost

• Concatenate actual instances of speech from database • Large data + automatic learning → High-quality synthetic voices can be built automatically • Single inventory per unit → diphone synthesis [1] • Multiple inventory per unit → unit selection synthesis [2] Heiga Zen

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Statistical parametric speech synthesis (SPSS) [3] Speech

Speech analysis

Text

Text analysis

y

Model training

x

Parameter generation

ˆl

yˆ

x

Speech synthesis Text analysis

Speech Text

Training • Extract linguistic features x & acoustic features y

• Train acoustic model λ given (x, y)

ˆ = arg max p(y | x, λ) λ

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Statistical parametric speech synthesis (SPSS) [3] Speech

Speech analysis

Text

Text analysis

y

Model training

x

Parameter generation

ˆl

yˆ

x

Speech synthesis Text analysis

Speech Text

Training • Extract linguistic features x & acoustic features y

• Train acoustic model λ given (x, y)

ˆ = arg max p(y | x, λ) λ Synthesis • Extract x from text to be synthesized ˆ then reconstruct waveform • Generate most probable y from λ ˆ yˆ = arg max p(y | x, λ) Heiga Zen

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Statistical parametric speech synthesis (SPSS) [3]

Speech

Speech analysis

Text

Text analysis

y

Model training

x

Parameter generation

ˆl

x

yˆ

Speech synthesis Text analysis

Speech Text

• Vocoded speech (buzzy or muffled) • Small footprint

Hidden Markov model (HMM) as its acoustic model → HMM-based speech synthesis system (HTS) [4]

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HMM-based speech synthesis [4] SPEECH Speech signal DATABASE Excitation

parameter extraction Excitation parameters

TEXT

Text analysis Excitation parameters

Synthesis part Heiga Zen

Spectral parameter extraction Spectral parameters

Training HMMs

Labels

Labels

Training part

Context-dependent HMMs & state duration models Parameter generation from HMMs Spectral parameters

Excitation Excitation Synthesis generation Filter

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

SYNTHESIZED SPEECH

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HMM-based speech synthesis [4]

SPEECH Speech signal DATABASE Excitation

parameter extraction Excitation parameters

TEXT

Text analysis Excitation parameters

Synthesis part Heiga Zen

Spectral parameter extraction Spectral parameters

Training HMMs

Labels

Labels

Training part

Context-dependent HMMs & state duration models Parameter generation from HMMs Spectral parameters

Excitation Excitation Synthesis generation Filter

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Speech production process

modulation of carrier wave by speech information

freq transfer char

voiced/unvoiced

fundamental freq

text (concept)

speech

frequency transfer characteristics magnitude start--end

Sound source voiced: pulse unvoiced: noise

fundamental frequency

air flow

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Source-filter model Source excitation part

Vocal tract resonance part

pulse train e(n)

white noise

excitation

linear time-invariant system h(n)

speech x(n) = h(n) ∗ e(n)

x(n) = h(n) ∗ e(n) ↓ Fourier transform

X(ejω ) = H (ejω )E(ejω )

H ejω should be defined by HMM state-output vectors e.g., mel-cepstrum, line spectral pairs Heiga Zen

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Parametric models of speech signal

Autoregressive (AR) model K

H(z) = 1−

M X

Exponential (EX) model M X c(m)z −m H(z) = exp m=0

c(m)z −m

m=0

Estimate model parameters based on ML c = arg max p(x | c) c

• p(x | c): AR model → Linear predictive analysis [5]

• p(x | c): EX model → (ML-based) cepstral analysis [6]

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80

80

60

60

Log magnitude (dB)

Log magnitude (dB)

Examples of speech spectra

40 20 0 -20

0

1

2 3 4 Frequency (kHz)

(a) ML-based cepstral analysis

Heiga Zen

5

40 20 0 -20

0

1

2 3 4 Frequency (kHz)

5

(b) Linear prediction

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HMM-based speech synthesis [4]

SPEECH Speech signal DATABASE Excitation

parameter extraction Excitation parameters

TEXT

Text analysis Excitation parameters

Synthesis part Heiga Zen

Spectral parameter extraction Spectral parameters

Training HMMs

Labels

Labels

Training part

Context-dependent HMMs & state duration models Parameter generation from HMMs Spectral parameters

Excitation Excitation Synthesis generation Filter

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Structure of state-output (observation) vectors ot ct Spectrum part

Excitation part

Heiga Zen

Mel-cepstral coefficients

D ct

D Mel-cepstral coefficients

D2c t

DD Mel-cepstral coefficients

pt

log F0

δpt

D log F0

δ 2 pt

DD log F0

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Hidden Markov model (HMM)

a11 π1

1

a22 a12

b1 (ot ) Observation sequence State sequence

Heiga Zen

O o1 o2 o3 o4 o5 Q

2 b2 (ot )

a33 a23

3 b3 (ot )

... . . ...

1 1 1 1 2 ...

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

2 3 ...

oT

3

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Multi-stream HMM structure ot bj (ot ) Spectrum

o1t

b2j (o2t ) b3j (o3t ) b4j (o4t )

4

b1j (o1t )

D2c t

Excitation Heiga Zen

D ct

3

s=1

bj (ot )

ct

Stream 1 2

S Y ¡ s s ¢ws = bj (ot )

pt

o2t

δ pt

o3t

δ 2 pt

o4t

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Training process data & labels

Compute variance floor (HCompV)

Reestimate CD-HMMs by EM algorithm (HERest)

Estimate CD-dur. models from FB stats (HERest)

Initialize CI-HMMs by segmental k-means (HInit)

Decision tree-based clustering (HHEd TB)

Decision tree-based clustering (HHEd TB)

Reestimate CI-HMMs by EM algorithm (HRest & HERest)

Reestimate CD-HMMs by EM algorithm (HERest)

Copy CI-HMMs to CD-HMMs (HHEd CL)

Untie parameter tying structure (HHEd UT)

monophone (context-independent, CI) Heiga Zen

Estimated dur models Estimated HMMs

fullcontext (context-dependent, CD)

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Context-dependent acoustic modeling • • • • • • • • • • • • •

{preceding, succeeding} two phonemes Position of current phoneme in current syllable # of phonemes at {preceding, current, succeeding} syllable {accent, stress} of {preceding, current, succeeding} syllable Position of current syllable in current word # of {preceding, succeeding} {stressed, accented} syllables in phrase # of syllables {from previous, to next} {stressed, accented} syllable Guess at part of speech of {preceding, current, succeeding} word # of syllables in {preceding, current, succeeding} word Position of current word in current phrase # of {preceding, succeeding} content words in current phrase # of words {from previous, to next} content word # of syllables in {preceding, current, succeeding} phrase

...

Impossible to have all possible models Heiga Zen

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Decision tree-based state clustering [7] k-a+b t-a+n L=voice?

R=silence? yes

L="w" ? yes

yes

no

no

yes

no

R=silence? no yes

L="gy" ? no

leaf nodes

synthesized states

w-a+t

w-a+sil

Heiga Zen

gy-a+sil

w-a+sh

g-a+sil

gy-a+pau

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Stream-dependent tree-based clustering

Decision trees for mel-cepstrum Decision trees for F0 Spectrum & excitation can have different context dependency → Build decision trees individually Heiga Zen

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State duration models [8] t1

i

t0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

T=8

t

Probability to enter state i at t0 then leave at t1 + 1 χt0 ,t1 (i) ∝

X

αt0 −1 (j)aji atii1 −t0

j6=i

→ estimate state duration models

Heiga Zen

t1 Y

t=t0

bi (ot )

X

aik bk (ot1 +1 )βt1 +1 (k)

k6=i

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Stream-dependent tree-based clustering

State duration model HMM Decision trees for mel-cepstrum

Decision tree for state dur. models

Decision trees for F0 Heiga Zen

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HMM-based speech synthesis [4] SPEECH Speech signal DATABASE Excitation

parameter extraction Excitation parameters

TEXT

Text analysis Excitation parameters

Synthesis part Heiga Zen

Spectral parameter extraction Spectral parameters

Training HMMs

Labels

Labels

Training part

Context-dependent HMMs & state duration models Parameter generation from HMMs Spectral parameters

Excitation Excitation Synthesis generation Filter

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

SYNTHESIZED SPEECH

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Speech parameter generation algorithm [9] Generate most probable state outputs given HMM and words ˆ oˆ = arg max p(o | w, λ) o X ˆ = arg max p(o, q | w, λ) o

∀q

ˆ ≈ arg max max p(o, q | w, λ) o

q

ˆ (q | w, λ) ˆ = arg max max p(o | q, λ)P o

Heiga Zen

q

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Speech parameter generation algorithm [9] Generate most probable state outputs given HMM and words ˆ oˆ = arg max p(o | w, λ) o X ˆ = arg max p(o, q | w, λ) o

∀q

ˆ ≈ arg max max p(o, q | w, λ) o

q

ˆ (q | w, λ) ˆ = arg max max p(o | q, λ)P o

q

Determine the best state sequence and outputs sequentially ˆ qˆ = arg max P (q | w, λ) q

ˆ ˆ λ) oˆ = arg max p(o | q, o

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Best state sequence

a11 π1

1

a22 a12

b1 (ot ) Observation sequence

Heiga Zen

O o1 o2 o3 o4 o5

State sequence

Q

State duration

D

2 b2 (ot )

a23

3 b3 (ot )

... . . ...

1 1 1 1 2 ... 4

a33

10

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

2 3 ...

oT

3

5

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Best state outputs w/o dynamic features

Mean

Variance

oˆ becomes step-wise mean vector sequence

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Using dynamic features State output vectors include static & dynamic features

£ ¤ > > ot = c> t , D ct M

D ct = ct − ct−1 c t-2

c t-1

ct

c t+1

c t+2

Dct-2

Dc t-1

Dc t

Dc t+1

Dct+2

M

2M

Relationship between static and dynamic features can be arranged as

Heiga Zen

o .. .

ct−1 ot−1 D ct−1 ct o t D c t ct+1 ot+1 D ct+1 .. .

· · · · · · · · · · · · = · · · · · · · · · ···

.. . 0 −I 0 0 0 0 .. .

W .. . I I 0 −I 0 0 .. .

.. . 0 0 I I 0 −I .. .

.. . 0 0 0 0 I I .. .

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ···

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

c

.. . ct−2 ct−1 ct ct+1 .. . July 9th, 2015

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Speech parameter generation algorithm [9]

Introduce dynamic feature constraints ˆ ˆ λ) oˆ = arg max p(o | q, o

Heiga Zen

subject to

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

o = Wc

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Speech parameter generation algorithm [9]

Introduce dynamic feature constraints ˆ ˆ λ) oˆ = arg max p(o | q, o

subject to

o = Wc

If state-output distribution is single Gaussian ˆ = N (o; µ ˆ qˆ) ˆ λ) ˆ qˆ, Σ p(o | q,

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Speech parameter generation algorithm [9]

Introduce dynamic feature constraints ˆ ˆ λ) oˆ = arg max p(o | q, o

subject to

o = Wc

If state-output distribution is single Gaussian ˆ = N (o; µ ˆ qˆ) ˆ λ) ˆ qˆ, Σ p(o | q, ˆ qˆ)/∂c = 0 ˆ qˆ, Σ By setting ∂ log N (W c; µ ˆ −1 W c = W > Σ ˆ −1 µ W >Σ qˆ qˆ ˆ qˆ

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Speech parameter generation algorithm [9] Σ−1 qˆ

c c1 c2

0 1 0 ... -1 1 0 ...

...

1 0 0 ... 0 0 0 ...

...

W 0

1 0 0 ... 1 -1 0 ...

0 1 0 ... 0 1 -1 ...

... 0 1 0 ... 0 1 -1

...

... 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0

W>

cT

... 0 1 0 ... -1 1 0 ... 0 0 1

0

... 0 -1 1

Σ−1 qˆ

µqˆ 0

1 0 0 ... 1 -1 0 ...

0 1 0 ... 0 1 -1 ...

... 0 1 0 ... 0 1 -1

...

=

... 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0

W>

µq1 µq2

0 µqT Heiga Zen

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Dynamic

Static

Generated speech parameter trajectory

Mean

Heiga Zen

Variance

c

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HMM-based speech synthesis [4] SPEECH Speech signal DATABASE Excitation

parameter extraction Excitation parameters

TEXT

Text analysis Excitation parameters

Synthesis part Heiga Zen

Spectral parameter extraction Spectral parameters

Training HMMs

Labels

Labels

Training part

Context-dependent HMMs & state duration models Parameter generation from HMMs Spectral parameters

Excitation Excitation Synthesis generation Filter

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

SYNTHESIZED SPEECH

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Waveform reconstruction

Generated excitation parameter (log F0 with V/UV)

Generated spectral parameter (cepstrum, LSP)

pulse train e(n)

white noise

Heiga Zen

excitation

linear time-invariant system h(n)

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

synthesized speech x(n) = h(n) ∗ e(n)

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Synthesis filter

• Cepstrum → LMA filter

• Generalized cepstrum → GLSA filter • Mel-cepstrum → MLSA filter

• Mel-generalized cepstrum → MGLSA filter • LSP → LSP filter

• PARCOR → all-pole lattice filter • LPC → all-pole filter

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Any questions?

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Outline

Basics of HMM-based speech synthesis Background HMM-based speech synthesis Advanced topics in HMM-based speech synthesis Flexibility Improve naturalness Neural network-based speech synthesis Feed-forward neural network (DNN & DMDN) Recurrent neural network (RNN & LSTM-RNN) Results

Advantages

• Flexibility to change voice characteristics

• Small footprint • More data

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Adaptation (mimicking voice) [10]

Average-voice model

Training speakers

Adaptive Training

Adaptation Target speakers

• Train average voice model (AVM) from training speakers using SAT • Adapt AVM to target speakers

• Requires small data from target speaker/speaking style → Small cost to create new voices Heiga Zen

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Adaptation demo · Speaker adaptation - VIP voice: GWB - Child voice:

BHO

· Style adaptation (in Japanese) - Joyful - Sad - Rough

From http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jyamagis/Demo-html/demo.html Heiga Zen

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Interpolation (mixing voice) [11, 12, 13, 14] λ2 λ1 I(λ0 , λ2)

I(λ0 , λ1)

λ : HMM set

I(λ0 , λ ) : Interpolation ratio

λ0 I(λ0 , λ3) I(λ0 , λ4)

λ3

λ4

• Interpolate representive HMM sets

• Can obtain new voices w/o adaptation data

• Eigenvoice / CAT / multiple regression → estimate representative HMM sets from data Heiga Zen

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Interpolation demo (1) · Speaker interpolation (in Japanese) - Male & Female

Male

Female

· Style interpolation - Neutral → Angry - Neutral → Happy

From http://www.sp.nitech.ac.jp/ & http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jyamagis/Demo-html/demo.html Heiga Zen

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Interpolation demo (2) Speaker characteristics modification Weights for eigenvectors +30

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

Weights for eigenvectors +30

0

0

-30

-30 Weights for eigenvectors

+30

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

Weights for eigenvectors +30

0

0

-30

-30

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

From http://www.sp.nitech.ac.jp/~demo/synthesis_demo_2001/

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Interpolation demo (3) Style-control Rough

Sad

Joyful From http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/jyamagis/Demo-html/demo.html Heiga Zen

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Drawbacks

• Quality buzzy, muffled synthetic speech • Major factors for quality degradation [3] − Vocoder (speech analysis & synthesis) − Acoustic model (HMM) − Oversmoothing (parameter generation)

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Vocoding issues • Simple pulse / noise excitation Difficult to model mix of V/UV sounds (e.g., voiced fricatives) pulse train e(n)

white noise

excitation Unvoiced

Voiced

• Spectral envelope extraction Harmonic effect often cause problem Power [dB]

80 40

0 0

2

4

6

8 [kHz]

• Phase Important but usually ignored Heiga Zen

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Better vocoding

• Mixed excitation linear prediction (MELP)

• STRAIGHT

• Multi-band excitation

• Harmonic + noise model (HNM) • Harmonic / stochastic model • LF model

• Glottal waveform

• Residual codebook • ML excitation

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Heiga Zen

70

30 20 0

0

1

2 3 Frequency (kHz)

4

80 70 60 50 40 30 20

50 40 30 20

80

10 0

0

1 2 3 Frequency (kHz)

4

80 70

70 60 50 40 30 20 10

60

0

50 40

0

1 2 3 Frequency (kHz)

4

Mixed Excitation

30 20 10

10 0

⇓ Bandpass filtering ⇓

40

60

⇓ Mix ⇓

50

Log magnitude (dB)

60

Log magnitude (dB)

80

70

Log magnitude (dB)

Log magnitude (dB)

80

10

Log magnitude (dB)

Noise excitation

Pulse excitation

MELP-style mixed excitation [15]

0

1

2 3 Frequency (kHz)

4

0

0

1 2 3 Frequency (kHz)

4

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MELP-style mixed excitation [15]

Amplitude

12

-12

0

1144

2288

3432

4576

5720

6864

8008

9152

10296 sample

2288

3432

4576

5720

6864

8008

9152

10296 sample

z

u

Amplitude

12

-12

0

1144

s

Heiga Zen

U

k

o

sh

I

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

ts

u

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STRAIGHT [16]

Waveform

Synthetic waveform

F0 extraction

Synthesis

Fixed-point analysis Analysis F0 adaptive spectral smoothing in the time-frequency region

Heiga Zen

F0

Mixed excitation with phase manipulation

Smoothed spectrum Aperiodic factors

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STRAIGHT [16] 120

FFT power spectrum FFT + mel-cepstral analysis STRAIGHT + mel-cepstral analysis

100

Power [dB]

80 60 40 20 0 -20

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0

2

4

Frequency [kHz]

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

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Trainable excitation model [17] Sentence HMM Mel-cepstral coefficients

ct-2

ct-1

ct

c t+1

c t+2

log F0 values

pt-2

pt-1

pt

p t+1

p t+2

Filters

Hv (z), Hu (z)

Pulse train t(n) generator

White noise

Heiga Zen

w(n)

Hv (z)

Hu (z)

v(n) Voiced excitation

u(n)

e(n) Mixed excitation

H(z)

Synthesized speech

Unvoiced excitation

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ML excitation STRAIGHT Pulse/noise

Natural

Trainable excitation model [17]

0 0

0

0 0 0

0 0

Upper: Waveform

Heiga Zen

Lower: excitation (residual)

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Limitations of HMMs for acoustic modeling

• Piece-wise constatnt statistics Statistics do not vary within an HMM state • Conditional independence assumption State output probability depends only on the current state • Weak duration modeling State duration probability decreases exponentially with time None of them hold for real speech

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Better acoustic modeling

• Piece-wise constatnt statistics → Dynamical model − Trended HMM, autoregressive HMM (ARHMM) − Polynomial segment model, hidden trajectory model (HTM) − Trajectory HMM • Conditional independence assumption → Graphical model − Buried Markov model, ARHMM, linear dynamical model (LDM) − HTM, Gaussian process (GP) − Trajectory HMM • Weak duration modeling → Explicit duration model − Hidden semi-Markov model Heiga Zen

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Trajectory HMM [18] • Derived from HMM by imposing dynamic feature constraints

• Underlying generative model in HMM-based speech synthesis p(c | λ) =

X ∀q

p(c | q, λ)P (q | λ)

p(c | q, λ) = N (c; c¯q , Pq ) where Pq−1 = Rq = W > Σ−1 q W rq = W > Σ−1 q µq c¯q = Pq rq

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Trajectory HMM [18] mean trajectory c¯q

sil

a

i

d

a

sil sil

5 10

a

15

25 i

30 35

d

Time (frame)

20

40 45 a

50 55 sil

5

10

15

20

25 30 35 Time (frame)

40

45

50

55

Temporal covariance matrix Pq Heiga Zen

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Relation to HMM-based speech synthesis

• Mean vector of trajectory HMM ¯q = W > Σ−1 W > Σ−1 q Wc q µq • Speech parameter trajectory used in HMM-based speech synthesis > −1 W > Σ−1 q W c = W Σq µq

ML estimation of trajectory HMM → Make training & synthesis consistent

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Oversmoothing • Speech parameter generation algorithm

− Dynamic feature constraints make generated parameters smooth − Often too smooth → sounds muffled

0 4 8 Frequency (kHz)

Generated

4 8 Frequency (kHz)

Natural

0

• Why? − Details of spectral (formant) structure disappear − Use of better AM relaxes the issue, but not enough Heiga Zen

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Oversmoothing compensation

• Postfiltering

− Mel-cepstrum − LSP

• Nonparametric approach − Conditional parameter generation − Discrete HMM-based speech synthesis • Combine multiple-level statistics − Global variance (intra-utterance variance) − Modulation spectrum (intra-utterance frequency components)

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Global variance [19]

Generated

1

0 v(m)

2nd mel-cepstral coefficient

Natural

-1 0

1

2

3

Time [sec]

GVs of synthesized speech are typically narrower Heiga Zen

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Speech parameter generation with GV [19]

• Speech parameter generation cˆ = arg maxc log N (W c; µq , Σq ) • Speech parameter generation w/ GV cˆ = arg maxc log N (W c; µq , Σq ) + ω log N (v(c); µv , Σv ) 2nd term works as a penalty for oversmoothing

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Effect of GV

4 8 Frequency (kHz)

Generated (standard)

0 0 4 8 Frequency (kHz)

Generated (w/ GV)

4 8 Frequency (kHz)

Natural

0

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Any questions?

Heiga Zen

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Outline

Basics of HMM-based speech synthesis Background HMM-based speech synthesis Advanced topics in HMM-based speech synthesis Flexibility Improve naturalness Neural network-based speech synthesis Feed-forward neural network (DNN & DMDN) Recurrent neural network (RNN & LSTM-RNN) Results

Characteristics of SPSS • Advantages − Flexibility to change voice characteristics ◦ Adaptation ◦ Interpolation / eigenvoice / CAT / multiple regression − Small footprint − Robustness • Drawback − Quality • Major factors for quality degradation [3] − Vocoder (speech analysis & synthesis) − Acoustic model (HMM) → Neural networks − Oversmoothing (parameter generation) Heiga Zen

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Linguistic → acoustic mapping • Training Learn relationship between linguistic & acoustic features

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Linguistic → acoustic mapping • Training Learn relationship between linguistic & acoustic features • Synthesis Map linguistic features to acoustic ones

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Linguistic → acoustic mapping • Training Learn relationship between linguistic & acoustic features • Synthesis Map linguistic features to acoustic ones • Linguistic features used in SPSS − Phoneme, syllable, word, phrase, utterance-level features − e.g., phone identity, POS, stress, # of words in a phrase − Around 50 different types, much more than ASR (typically 3–5) Effective modeling is essential

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HMM-based acoustic modeling for SPSS [4]

Acoustic space yes yes yes

no no

no yes

...

no yes

no

Decision tree-clustered HMM w/ GMM state-output distributions

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NN-based acoustic modeling for SPSS [20] Acoustic features y

h3 h2 h1

Linguistic features x

NN output → E [yt | xt ] → replace decision trees & GMMs Heiga Zen

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Advantages of NN-based acoustic modeling for SPSS

• Integrating feature extraction − Efficiently model high-dimensional, highly correlated features − Layered architecture w/ non-linear operations → Integrated linguistic feature extraction to acoustic modeling

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Advantages of NN-based acoustic modeling for SPSS

• Integrating feature extraction − Efficiently model high-dimensional, highly correlated features − Layered architecture w/ non-linear operations → Integrated linguistic feature extraction to acoustic modeling • Distributed representation More efficient than localist one if data has componential structure → Better modeling / Fewer parameters

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Advantages of NN-based acoustic modeling for SPSS

• Integrating feature extraction − Efficiently model high-dimensional, highly correlated features − Layered architecture w/ non-linear operations → Integrated linguistic feature extraction to acoustic modeling • Distributed representation More efficient than localist one if data has componential structure → Better modeling / Fewer parameters • Layered hierarchical structure in speech production concept → linguistic → articulatory → vocal tract → waveform

Heiga Zen

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Framework Binary features

Duration prediction

Input features including binary & numeric features at frame T

...

Waveform synthesis

Spectral features

Output layer

...

SPEECH

Heiga Zen

...

...

...

Duration feature Frame position feature

Hidden layers

TEXT

Statistics (mean & var) of speech parameter vector sequence

Numeric features

Text analysis

Input features including binary & numeric features at frame 1

Input layer

Input feature extraction

Excitation features V/UV feature

Parameter generation

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Framework

Is this new? . . . no • NN [21]

• RNN [22]

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Framework

Is this new? . . . no • NN [21]

• RNN [22] What’s the difference? • More layers, data, computational resources • Better learning algorithm

• Statistical parametric speech synthesis techniques

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Experimental setup Database Training / test data Sampling rate Analysis window Linguistic features Acoustic features HMM topology DNN architecture Postprocessing

Heiga Zen

US English female speaker 33000 & 173 sentences 16 kHz 25-ms width / 5-ms shift 11 categorical features 25 numeric features 0–39 mel-cepstrum log F0 , 5-band aperiodicity, ∆, ∆2 5-state, left-to-right HSMM [23], MSD F0 [24], MDL [25] 1–5 layers, 256/512/1024/2048 units/layer sigmoid, continuous F0 [26] Postfiltering in cepstrum domain [15]

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Example of speech parameter trajectories

5-th Mel-cepstrum

w/o grouping questions, numeric contexts, silence frames removed

Natural speech HMM (α=1) DNN (4x512)

1

0

-1 0

100

200

300

400

500

Frame

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Subjective evaluations Compared HMM-based systems with DNN-based ones with similar # of parameters • Paired comparison test

• 173 test sentences, 5 subjects per pair • Up to 30 pairs per subject • Crowd-sourced HMM (α) 15.8 (16) 16.1 (4) 12.7 (1)

Heiga Zen

DNN (#layers × #units) 38.5 (4 × 256) 27.2 (4 × 512) 36.6 (4 × 1 024)

Neutral 45.7 56.8 50.7

p value < 10−6 < 10−6 < 10−6

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

z value -9.9 -5.1 -11.5

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Limitations of DNN-based acoustic modeling y2 Data samples NN prediction

y1

• Unimodality − Human can speak in different ways → one-to-many mapping − NN trained by MSE loss → approximates conditional mean

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Limitations of DNN-based acoustic modeling y2 Data samples NN prediction

y1

• Unimodality − Human can speak in different ways → one-to-many mapping − NN trained by MSE loss → approximates conditional mean • Lack of variance − DNN-based SPSS uses variances computed from all training data − Parameter generation algorithm utilizes variances Heiga Zen

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Limitations of DNN-based acoustic modeling y2 Data samples NN prediction

y1

• Unimodality − Human can speak in different ways → one-to-many mapping − NN trained by MSE loss → approximates conditional mean • Lack of variance − DNN-based SPSS uses variances computed from all training data − Parameter generation algorithm utilizes variances Linear output layer → Mixture density output layer [27]

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Mixture density network [27] w2 (x1 ) w1 (x1 )

σ2 (x1 )

σ1 (x1 ) µ1 (x1 )

µ2 (x1 )

y

w1 (x1 ) w2 (x1 ) µ1 (x1 ) µ2 (x1 )σ1 (x1 ) σ2 (x1 )

Inputs of activation function 4 X zj = hi wij i=1

: Weights → Softmax activation function w1 (x) = P2

exp(z1 )

m=1 exp(zm )

w2 (x) = P2

exp(z2 )

m=1

exp(zm )

: Means → Linear activation function

1-dim, 2-mix MDN

µ1 (x) = z3

µ1 (x) = z4

: Variances → Exponential activation function σ1 (x) = exp(z5 )

σ2 (x) = exp(z6 )

NN + mixture model (GMM) → NN outputs GMM weights, means, & variances

Heiga Zen

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TEXT

DMDN-based SPSS [28]

w2 (x1 ) w1 (x1 )

σ2 (x1 )

µ1 (x1 )

µ2 (x1 )

σ1 (x2 )

y

...

σ2 (x2 )

µ1 (x2 )

µ2 (x2 )

σ1 (xT )

y

µ1 (xT )

w1 (x1 ) w2 (x1 ) µ1 (x1 ) µ2 (x1 ) σ1 (x1 ) σ2 (x1 ) w1 (x2 ) w2 (x2 ) µ1 (x2 ) µ2 (x2 ) σ1 (x2 ) σ2 (x2 )

w2 (xT ) σ2 (xT ) µ2 (xT )

y

Duration prediction

x1

x2

...

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

xT

July 9th, 2015

SPEECH

Heiga Zen

Waveform synthesis

Input feature extraction

w1 (xT ) w2 (xT ) µ1 (xT ) µ2 (xT ) σ1(xT ) σ2 (xT )

Parameter generation

Text analysis

σ1 (x1 )

w1 (xT )

w1 (x2 ) w2 (x2 )

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Experimental setup

• Almost the same as the previous setup

• Differences:

DNN architecture DMDN architecture

Optimization

Heiga Zen

4–7 hidden layers, 1024 units/hidden layer ReLU (hidden) / Linear (output) 4 hidden layers, 1024 units/ hidden layer ReLU [29] (hidden) / Mixture density (output) 1–16 mix AdaDec [30] (variant of AdaGrad [31]) on GPU

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Subjective evaluation • 5-scale mean opinion score (MOS) test (1: unnatural – 5: natural)

• 173 test sentences, 5 subjects per pair • Up to 30 pairs per subject • Crowd-sourced

HMM DNN

DMDN (4×1024)

Heiga Zen

1 mix 2 mix 4×1024 5×1024 6×1024 7×1024 1 mix 2 mix 4 mix 8 mix 16 mix

3.537 3.397 3.635 3.681 3.652 3.637 3.654 3.796 3.766 3.805 3.791

± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±

0.113 0.115 0.127 0.109 0.108 0.129 0.117 0.107 0.113 0.113 0.102

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Limitations of DNN/MDN-based acoustic modeling Fixed time span for input features • Fixed number of preceding / succeeding contexts

• Difficult to incorporate long time span contextual effect

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Limitations of DNN/MDN-based acoustic modeling Fixed time span for input features • Fixed number of preceding / succeeding contexts

• Difficult to incorporate long time span contextual effect

Frame-by-frame mapping • Each frame is mapped independently • Smoothing is still essential

DNN w/ dyn 67.8

Heiga Zen

Preference score (%) DNN w/o dyn No pref 12.0

20.0

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Limitations of DNN/MDN-based acoustic modeling Fixed time span for input features • Fixed number of preceding / succeeding contexts

• Difficult to incorporate long time span contextual effect

Frame-by-frame mapping • Each frame is mapped independently • Smoothing is still essential

DNN w/ dyn 67.8

Preference score (%) DNN w/o dyn No pref 12.0

20.0

Recurrent connections → Recurrent NN (RNN) [32]

Heiga Zen

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Simple Recurrent Network (SRN) Output y

y t-1

yt

y t+1

Input x

xt-1

xt

xt+1

Recurrent connections

SRN-based acoustic modeling ht = f (Whx xt + Whh ht−1 + bh ) ,

Heiga Zen

yt = φ (Wyh ht + by )

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Simple Recurrent Network (SRN) Output y

y t-1

yt

y t+1

Input x

xt-1

xt

xt+1

Recurrent connections

SRN-based acoustic modeling ht = f (Whx xt + Whh ht−1 + bh ) ,

yt = φ (Wyh ht + by )

With squared loss. . . • DNN output (prediction) yˆt → E [yt | xt ]

• RNN output (prediction) yˆt → E [yt | x1 , . . . , xt ]

Heiga Zen

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Simple Recurrent Network (SRN) Output y

y t-1

yt

y t+1

Input x

xt-1

xt

xt+1

Recurrent connections

• Only able to use previous contexts → bidirectional RNN [32]

Heiga Zen

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Simple Recurrent Network (SRN) Output y

y t-1

yt

y t+1

Input x

xt-1

xt

xt+1

Recurrent connections

• Only able to use previous contexts → bidirectional RNN [32] • Trouble accessing long-range contexts − Information in hidden layers loops through recurrent connections → Quickly decay over time − Prone to being overwritten by new information arriving from inputs → long short-term memory (LSTM) RNN [34]

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Long short-term memory (LSTM) [34] • RNN architecture designed to have better memory • Uses linear memory cells surrounded by multiplicative gate units bi

Input gate

h t-

bo

sigm

Output gate

it

bc xt

xt

xt

h t-

Input gate: Write

sigm

Output gate: Read

Memory cell

ct

tanh

tanh

ht

Forget gate: Reset

h t-

sigm

Block

bf Heiga Zen

xt

Forget gate

h t-

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Advantages of RNN-based acoustic modeling for SPSS

• Model dependency between frames − HMM: discontinuous (step-wise) → smoothing − DNN: discontinuous (frame-by-frame mapping) [35] → smoothing − RNN: smooth [36, 35]

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Advantages of RNN-based acoustic modeling for SPSS

• Model dependency between frames − HMM: discontinuous (step-wise) → smoothing − DNN: discontinuous (frame-by-frame mapping) [35] → smoothing − RNN: smooth [36, 35] • Low latency − Unidirectional structure allows fully frame-level streaming [35]

Heiga Zen

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Advantages of RNN-based acoustic modeling for SPSS

• Model dependency between frames − HMM: discontinuous (step-wise) → smoothing − DNN: discontinuous (frame-by-frame mapping) [35] → smoothing − RNN: smooth [36, 35] • Low latency − Unidirectional structure allows fully frame-level streaming [35] • More efficient representation − RNN offers more efficient representation than DNN for time series

Heiga Zen

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Synthesis pipeline

Duration prediction

Linguistic feature extraction

Acoustic feature prediction

Text analysis

Vocoder synthesis

TEXT

SPEECH

Duration & acoustic feature prediction blocks involve NN

Heiga Zen

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Duration modeling

Acoustic features Alignments Durations (targets)

9

12

10

10

Duration prediction LSTM

phoneme syllable

h

e

l

h e2

⇒

⇒

⇒

Feature functions

⇒

Linguistic features (phoneme)

ou l ou1

hello

word

Linguistic Structure

Feature function examples phoneme == ’h’ ? syllable stress == ’2’ ? Heiga Zen

# of syllables in word?

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Acoustic modeling Acoustic features (targets)

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

phoneme syllable

h

e

l

h e2

word

⇒ ⇒

⇒ ⇒

Feature functions

⇒ ⇒

Append frame-level features Linguistic features (phoneme)

⇒ ⇒

Linguistic features (input)

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Append frame-level features Relative position of frame in phoneme Heiga Zen

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Streaming synthesis

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

Duration prediction LSTM

phoneme syllable word

h

e

l

h e2

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Heiga Zen

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Streaming synthesis

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

Duration prediction LSTM

Feature functions phoneme syllable word

⇒

Linguistic features (phoneme)

h

e

l

h e2

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Heiga Zen

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Streaming synthesis

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

Durations (targets)

9

Duration prediction LSTM

Feature functions phoneme syllable word

⇒

Linguistic features (phoneme)

h

e

l

h e2

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Heiga Zen

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Streaming synthesis

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

Linguistic features (frame)

Durations (targets)

9

Duration prediction LSTM

Feature functions phoneme syllable word

⇒

Linguistic features (phoneme)

h

e

l

h e2

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Heiga Zen

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Streaming synthesis

Acoustic features (targets)

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

Linguistic features (frame)

Durations (targets)

9

Duration prediction LSTM

Feature functions phoneme syllable word

⇒

Linguistic features (phoneme)

h

e

l

h e2

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Heiga Zen

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Streaming synthesis Waveform

Acoustic features (targets)

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

Linguistic features (frame)

Durations (targets)

9

Duration prediction LSTM

Feature functions phoneme syllable word

⇒

Linguistic features (phoneme)

h

e

l

h e2

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Heiga Zen

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Streaming synthesis Waveform

Acoustic features (targets)

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

Linguistic features (frame)

Durations (targets)

9

Duration prediction LSTM

Feature functions phoneme syllable word

⇒

Linguistic features (phoneme)

h

e

l

h e2

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Heiga Zen

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Streaming synthesis Waveform

Acoustic features (targets)

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

Linguistic features (frame)

Durations (targets)

9

Duration prediction LSTM

Feature functions phoneme syllable word

⇒

Linguistic features (phoneme)

h

e

l

h e2

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Heiga Zen

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Streaming synthesis Waveform

Acoustic features (targets)

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

Linguistic features (frame)

Durations (targets)

9

Duration prediction LSTM

Feature functions phoneme syllable word

⇒

Linguistic features (phoneme)

h

e

l

h e2

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Heiga Zen

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Streaming synthesis Waveform

Acoustic features (targets)

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

Linguistic features (frame)

Durations (targets)

9

12

Duration prediction LSTM

phoneme syllable word

h

⇒

Feature functions

⇒

Linguistic features (phoneme)

e

l

h e2

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Heiga Zen

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Streaming synthesis Waveform

Acoustic features (targets)

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

Linguistic features (frame)

Durations (targets)

9

12

10

Duration prediction LSTM

phoneme syllable word

h

⇒

⇒

Feature functions

⇒

Linguistic features (phoneme)

e

l

h e2

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Heiga Zen

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Streaming synthesis Waveform

Acoustic features (targets)

Acoustic feature prediction LSTM

Linguistic features (frame)

Durations (targets)

9

12

10

10

Duration prediction LSTM

phoneme syllable word

h

e

l

h e2

⇒

⇒

⇒

Feature functions

⇒

Linguistic features (phoneme)

ou l ou1

hello Linguistic Structure

Heiga Zen

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Data & speech analysis

Heiga Zen

Database

US English female speaker 34 632 utterances

Speech analysis

16 kHz sampling 25-ms width / 5-ms shift

Synthesis

Vocaine [?] Postfiltering-based enhancement

Input

DNN: 442 linguistic features ULSTM: 291 linguistic features

Target

0–39 mel-cepstrum features continuous log F0 [26] 5-band aperiodicity optionally ∆, ∆2

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Training

Heiga Zen

Preprocessing

Acoustic: removed 80% silence Duration: removed first/last silence

Normalization

Input: mean / standard deviations Output: 0.01 – 0.99

Architecture

DNN: 4 × 1024 units, ReLU [29] ULSTM: 1 × 256 cells

Output layer

Acoustic: feed-forward or recurrent Duration: feed-forward

Initialization

DNN: random + layer-wise BP [?] ULSTM: random

Optimization

Common: squared loss, SGD DNN: GPU, AdaDec [?] ULSTM: distributed CPU [?]

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Subjective tests

Common

MOS

Preference

Heiga Zen

100 sentences Crowd-sourcing Using head-phones 7 evaluations per sample Up to 30 stimuli per subject 5-scale score in naturalness (1: Bad – 5: Excellent) 5 evaluations per pair Up to 30 pairs per subject Chose prefered one or “neutral”

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# of future contexts

# of future contexts 0 1 2 3 4

Heiga Zen

5-scale MOS 3.571 3.751 3.812 3.779 3.753

± ± ± ± ±

Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis: From HMM to LSTM-RNN

0.121 0.119 0.115 0.118 0.115

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Preference scores

DNN Feed-forward w/

w/o

67.8 18.4

12.0

ULSTM Feed-forward w/ 34.9 21.0 21.8

w/o

Recurrent w/

Heiga Zen

w/o

12.2 16.6

Neutral

21.0 29.2

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20.0 47.6 66.8 57.2 54.2

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MOS

• DNN w/ dynamic features

• ULSTM w/o dynamic features, w/ recurrent output layer

Heiga Zen

Model

# params

5-scale MOS

DNN ULSTM

3,747,979 476,435

3.370 ± 0.114 3.723 ± 0.105

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Latency • Nexus 7 2013

• Use Advanced SIMD (NEON), single thread • Audio buffer size: 1024

• HMM one used time-recursive version w/ L = 15

• HMM & ULSTM used the same text analysis front-end Average latency (ms)

chars short long

Heiga Zen

HMM

ULSTM

26 123 311

25 55 115

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Summary Statistical parametric speech synthesis • Vocoding + acoustic model • HMM-based SPSS − Flexible (e.g., adaptation, interpolation) − Improvements ◦ Vocoding ◦ Acoustic modeling ◦ Oversmoothing compensation • NN-based SPSS − Learn mapping from linguistic features to acoustic ones − Static network (DNN, DMDN) → dynamic ones (LSTM) Heiga Zen

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Google academic program • Award programs − Google Faculty Research Awards Provides unrestricted gifts to support fulltime faculty members − Google Focused Research Awards Fund specific key research areas − Visiting Faculty Program Support full-time faculty in research areas of mutual interest • Student support programs − Graduate Fellowships Recognize outstanding graduate students − Internships Work on real-world problems with Google’s data & infrastructure

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References I [1]

E. Moulines and F. Charpentier. Pitch synchronous waveform processing techniques for text-to-speech synthesis using diphones. Speech Commun., 9:453–467, 1990.

[2]

A. Hunt and A. Black. Unit selection in a concatenative speech synthesis system using a large speech database. In Proc. ICASSP, pages 373–376, 1996.

[3]

H. Zen, K. Tokuda, and A. Black. Statistical parametric speech synthesis. Speech Commun., 51(11):1039–1064, 2009.

[4]

T. Yoshimura, K. Tokuda, T. Masuko, T. Kobayashi, and T. Kitamura. Simultaneous modeling of spectrum, pitch and duration in HMM-based speech synthesis. In Proc. Eurospeech, pages 2347–2350, 1999.

[5]

F. Itakura and S. Saito. A statistical method for estimation of speech spectral density and formant frequencies. Trans. IEICE, J53–A:35–42, 1970.

[6]

S. Imai. Cepstral analysis synthesis on the mel frequency scale. In Proc. ICASSP, pages 93–96, 1983.

[7]

J. Odell. The use of context in large vocabulary speech recognition. PhD thesis, Cambridge University, 1995.

[8]

T. Yoshimura, K. Tokuda, T. Masuko, T. Kobayashi, and T. Kitamura. Duration modeling for HMM-based speech synthesis. In Proc. ICSLP, pages 29–32, 1998.

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References II [9]

K. Tokuda, T. Yoshimura, T. Masuko, T. Kobayashi, and T. Kitamura. Speech parameter generation algorithms for HMM-based speech synthesis. In Proc. ICASSP, pages 1315–1318, 2000.

[10] J. Yamagishi. Average-Voice-Based Speech Synthesis. PhD thesis, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2006. [11] T. Yoshimura, K. Tokuda, T. Masuko, T. Kobayashi, and T. Kitamura. Speaker interpolation in HMM-based speech synthesis system. In Proc. Eurospeech, pages 2523–2526, 1997. [12] K. Shichiri, A. Sawabe, K. Tokuda, T. Masuko, T. Kobayashi, and T. Kitamura. Eigenvoices for HMM-based speech synthesis. In Proc. ICSLP, pages 1269–1272, 2002. [13] H. Zen, N. Braunschweiler, S. Buchholz, M. Gales, K. Knill, S. Krstulovic, and J. Latorre. Statistical parametric speech synthesis based on speaker and language factorization. IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Lang. Process., 20(6):1713–1724, 2012. [14] T. Nose, J. Yamagishi, T. Masuko, and T. Kobayashi. A style control technique for HMM-based expressive speech synthesis. IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst., E90-D(9):1406–1413, 2007. [15] T. Yoshimura, K. Tokuda, T. Masuko, T. Kobayashi, and T. Kitamura. Incorporation of mixed excitation model and postfilter into HMM-based text-to-speech synthesis. IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst., J87-D-II(8):1563–1571, 2004. [16] H. Kawahara, I. Masuda-Katsuse, and A.de Cheveign´ e. Restructuring speech representations using a pitch-adaptive time-frequency smoothing and an instantaneous-frequency-based f0 extraction: possible role of a repetitive structure in sounds. Speech Commun., 27:187–207, 1999.

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References III [17] R. Maia, T. Toda, H. Zen, Y. Nankaku, and K. Tokuda. An excitation model for HMM-based speech synthesis based on residual modeling. In Proc. ISCA SSW6, pages 131–136, 2007. [18] H. Zen, K. Tokuda, and T. Kitamura. Reformulating the HMM as a trajectory model by imposing explicit relationships between static and dynamic features. Comput. Speech Lang., 21(1):153–173, 2007. [19] T. Toda and K. Tokuda. A speech parameter generation algorithm considering global variance for HMM-based speech synthesis. IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst., E90-D(5):816–824, 2007. [20] H. Zen, A. Senior, and M. Schuster. Statistical parametric speech synthesis using deep neural networks. In Proc. ICASSP, pages 7962–7966, 2013. [21] O. Karaali, G. Corrigan, and I. Gerson. Speech synthesis with neural networks. In Proc. World Congress on Neural Networks, pages 45–50, 1996. [22] C. Tuerk and T. Robinson. Speech synthesis using artificial network trained on cepstral coefficients. In Proc. Eurospeech, pages 1713–1716, 1993. [23] H. Zen, K. Tokuda, T. Masuko, T. Kobayashi, and T. Kitamura. A hidden semi-Markov model-based speech synthesis system. IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst., E90-D(5):825–834, 2007. [24] K. Tokuda, T. Masuko, N. Miyazaki, and T. Kobayashi. Multi-space probability distribution HMM. IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst., E85-D(3):455–464, 2002.

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References IV [25] K. Shinoda and T. Watanabe. Acoustic modeling based on the MDL criterion for speech recognition. In Proc. Eurospeech, pages 99–102, 1997. [26] K. Yu and S. Young. Continuous F0 modelling for HMM based statistical parametric speech synthesis. IEEE Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process., 19(5):1071–1079, 2011. [27] C. Bishop. Mixture density networks. Technical Report NCRG/94/004, Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, 1994. [28] H. Zen and A. Senior. Deep mixture density networks for acoustic modeling in statistical parametric speech synthesis. In Proc. ICASSP, pages 3872–3876, 2014. [29] M. Zeiler, M. Ranzato, R. Monga, M. Mao, K. Yang, Q.-V. Le, P. Nguyen, A. Senior, V. Vanhoucke, J. Dean, and G. Hinton. On rectified linear units for speech processing. In Proc. ICASSP, pages 3517–3521, 2013. [30] A. Senior, G. Heigold, M. Ranzato, and K. Yang. An empirical study of learning rates in deep neural networks for speech recognition. In Proc. ICASSP, pages 6724–6728, 2013. [31] J. Duchi, E. Hazan, and Y. Singer. Adaptive subgradient methods for online learning and stochastic optimization. The Journal of Machine Learning Research, pages 2121–2159, 2011. [32] M. Schuster and K. Paliwal. Bidirectional recurrent neural networks. IEEE Trans. Signal Process., 45(11):2673–2681, 1997.

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References V

[33] S. Hochreiter, Y. Bengio, P. Frasconi, and J. Schmidhuber. Gradient flow in recurrent nets: the difficulty of learning long-term dependencies. In S. Kremer and J. Kolen, editors, A field guide to dynamical recurrent neural networks. IEEE Press, 2001. [34] S. Hochreiter and J. Schmidhuber. Long short-term memory. Neural computation, 9(8):1735–1780, 1997. [35] H. Zen and H. Sak. Unidirectional long short-term memory recurrent neural network with recurrent output layer for low-latency speech synthesis. In Proc. ICASSP, pages 4470–4474, 2015. [36] Y. Fan, Y. Qian, F. Xie, and F. Soong. TTS synthesis with bidirectional LSTM based recurrent neural networks. In Proc. Interspeech, 2014. (Submitted) http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/projects/dnntts/.

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