WSC

WSK

BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES

Professor Dr. Katalin Koncz Women's Studies Centre at the Corvinus University of Budapest H-1093 Budapest, Fõvám tér 8. Tel/fax:(36)1-2186-855/5177 ext., 2171 936 e-mail: [email protected] ==============================================================================

Gross Domestic Product vs. Quality of Life: Balancing Work and Family Bellagio (Italy) 29 January - 2 February

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Social barriers for employed women: combining paid work with household duties

Budapest, 2001 January

In consequence of historical-social division of labour the social position of women can be characterised by numerous disadvantages appearing in social sphere and family life alike as: - a gender imbalance in care work: the majority of unpaid work within the framework of family is provided by women, independently if a woman has paid work or not, - the majority of workers in the formal care sector are women and this feminised sector offers disadvantageous conditions (poor salaries, limited promotion, low prestige etc.) - the employment of women calls forth a double burden, - the labour market position of women is worse than that of men.

After the world war two, the employment of women has increased everywhere in the world, more and more women aspire to combine motherhood with paid employment.

The traditional division of labour within family (which means that

family care is mainly provided by women) the extension of female employment requires a growing importance of reconciliation between paid work and family work. The widespread employment of women and the extended social-family "help" for reconciling the double role are important conditions in achieving real equality between women and men.

1. Employment of women in Hungary before and after the regime change

During the state-socialism economic and social policy had been aimed at realising full employment, which was achieved in a historically short period. In 1980, 75.2 % of female labour force, 86,5 % of that of male were employed, or associated with cooperatives (Table 11.). The number of active earner women has been growing continuously until 1986. The expansion of female employment was forced from the supply and from the demand side either. The low level of incomes compelled active1

See the tables in Annex. 2

aged population and pensioners to finding job, which was the precondition of their entitlement for welfare, too. Due to these conditions the dual-earner family model became general in a short period in Hungary and in the other East and Central European countries. From the other side, the unrestricted demand for sources - derived from the interest of employers insensitive to running costs (soft limit of budget/costs Kornai, 1980), manifested itself in overstaffing and keeping productivity low. The two-sided economic process led to a maximised allocation of available human resources leaving no room for alternative forms of employment. These resulted a maximum in women`s economic activity in 1989 (78.5 %)2.

The most important social conditions of large female employment (schooling, children`s institutions) have been created in the past decades, and some social policy measures have contributed to the improvement of the labour market position of women. Despite the results, the labour market position of women was worse than that of men.

After the regime change the labour market has been undergoing dramatic changes, the employment conditions of women have become unfavourable. The level of employment has fallen and the level of unemployment has risen since 1989. Since 1986 the number of active earners until 1997 dropped by 1 281 thousands, 52 % of the reduction concerned women. Women represented 45,4 % in employment in 1999 (CSO, 2000:81). A substantial decline in female employment has been followed both of active-age women and those over the retirement age. At the beginning of transformation (1989) 78.1 % of women were active earners. This figure fell to 64.0 % by 1995, after the bottom in 1997 (60.9 %) has begun to increase (62.4 % in 1999 Table 1). The employment status of children`s parents worsened. The proportion of children living in two-parent family model in which both parents were working, fell 2

According to the statistical register used until 1998 (it means that persons on child care leave were included) the economic activity of women in 1989 was 85.8 exceeded men`s activity rate (84.7 %) which was unprecedented even by international comparison. 3

from 48,0 % to 38,3 % over 1992-1997; in which only father works increased from 26,4 % to 32, 4 % (Table 2).

The large unemployment was an unknown phenomenon in Hungary in the past four decades. It began parallel with the transformation of economy, in 1990 January the number of unemployed was unimportant, than it grew continuously until 1994 (12.5 % of women and 15.2 % of men - CSO, 1998:28), when the trend tend to be change. There was a large increase in the proportion of children in work-less households from 7.3 % in 1992 to 10.6 % in 1997 (Table 2). The high unemployment is not the only one reason concerning this tendency. It includes some measures aimed to encourage labour force outflow from the labour market of work since the transformation. For instance there have emerged early retirement, mothers raising over three children could stay at home with a modest income, the child care allowance had a role to protect women from unemployment, an increasing number of young people staying longer in educational system contributed to the decrease. After the regime change the number of dependent women living from social support or from the income of other family members has doubled.

The tensions of female employment in transitional countries derive from the lack of possibility for choices between different life strategy because of financial reasons and disadvantageous labour market situation. There is impossible or difficult - to integrate into the labour market for a longer or shorter time - to re-integrate into the labour market after interruption of paid work - to stay at home for a longer or shorter time.

Special tension fall to the lot of employed women deriving from the inadequate conditions for reconciling their double role, which means - the absence of flexible forms of paid work - deficiencies of institutional care facilities 4

- lack of services and their high prices - the traditional division of labour within family.

2. Reconciling paid work with family life

As women play a special role in reproduction and, for this reason, the extension of female employment doubles their social role. To enable them to fill both these roles, society and family must create conditions that permit them to be reconciled: a) flexible job system b) child-care institutions and old-care system c) mechanisation of households d) services to facilitate housework and e) democratisation of the division of labour within family.

In Hungary neither the socially organised nor the household sphere adjusted entirely to the extended female employment. Even today workplaces operate as though there were an "invisible infra-structural household hinterland" which is fulfilling its complementary functions in an unchanged way. Organisations have not adjusted to the possibilities and requirements of the two wage-earner family model, they are based on possibilities of male labour working full time, with complete energy subordinated to the requirements of the social sphere. The opening hours of service sphere are not adjusted to demand either, but to an uniform scheme with an eight hour workday, the high prices prevent the demand of family.

Hungary provides an inadequate system of supports for women trying to fulfil their double social role. The economic need to work full-time ties down women at the workbench or desk for more than eight hours a day. Other unfavourable conditions for reconciling the two roles of women include - the lack of choice between paid work and domestic work -; lack of flexible employment for women with small children; 5

insufficient services with high prices. Although the mechanisation of household has greatly increased during past decades, the recent decline in living standards has meant that people have more difficulty replacing outdated appliances. Despite the fact that the need for care have increased because of demographic and economic situation, the institutional conditions for reconciling paid employment and family life have worsened after the regime change in Hungary and in the other "transitional countries".

Under unfavourable circumstances like this neither sphere could fully satisfy the demands made upon it. The most important consequences have been that with the increased tension involved in reconciliation the dual task, the socially organised sphere is not sufficiently efficient, the harmony of family relations is not satisfactory, numerous social functions are unsolved, and socialisation disturbances are increasing. Women carry too great burden to fulfil their double role. Considering the time they spend to homework and paid work, many women work 10 to 12 hours daily. The two roles - either of which could require full-time work - can be accomplished only at the expense of their free time and by neglecting the role they could play outside home, result the overburdening of women and their limited promotion and restricted career aspiration.

2.1. Inflexible forms of female employment

In Hungary the employment of women (and men) is inflexible. The full time employment dominates, the part time employment is neglected, and the other unusual forms of employment (e. g. job-sharing) are limited. One of the most significant differences in employment characteristics in comparison with countries of the European Union is the low proportion of part-time workers. Part-timers among working age active earners have always been marginal. In the 80`s when the shortage in labour was extended the number of part-timers were the highest, their proportion was under 3 %. The majority of part-time workers were pensioners, the proportion of 6

all part-timers (including that of pensioners) were less than 9 % in percentage of all active earners (Koncz, 1984). While in the European Union nearly one third of women work in part-time in Hungary 7.6 % of active earners women worked below 35 hours a week in 1996 (Frey, 1997:15).

According to a study carried out on the motivation of employees and employers concerning part-time jobs, there are not barriers nor in legislation, nor from the demand side nor from the supply side in Hungary against part-time employment (FreyGere, 1994)3. The results of the survey pointed out that both the employers and the employees emphasised the importance of part-time jobs. The causes of the gap between the intention and the reality can be only explained by the real attitudes of respondents pointed out in a research made in France in the early eighties. The decision of employers is influenced in Hungary by the high labour supply, they can satisfy their demand by cheap and easily attainable labour in the market. Part-time jobs require some co-ordination and administration from which employers are reluctant. The low level of incomes influence for the attitude of women towards part-time jobs. Because of the high inflation rate4 and the low real wages the full salary of women is needed for living even in a low level of standards. In some households women are the sole active-earner, because of the high unemployment rate of men especially in some region of Hungary. Because of these facts women do not choose part-time job only if they have not other possibilities (compulsory part-time employees). The flexibility of workplaces should be solved in the near future in Hungary for create a better conditions of combining work with household duties.

According to a study concerning the development of women entrepreneurs (Gere, 19975), entrepreneur-ship offer a possibility for reconciling work with family life. 3

Nowadays the monthly health contribution (3900 HUF) prevent the part-time employment. From it decreased until 2000 when it has increased again. 5 Gere Ilona presented the study on a course organised for female entrepreneurs by WSC (Bdapest University of Economic Sciences), 20-21 November 1997. 4

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The companies set up by women meet the aims of combining professional life and family more easily. Women are a minority among entrepreneurs6. According to my estimation among the 734 thousands SMEs 38% are run by women. They concern mainly the service sector.

2.2. Public support for child-rearing and old-caring

The most important condition of female employment is support for child rearing. I forms could be: - time of work, - care services and - monetary benefits, tax reduction7.

Before the transition a generous family support programmes were abailable in Hungary. Public expenditure on family programs in 1989 as percent of GDP was higher than in Sweden (Table 3). During the regime change the social function of the state has been narrowing, the sum - relative to the GDP -, the real value of public expenditure and family allowances has decreased (Tables 5, 6, 7)

The family allowance is replaced by schooling subsidy on equal financial conditions when the child becomes of school age. Family has to fulfil the requirement of schooling enrolment. The sum depends on - the type of family - the number of children - the health condition of children (Table 4). The value of family allowance in percentage of GDP have fallen from % (1990) to % (1999) and in percent of average wage from 16.1 % (1990) to 7.7 % (1997) (Table 6, 6

There is not reliable and up-date statistics on female entrepreneurs in Hungary and some statistics contradict each other. 7 See in details in the Annex. 8

7). Its real value fall to 35 % in case of one child, to 42 % that of two children and 42 % tat of three and more (Table 5) in 2000 in comparing with 1990 - in the beginning of the transition.

Mothers are entitled 24 weeks on maternity leave with full salary. After this period in according with a system introduced in 19858 women had take advantage of wageadjusted child-care allowance (child-care fee) (65 and 75 per cent of salary) if they stay at home with child/ren. The recent government are introducing the system again. Following the child`s second birthday women can draw a flat-rate child-care allowance (child-care benefit) - introduced in 1967 - which varied with the number of children. The second allowance is significantly lower than the first. The value of childcare fee and child-care benefit in percentage of GDP has been decreasing continuously after the regime change (Table 8). Either the mother or father is eligible for both allowances after the child`s one year but generally women take it. The government is preparing a proposal concerning the eligibility of grandparents for child-care benefit.

Comparison of the regular maternity and child-care allowances Types Who Duration Amount ============================================================ 1. employed 168 days 60-70 % of the last average salary 2. employed until the age of 2 70 % of the last average salary 3. everybody until the age of 2 a minimum of old-age pension 4. with 3 or more the age of 3-8 a minimum of old-age pension children the youngest ============================================================= Types Limit Proviso Father Paid work ============================================================ 1. max. the double of the minimum wages to be ensured no no 2. max. the double of the minimum wages to be ensured yes no 3. yes yes 4. yes yes

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It was abolished by the former socialist-liberal government (ruled in 1994-1998) and re-established by the recent ones (ruling from 1998). 9

Note: 1. Paid maternity leave, 2. Child-care fee, 3. Child-care benefit, 4. Child-care allowance. See in details in the Annex.

Services for children under 3 years old are limited. In 1997, 9.6 percent (in 198o 14.8 percent) of children in nursery age went to a crèche (public nursery). After the child reaches three years old of age the role of institution becomes more important, 87.4 percent of children entitled spent the day in kindergarten. The conditions of institutional child-care have worsened after the regime change: crèches and kindergartens are closing down because of financial problems. The private institutions are too expensive "in 1997, registered private kindergarten enrolments made up 2 percent of total enrolments" (UNICEF, 1999:56). Nursery and kindergarten places have declined, the enrolment rates in nurseries have fallen (Table 9). In kindergartens the enrolment rates have just stayed the same, but the institutions are under-financed and because of the places have decreased essentially they are overcrowded. The fees paid by parents have increased continuously some families can not pay for them.

For school-age children, after-school day-care centres for the hours when parents work have an important role, especially for young children. By age 14, however, only 27 percent of schoolchildren are in day-care centres, 39 percent are without supervision after school. They are the latchkey children, alone at home or gathering in the streets or in subway stations. The decreasing living standard prevents some families to pay the meal for children at schools. Some milk-actions of Soros Foundation and of local communities help temporarily for those children to solve their problems.

There is not enough attention to the care of older people. A high proportion of pensioners - mainly female pensioners - live below the poverty level. The low level of public services does not fulfil the requirements of a sufficient old-care system. The proportion of older people is increasing, the care services are insufficient in Hungary because of financial reason and the situation has worsened after the regime change.

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2.3. Division of labour within family

During the past decades the entry of women into labour market has been especially asymmetrical process. Although the majority of women joined the labour force, their responsibilities inside family were not reduced proportionally. Men did not take an equal share in the work to be done in the family and the household. Women spend 2,4 times more daily looking after their children and working in and around the home as men (Table 10). In the case of illnesses of child/ren women are those who stay at home. In the past and present, traditions inhibited the transformation of the division of labour within the families.

A large part of female work - after my calculation 40 percent of their work - cannot be measured, is not remunerated and is not reflected in statistics. Because of sufficient social support women fulfil much more unpaid work in the transitional countries than women in the European Union (UNICEF, 254). Household work and child rearing is primarily the responsibility of women, although the difference between gender decreased from 1986 by 1999. In 1999 female employees spent 6,5 times more time on traditional housekeeping and one and a half times more time on looking after children than their husband (Table 10). This situation is strengthened by the conservative views of Hungarians regarding the division of labour within family. Public opinion still holds that the traditional division of labour between sexes is related to differences in women`s and men`s abilities. After the regime change the economic stagnation and the deterioration of living standards has limited the slowly developing democratisation process in the eighties within families.

2.4. Women in the formal paid care sector 11

The majority of employees in the formal paid care sector are women, the sector is just completely feminised, the status of care work is low. Men do not choose care work as profession, they have much better labour-market position than women, they can apply, with a chance of success, for obtaining jobs of a higher social prestige. The conditions of mobility are worse for women than for men; less proportion of women are skilled and usually have not a qualification enabling them to cope with the higher requirements of a more modern technology. Women are burdened with household obligations, are less reluctant to take on work farther from their place of residence, are more inclined to break away from what they are used to and to adjust to new circumstances. Women often enter the world of paid work directly from the household and do not take on work far away from their home, only the professions with low pay and low prestige offer jobs for women.

3. The consequence of double role of women and insufficient reconciliation of double/triple burden

The inadequate conditions for reconciling the double role of women prevent their equality in society and within the family which is also considerably influences by the traditions. The conditions of market economy continuously perpetuate the basis of disadvantages because it does not appreciate the extended work done within the framework of households. In these circumstances the role playing by women in the reproduction of the labour force and of the population as well as their functions resulting therefore are transformed into disadvantages.

The three fields of female (male) activities counteract each other, we can set out from any field, the disadvantageous position of women prevent the development on the other two.

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The disadvantages of women manifest itself in different phenomenon.

###3.1.

Female labour plays a secondary role, acting as a reserve in the labour

market. The employment of women is linked very closely to the prevailing economic situation and there is extensive hidden unemployment in the case of women. The secondary role of female employment is strengthening in the transitional period in Hungary. The disadvantages of women begins at the moment of entrance into labour market nevertheless, the educational level of active earners women is better than that of men. The majority of women take advantage of child-care allowances. For this reason and because of the uncertainty of interruptions and limited working hours in comparison with men, employers are reluctant towards female labour force. In these circumstances employers do not hire women even with similar or better capabilities. The chance of women to find a job much worse than that of men. The integration of women into the labour market over 40 years old, older women and women returnees is almost impossible because of the discrimination by age and gender. The new initiative9 the so-called "Competition for Family-friendly workplaces" which operates with success in the States and some countries of the European Union, could effect the mindscape of employers.

3.2.

###Women

often interrupt their career for the birth of and bringing up

children. After the regime change the reintegration to the labour market is limited, women often do not find job after the raising of child/ren. After the transition there is no guarantee of re-employment. The interruption limits the promotion of women and explains the glass-ceiling effect.

###3.3

The promotion of women is more restricted than that of men. Women are in a

disadvantageous position concerning leadership positions both in policy and economy. 9

intropduced by the Office of Women`s Policy within the framework of the Ministry of Social and Family Affairs. 13

They are hampered in promotion because of unequal conditions (double burden) compared to the men. Social and economic barriers prevent the promotion of women. The interruption of paid work, the insufficient aid for household duties, the traditional division of labour within the family limit the equal chance of women in paid work. They enter segments of the labour market which offer unfavourable conditions and find job opportunities, as a rule, at the lower levels of the employment hierarchy. The female employment structure can be characterised by a pyramid. It means that the proportion of women is high at the lower level of employment hierarchy and low on the top. In 1999, one third of women (half of men) in white-collar jobs held a leading post. The proportion of women is higher in the lowest positions. The glassceiling effect works in Hungary, too, among top managers less than 3 percent are women.

###3.4.

Because of the double burden segregation of labour market lowers the prestige

of female posts and leads to an unfavourable counter-selection. Segmentation of the labour market, segregation by professions is an important characteristic of the labour market. The cause of feminisation is a counter-selective mechanism, which finds expression in the prestige loss and the relative wage disadvantage of the feminised jobs with less favourable conditions. The change in the employment structure is transmitted through the labour-market mechanisms. As a result, the sectors employing a relatively large proportion of women offer less favourable than average wage and income conditions, and the other way round. The feminisation of a career begins, when, following the technical, economic and social changes, the social prestige of the given career begins to fall. It can be proved that the deterioration in quality - also noticeable in the long run - of occupations offering less favourable conditions and losing their prestige begins to make itself felt.

3.5. The opportunities of women to defend their interests are weak and have worsened in the transitional period. Women have been pushed to the periphery of the 14

political decision-making processes. Women`s movement is exclusive, Hungarian women are weak in networking.

4. Consequences: the perspective of female employment

It can be seen from the nature of the conditions listed that employment policy is only successful in a co-ordinated system of social, demographic, education and family policy, the centre of which must be the equality of gender, social reproduction of the population and the efficient use of labour potential. In a market economy the employment of women (and of men) is determined first by the labour demand. In order that employment adjusted to the demand of economy not come into conflict with equal chance of gender, a flexible employment system is needed adjusting with the least amount of tension. This requires development of female employment in two directions.

a) It is expedient to create the possibility and the conditions for choice between work within and outside the socially organised sphere, through the development of social benefits and services, which will result a redistribution of labour between the social and the household sphere.

The real possibility of choice assumes - the possibility for paid work for those who want it, and more co-ordinated system of conditions required (schooling, retraining, child care institutions, servicing network), - an alleviation of the material pressure to undertake work depending on the number of children in the family through welfare policy system that give more effective support to families with children.

b) The extension of flexible forms of employment (for both sexes) will help in redistribution labour in keeping with the demand of the economy and the family. This 15

requires flexible forms of employment, the elimination of current barriers, and a satisfactory interest on the part of employers and employees. It is necessary emphasise the discriminatory nature of part-time jobs. They reinforce the segregation of labour market, they offer generally low status, low levels of remuneration, limited promotion opportunities, low level of social protection. These conditions make possible the adjustment of labour market situation and family demand and create the possibility to reconcile the double role of women.

c) It is indispensable maintain the generous family support and develop the care services and democratise the division of labour within family for a better reconciliation of paid work and family life.

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References Central Statistical Office (1998): Magyarország munkaerõmérlege. (Labour account of Hungary.) Budapest. 42 p. Central Statistical Office (1999): A nemzetgazdaság munkaerõmérlege 1999. január 1. (Labour account of the national economy.) Budapest, 29 p. Central Statistical Office (2000a): Magyar Statisztikai Évkönyv 1999. (Statistical Yearbook of Hungary, 1999.) Budapest, 587 p. Central Statistical Office (2000b): Életmód - idõmérleg. Idõfelhasználás 1986 és 1999 õszén. (Time budget in Automn of 1986 and 1999.) Budapest, 201 p. Frey, Mária (1997): Nõk a munkaerõpiacon. (Women in the labour market). In: Szerepváltozások - Jelentés a nõk helyzetérõl. (Change of roles. Report on the situation of women, 1997). TÁRKI, Equal Chance Office, Ministry of Labour, Budapest. 13-34. p. Frey, Mária - Gere, Ilona (1994): Részmunkaidõs foglalkoztatás - a kihasználatlan lehetõség. Part-time employment - the unutilised possibility. Közgadasági Szemle (Economic Review) No. 9. pp. 784-800. Gere, Ilona (1998): Vállalkozó nõk a mai magyar társadalomban. (Female entrepreneurs in the resent Hungarian society.) Manuscript. 17 p. Management Training Co-operation in Hungary: Training course for female entrepreneurs. Budapest, 20-21 November 1997. Koncz, Katalin (1984): A részmunkadidõs foglalkoztatás elmélete és gyakorlata. (The theory and practice of part-time employment.) Budapest, September 1984, Karl Marx University of Economics, Department of Labour Economics, 338 p. (Manuscript) Koncz, Katalin (1999): Nõk a munkaerõ-piacon a rendszerváltást követõen. (Women in the labour market after the regime change.) Munkaügyi Szemle (Labour Review) Vol. XLIII. No. 1. pp. 22-27. Kornai, János (1980): The economics of shortage. Publicher: Közgazdasági és Jogi Könyvkiadó, Budapest, p. 658 p. Kozma, Blanka - Katalin Koncz (1999): Pozitív diszkrimináció tapasztalatai az Egyesült Államokban. (Experiences of affirmative actions in the United States.) Munkügyi Szemle (Labour Review) No. 7-8. pp. 52-58.

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Ministry of Labour (1995): National report of the Republic of Hungary. United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women, 4-15 September 1995, Beijing. Budapest, 72 p. National Association of Hungarian Trade Unions (2000): Collection of economic and social data. Budapest, 228 p. UNICEF (1999): Women in Transition, The MONEE Project. CEE/CIS/Baltics. Regional Monitoring Report, No. 6. 162 p.

Annex Types of family supports in 2000. 1) Family allowance - schooling subsidy The family allowance is replaced by schooling subsidy on equal financial conditions when the child becomes of school age. Family has to fulfil the requirement of schooling enrolment. The sum depends on - the type of family - the number of children - the health condition of children.

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2) Maternity grant (benefit) Is paying prompt to cover the expenses of child-birth. Amount: in 2000 = 24900 HUF, it is equal about the minimum wages (25.500 HUF). (150 % of the current minimum of the old-age pension, in 2000 = 16.600 HUF). Condition of eligibility: the mother took part in the pregnancy car programmes at least four times. 3) Paid maternity leave before and after the child-birth Duration: 168 days Amount: 60 or 70% of the last average salary depending on length of earlier employment. A maximum of the double of the minimum wages (2000 = 25.500) because of the very big differences in wages. This period spent is regarded as time of service (8 % of pension contribution is deducted) Condition: to be ensured at least for 180 days within two years prior the child-birth. 4) Child-care benefit (since 1967) Granted for child until the age of three (permanently or disabled child: until 10). Amount: pro child is equal to the current minimum of the old-age pension (in 2000 = 16.600 HUF). Is regarded as time of service (8 % of pension contribution is deducted). The father can applied for the benefit after the child is over his/her first year. (The present government plan to give the possibility for grandparents, too.) Some hours of paid work (not exceeding 4 hours a day) or without any limit in case of working at home. 5) Child-care fee (since 1985) Granted for child until the age of two. Amount: 70% of the daily average salary. A maximum of the double of the minimum wages (2000 = 25.500).

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Condition: to be ensured at least for 180 days within two years prior the child-birth Is regarded as time of service (8 % of pension contribution is deducted). The father can applied for the benefit after the child is over his/her first year. 6) Child-care allowance (since 1993) Granted parents - who stay at home - with three or more children 3-8 years pf age the youngest. Amount: pro child is equal to the current minimum of the old-age pension (in 2000 = 16.600 HUF). Is regarded as time of service (8 % of pension contribution is deducted). The father can applied for the benefit. Some hours of paid work (not exceeding 4 hours a day) or without any limit in case of working at home. 7) Sickness benefit for child-nursing Different duration depending on - the type of family - the number of children - the health condition of children. 8) Tax reduction Is introduced by the present government. Reduce the personal income tax. Amount: 2.200 - 3.400 HUF pro child and month depending on - the number and - health condition of children. 9) Non-paid parental leave depending on - the number and - health condition of children.

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10) Additional parental leave 2-7 days depending on the number of children. 11) Child protection allowance Help children in an endangered situation because of financial problems. Paid by municipality. Depending on the monthly income per capita. a) Regular child protection allowance the monthly income per capita can not exceed the minimum of the old-age pension. b) Extraordinary child protection allowance - to solve temporarily financial problems - amount is determinate by the municipality - The monthly income per capita can not exceed the minimum of the old-age pension. c) Advance payment of child support - The person responsible for the child can not cover the expenses (e.g. soldier, person lives abroad, etc.) - The monthly income per capita can not exceed the triple of the old-age pension. 12) Housing assistance to establish a home 13) Preferential credit (8 %) for couples establishing their first home. Source: Information of Ministry of Social and Family Affairs.

Table 1. Activity rates by gender in Hungary from 1980 to 1998 (%)

Year

until 1998

According to concept used since 1998 until 1998 since 1998

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Female Male ============================================================= 1980 82.0 75.2 87.9 86.5 1981 83.3 75.4 86.5 86.5 1982 83.6 76.1 87.0 87.0 1983 83.9 76.6 86.7 86.7 1984 84.1 77.0 85.8 85.8 1985 84.2 77.4 85.3 85.3 1986 85.1 78.2 84.8 84.8 1987 85.6 78.5 85.3 85.3 1988 85.1 77.8 85.2 85.1 1989 85.8 78.1 84.7 84.7 1990 85.7 77.9 84.8 84.8 1991 83.8 75.7 84.3 84.2 1992 82.8 74.3 80.8 80.7 1993 79.7 71.2 79.3 79.2 1994 75.8 67.5 76.3 76.2 1995 72.2 64.0 73.8 73.6 1996 69.9 62.4 73.8 73.6 1997 68.9 60.9 73.4 73.3 1998 69.1 61.3 73.4 73.4 1999 ... 62,4 ... 73,0 According to concept used until 1998: persons on child-care leave were included. According to concept used until 1998: persons on child-care leave are not included. Source: Central Statistical Office, 1998, pp. 20-31., 1999, pp. 14-19.

Table 2. Employment status of children`s parents in Hungary, 1992 and 1997 (%)

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Family types 1992 1997 ============================================================ One-parent families mother works 7.7 7.3 mother does not work 2.9 4.3 father works 0.8 1.1 father does not work 0.3 0.5 Two-parent families both parents work 48.0 38.2 only mother works 6.6 5.6 only father works 26.4 32.4 neither parents work 7.3 10.6 Total 100.0 100.0 mother works 62.3 51.1 father works 75.2 71.7 Note: The data show the employment status of children`s parents if these are living with the family and take the child as the unit of analysis. Children are defined as all persons aged 0-14 and those aged 15-18 if enrolled in full-time education. Source: UNICEF, 1999: 39. Table 3. Public expenditure on family programs in 1989 (% of GDP) Public expenditure Czechosl. Hungary Poland Sweden Germany USA ============================================================= Total 4.4 5.5. 3.0 4.4 1.9 0.6 Cash benefits 3.1 4.4 2.3 2.1 1.3 0.3 family/child allowance 2.2 3.0 2.0 0.9 0.9 0.3 maternity and parental leave 0.5 0.8 0.2 1.0 * * other family support 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.2 * In-kind benefits(mostly childcare) 1.1 1.1 0.7 2.3 0.6 0.2 Note: * low or negligible amount Source: UNICEF, 1999:44

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Table 4. Family allowance and schooling subsidy in Hungary (monthly sum pro child – HUF) in 2000 Family types Sum ============================================================ Children in family with two parents One child 3800 Two children 4700 Three and more children 5900 Single parents One child 4500 Two children 5400 Three and more children 6300 Disabled child 7500

Source: NAHTU, 2000:101. Table 5. The real value of family allowance in Hungary, 2000/1990 (%) Number of children Two-parent family Single parents ============================================================= One child 34.6 35.0 Two children 36.6 39.5 Three and more children 43.2 46.1 Source: NAHTU, 2000:101. Table 6. Family allowances in percentage of GDP in Hungary, 1990-99

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 ============================================================= Percent of GDP 3.75 3.29 3.13 3.07 2.37 1.78 1.38 1.26 1.15 1.14 Source: NAHTU, 2000:102. Table 7. 24

The value of family allowance benefits in some transitional countries, 1990-97 (per child benefit for couples with two children, percent average wage) Countries 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 ============================================================= Slovakia 10.3 9.1 7.4 5.9 9.2 8.9 8.1 7.1 Hungary 16.1 14.3 13.9 12.0 9.6 8.2 6.8 7.7 Slovenia 9.5 9.0 8.1 9.2 8.2 7.5 6.3 5.6 Estonia 10.0 8.3 6.3 5.3 4.9 4.7 Latvia 10.8 8.8 5.8 4.6 5.1 4.0 Russia 10.2 3.5 5.5 6.6 6.3 6.1 Source: UNICEF, 1999:50 Table 8. Child-care benefit and child-care fee in percentage of GDP in Hungary, 1990, 1996, 1997 Years Percent in GDP ============================================================= 1990 0.64 1996 0.53 1997 0.46

Source: NAHTU, 2000:102. Table 9. Changes in nursery and kindergarten enrolment rates, 1989 and 1997 in some transitional countries (percent of children aged 0-2 and 3-5/6) Countries

Nursery Kindergarten 1989 1997 1989 1997 ============================================================= Hungary 12 11 86 86 Poland 9 5 49 48 Fr Yugoslavia 9 5 23 28 Bulgaria 13 10 69 65 Latvia 42 13 53 52 Lithuania 34 10 64 42 Russia 37 20 78 65 Source: UNICEF, 1999:55. 25

Table 10. Time budget of female and male population and employees by activities Autumn, 1986 and 1999 1986 1999 Fem. Male F/M ratio Fem. Male F/M ratio minutes % minutes % ============================================================= Population Housekeeping and maintenance 99 216 218 105 197 188 Traditional housekeeping 47 203 432 60 185 301 Looking after child/ren 71 123 173 88 141 160 Employees Housekeeping and maintenance 59 190 322 58 153 264 Traditional housekeeping 17 180 1059 22 143 650 Looking after child/ren 15 33 220 18 28 156 Activities

Source: Central Statistical Office, 2000:88-89, 112.

26

Social barriers for employed women: combining paid ...

of dependent women living from social support or from the income of other family members has doubled. The tensions of .... not pay for them. For school-age children, after-school day-care centres for the hours when parents work have an important ..... 7) Sickness benefit for child-nursing. Different duration depending on.

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