jktuhfr&foKku ktuhfr&foKku d{kk&XII Time:- 3 Hours

Minimum Marks-100

funsZ'k%& i. ii. iii. iv. v.

lHkh iz'u vfuok;Z gS iz'u i= esa 2 [k.M fn;s gS [k.M v vkSj [k.M c [k.M v esa fn;s x;s iz-Ø- 1 ls 5 rd oLrqfu"V iz'u gS ftuds varxZr lgh fodYi] fjDr LFkku] lR; vlR;] lgh tksMh cukuk rFkk ,d 'kCn esa mRrj nsuk gSA izR;sd iz’u ds fy;s 5 vad vkaofVr gSA Ikz’u Ø- 13 ls 19 rd izR;sd iz’u ds fy;s 5 vad vkoafVr gSA Ikz- Ø- 20 ,oa 21 esa izR;sd iz’u ds fy;s 6 vad vkoafVr gSA

Note:(i) All questions are compulsory (ii) There are two Sectors Section “A” & Section “B” in the question paper. (iii)In Section A Q. Nos. 1 to 5 are objective types which contain choose the correct answer, fill up the blanks, True/False, match the columns and one word answer each question is allotted 5 marks. (iv) In Section B Nos. 6 to 12 carry 4 Marks each (v) Q. Nos. 13 to 19 Carry 5 marks each. (vi) Q. Nos. 20 to 21 Carry 6 marks each.

[k.M &v Section-A

1- lgh fodYi pqudj fyf[k;saA ¼v½

Lora=rk ds le; Hkkjr esa dqy fj;klrs FkhA

¼1½ 562

¼2½ 535

¼3½ 462

¼4½ 375

(A)

How many provinces were there in India at the time of independence? 1

¼1½ 562

¼2½ 535

¼3½ 462

¼4½

375

¼c½ fiNMk oxZ vk;ksx ds v/;{k Fks ¼1½ Cgh- ih- flag

¼2½ ch-ih- eaMy

¼3½ ds-,l-nj

¼4½ dkdk dkysydj

(B)

The First Chairman of commission for back word Classes was-

¼1½

V.P. Singh

¼2½

V.P. Mandal

¼3½

K.S.dar

¼4½

Kaka Kalelkar

¼l½ 2001 esa Hkkjr dh fuj{krk Fkh& ¼1½

65.38 %

¼2½

34.62 %

¼3½

36.34 %

¼4½

61.52 %

(C)

The illiteracy rate in India in the year 2001 was

¼1½

65.38 %

¼2½

34.62 %

¼3½

36.34 %

¼4½

61.52 %

¼n½ xqV fujis{k vkanksyu ds izeq[k usrk Fks& ¼1½ egkRek xka/kh

¼2½ ekSykuk vktkn

¼3½ ia- tokgj yky usg:

¼4½ t; izdk’k ukjk;.k

(D)

The main leader of non aligned movement was

¼1½

Mahatma Gandhi

¼2½

Moulana Azad

¼3½

Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru

¼4½

Jay Prakesh Narayan

2

¼b½ Hkkjr us izFke ijek.kq foLQksV dgka fd;k ¼1½ fnYyh

¼2½ t;iqj

¼3½ tSlyesj

¼4½ iks[kju

(E)Where did India performed first Atomic Test?

¼1½

Delhi

¼2½

Jaipur

¼3½

Jaisalmer

¼4½

Pokhran

[k.M &v 2- fuEufyf[kr fjDr LFkkuks dh iwfrZ dhft;s%& Fill in the Blanks of the following-

¼v½ lafo/kku lHkk ds vLFkk;h v/;{k Jh------------------------------- Fks] (A)

The Temporary President of constituent Assembly was........................................

¼c½ Hkkjrh; ukxfjdksa ds --------------------- ekSfyd vf/kdkj gSA (B)

There are ----------------------- Fundamental Right of Indian Citizen

¼c½ jktHkk"kk vk;ksx ds v/;{k ----------------------------------Fksa (C)

----------------------- Was the Chairman of official language Commission

¼c½ lkdZ laxBu esa ----------------------jk"Vª lnL; gS (D)

.................................... Nations are the members of SARRC

¼c½ ;wjksih; la?k dh lk>k eqnzk dk uke ------------------- gSA (E)

........................... is the name of common currency of europian union.

3

3- fuEufyf[kr ds lR; @ vlR; fyf[k;s%& Write True/False for the following.

¼v½ Hkkjrh; lafo/kku dk fuekZ.k lafo/kku lHkk us fd;k FkkA (A)

Indian Constitution was made by a constituent Assembly

¼c½ Hkkjrh; lafo/kku ekSf[kd lafo/kku gS (B)

Constitution of India is an unwritten constitution.

¼l½ uDlyokn ,d Økafrdkjh vkanksyu gS (C)

Naxalism is a evolutionistic agitation.

¼n½ la;qDr jk"Vª dk lfpoky; isfjl esa gS (D)

The Secretariat of the united Nation is situated at Paris.

¼b½ Hkwe.Myhdj.k esa iwjk fo’o cV tkrk gSA (E)

The Globalization the whole world disintegrates

4- lgh tksfM;ka cukb;s%& Match the correct Pairs

¼v½‘A’ 1- jkT; iquxZBu vk;ksx ds v/;{k Fks i. Chairman of state reorganization commission 2-egk’kfDr;ksa ls leku nwjh ii. The same distance of Super Power 3-la;qDr jk"Vª la/k dh fopkjkRed bZdkbZ iii. The deliberative units of united nation is 4-oS’ohdj.k iv. Globalization 5-fu%’kL=hdj.k v. The Disarmament is

4

¼c½‘B’ ¼v½ xqV fujis{krk (A) Non Alignment

¼c½ egklHkk (B) General Assembly

¼l½ U;k;ewfrZ QStyvyh (C) Justice Faizal Ali

¼n½ lh-Vh-oh-Vh (D) C.T.B.T

¼b½ ,d fo’kky oSf’od xzke (E) World becomes a huge Global village.

5- fuEu esa izR;sd dk ,d 'kCn esa mRrj nhft;sa Write answer in one word each:-

¼v½ Hkkjr fo’o cSad dk fdl izdkj dk lnL; gSA (A)

Of what category India is Member of the World Bank

¼c½ varjk"Vªh; U;k;ky; esa fdrus U;k;/kh’k gksrs gS\ (B)

How many Judges are there in the international Court of Justice?

¼l½ Hkkjr dk oS’ohdj.k esa dkSu lk LFkku gSA (C)

What is the Position of India inglobaliasation?

¼n½ la;qDr jk"Vª la?k dh LFkkiuk dc gqbZ Fkh\ (D)

When was the United Nations organization established?

¼bZ½ laLd`fr;ksa ds e/; vknku&iznku dks D;k dgrs gS\ (E)

What is exchange of Culture?

[k.M &c Section -B

6- Hkkjr foHkktu ds fdUgh nks dkj.kksa dk mYys[k dhft;sa\ Mention any two reasons responsible for the Partition in India

vFkok

(Or)

d’ehj leL;k ds mn~Hko ds D;k dkj.k Fksa\ What were the reasons for the rise of Kashmir issue?

7- vuwlwfpr tkfr;ks ds fodkl ds fy;s D;k mik; fd;s x;s gSA What Plans have been made for the development of scheduled Castes?

vFkok 5

(Or)

jk"Vªh; fodkl ifj"kn ds fdUgh pkj dk;ksZ dk o.kZu dhft;s\ Explain about any four function of National development council.

8- Lkekftd vlekurk dk yksdra= ij D;k izHkko iMrk gS\ What are the effects of social inequality on Democracy?

vFkok

(Or)

fuj{krk ds dksbZ pkj dkj.k fyf[k;sa\ Mention four causes of illiteracy

9- Hkkjr esa Ik;kZoj.kh; iznw"k.k ds D;k dkj.k gS\ What are the causes of environmental Pollution in India?

vFkok

(Or)

lgdkjh laxBu ds pkj lkekftd ykHk fyf[k;sa Write any four benefits from co-operative organization?

10- Hkkjrh; fons’kuhfr ds fu/kkZjd rRo D;k gS\ What are the determining factors of Indian foreign Policy?

vFkok

(Or)

'khr;q) ds pkj fof’k"B dkj.k fyf[k;sa\ Write any four specific reasons for the Cold war?

11- Hkkjr phu laca/kks esa erHksn ds dkj.k fyf[k;s\ Write the causes of misunderstanding between the relations of India & China

vFkok

(Or)

Hkkjr us xqVfujis{krk uhfr dk vuqlj.k D;ks fd;k\ Why did India Followed the policy of non alignment?

12- oS’ohdj.k dh dksbZ 02 fo’ks"krk;s fyf[k;s\ Write any two characteristics of Globalization?

vFkok

(Or)

vkfFkZd mnkjhdj.k ds i{k esa rdZ nhft;s\ 6

Give arguments in favors of economic liberalization

13- jkT; iquxZBu vk;ksx dh eq[; flQkfj’kks dh O;k[;k djsa\ Explain the main recommendation of state Reorganization Commission?

vFkok

(Or)

'kj.kkfFkZ;ksa dh izeq[k leL;k;sa fyf[k;sa\ Write the main Problems of Refugees.

14- Ek.My vk;ksx dh izeq[k fo’ks"krk;sa fyf[k;s\ Write the main recommendation of the Mandal Commission?

vFkok

(Or)

;kstuk vk;ksx ds izeq[k dk;ksZ dks fyf[k;sa\ Write the main function of Planning Commission?

15- uDlyckn ij ,d laf{kIr fuca/k fyf[k;s\ Write a short essay on Naxalism?

vFkok

(Or)

{ks=h; vlarqyu ds izeq[k dkj.k D;k gS\ What are the causes of Regional Imbalance?

16- Hkkjr esa lgdkjh vkanksyu dh vlQyrk ds dkj.k crkb;s\ Write the Causes of the failure of Co-operative Movement in India?

vFkok

(Or)

Hkkjr esa Ik;kZoj.kh; iznw"k.k ds D;k dkj.k gS\ What are the Causes of environmental Pollution in India?

17- Ikap’khy ds fl)kar fyf[k;s\ Write the principles of Panchsheel?

vFkok

(Or)

'khr;q) ls vki D;k le>rs gks\ bldk varjk"Vªh; laca/kksa ij D;k izHkko iM+k\ What do you understand by Cold war? What were its effects on international relation? 7

18- Hkkjr vesfjdk ds laca/kksa dh foospuk dhft;s\ Discuss the relationship of India & USA?

vFkok

(Or)

Hkkjr ikd laca/kksa esa erHksn ds dkj.k fyf[k;sa\ Write the Causes of misunderstanding between the relation of India & Pakistan?

19- Lka;qDr jk"Vª la?k ds mn~ns’; le>kb;s\ Explain the objectives of U.N.O?

vFkok

(Or)

fu%’kL=hdj.k ds ekxZ esa dkSu&dkSu lh ck/kk;s gS\ What are the obstructions in the path of disarmament?

20- Hkkjrh; lafo/kku ds izeq[k L=ksr fyf[k;s\ Write the main Sources of Indian Constitution?

vFkok

(Or)

Hkkjr ds lafo/kku dh fo’ks"krkvksa dk mYys[k dhft;s\ Write down the features of the Indian Constitution?

21- xqV fujis{k vkanksyu dh miyfC/k;k¡ fyf[k;s\ What are the achievements of non aligned movement?

vFkok

(Or)

varjk"Vªh; eqnzk dks"k dh LFkkiuk ds mn~ns’; fyf[k;s\ Write the aims (Purposes) of International monetory fund?

8

vkn’kZ mÙkj (Meddle Answer)

[k.M&v mRrj& 1¼v½ ¼c½ ¼l½ ¼n½ ¼bZ½ mRrj& 2¼v½ ¼c½ ¼l½ ¼n½ ¼bZ½ mRrj& 3¼v½ ¼c½ ¼l½ ¼n½ ¼bZ½ mRrj& 4¼i½ ¼ ii½ ¼ iii½ ¼ iv½ ¼ v½ mRrj& 5¼v½ ¼c½ ¼l½ ¼n½ ¼bZ½

562 ch-ih-eaMy 34-62 % ia- tokgj yky usg: iks[kju Jh lfPpnkuan flUgk 06 Jh ch-ts- [ksj 08 ;wjks lR; vlR; lR; vlR; vlR; l v c bZ n ekSfyd 15 49 okW 24 vDVwcj 1945 lkaLd`frd mnkjhdj.k

9

[k.M&c mRrj& 6- Hkkjr foHkktu ds dkj.k (i)

eqfLyeksa esa f}jk"Vªokn dh HkkoukA

(ii) vaxzstks

}kjk eqlyekuksa dh lEizknkf;d Hkkouk dks c
(iii)dkaxzsl

dh rqf"Vdj.k dh uhfrA

(iv) vkarfjd

ljdkj esa eqfLye yhx dks 'kkfey djukA

uksV%& izR;sd 01 dkj.k ij 2 vad iznku fd;s tk;sxasA vFkok d’ehj leL;k dk mn~Hko d’ehj ds egkjktk Fkh gfjflag }kjk mi;qDr le; esa fu.kZ; u ysus ds dkj.k izkjaEHk gqbZ foy; esa fu.kZ; laca/kh foyEc ds dkj.k izfrfØ;k oknh] vyxkoa oknh ,oa dV~VjiafFk;ksa ds 'kfDr;ksa us tEew d’ehj esa viuk nkok izkajEHk dj fn;kA

uksV%&2 vad

24 vDVwcj 1947 esa tc ikfdLrku us d’ehj ij vkØe.k fd;k vkSj ogk¡ ds jktk }kjk Hkkjr esa lgk;rk dh ekax dh xbZA Hkkjr ds }kjk rduhdh vleFkZrk fn[kk;s tkus ij d’ehj ds egkjktk us foy; Lohdkj fd;k o Hkkjr us d’ehj ls dckbyh vkØe.kdkfj;ksa dks [knsMus dk dk;Z izkjaHHk fd;kA bl le; d’ehj dk yxHkx 40 izfr’kr Hkkx ij ikfdLrku us dCtk tek j[kk FkkA ikfdLrku bl Hkkx dks vktkn d’ehj ekurk gS bls ikd vf/kd`r d’ehj dgrk gSA UkksV%& lkjxfHkZr mRrj fy[kus ij 4 vad izkIr gksxsaA mRrj& 7- vuqlwfpr tkfr o vuqlwfpr tutkfr ds fodkl dh ;kstuk;s%& 1- vuwlwfpr tkfr o tutkfr ds mEehnokjksa ds fy;s izf’k{k.k ;kstuk 2- nloh d{kk ds igys rFkk ckn esa Nk=o`fRr;k¡A 3- vuq- tkfr o tutkfr ds Nk=ksa ds fy;s fons’kh Nk=o`fRr;k¡A 10

4- vuqlwfpr efgyk vkSj cky&fodkl ds fy;s ijke’kZnk=h ifj"kn dh O;oLFkkA 5- vuq- tkfr o tutkfr ds fodkl dk;ZØe esa yxh xSj ljdkjh laLFkkvksa dks vuqnku dh O;oLFkkA uksV%& dksbZ 4 fcanq fy[kus ij pkj vad izkIr gksxsaA vFkok jk"Vªh; fodkl ifj"kn ds dk;Z%& dsUnzh; ea=hifj"kn ds lHkh lnL; dsUnz 'kkflr izns’kksa ds iz’kkld rFkk ;kstuk vk;ksx ds lHkh lnL; bl ifj"kn ds lnL; gksrs gSA dk;Z%& 1- ;kstuk vk;ksx }kjk rS;kj dh xbZ ;kstuk ij fopkj foe’kZ djuk rFkk mldh Lohd`fr nsukA 2- ;kstuk ds fy;s fn’kk funsZ’k tkjh djukA 3- jk"Vªh; fodkl dks izHkkfor djus okyh lkekftd rFkk vkfFkZd uhfr;ksa dh leh{kk djukA 4- ;kstuk ds fu/kkZfjr y{;ksa rFkk mn~ns’;ksa dh foospuk djuk rFkk mldh izkfIr ds fy;s mik; crkukA 5- dsUnz rFkk jkT;ksa ds e/; fodkl laca/kh dk;ksZ esa lEkUo; cuk;s j[kukA uksV%& dksbZ Hkh pkj fcUnq fy[kus ij 4 vad izkIr gksxsaA mRrj& 8- lkekftd vlkeurk dk dyad Hkkjrh; lekt ij fuEu fyf[kr izHkko Mkyrk gS%& 1- fuEu tkfr;ksa dks gs; o ?k`.kk dh n`f"V ls ns[kk tkrk gSA 2- lafo/kku }kjk Nqvk&Nwr dks xSj dkuwuh ;k vijk/k ?kksfa"kr dj fn;s tkus ds ckn Hkh lekt esa vkt Nqvk&Nwr dh Hkkouk thfor gSA 3- ns’k dh iz’kklfud lsokvksa esa vkt Hkh mPp oxZ dk gh izHkqRo gSA 11

4- lekt esa fL=;ksa dh x.kuk Hkh nqcZy oxZ esa gh dh tkrh gS mUgs vkt Hkh iq:"kks ds leku lqfo/kk;sa izkIr ugha gSA vkt ds iq:"k iz/kku lekt esa fL=;ksa dh mis{kk gks jgh gSA bl izdkj L=h o iq:"k ds e/; Hkh lkekftd vlekurk;sa ik;h tkrh gSA uksV%& lkekftd vlkeurk ds izHkko lgh mRrj fy[kus ij 4 vad izkIr gksxsaA vFkok fuj{krk ds dkj.k%& 1- tkx:drk dh deh 2- lkekftd fiNMkiu 3- :f<+okfnrk 4- Xkjhch 5- Lkk{kjrk laca/kh mfpr lk/kuksa dh dehA uksV%& dksbZ pkj fcUnq la{ki esa o.kZu djus ij pkj vad izkIr gksxsaA mRrj& 9- Hkkjr esa Ik;kZoj.kh; iznw"k.k ds dkj.k fuEu gS%& 1- HkkSfrd fodkl dk vlarqfyr dk;ZØe 2- cMs iSekus esa [kuu 3- ouksa dk fouk’k 4- iznw"k.k mRiUu djus okys m|ksxksa dk foLrkj 5- dhVk.kquk’kd inkFkksZ dk vR;f/kd iz;ksx 6- Lopkfyr ;ku uksV% dksbZ 4 fcUnq fy[kus ij 4 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA vFkok 12

lgdkjh laxBu ds lkekftd ykHk%& lgdkjh laxBu dh lQyrk dh foospuk fuEu izdkj ls dh tk ldrh gS%& 1- Xkzkeh.k thou dk fodkl 2- 'kks"k.k dk var 3- Je dk mfpr izfrQy 4- uSfrd fodkl uksV%& pkj fcUnq fy[kus ij pkj vad fn;s tk;s tk;sxsaA mRrj& 10- Hkkjrh; fons’kuhfr ds fu/kkZjd rRo fuEu gS%& 1- HkkSxkSfyd rRo 2- ,sfrgkfld ijEijk;sa 3- jk"Vªfgr 4- lSfud lqj{kk 5- vkfFkZd rRo 6- fopkj/kkjkvksa dk izHkko uksV%& dksbZ pkj fcUnq fy[kus ij pkj vad fn;s tk;sxsaA vFkok 'khr;q) ds pkj fof’k"V dkj.k %& 1- ;q)dkyhu lansg ,oa vfo’okl 2- lS)kafrd erHksn 3- vesfjdk fojks/kh izpkj 4- yS.Myht le>kSrs dk lekiu uksV%& pkj fcanq fy[kus ij pkj vad fn;s tk;sxsaA 13

mRrj& 11- Hkkjr phu laca/kksa esa erHksn ds dkj.k%& 1- frCcr leL;k 2- Hkkjr phu lhek fookn 3- phu dh nksgjh uhfr 4- phu dk ikfdLrku dks Hkjiwj leFkZu nsuk 5- ,f’k;k {ks= esa usr`Ro dk Vdjko uksV%& dksbZ pkj fcUnq fy[kus ij pkj vad fn;s tk;sxsA vFkok Hkkjr us xqV fujis{k uhfr dk vuqlj.k fuEu dkj.kksa ls fd;k%& 1- fo'o 'kkafr dh Hkkouk 2- vkfFkZd iqufuZekZ.k 3- Lora= ,oa fu"i{k uhfr dh Hkkouk 4- lS)kafrd erHksn 5- ,f’k;k ,oa vQzhdh ns’kksa dk ekxZn’kZu djus dh Hkkouk 6- jk"Vªh; fgr uksV%& dksbZ pkj fcUnq dk laf{kIr o.kZu djus ij pkj vad fn;s tk;sxsaA mRrj&12- oS’ohdj.k dh fo’ks"krk;s%& 1- O;kikj dk rhoz fodkl gksrk gS blls cgqjk"Vªh; fuxe T;knk fodflr gksrs gSA 2- jk"Vª dh vFkZO;oLFkk dks fo’o dh vFkZO;oLFkk ds lkFk Lohd`r fd;k tkrk gS ftlesa jktuhfrd vkSj HkkSxksfyd vojks/k lekIr gks tkrs gSA 3- vUrjkZ"Vªh; cktkj dk izknqHkkZo gksrk gS ;k vUrZjk"Vªh; cktkjksa dk ,dhdj.k gks tkrk gSA 14

uksV%& dksbZ nks fcUnq fy[kus ij 4 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA vFkok vkfFkZd mnkjhdj.k ds i{k esa rdZ%& 1- vkfFkZd mnkjhdj.k ls vFkZO;oLFkk dks izfrca/kksa ls eqfDr izkIr gksus ls [kqyk :Ik izkIr gksrk gSA blls lkoZtfud ,oa futh {ks= esa m|ksxksa ds foLrkj dk volj feyrk gSA 2- vkfFkZd mnkjhdj.k ls m|ksxksa dks vius futh iz;klksa ls vko’;d /ku miyC/k djkus esa lgk;rk feyrh gSA fons’kh fuos’k dks c
jkT;ksa dk iquxZBu jk"Vªh; lqj{kk] foRrh; ,oa iz’kklfud vko’;drk rFkk iapo"khZ; ;kstukvksa dh lQyrk dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, fd;k tkuk pkfg;saA 15

3- ,-ch-lh- ,oa Mh- oxksZ esa foHkkftr jkT;ksa dks lekIr dj fn;k tk;s rFkk budh txg ij lksyg jkT;ksa rFkk rhu dsUnz’kkflr izns’kksa dk fuekZ.k fd;k tk;A 4- lHkh jkT;ksa esa ^^jktizeq[k** in dks lekIr dj jkT;iky in dh LFkkiuk djus dh flQkfj’k dhA uksV%& lgh mRrj fy[kus ij 5 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA vFkok 'kj.kkFkhZ leL;k%& Hkkjr esa 'kj.kkFkhZ leL;k rsth ls c
uksV%& laiw.kZ mRrj fy[kus ij iwjs 5 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA vFkok ;kstuk vk;sx ds izeq[k dk;Z%& 1- ns’k ds HkkSfrd] iwathxr ,oa ekuoh; lalk/kuksa dk vuqeku yxkrs gq, jk"Vªh; lalk/kuksa ds vf/kdkf/kd izHkkoh ,oa larqfyr mi;ksx gsrq ;kstuk fufeZr djukA 2- ;kstuk ds fofHkUu pj.kksa dk fu/kkZj.k djds izkFkfedrk ds vk/kkj ij lalk/kuksa dk vkoaVu djukA 3- ;kstuk ds izR;sd pj.k ds fØ;kU;u ds ifj.kke Lo:I izkIr lQyrkvksa dh le;≤ ij leh{kk djds lq/kkjkRed ijke’kZ nsukA 4- dsUnz rFkk mldh bZdkbZ jkT;ksa dh ljdkjksa }kjk fo’ks"k leL;k ij ijke’kZ ekaxus ij viuh lykg nsukA 5- vkfFkZd fodkl esa ck/kd rRoksa dh igpku djds mUgs ljdkj dks crkuk ;kstuk vk;ksx ds dk;Z {ks= ds varxZr gh vkrk gSA uksV%& laiw.kZ mRrj fy[kus ij 5 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA mRrj&15- uDlyokn ij laf{kIr fuca/k%& uDlyokn 'kCn ,d ,sls fgalkRed vkanksyu dk uke gS tks vkfnoklh cgqy {ks=ksa esa Lkk/kughu yksxksa ds thou esa dzkafrdkjh ifjorZu ykus ds fy;s l’kL= dzkafr dk lgkjk ysrs gSA ;g vkanksyu tehnkjh dqizFkk ls =Lr fu/kZu vkSj vkfnoklh lekt ds yksxksa }kjk ,d 'kfDr’kkyh laxBu ds :I esa lu~ 1960 ds n’kd esa if’peh caxky ds nktZfyax ftys ds uDly xkao esa fdlku vkanksyu ds uke ls izkjaEHk gqvkA blsa uDly oknh vkanksyu dgk tkus yxkA

17

uDlyoknh vkanksyu ds rhu mn~ns’;%& 1- [ksr tksrus okys dks [ksr dk LokfeRo feysaA 2- Oku laink dks u"V gksus ls cpk;k tk;s ,oa bu {ks=ksa esa m|ksxksa dks lfEefyr ugha fd;k tkuk pkfg;saA 3- 'kklu dh gB/kfeZrk dks Bhd rjg l’kL= :Ik esa laxfBr gksdj ,d fuf’pr j.kuhfr ls lekIr djus gsrq fgalkRed dk;Zokgh ls ugh fgpfdpkus ij fo’okl j[krk gSA uksV%& laiw.kZ mRrj fy[kus ij 5 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA vFkok {ks=h; vlarqyu ds izeq[k dkj.k%& 1- {ks=h; valrqyu dk ,d izeq[k dkj.k fodkl ;kstukvksa dks iw.kZ:is.k lQyrk u feyuk gSA 2- {ks=h; valrqyu ds fy;s foijhr jktuhfrd ,oa iz’kklfud ifjfLFkfr;kWa Hkh mRrjnk;h gSA 3- mRiknu esa /ku rFkk ;a=ksa ds lkFk&lkFk ekuoh; 'kfDr dh Hkh Hkkjh mi;ksfxrk gksrh gS vkSj ekuoh; 'kfDr :ih iwath ds vHkko esa {ks=h; vlarqyu dks iuius dk volj feyrk gSA 4- {ks=h; vlarqyu dk ,d vU; dkj.k jktuhfrd bPNk 'kfDr dh deh Hkh gSA uksV%& laiw.kZ mRrj fy[kus ij 5 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA mRrj&16- Hkkjr esa lgdkjh vkanksyu dh vlQyrk ds dkj.k%& 1- fu;kstu dh deh 2- vdq’ky izca/k O;oLFkk 18

3- 'kkldh; gLr{ksi 4- vf'k{kk 5- fuf"Ø; lfefr;kaW uksV%& ikap fcUnq la{ksi esa fy[kus ij 5 vad fn;s fn;s tk;sxsaA vFkok Hkkjr esa i;kZoj.kh; iznw"k.k ds dkj.k%& 1- uxjhdj.k ,oa vkS/kksfxdhdj.k dh t:jrksa dks iw.kZ djus gsrq Hkkjh ek=k esa ouksa dh dVkbZ i;kZoj.kh; iznw"k.k dk izeq[k dkj.k gSA vkWDlhtu ds izeq[k okgd isMksa dh dVkbZ ls Hkwfe dh mitkÅ {kerk esa deh vkrh gSA 2- d`f"k ds O;kikjhdj.k us Hkh i;kZoj.kh; iznw"k.k dks ckSrs esa 29 vizSy 1954 dks fd;k x;k FkkA 19

iap’khy ds fl)kar fuEufyf[kr gS%& 1- izR;sd jk"Vª ,d nwljs dh izknsf’kd v[kaMrk rFkk izHkqlRrk dk vknj djsaA 2- dksbZ jk"Vª fdlh vU; jk"Vª ij vkdze.k u djsaA 3- jk"Vª ,d nwljs ds vkarfjd ekeyksa esa gLr{ksi u djsaA 4- izR;sd jk"Vª nwljs jk"Vª ds lkFk lekurk rFkk ikjLifjd fgrksa ds vk/kkj ij ikjLifjd laca/k LFkkfir djsaA 5- izR;sd jk"Vª nwljs jk"Vª ds vfLrRo dk vknj djrs gq, 'kkafriw.kZ lg vfLrRo dh uhfr ij pysaA uksV%& laiw.kZ mRrj fy[kus ij ikap vad fn;s tk;sxsaA vFkok 'khr;q) dk vUrjkZ"Vªh; laca/kksa ij izHkko%& 'khr;q) %& 'khr;q) ,d ,slk ;q) gS ftldk j.k{ks= ekuo efLr"d gksrk gSA ;g gfFk;kjksa ls ugha yMk tkdj izfr;ksfxrk] ?k`.kk] rFkk nwljksa dks uhpk fn[kkdj yMk tkrk gSA 'khr;q) esa fdlh i{k ds ,d O;fDr dh gR; j.k{ks= esa ugh gksrh] cfYd Hk;kud loZuk’k ,oa izR;{k :i ls djksMksa yksxksa ds nq[kn vUr dh laHkkouk mRiUu gks tkrh gSA 'khr;q) dk vUrjkZ"Vªh; laca/kksa ij izHkko fuEu fyf[kr gS%& 1- fo’o nks xqVksa esa foHkDr 2- vkrad ,oa vof’okl esa o`f) 3- vk.fod ;q)ks dk [krjk 4- 'kL=hdj.k dh nkSM+ rFkk fo’o dk ;kaf=dhdj.k 5- la;qDr jk"Vª la?k dh detksj fLFkfr 20

6- yksd dY;k.k dkjh dk;ksZ dh mis{kk 7- fuxqZV vknksayu dks izksRlkgu 8- lSU; laf/k;ksa dk vfLrRo uksV%& dksbZ Hkh ikap fcanq fy[kus ij 5 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA mRrj&18- Hkkjr&vesfjdk ds laca/kksa dh foospuk%& Hkkjr rFkk la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk ds ikjLifjd laca/kksa dk bfrgkl dksbZ vf/kd vPNk ugh jgk gSA nksuks jk"Vªks esa dHkh fudVrk] rks dHkh nwfj;ka iuirh jgh gSA ebZ 1998 esa Hkkjr }kjk ijek.kq ijh{k.k fd;s x;sA ftuls dzksf/kr gksrs gq, vesfjdk us gekjs ns’k ij vusd vkfFkZd izfrca/k ykxw fd;s ftlds QyLo:I gekjs fj’rksa esa [kVkl iSnk gqbZA ekpZ 2000 ls Hkkjr vesfjdk ds laca/kksa esa e/kqjrk vkuk 'kq: gqvkA 22 o"kksZ ds yacs vUrjky ds ckn fdlh vesfjdh jk"Vªifr ¼fDyaVu½ us 21 ekpZ 2000 ls ikap fnolh; Hkkjr ;k=k dhA bl ;k=k ls nksuksa ns’kksa ds laca/kksa esa ,d u;k eksM+ vk;kA vkSj ijLij lg;ksx c<+k;s tkus ds laca/k esa ,d nLrkost gLrk{kfjr fd;k x;kA bl nLrkost dks ^^n`f"Vdks.k i= 2000** uke fn;k x;kA 11 flracj 2001 dks vesfjdk ij gq, vkardh geys dh Hkkjr us dBksj 'kCnksa esa fuank dhA flracj 2000] uoEcj 2001 rFkk tqykbZ 2005 Hkkjrh; iz/kkuea=h dh la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk dh ;k=kvksa ls nksuks ns’kks ds laca/kksa esa e/kqjrk dk lapkj gqvkA 2005 esa Hkkjr vesfjdk ds chp nl o"khZ; j{kk le>kSrk gLrk{kfjr gqvkA 2006 esa vesfjdh jk"Vªifr cq’k us Hkkjr dh ;k=k dhA 2 ekpZ 2006 dks ,sfggkfld vlSU; ijek.kq ÅtkZ lg;ksx le>kSrs dks gLrk{kfjr fd;k x;kA 10 vDVwcj 2008 dks oaf’kxBu esa Hkkjr vesfjdk ds chp vlSU; ijek.kq le>kSrk gLrk{kfjr gksus ls nksuka ns’kks ds laca/k vkSj etcwr gq,A uksV%& lkjxfHkZr mRrj fy[kus ij 5 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA 21

vFkok Hkkjr ikd laca/kksa esa erHksn ds dkj.k%& Hkkjr rFkk ikfdLrku ds la laca/kksa esa e/kqjrk iznku djus ds jkLrs esa fuEufyf[kr leL;k;s fo|eku gS%& 1- d’ehj leL;k 2- vkradokn dks izksRlkgu 3- ckaXykns’k 4- Lo;a dks eqfLyeksa dk ,d ek= izfrfuf/k ekuuk 5- ikd dh nksgjh dwVuhfr uksV%& iwjas ikap fcUnq fy[kus ij 5 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA mRrj& 19- la;q ;Dq r jk"Vª la?k ds mn~ns’;%& la;qDr jk"Vª la?k ds ?kks"k.kk i= ds vuqlkj izeq[k mn~ns’; fuEu gS%& 1- ;q) ,oa fooknksa dk 'kkafriw.kZ lek/kku%& varjk"Vªh; 'kkafr ,oa lqj{kk dk vuqdj.k djuk rFkk bl mn~ns’; dh iwfrZ gsrq 'kkafr fojks/kh rRoksa ds fujkdj.k ,oa vkdzed d`R;ksa o 'kkafr ds vU; vfrØe.kksa ds neu ds fy;s izHkkodkjh lkewfgd mik; djuk la;qDr jk"Vª la?k dk izeq[k mn~ns’; gSA 2- lekuf/kdkj ,oa vkRefu.kZ;%& jk"Vªksa ds leku vf/kdkjksa ,oa vkRe fu.kZ; ds vk/kkj ij fo’o ds ns’kksa ds chp eS=hiw.kZ laca/kksa dk fodkl rFkk fo’o 'kkafr dks lqn`<+ cukus gsrq vU; mik; djuk budk izeq[k mn~ns’; gSA

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3- fofHkUu leL;kvksa dks lek/kku%& vkfFkZd] lkekftd] rFkk vU; vUrjkZ"Vªh; leL;kvksa ds lek/kku gsrq vUjkZ"Vªh; lg;ksx izkIr djuk gSA 4- leUo; dh LFkkiuk%& bu mn~ns’;ksa dh iwfrZ gsrq izLrqr fofo/k jk"Vªksa ds fØ;k dykiksa esa mfpr rkyesy cuk;s j[kus ds fy;s ,d dsUnz dh LFkkiuk djuk la;qDr jk"Vªla?k dk mn~ns’; gSA uksV%& iwjk mRrj fy[kus ij 5 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA vFkok fu%’kL=hdj.k ds ekxZ esa vkus okyh ck/kk;s%& 1- gfFk;kjksa ds vk/kqfudhdj.k udhdj.k dk eksg%& dksbZ Hkh ns’k vius gfFk;kjksa ds vk/kqfudhdj.k dk eksg NksMus dks rS;kj ugh gSA vr% LokHkkfod gS fd ,d ns’k ds vk/kqfud gfFk;kjksa ds izfr mRrj esa nwljk ns’k mlls Hkh c<+dj mPp rduhd okys gfFk;kj cukus dh lksprk gSA 2- vesfjdk dh gfFk;kjksa dh 'kfDr esa c
uksV%& lgh mRrj fy[kus ij 5 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA mRrj&20- Hkkjrh; lafo/kku ds izeq[k L=ksr%& 1- fczfV’k lafo/kku%& lalnh; iz.kkyh] fof/k fuekZ.k izfØ;k rFkk ,dy ukxfjdrk dks Hkkjrh; lafo/kku esa fczfV’k lafo/kku ls xzg.k fd;k x;k gSA 2- vesfjdh lafo/kku%& Hkkjrh; lafo/kku esa ekSfyd vf/kdkj] U;k;f;d iqujkoyksdu rFkk laoS/kkfudrk loksZPprk dk izko/kku vesfjdk ds lafo/kku ls xzg.k fd;k x;k gSA 3- vkLVªsfy;kbZ lafo/kku%& Hkkjrh; lafo/kku dh izkLrouk dh Hkk"kk rFkk leorhZ lwph dk izko/kku vkLVsªfy;k ds lafo/kku dh nsu gSA 4- nf{k.kh vQzhdh lafo/kku%& Hkkjrh; lafo/kku dh lalks/ku iz.kkyh dh izfØ;k dks nf{k.k vQzhdh lafo/kku ls xzg.k fd;k x;k gSA 5- dukMk dk lafo/kku%& Hkkjrh; la?k ds fy;s ;wfu;u 'kCn dk iz;ksx rFkk dsUnz ,oa jkT;ksa ds e/; 'kfDr;ksa dk forj.k dukMk ds lafo/kku ls xzg.k fd;s x;s gSA 6- teZu lafo/kku%& Hkkjrh; lafo/kku esa jk"Vªifr dh vkikr dkyhu 'kfDr;ka teZuh ds lafo/kku dh nsu gSA 7- vk;jyS vk;jyS.M dk lafo/kku%& Hkkjrh; lafo/kku esa uhfr funsZ’kd rRoksa dk lekos’k vk;jys.M ds lafo/kku ls izsj.kk ysdj fd;k x;k gSA 8- Hkkjr 'kklu vf/kfu;e 1935 Hkkjrh; lafo/kku esa 200 /kkjkvksa dk iz;ksx v{kj’k% Hkkjrh; 'kklu vf/kfu;e 1935 ls fd;k x;k gSA uksV%& iwjsa 8 fcUnq fy[kus ij 6 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA vFkok

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Hkkjrh; lafo/kku dh fo’ks"krk;s%& 1- fufeZr] fyf[kr ,oa O;kid lafo/kku] Hkkjr ds lafo/kku dk fuekZ.k fyf[kr :Ik esa fd;k x;k gSA 2- dBksj rFkk yphys lafo/kku dk mfpr rkyesy 3- yksdra=kRed ,oa x.k ra=kRed lafo/kku 4- ,dkRedrk dh vksj >qdko okyk lafo/kku 5- lalnh; 'kklu iz.kkyh 6- ukxfjdksa ds ewy vf/kdkjksa] dRrZO;ksa rFkk uhfr funsZ’kd rRoksa dk mYys[k 7- vYila[;d ,oa fiNMs oxksZ ds dY;kFkZ fo’ks"k izko/kku 8- Lora= U;k; ikfydk 9- LFkkuh; Lo’kklu dh O;oLFkk uksV%& iwjs fcUnq fy[kus ij iwjs 6 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA mRrj&21- xqVfujis{k vkanksyu dh miyfC/k;ka%& 1- vUrjkZ"Vªh; 'kkafr ,oa lqj{kk dks izksRlkgu%& bl vkanksyu dh otg ls fo’o esa vusd rukoksa rFkk la?k"kksZ dks jksdus esa lQyrk feyh gSA ftlls vUrjkZ"Vªh; 'kkafr ,oa lqj{kk dks cy feyk gSA 2- xqVfujis Vfujis{k vkanksyu dks nksuks xqVksa dh ekU;rk%& izkjaHk esa xqV fujis{k vkanksyu dks nksuks gh xqVksa us lansg dh n`f"V ls ns[kkA ysfdu tSls gh bl vkanksyu dh 'kfDr esa crs gq, bldks ekU;rk iznku dj nhA 3- 'khr;q) dh lekfIr esa lgk;d%& 'khr;q) ds nkSjku nksuks gh [kseksa esa ruko c
4- fu%’kL=hdj.k esa lgk;d%& xqV fujis{k ns’kksa us fu%’kL=hdj.k rFkk 'kL= fu;a=.k gsrq fopkj foe’kZ dh Hkwfedk dk lQyrk iwoZd fuoZgu fd;kA 5- NksVs ns’kksa dh mi;ksfxrk%& 'kq:vkr esa la;qDr jk"Vª la?k cMs+ ns’kksa ds gkFkksa dk f[kykSuk FkkA /khjs&/khjs u;s Lora= ns’kksa us xqV fujis{k vkanksyu esa lfEefyr gksrs gq, la;qDr jk"Vª la?k dh lnL;rk gkfly dh A bl izdkj la;qDr jk"Vª la?k esa cMs jk"Vªksa dk egRo igys dh vis{kk de gksdj NksVs ns’kksa dh mi;ksfxrk c
esa viuh Lora= uhfr dk vuqlj.k fd;kA

uks uksV%& lHkh fcUnq fy[kus ij 6 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA vFkok vUrjkZ"Vªh; eqnzk dks"k dh LFkkiuk ds mn~ns’;%& 1- vUrjkZ"Vªh; ekSfnzd lg;ksx dh LFkkiuk%& eqnzk dks"k dk izeq[k mn~ns’; lnL; ns’kksa esa eqnzk uhfr laca/kh lg;ksx LFkkfir djuk gSaA 2- larqfyr vUrjkZ"Vªh; O;kikj O;kikj dks c
vlarqyu dks nwj djus gsrq fons’kh eqnzk ds vYidkyhu _.k nsuk gS ftlls os jk"Vªh; vUrjkZ"Vªh; le`f) dks u"V djus okys mik;ksa dks u viuk ldsaA 6- Hkqxrku 'ks"kksa ds vlarqyu dh vof/k ,oa ek=k esa dVksrh djuk%& eqnzk dks"k dk vafre mn~ns’; mDr iz;klksa }kjk lnL; ns’kksa ds Hkqxrku vlarqyu dh vof/k ,oa ifjek.k dks de djuk gSA blls mlds vkfFkZd fodkl esa lgk;rk feyrh gSA uksV%& lHkh fcUnq fy[kus ij 6 vad fn;s tk;sxsaA

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