Cemagref d’Antony Université de Marne-La-Vallée

Simulation of Two-Phase Flow in Anaerobic Bioreactor Landfills Shabnam Gholamifard, Christian Duquennoi Cemagref d’Antony

Robert Eymard Université de Marne-La-Vallée

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Outline -Objectives of modeling -Mathematical model Assumptions Degradation and gas generation model -Analytical solutions Validation - Numerical results Validation with site results - Conclusions

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Objectives of modeling -Control the gas and leachate production - Minimize refuse volume in municipal solid waste landfill - Minimize the degradation and stabilization time - Optimize the injection process -Optimize the number of the injection lines and their distance

Optimize the time and cost of monitoring Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Outline -Objectives of modeling -Mathematical model Assumptions Degradation and gas generation model -Analytical solutions Validation - Numerical results Validation with site results - Conclusions

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Mathematical model We have developed a two-phase flow Finite Volume model, considering degradation and heat production. Mass Conservation ∂mi + ∇.(ρ iU i ) = 0 ∂t

ml = φ S ρ l , mv = φ (1 - S ) ρ v

Darcy law

Energy Conservation Mass enthropy Heat production term

T

dm p dη + ∑ gp = −∇.( h p ρ p v p ) − ∇. q + α dt p =l ,v dt

Free enthalpy

Mass enthalpy

Heat flow defined by Fourier's q = −λ∇T Law

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Mathematical model Assumptions: -The landfill is considered as a three-phases porous medium, -The solid phase of the landfill is considered to be nondeformable with no consolidation, -The gas and liquid phases are considered to be immiscible, - Darcy's law is applicable for both fluid phases, - Thermal radiation is neglected, - There is a thermal equilibrium for the three phases. Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Degradation, heat and gas production model -Classical model-First order kinetics (Straub et al. (1982), Williams et al. (1987))

Saturation

dAi = f ( Ai , S ) dt Ai : Landfill components ( i = 1 rapidly, i = 2 fairly and i = 3 slowly degradable)

Ai (t + ∂t ) = Ai (t ). exp(−λi ( S , T ) × ∂t ) Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Potential gas production

Gas production:

3

α b = ∑ CTb i =1

Ai (t + dt ) − Ai (t ) dt

Energy released for each mole of methane produced

Heat production:

H αb αq = Mb 2

Gas production

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Outline -Objectives of modeling -Mathematical model Assumptions Degradation and gas generation model -Analytical solutions Validation - Numerical results Validation with site results - Conclusions

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Analytical solution One dimensional linear fractional flow of gas and water, based on conservation equations (Willhite, 1986)

Water saturation ∂  ∂  k ( S )k ∂P  (φ S ρ l ) −  rl ρ l ( l + ρ l g sin θ )  = 0 ∂x  µl ∂x  ∂t    Gas saturation   ∂ (φ (1 - S ) ρ ) − ∂  k rg ( S )k ρ ( ∂Pg + ρ g sin θ )  = 0 g g l  µ   ∂t ∂ x ∂ x g    Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Analytical solution Assumptions: - One dimensional linear flow, - Incompressible and Immiscible fluids, - The porous medium is not Deformable, - Darcy law - Capillary pressure is neglected. The vertical fractional flow of water Injection rate Relative permeability  k rl ( S )k k rg ( S )k  k ( S )k  . ∆ρg  + q rl  µ  µg µl l   f w (S ) = k rl ( S )k k rg ( S )k + µ µg l Dynamic viscosity Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Analytical validation A vertical model of gas and water flow with gravity

o f w (S ) _ˆ

f w (S )

 k rl ( S )k k rg ( S )k  k ( S )k  . ∆ρg  + q rl  µ  µg µl l  f w (S ) =  k rl ( S )k k rg ( S )k +

µl

µg

S 2* ≈ 0.9060

S1* ≈ 0.9204

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Analytical validation Profile of the analytical solution Rankine- Hugoniot condition (The speed of propagation of the shocks)

f ′( S

* 1

{S , f ′(S )} * 1

* 1

[ f (1) = 0] − f ( S1* ) )= 1 − S1*

f ( S 2* ) − [ f (0.7) = 0] f ′( S ) = S 2* − 0.7 * 2

{S , f ′(S )} * 2

* 2

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Analytical validation-Results

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Outline - Objectives of modeling -Mathematical model Assumptions Degradation and gas generation model -Analytical solutions Validation - Numerical results Validation with site results - Conclusions

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Numerical results A bioreactor landfill in France

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Numerical results 2D numerical model 35m

90 m B3

dx

Patm Tinit =33 °C

dz

12 m

Gas and liquid isolation Drainage Leachate injection

Saturation 0.25

Porosity

0.05

0.35

0.10

0.45

0.15

0.55

0.20

Hydraulic 5.0E-4 conductivity 5.0E-5 (m/sec) 5.0E-6

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Resistivity charts

- 12 10

8m

m

First injection

Second injection

2 days after Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Numerical results-Saturation

- 12 10

8m

m

First injection First injection

Second injection Second injection

Sinit: 0.45 KV/ KH: 0.02

2 days after 2 days after Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Numerical results-Hydraulic conductivity

The same results are obtained for the smaller values of porosity

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Numerical results-Heterogeneous model First injection

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

Heterogeneous model : Variable porosity (0.1 to 0.2) and hydraulic conductivity (5e-4 to 5e-6)

Homogeneous model : Phi= 0.15 et Hc=5e-5 (m/s) Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Numerical results-Heterogeneous model Second injection

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

Heterogeneous model : Variable porosity (0.1 to 0.2) and hydraulic conductivity (5e-4 to 5e-6)

Homogeneous model : Phi= 0.15 et Hc=5e-5 (m/s) Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Numerical results-Heterogeneous model 2 days after

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

Heterogeneous model : Variable porosity (0.1 to 0.2) and hydraulic conductivity (5e-4 to 5e-6)

Homogeneous model : Phi= 0.15 et Hc=5e-5 (m/s) Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Numerical results-Heterogeneous model

Heterogeneous model : Variable porosity (0.1 to 0.2) and hydraulic conductivity (5e-4 to 5e-6)

Homogeneous model : Phi= 0.15 et Hc=5e-5 (m/s) Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Conclusion -The two-phase flow model is successfully validated by analytical solutions based on Darcy's law. -This model is able to reproduce changes and dissipations of saturation in a bioreactor landfill during leachate recirculation. -Initial saturation, porosity and hydraulic conductivity are very important parameters with a remarkable effect on the dimension of saturated zone around the injection point.

Optimize the volume of injected leachate to reach the field capacity Optimize the number of injection lines and their distance Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Perspective -Validate the model by additional field and laboratory experiments - Validate the biodegradation model during leachate recirculation: -Temperature changes -Biogas production

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

Thank you for your attention Shabnam GHOLAMIFARD 2 October 2007

Sardinia, 11th International waste management and landfill symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 1-5 October 2007

## Simulation of Two-Phase Flow in Anaerobic Bioreactor ...

We have developed a two-phase flow Finite Volume model, considering degradation and heat production. Mass Conservation. Energy Conservation. ( ) 0 . = â+.

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