ek/;fed f'k{kk eaMy ee-iz- Hkksiky vkn'kZ iz'u i= & 2012&13 Model Question Paper – 2012-13

lekt 'kkL= ¼Sociology½ d{kk & 12oha Time - 3 hours

M. M. 100

funsZ'k %& 1-

lHkh iz'u vfuok;Z gSaA

2-

iz'u Ø- 1 ls 5 rd oLrqfu"B iz'u gSaA izR;sd iz'u ds fy;s 5 vad fu/kkZfjr gSA

3-

iz'u Ø- 6 ls 12 rd izR;sd ds fy;s 4 vad fu/kkZfjr gSaA

4-

iz'u Ø- 13 ls 19 rd izR;sd iz'u ds fy;s 5 vad fu/kkZfjr gSaA

5-

iz'u Ø- 20 rFkk 21 eas izR;sd iz'u ds fy;s 6 vad fu/kkZfjr gSaA

6-

oLrqfu"B iz'uksa dks NksM+dj lHkh iz'uksa eas vkUrfjd fodYi fn;s x;s gSaA

Instructions : 1.

All question are compulsory.

2.

Q. No. 1 to 5 are Objective type questions. Each question is allotted 5 marks.

3.

Q. No. 6 to 12 are allotted 4 marks each.

4.

Q. No. 13 to 19 are allotted 5 marks each.

5.

Q. No. 20 and 21 are allotted 6 marks each.

6.

Except objective type question internal options are given in all questions.

iz1- fjDr LFkkuksa dh iwfrZ dhft;s &

5 vad

1-

gekjs ns'k dk uke ^Hkkjr* egku lezkV ------------- ds uke ij iM+kA

2-

Hkkjr eas lcls /kuh vkcknh okyk {ks= -------------------- dk eSnku gSA

3-

Hkkjrh; lafo/kku }kjk dqy ----------------- Hkk"kkvksa dks ekU;rk nh xbZ gSA

4-

Hkkjr dh igyh jk"Vªh; tula[;k uhfr lu~ ---------------- eas ?kksf"kr dh xbZA

5-

la;qDr ifjokj ds eqf[k;k dks -------------- dgk tkrk gSA

Q.1

Fill in the blanks–

1.

India has been named as 'Bharat' after the name great king ..................

2.

The most dense population are a of India is .........................

3.

Total ................ languages are recognized by the constitution of India.

4.

The first national population policy was declared in year .............. in India.

5.

The head of the joint family is called ......................

iz-2 lR; @ vlR; fyf[k;s &

5 vad

1-

Hkkjr eas loZf'k{kk vfHk;ku lu~ 2001 ls vkjaHk fd;kA

2-

eqfLye fookg ,d /kkfeZd le>kSrk gSA

3-

orZeku Hkkjrh; laLÑfr dks fefJr laLÑfr dgk tkrk gSA

4-

v/;kReokn Hkkjr dh izeq[k yksd ijaijk gSA

5-

Hkkjr eas loZizFke vkSipkfjd f'k{kk dh LFkkiuk eqxy 'kklu ds nkSjku gqbZA

Q.2

Write True / False -

1.

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was started in 2001 in India.

2.

Muslim marriage is a religious compromise.

3.

The present Indian culture in known as composite culture.

4.

Sprituation is the main fold tradition in India.

5.

The first formal education applied in 'Mugal' rule in India.

1

iz-3 lgh tksM+h cukb;s cukb;s &

5 vad

1-

dkdk dkysydj

1-

ckgjh tkfr;k¡

2-

T;ksfrck Qwys

2-

vuqlwfpr tkfr;k¡

3-

ts-,p- gV~Vu

3-

izFke fiNM+k oxZ vk;ksx

4-

lkbeu deh'ku

4-

lks'ky psUt bu ekMZu bafM;k

5-

,e-,u- Jhfuokl

5-

nfyr tkfr;k¡

Q.3

Match the following -

1.

Kaka Kalelkar

:

Exterior Caste

2.

Jyotiba Phule

:

Schedule caste

3.

J H Hutton

:

First Backward class commission

4.

Saymen commission

:

Social change in Modern India

5.

M. N. Shrinivas

:

Dalit caste

iz-4 ,d 'kCn 'kCn eas fyf[k;s &

5 vad

1-

Hkkjr dh izFke iapo"khZ; ;kstuk fdl o"kZ ls ykxw gqbZ\

2-

Lora=r Hkkjr ds u, lafo/kku dks fdl o"kZ ls ykxw fd;k x;k\

3-

fdl rjg dh jktuSfrd iz.kkyh eas nckc lewgksa dh Hkwfedk vf/kd izHkko'kkyh gksrh gS\

4-

Hkkjr esa u;h izkS|ksfxdh ds izHkko ls Ñf"k mit essa rssth ls gksus okyh o`f) dks fdl uke ls lacksf/kr fd;k tkrk gS\

5-

orZeku ;qx eas lkaLÑfrd ifjorZu dk lcls izHkkoiw.kZ lk/ku D;k gS\

Q.4

Write the answer in one word -

1.

In which year was the first five year plan in India started ?

2.

In which year the new constitution of independent India was passed?

3.

In which political system, the role of pressure groups effective ?

4.

By which name is the rapid increase in agricultural produce due to impact of latest technology in India is known as ?

5.

What is the most effective mean of cultural change at present ?

2

iz-5 lgh fodYi pqudj fyf[k;s & 1-

2-

5 vad

fuEukafdr eas ls vkS|ksfxdj.k ds fy;s vko';d n'kk D;k gS & v-

u;h izkS|ksfxd

c-

Je 'kfDr

l-

ifjogu dh lqfo/kk,sa

n-

;g lHkh

,e-,u- Jhfuokl us if'pehdj.k dh izfØ;k ds ekMy ds :i eas fuEukafdr eas ls fdls vk/kkj ekuk &

3-

4-

5-

v-

Hkkjr eas fczfV'k 'kklu dks

c-

u;h izkS|ksfxdh dks

l-

vk/kqfudhdj.k dks

n-

f'k{kk laLFkkvksa dks

iatkc eas uke/kkjh vkanksyu fdlus vkjaHk fd;k & v-

xq: rsxcgknqj

c-

ckck jke flag

l-

egkRek cl.k

n-

lar txthou nkl

;g fu"d"kZ fdlus fn;k fd vijk/kh tUetkr gksrs gSa & v-

ekWjj

c-

gkYlcjh

l-

cksUtj

n-

yEczkslks

fuEukafdr eas ls fdl lekt'kkL=h us lkekftd fopyu dh vo/kkj.kk izLrqr dh gS & v-

ekWfjl fxUlcxZ

c-

eSDl csoj

l-

vkj-ds- eVZu

n-

eSdkboj

Q.5

Select and write appropriate option in the following questions -

1.

What is the essential feature of industrialization from the following -

2.

(a)

new Technology

(b)

Labour Power

(c)

Transport facilities

(d)

All of these

According to M N Shrinivasan which among the following assumed to be model for process of westarnization (a)

British Rule in India

(b)

New Technology

(c)

To modernization

(d)

Educational institutes

3

3.

4.

5.

iz-6

Who started Namdhari movement in Punjab (a)

Guru Teg Bahadur

(b)

Baba Ram Singh

(c)

Mahatma Bansab

(d)

Sant Jag Jivan Das

Who gave the conclusion that they criminals by birth (a)

Morror

(b)

Hals Bury

(c)

Bonjar

(d)

Lambroso

Which sociologist explains the concept of social deviance (a)

Maris Ginsbarg

(b)

Max Weber

(c)

R.K. Martel

(d)

Machaever

Hkkjr eas tula[;k o`f) ds dksbZ pkj dkj.k fyf[k;s\

4 vad

Write any four causes of population growth in India.

vFkok Or

tukafddh dk vFkZ le>kbZ;s\ Explain the meaning of demography.

iz-7

la;qDr ifjokj dh eq[; fo'ks"krk,sa D;k gSa\

4 vad

What are main characteristics of Joint Family.

vFkok fgUnw fookg ds eq[; mn~ns'; D;k gSa\ What are the main objectives of Hindu Marriage.

iz-8

Hkkjr eas vYi la[;dksa dh dksbZ pkj leL;k,sa fyf[k;s\

4 vad

Write any four problems of minorities in India.

vFkok fiNMs+ oxZ ls vkidk D;k vfHkizk; gS\ What do you mean by Backward Class.

iz-9

mikxe D;k gS\ Hkkjrh; lekt ds v/;;u ds mikxe dkSu ls gSa\ 04 What is the Approach ? What are the approach of the study of Indian Society. 4

vFkok lajpukRed mikxe D;k gS\ What is Structural approach.

iz-10 Hkkjrh; ukxfjd ds ekSfyd vf/kdkj fyf[k;s\

4 vad

Write the fundamental rights of Indian Civil.

vFkok lkekftd ifjorZu eas iapk;r jkt dh D;k Hkwfedk gS\ What is role of Panchayati Raj in social change?

iz-11 mnkjhdj.k dh pqukSfr;ka fyf[k;s\

4 vad

Write the challenges of Liberalization.

vFkok oS'ohdj.k dk D;k vFkZ gS\ What is the meaning of globalization.

iz-12 uo e/;e oxZ dh fo'ks"krk,sa fyf[k;s\

4 vad

Write the characteristics of New Middle class.

vFkok vfHktu lewg ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ What do you mean by Elite groups.

iz-13 ltkrh;rk dk D;k vFkZ gS\

5 vad

What is the meaning of Ethnicity.

vFkok vk/kqfud Hkkjr eas ,drk ds eq[; rRo D;k Fks\ What were the main elements of unity in Modern India ?

iz-14 Hkkjr esa uxjh; leqnk; dh eq[; fo'ks"krk,sa D;k gSa\ What are the main characteristics of urban community in India ?

vFkok 5

5 vad

tkfr rFkk oxZ eas varj fyf[k;s\ Write the difference between caste and class.

iz-15 ^v"Vkafxd ekxZ* D;k gS\

5 vad

What is 'Ashtangik Marg'.

vFkok ^iap _.k* ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ What do you mean by 'Panch Rin'.

iz-16 cqfu;knh f'k{kk ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\

5 vad

What do you understand by Basic Education ?

vFkok f'k{kk ds eq[; mn~ns'; D;k gSa\ What are the main aims of Education ?

iz-17 laLÑfrdj.k dh vo/kkj.kk ,oa fo'ks"krkvksa dh foospuk dhft;s\ 5 vad Discuss the concept and characteristics of Sanskritisation.

vFkok if'pehdj.k dh eq[; fo'ks"krk,sa D;k gSa\ What are the main features of westernisation.

iz-18 tulapkj ds lk/kuksa ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\ tulapkj ds izeq[k lk/kuksa ij izdk'k Mkfy;s\

5 vad

What do you mean by the means of Mass media ? Throw light on the means of mass media.

vFkok Hkkjr eas f'k{kk dh leL;kvksa dk mYys[k dhft;s\ Describe the problems of Education in India.

6

iz-19 HkfDr vkanksyu ds mn~ns'; D;k Fks\

5 vad

What were the aims of Bhakti Movement.

vFkok lekt esas fgalk ds dksbZ ikap dkj.k fyf[k;s\ Write down any five causes of violence in Society.

iz-20 tutkfr;ksa dh izeq[k fo'ks"krkvksa dk o.kZu dhft;s\

6 vad

Explain the main features of tribes.

vFkok tkfr O;oLFkk dh fo'ks"krk,sa fyf[k;s\ Write the characteristics of caste system.

iz-21 Hkkjr eas jkT;ksa ds lkeus vkt eq[; pqukSfr;ka D;k gSa\ What are the main challenges before the states in India to day.

vFkok jkT; ds izeq[k vk/kkj D;k gSa\ What are main bases of state.

7

6 vad

ek/;fed f'k{kk eaMy ee-iz- Hkksiky vkn'kZ mRrj (Model Answer)

lekt 'kkL= ¼Sociology½

m -1

fjDr LFkkuksa dh iwfrZ dhft;s %

¼v½

Hkjr

¼c½

xaxk ;equk

¼l½

18

¼n½

1976

¼b½

drkZ

05

m-2 lR; @ vlR; crkbZ;s & lR; ¼II½ vlR; ¼I½ ¼V½ vlR; ¼IV½ vlR;

05 ¼III½

lR;

m -3

lgh tksfM;ka &

05

1-

dkdk dkysydj

1-

izFke fiNM+k oxZ

2-

T;ksfrck Qwys

2-

nfyr tkfr;k¡

3-

ts-,p- gV~Vu

3-

ckgjh tkfr;k¡

4-

lkbeu deh'ku

4-

vuqlwfpr tkfr;k¡

5-

,e-,u- Jhfuokl

5-

lks'ky psUt bu ekMZu bafM;k

m -4

,d 'kCn eas mRrj nhft;s &

¼v½

1951

¼c½

lu~ 1950

¼l½

yksdrkaf=d O;oLFkk eas

¼n½

gfjr ØkfUr

¼b½

tulapkj

05

8

m -5

lgh fodYi pqfu;s u;s &

05

1-

;g lHkh

2-

Hkkjr eas fczfV'k 'kklu dks

3-

ckck jkeflag

4-

yEczhlks

5-

vkj-ds- eVZu

m -6

Hkkjr eas tula[;k o`f) ds dkj.k &

1-

vf'k{kkA

2-

fuEu thou LrjA

3-

cky fookg dh izFkkA

4-

la;qDr ifjokj O;oLFkkA

5-

HkkX; eas fo'oklA

6-

tUe vkSj e`R;qnj dk vlarqyuA

7-

cgqifRu fookg dk izpyuA

8-

xzkeh.k vFkZO;oLFkkA

04

vFkok m-

tukafddh 'kCn dk iz;ksx lcls igys lu~ 1855 eas xqbykMZ us fd;kA 'kfCnd :i ls tukafddh og foKku gS tks tula[;k laaca/kh fo'ks"krkvksa dks fooj.k ds :i eas Li"V djrk gSA xzscfud ds 'kCnksa eas % ßtukafddh mu rF;ksa dh v/;;u gS tks ekuo tula[;k ds fofHkUu i{kksa tSls tUenj] e`R;qnj] izoklh; fo'ks"krkvksa vkSj mUgsa izHkkfor djus okys dkjdksa dk v/;;u djrk gSAÞ xqbykMZ ykMZ % ßtukafddh ,d xf.krh; Kku gS tks tula[;k dh HkkSfrd] lkekftd] ckSf)d vkSj uSfrd n'kkvksa ds v/;;u ls lacaf/kr gSA O;kid vFkksZa eas ;g ekuo lekt dk izkÑfrd vkSj lkekftd bfrgkl gSAÞ

9

m -7 1-

la;qDr ifjokj dh eq[; fo'ks"krk,sa &

04

cM+k vkdkj % ,d la;qDr ifjokj eas rhu&pkj ihf<+;ksa rd ds jDr lacaf/k;ksa vkSj fookg ds }kjk bleas lfEefyr gksus okys lnL;ksa dk lekos'k gksrk gSA

2-

lkekU; fuokl % la;qDr ifjokj ds lHkh lnL; R;kSgkjksa] mRloksa vkSj iwtk ds volj ij ,df=r gksdj dRrZO;ksa dks iwjk djrs gSaA

3-

lkekU; lkekU; jlksbZ % ftl ifjokj easa lHkh lnL; ,d gh jlksbZ eas cuk Hkkstu djrs gSaA

4-

la;qDr laifRr % dkuwuh vkSj lkekftd rkSj ij ,d la;qDr ifjokj ds lnL;ksa ds chp laifRr dk dksbZ caVokjk ugha gksrkA

5-

drkZ dh iz/kkurkA

6-

vf/kd LFkkf;RoA

7-

ijaijkvksa dh iz/kkurkA

8-

/kkfeZd fØ;kvksa eas la;qDr lgHkkxA

9-

lektoknh O;oLFkkA vFkok

m-

fgUnq fookg ds izeq[k mn~ns'; % 1-

/kkfeZd dRrZO;ksa dh iwfrZA

2-

iq= tUeA

3-

jfrA

4-

x`gLFk /keZ dk ikyuA

5-

O;fDr ds thou dks laxfBu j[kukA

¼mi;qZDr pkj fcUnqvksa dk la{ksi eas o.kZu djuk gSA½

10

m -8

Hkkjr eas vYila[;dksa dh leL;k,sa &

04

1-

euksoSKkfud :i ls vYila[;d leqnk; ds yksx ;g le>rss gSa fd la[;k eas de gksus ds dkj.k mUgsa vf/kd jktuSfrd vf/kdkj ugha fey ldsaxsA

2-

eqfLye leqnk; vkfFkZd vkSj 'kS{kf.kd fiNM+siu dks viuh ,d izeq[k leL;k ekurk gSA 'kS{kf.kd fiNM+kiu gksus ds dkj.k buds ifjokjksa dk vkdkj cM+k gksuk gSA

3-

Hkkjr eas iwokZsRrj jkT;ksa eas tgka bZlkbZ vYila[;dksa dh tula[;k dkQh vf/kd gS mueaas Hkh vlqj{kk dh Hkkouk ds dkj.k vkanksyudkjh izo`fRr c<+rh tk jgh gSA

4-

flD[k vYila[;dksa dks m|ksaxksa] jktuhfr] ljdkjh lsokvksa vkSj f'k{kk eas vPNk izfrfuf/kRo gSA budh viuh dksbZ vyx leL;k ugha gSA vFkok

m-

fiNM+k oxZ ls vfHkizk; & Hkkjrh; lekt eas tks leqnk; vkfFkZd :i ls nqcZy gSa mUgsa ge fiNM+k

oxZ dgrs gSaA okLrfodrk ;g gS fd vU; fiNM+s oxZ dk rkRi;Z mu tkfr;ksa ls gS tks tkfr O;oLFkk eas fuEu LFkku ij gksrs gq, Hkh vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa eas 'kkfey ugha gSA ysfdu tkfr O;oLFkk ds fu;ekas ds dkj.k lkekftd] vkfFkZd vkSj 'kS{kf.kd :i ls fiNM+h gqbZ gSaA bu tkfr;ksa dh vkfFkZd vkSj 'kS{kf.kd n'kk eas vf/kd lq/kkj ugha gks ldkA bl vk/kkj ij fiNM+s oxksaZ dks ,d vof'k"V Js.kh vFkok ^cph gqbZ Js.kh* dgk tkrk gSA lafo/kku eas fiNM+s oxZ dk dksbZ fuf'pr vFkZ Li"V u gksus ds dkj.k ;g vko';d gks x;k fd ljdkj lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 340 ¼1½ ds vk/kkj ij fdlh vk;ksx dks fu;qDr djds fiNMs oxZ dh dlkSfV;ksa dk fu/kkZj.k djds mUgsa fo'ks"k lqfo/kk;sa nsus dk iz;Ru djsA

11

m -9

mikxe D;k gS &

04

mikxe v/;;u dk og rjhdk ;k n`f"Vdks.k gS ftlds vk/kkj ij fdlh fo'ks"k lkekftd rF; dh foospuk dh tkrh gSA izR;sd mikxe dqN fo'ks"k ekU;rkvksa ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA fofHkUu mikxeksa dh izÑfr ,d nwljs ls blfy;s fHkUu gksrh gS fd muls lacaf/kr vo/kkj.kk,sa vkSj v/;;u dh izfof/k;ka vyx&vyx gksrh gSA Hkkjrh; Hkkjrh; lekt ds v/;;u ds mikxe & ;ksxsUnz flag usa pkj mikxekaas dk mYys[k fd;k gS & 1-

Hkkjrh; fo|k'kkL=h; mikxeA

2-

lkaLÑfrd mikxeA

3-

lajpukRed mikxeA

4-

,sfrgkfld mikxeA vFkok

m-

lajpukRed mikxe & ;g mikxe lkaLÑfrd fo'ks"krkvksa dh rqyuk eas lekt ds
djus okyh bdkbZ;ksa dk v/;;u djus okys rF;ksa dks vf/kd egRoiw.kZ ekurk gSA Hkkjr eas xzkeh.k lkekftd lajpuk] lkekftd Lrjhdj.k] fookg] ukrsnkjh] 'kfDr lajpuk] ifjokj O;oLFkk vkSj vartkZrh; laca/kksa dh foospuk eas bl mikxe dk lcls vf/kd mi;ksx fd;k x;k gSaA bl laca/k eas ,e-,u- Jhfuokl] ,l-lh- nqcs] Vh-,u- enu vkfn }kjk fd;s x;s v/;;u vf/kd egRoiw.kZ gSaA bl mikxe dks vDlj vkuqHkfod mikxe Hkh dg fn;k tkrk gSA m-10 Hkkjrh; ukxfjd ds ekSfyd vf/kdkj & 1-

04

lekurk dk vf/kdkj & dkuwu ds lkeus lHkh yksx leku gSaA muds chp /keZ] oa'k] tkfr] fyax] tUeLFkku ds vk/kkj ij fdlh rjg dk HksnHkko ugha fd;k tk;sxkA

12

2-

Lora=rk dk vf/kdkj & vius fopkjksa dks O;Dr djuk] ns'k eas vkus&tkus dk vf/kdkj] jgus dk vf/kdkj] O;olk; djus dk vf/kdkj] vU; vf/kdkjksa ls ns'k dh lqj{kk] iz'kklfud O;oLFkk eas Bsl u igqWaprh gks vkSj viuk thou Lora= fcrk ldsaA

3-

'kks"k.k ls j{kk dk vf/kdkj & O;fDr ls csxkj ugha ysuk] cky Jfedksa dk 'kks"k.k ugha djuk] fdlh Hkh Js.kh ds O;fDr dks csapk ;k [kjhnk ugha tk ldrkA

4-

/kkfeZd Lora=rk dk vf/kdkj & izR;sd O;fDr fcuk nckc ds fdlh Hkh /keZ ds vuqlkj O;ogkj] izpkj dj ldrk gSA

5-

laLÑfr vkSj f'k{kk dk vf/kdkjA vf/kdkjA

6-

laoS/kkfud mipkj dk vf/kdkjA vf/kdkjA vFkok

m-

iapk;rh jkt dh Hkwfedk & lkekftd ifjorZu eas 1-

xkao Lrj dh mi;ksxh ;kstuk,saA

2-

xzkeh.k usr`Ro dk fodklA

3-

nqqcZy oxksaZ dk fodklA

4-

xzkeh.kksa ds thou Lrj eas lq/kkjA

5-

LokLF; ds fy;s fo'ks"k iz;RuA

6-

izkFkfed vkSj ek/;fed f'k{kk dh O;oLFkkA

7-

lkekftd vkSj LFkkuh; xfr'khyrkA

8-

lLrk vkSj 'kh?kz U;k;A xkao ds fodkl vkSj lkekftd ifjorZu eas iapk;rh jkt dh vkSj vf/kd ls

vf/kd Hkwfedk fuHkk jgk gSA ysfdu xkao dh leL;k,sa tSls xzkeh.k xqVcanh] pquko la?k"kZ] Hkz"Vkpkj dh izo`fRr vkfn ds dkj.k ifjorZu lekt eas ck/kk cuk gqvk gSA

13

m-11 mnkjhdj.k dh pqukSfr;ka &

04

1-

xjhch dks nwj djukA

2-

jkstxkj dh leL;k dks nwj djukA

3-

xzkeh.k m|ksxkasa ds fo?kVu ds :i eas izfrdwy izHkko iM+kA

4-

miHkksDrkokn eas o`f) ls _.kxzLrrk dh leL;k iSnk gks xbZ gSA

5-

mnkjhdj.k ls ;g vk'kadk gksus yxh gS fd f'k{kk dk {ks= futhdj.k gksus ls fuEuoxZ lekt oafpr gks ldrk gSA vFkok

m-

oS'ohdj.k dk vFkZ & oS'ohdj.k ds vFkZ fo'o dh vFkZO;oLFkk eas ,dhdj.k dh izfØ;k ls gSA

bldk vFkZ gS fd tc fofHkUu ns'kksa ds chp O;kikfjd izfrca/k de ;k lekIr gksus yxrs gSa rFkk lHkh ns'k ,d nwljs dh izkS|ksfxdh vkSj vuqHkoksa dk ykHk mBkdj viuk vkfFkZd fodkl djus yxrs gSa rc bl n'kk dks oS'ohdj.k dgrs gSaA lkekftd vkSj lkaLÑfrd vk/kkj ij oS'ohdj.k mRrj vk/kqfudrk dh mUur n'kk dk uke gSA fo'o ds izfr O;kogkfjd n`f"Vdks.k tc fofHkUu ns'kksa ds chp lkekftd vkSj lkaLÑfrd laca/kksa ds :i eas Li"V gksus yxrk gSA rc blh n'kk dks ge oS'ohdj.k dgrs gSaA m-12 uo e/;e oxZ dh fo'ks fo'ks"krk,sa &

04

1-

uo e/;e oxZ lkaLÑfrd vlarqyu dh n'kk gSA

2-

Mh-ih- eq[kthZ }kjk uo e/;e if'peh
3-

uo e/;e oxZ thou ds izR;sd {ks= eas Lora= rjg ds vkpj.k djuk gSA

4-

;g oxZ ,d rjg ds vkRe dsfUnzr oxZ gSA

5-

bl oxZ eas miHkksDrkoknh laLÑfr dk rsth ls c<+uk gSA

6-

izn'kZuokn bl oxZ dh ,d vU; fo'ks"krk gSA

7-

;g oxZ ifjorZu vkSj uohurk eas dksbZ cqjkbZ ugha ns[krkA 14

vFkok m-

vfHktu lewg & vfHktu dk vFkZ mu yksxksa ds lewg ls gksrk gS tks egRoiw.kZ jktuSfrd

inksa ij vklhu gksrs gSaA vFkok ftUgsa cM+s cM+s vf/kdkfj;ksa ds :i eas ljdkj dh vksj ls iz'kklu ds dqN fo'ks"k vf/kdkj lkSais tkrs gSaA ijsVks usa lHkh vfHktuksa dks 'kkldh; vfHktu vkSj xSj 'kkldh; vfHktu tSlh nks Jsf.k;ksa eas foHkkftr fd;kA orZeku le; eas mu lHkh lewgksa dks vfHktu lewg ekuk tkrk gS tks jktuSfrd] iz'kklu] m|ksx] izkS|ksfxdh] izca/k] f'k{kk] fpfdRlk blh rjg ds vusd {ks=ksa eas viuh ;ksX;rk vkSj dq'kyrk ds dkj.k lekt dk usr`Ro djus yxrs gSaA m-13 latkrh;rk tkrh;rk dk vFkZ &

05

latkrh;rk ,d ,slh Hkkouk gS tks laLÑfr] /keZ] {ks=] Hkk"kk] os'kHkw"kk vFkok thou'kSyh ds vk/kkj ij fdlh fo'ks"k leqnk; dks viuh ,d vyx igpku cuk;s j[kus dk izksRlkgu nsrh gSA latkrh;rk dk laca/k mu iwokZxzgksa ls gS ftuds vk/kkj ij ,d ls ,d latkrh;rk lewg vius ls fHkUu latkrh; lewg ls i`Fkdrk eglwl djus yxrk gSA vkSj dHkh dHkh nwljs dh rqyuk eas vius dks vf/kd Js"B ;k mPp fn[kkus dh dksf'k'k djrk gSA lekt 'kkL= eas bl n'kk dks latkrh;rk dh izo`fRr dgk tkrk gSA vFkok vk/kqfud Hkkjr eas ,drk ds eq[; rRo & 1-

Hkkjrh; lafo/kku eas lekurk] Lora=rk vkSj /keZ fujis{krk dks vf/kd egRo fn;kA

2-

ljdkj }kjk lHkh {ks=ksa ds fodkl dks leku egRo fn;k x;kA

3-

iapk;rksa ls ysdj laln rd eas lHkh /keksaZ vkSj tkfr;ksa ds yksxksa dk izfrfuf/kRo gSA

4-

iwjs ns'k eas lHkh ds fy;s leku dkuwuksa ds }kjk U;k; fn;k tkrk gSA 15

5-

tu lapkj ds lk/kuksa ls fofHkUu leqnk; ,d nwljs ls fudV vkrs tk jgs gSaA

m-14 Hkkjr eas uxjh; leqnk; dh eq[; fo'ks"krk,sa & 1-

tula[;k dh vf/kdrkA

2-

lkekftd fofHkUurkA

3-

fodflr izkS|ksfxdhA

4-

Je foHkktu vkSj fo'ks"khdj.kA

5-

O;kolkf;d fHkUurkA

6-

vkfFkZd fHkUurk,saA

7-

izfrLi/kkZA

8-

f}rh;d laca/kA

9-

vkfFkZd xfr'khyrkA

05

10- vkSipkfjd fu;a=.kA ¼mijksDr ikap fcUnqvksa dk la{ksi eas o.kZu djuk gSA½ vFkok tkfr rFkk oxZ eas varj & 1-

tkfr dh lnL;rk tUe ij vk/kkfjr gksrh gSA oxZ dh lnL;rk O;fDr dh ;ksX;rk vkSj lEifRr ls lacaf/kr gksrh gSA

2-

ijaijkxr :i ls izR;sd tkfr dk ,d fuf'pr O;olk; gksrk gSA oxZ O;oLFkk eas izR;sd O;fDr dksbZ Hkh O;olk; dj ldrk gSA

3-

tkfr dh lnL;rk eas ifjorZu ugha fd;k tk ldrkA oxksZa dh izÑfr [kqyh gqbZ gksrh gSA

4-

tkfr ds fu;eksa dk laca/k ijaijk ls gksrk gSA oxZ ls lacaf/kr fu;e cnyrs jgrs gSaA

5-

tkfr;ksa ds chp Å¡p&uhp dk Li"V laLrj.k gksrk gSA fdlh Hkh oxZ dks nwljs dh rqyuk eas Å¡pk&uhpk ugha dgk tk ldrkA

16

m-15 v"Vkafxd ekxZ &

05

ckS) /keZ ds varxZr v"Vkafxd ekxZ dk vFkZ vkB eq[; dk;ksaZ ls gS & 1-

vk;Z 'kfDr;ksa dk leqfpr KkuA

2-

n`<+ fu'p;A

3-

lp cksyukA

4-

fgalk vkSj nqjkpkj ls cpukA

5-

bZekunkjh ls vkthfodk pykukA

6-

vPNs dkeksa ds fy;s yxkrkj iz;Ru djukA

7-

ykyp vkSj larki ls cpukA

8-

jkx vkSj }s"k ls vius vkidks vyx j[kukA vFkok vFkok

m-

iap _.k & iap _.k fganq /keZ dk ,d fl)kar gSA fgUnq /keZ O;fDrokn dks egRo u

nsdj lkewfgdrk dks egRo nsrk gSA izR;sd O;fDr ij ikap rjg ds _.k gksrs gSa& 1-

nso _.kA

2-

_f"k _.kA

3-

fir` _.kA

4-

vfrfFk _.kA

5-

tho _.kA

1-

nso _.k % lcls igys O;fDr nsorksa ds :i eas bZ'ojh; 'kfDr dk _.kh gSA D;ksafd mlh usa gesa tUe nsdj gekjk ikyu&iks"k.k fd;k gSA

2-

_f"k _.k % _f"k;ksa rFkk mu Kkuoku yksxksa dk gksrk gS ftudh lgk;rk ls ge lekt ds izfr vius dRrZO;ksa dks iwjk djuk lh[krs gSaA

3-

fir` _.k % fir` _.k dk vFkZ ekrk&firk ds _.k ls gSA ekrk&firk gh gesa tUe nsdj gekjk ikyu&iks"k.k djrs gSaA

17

4-

vfrfFk _.k % fdrus gh vatku yksx thou eas gekjh lgk;rk djrs gSaA blfy;s O;fDr vfrfFk;ksa dk Hkh _.kh gksrk gSA

5-

tho _.k % tho _.k dk vFkZ mu vusd NksVs thoksa vkSj ouLifr;ksa ds _.k ls gS ftudh lgk;rk ls ge thfor jgrs gSaA

m-16 cqfu;knh f'k{kk &

05

egkRek xka/kh th usa vkfFkZd :i ls detksj ns'k ds fy;s ,d ,slh f'k{kk O;oLFkk ij tksj fn;k ftldh lgk;rk ls yksx ijaijkxr nLrdkjh vkSj O;olk; ds }kjk ljyrk ls O;olk; ds volj izkIr dj ldsaA mudk fopkj Fkk fd drkbZ&cqukbZ] c<+bZfxjh] i'kqikyu] yksgkjfxjh] crZu cukus dh dyk tSls O;olk;ksa dh f'k{kk ls gh uo;qodksa dks O;kogkfjd Kku fey ldrk gSA bl f'k{kk dks ^cqfu;knh f'k{kk* dk uke fn;k x;k gSA cqfu;knh f'k{kk dk ;g izko/kku j[kk x;k fd cPps dks lkr o"kZ ls pkSng o"kZ rd dh vk;q rd vfuok;Z :i ls ;g f'k{kk nh tk;sA f'k{kk dk ek/;e ekr`Hkk"kk ds :i eas fgUnh gksuk pkfg;sA rFkk bldk mn~ns'; izR;sd ;qod dks vkRe fuHkZj cukuk gks rFkk f'k{kk bl izdkj dh gks fd O;fDr Lo;a gh thfodk mikftZr djuk [kqn gh lh[k tk;sA cPps dh izfrHkk dks fodflr djuk Hkh bl f'k{kk dk mn~ns'; FkkA vFkok m-

f'k{kk ds eq[; mn~ns'; &

1-

O;fDr dk lekthdj.k djukA

2-

vius thou ij Lo;a fu;a=.k j[kukA

3-

O;fDr vkthfodk mikftZr djus ds ;ksX; cu ldsA

4-

O;fDr eas ,slh {kerk,sa fodflr djuk ftlls vius fy;s ,d vyx LFkku cuk ldsA

5-

f'k{kk dk ,d eq[; mn~ns'; uSfrd fodkl djuk gSA

18

m-17 lkaLÑfrdj.k dh vo/kkj.kk &

05

lkaLÑfrdj.k og izfØ;k gS ftlds varxZr fuEu tkfr;ka mPp tkfr;ksa dh lkaLÑfrd fo'ks"krkvksa dks xzg.k djds tkfr lajpuk eas viuh izfLFkfr dks Å¡pk mBkus dk iz;Ru djrh gSA ,e,e-,u,u- Jhfuokl & ßlkaLÑfrdj.k og izfØ;k gS ftlds }kjk dksbZ fuEu fgUnq tkfr ;k tutkfr vius ls mPp fdlh tkfr vkSj izk;% f}t tkfr;ksa ds leku gh vius jhfr&fjoktksa] deZdk.Mksa] fopkjksa vkSj thou'kSfy;ksa dsk cnyus yxrh gSaAÞ lkaLÑfrdj.k dh fo'ks"krk,sa & 1-

lkaLÑfrdj.k og izfØ;k gS tks fuEu tkfr;ksa dh ijaijkxr] lkekftd izkfLFkfr eas gksus okys ifjorZu vkSj lq/kkj dks Li"V djrh gSA

2-

lkaLÑfrdj.k dqN ckgjh n'kkvksa dk ifj.kke ugha gS tc lekt dh lajpuk eas vkarfjd ifjorZu gksrk gS rHkh ;g izfØ;k gksrh gSA

3-

lkaLÑfrdj.k dk vkn'kZ izHkq tkfr vFkok izHkko'kkyh tkfr gh gksrh gSA

4-

lkaLÑfrdj.k dk laca/k ,d cM+s lewg }kjk mPp tkfr dh lkaLÑfrd fo'ks"krkvksa dks xzg.k djus ls gSA

5-

lkaLÑfrdj.k dh izfØ;k oSfnd ;qx ls ysdj vkt rd dqN iz;Ruksa }kjk viuh lkekftd fLFkfr dks Å¡pk mBkus dk iz;Ru djrh jgh gSA vFkok

m-

if'pehdj.k dh fo'ks"krk,sa & 1-

,d rVLFk vo/kkj.kk % ;g izfØ;k uSfrd :i ls blfy;s rVLFk gS fd blds vuqlkj fdlh ifjorZu dks igys dh rqyuk eas vPNk ;k cqjk ugha dgk tk ldrkA

2-

,d O;kid vo/kkj.kk % if'pehdj.k dh izfØ;k dk {ks= cgqr O;kid gSA bleas vusd izdkj ds ifjorZuksa dk lekos'k gSA

19

3-

,d fuf'pr vkn'kZ dk vHkko % Hkkjr eas if'pehdj.k dh izfØ;k fdlh ,d ns'k dks vkn'kZ ekudj ugha pyrhA

4-

u, ewY;ksa dk lekos lekos'k % Hkkjrh; laLÑfr ds ijaijkxr ewY;ksa dh txg if'peh laLÑfr ds bu ewY;ksa dks xzzg.k djus dh izfØ;k dk uke gh if'pehdj.k gSA

5-

,d tfVy izfØ;k % if'pehdj.k dks bl dkj.k ,d tfVy izfØ;k dgk tkrk gS fd bldh izÑfr dks ge ijaijkxr Hkkjrh; laLÑfr dh rqyuk djds gh le> ldrs gSaA

6-

tkx:d iz;Ruksa dk lekos'k % if'pehdj.k vius vki fodflr gksus okyh izfØ;k ugha gSA bldk laca/k gekjs tkx:d iz;Ruksa ls gSA

m-18 tulapkj ds lk/ku &

05

tulapkj ds fofHkUu lk/kuksa dk dke ns'k ds vyx&vyx fgLlksa eas ?kfVr gksus okyh ?kVukvksa] jktuSfrd xfrfof/k;ksa] varjkZ"Vªh; laca/kksa] rjg rjg dh lkekftd] vkfFkZd leL;kvksa] fodkl dk;ZØeksas vkSj fofHkUu oxksZa dh Hkwfedkvksa dh tkudkjh nsus ds lkFk tulk/kkj.k dks euksjatu dh lqfo/kk;sa nsuk gSA tulapkj ds eq[; lk/ku & 1-

VsyhohtuA

2-

jsfM;ksA

3-

lekpkj i= if=dk,saA

4-

pyfp=A

5-

nwjlapkj rFkkA

6-

O;aX; fp=A

¼dksbZ ikap fcUnqvksa dk o.kZu ikap&ikap okD; eas djuk gS½ vFkok

20

m-

Hkkjr eas f'k{kk dh leL;k,sa & 1-

f'k{kk ij xSj ljdkjh izca/kdksa dk izHkko c<+us ls lkekftd vlekurk,sa c<+ jgh gSaA

2-

izkFkfed f'k{kk ds fy;s fn;s tkus okys /ku dk leqfpr mi;ksx ugha gksrkA

3-

f'k{kk eas O;kogkfjd fu;kstu dh cgqr deh gSA blh dkj.k lk{kjrk dk y{; iwjk ugha gks ikrkA

4-

f'k{kk ls lacaf/kr uhfr;ksa vkSj f'k{kdksa dh fu;qfDr;ksa eas usrkvksa dk c<+rk gqvk gLr{ksi ,d eq[; leL;k gSA

5-

orZeku f'k{kk iz.kkyh ds }kjk Nk=ksa dh ;ksX;rk dk lgh ewY;kadu ugha gks ikrkA

m-19 HkfDr vkanksyu ds mn~ns'; & 1-

05

nqcZy yksxksa dh lgk;rk djuk gh bZ'oj dks izkIr djus dk lcls vPNk rjhdk gSA

2-

HkfDr vkanksyu dk mn~ns'; lekt ds ewy
3-

bZ'oj ds fy;s lHkh euq"; leku gSaA

4-

HkkbZ&pkjs dh Hkkouk dks fodflr djukA

5-

NqvkNwr] lfr izFkk vkSj cky fookg dk O;kid fojks/k djukA vFkok

m-

fgalk ds dkj.k &

1-

dqaBk % vlQyrk ds dkj.k O;fDr eas dqaBk vkSj ghurk iSnk gksus yxrh gSA ,sls yksx naM dh fpark ugha djrsA

21

2-

vlarks"k dk jktuhfrdj.k % vlarks"k dk dkj.k tSls HksnHkko] Hkz"Vkpkj vkfn ls jktuhfrd nyksa }kjk vius fgrksa dks iwjk djus ds fy;s fd;k tkus yxrk gSA blls gM+rky] can] rksM+QksM+ tSlh ?kVuk;sa gksrh jgrh gSaA

3-

lekt dk vlarqfyr fodkl % fofHkUu lektksa eas vlarqfyr fodkl ds QyLo:i Hkh ruko] la?k"kZ vkSj fgalk eas o`f) gksrh gSA

4-

vkradokn % orZeku;qx eas nqfu;k ds fofHkUu fgLlksa eas vkradoknh xfrfof/k;ksa eas gksus okyh o`f) fgalk dk ,d izeq[k dkj.k gSA

5-

laØe.kdkyhu n'kk;sa % tc lekt ifjorZu ds nkSj ls xqtjrk gS rks mleas le; dh ekax ds vuqlkj fofHkUu laLFkkvksa vkSj O;ogkj ds rjhdksa eas dfBurk ls gh dksbZ ifjorZu gks ikrk gSA

m-20 tutkfr;ks tutkfr;ksa dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,sa & 1-

06

lkekU; uke % izR;sd tutkfr dk viuk ,d uke gksrk gS tSls xkSaM] eqaMk] Hkhy vkfnA

2-

,d {ks=h; leqnk; & izR;sd tutkfr ,d fuf'pr Hkw&Hkkx eas fuokl djrh gSA tSls taxyh] igkM+h {ks=A

3-

i`Fkd Hkk"kk & izR;sd tutkfr dh ,d vyx Hkk"kk gksrh gSA

4-

vkRefuHkZjrk & tutkfr ,d vkRefuHkZj leqnk; gSA

5-

jktuhfrd laxBu % Hkkjr eas yxHkx lHkh tutkfr;ksa ds vius&vius lkekftd dkuwu gSaA

6-

lekurk dh psruk % lHkh tutkfr;ka viuh mRifRr fdlh dkYifud iwoZt ;k VksVe ls ekurh gSaA lHkh n'kkvksa eas ,d nwljs dks lg;ksx nsrs gSaA

7-

vUrfoZokgh leqnk;A

891011-

/kkfeZd fof'k"VrkA fiNM+h gqbZ vFkZO;oLFkkA izFkkxr dkuwu rFkkA lkekftd laLrj.k dk vHkkoA

¼mi;qZDr 11 fcUnqvksa eas ls fdUgha N% dk o.kZu gks½ 22

vFkok vFkok m-

tkfr O;oLFkk dh fo'ks"krk,sa & 1-

lekt dk [kaMukRed foHkktuA

2-

laLrj.kA

3-

[kku&iku eas izfrca/kA

4-

lkekftd vkSj /kkfeZd fu;ksZX;rk,saA

5-

O;kolkf;d foHkktuA

6-

vUrfoZokgA

7-

vknj izfreku rFkkA

8-

tkfr;ksa dh vUrfuHkZjrkA

¼dksbZ 6 fcUnqvksa dks foLrkj ls fy[kk gks½ m-21 Hkkjr eas jkT; ds lkeus pqukSfr;ka & 1- lkekftd vkanksyuA 2- ncko lewg fgr lewg vkSj la?koknA 3- lkEiznkf;drkA 4- {ks=oknA 5- tkfroknA 6- Hkz"VkpkjA 7- fons'kh dwVuhfrA ¼mi;qZDr dksbZ 6 fcUnqvksa dk foLrkj ls o.kZu fd;k gksuk pkfg;s½ vFkok m-

jkT; jkT; ds izeq[k vk/kkj & 1- izHkqlRrkA 2- lalnh; yksdra=A 3- la?kh; lajpukA 4- yksdrkaf=d fodsUnzhdj.kA 5- /keZfujis{krkA 6- U;k; Lora=rk vkSj lekurkA 7- cgqnyh; iz.kkyhA ¼mi;qZDr dksbZ 6 fcUnqvksa dh foospuk djus ij 6 vad nsa½

23

06

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