Resource Guide: Table of Contents

Adapted from original publication at the Baha'i Academics Resource Area.

A Resource Guide for the Scholarly Study of the Bahá'í Faith A comprehensive research and educational tool for the student or teacher of the Bahá'í Faith. Includes: Curriculum guides Lecture outlines Annotated bibliographies Lists of educational materials Internet resources

Authors: Robert H. Stockman Research Office, Bahá'í National Center Wilmette, IL 60091 Phone (847) 733-3425, Fax (847) 733-3583 [email protected] Jonah Winters [email protected]

Published by the Research Office, National Baha'i Center, Wilmette, Illinois, 1997

Table of Contents How to order copies of the Resource Guide Preface................................................................1

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Resource Guide: Table of Contents

Acknowledgments........................................................3 SECTION ONE: CURRICULUM GUIDES FOR TEACHING THE BAHÁ'Í FAITH The Bahá'í Faith: A Short Introduction...............................7 A Three-Hour Section on the Bahá'í Faith............................11 One-Semester Courses on the Bahá'í Faith: Four Samples..............13 A "Comparative Religion" Approach to the Bahá'í Faith............15 A Sociological Study of the Bahá'í Community.....................19 The Bahá'í Faith in Historical and Comparative Perspectives......23 A Traditional Bahá'í Approach to the Bahá'í Faith................25 SECTION TWO: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCHOLARSHIP ON THE BAHÁ'Í FAITH Table of Contents...................................................29 Some Prefatory Notes and Considerations.............................33 Format of this section..............................................35 Annotated Bibliography of Scholarship on the Bahá'í Faith...........37 SECTION THREE: ASSORTED RESOURCE TOOLS Bibliographies Writings of Bahá'u'lláh Part One: Writings of Bahá'u'lláh..............................123 Part Two: The "Leiden List": Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh............125 Index to the Leiden List....................................142 Writings of the Báb..............................................145 Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.........................................147 Writings of Shoghi Effendi.......................................149 Citations from Major Humanities Indices..........................151 The Bahá'í Faith in Religion Textbooks and Encyclopedias.........153 Essays The Bahá'í Faith and Syncretism..................................159 Description of Bahá'í Internet Resources.........................163 Listings Videos...........................................................173 Glossary.........................................................175 Publishing Houses and Journals...................................179 SECTION FOUR: INDICES Bibliography of All Works Cited....................................189 Index of Authors and Subjects......................................221 Index of Journals Cited............................................227

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Resource Guide: Table of Contents

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--preface

Preface A Resource Guide for the Scholarly Study of the Bahá'í Faith is edition seven of what was previously titled A Curriculum Guide for the Bahá'í Faith. Editions one through five consisted primarily of the Curriculum Guides section (section one in current edition) with a limited annotated bibliography and only one appendix. In editions six and seven the scholarly bibliography and its annotations grew in size and the appendices in number, such that the Guide became far more than simply one for curricula. Its new title reflects its broader content.

The purpose of the Resource Guide is to provide information about how to include the Bahá'í Faith in college and university courses, to give an annotated bibliography of reliable scholarship for the student or researcher, and to provide him or her with a selection of helpful resources. It was written with four audiences in mind: (1) university instructors in Religious Studies, Sociology, Middle East Studies, and other disciplines, who usually do not know much about the Bahá'í religion and may want to include it in their existing courses; (2) instructors at colleges and universities who are Bahá'ís and would like to offer courses on the Bahá'í religion, but who do not have training in Religious Studies, and thus do not know what educational standards exist in that field; (3) Bahá'í students at colleges and universities who would like to propose a course to the university administration or its Religious Studies department; (4) those who wish to do research on the Bahá'í Faith and need an annotated bibliography and resource manual to guide them. In order to fill the needs of these four very different audiences, the Resource Guide has four main parts: the Curriculum Guides, the Annotated Bibliography, Assorted Resource Tools, and Indices.

1) Curriculum Guides for Teaching the Bahá'í Faith The curriculum guide segment provides some possible outlines for academic presentations of the Bahá'í Faith. Course outlines include: (1) an introductory article about the Bahá'í Faith, entitled "The Bahá'í Faith: A Short Introduction"; (2), a three-hour section on the Bahá'í Faith designed for inclusion in a course on Comparative Religion, which lists relevant paragraphs from Section Two, "Annotated Bibliography of Scholarship on the Bahá'í Faith"; (3) outlines of four complete one-semester courses on the Bahá'í Faith, with numerous references to the annotated topical bibliography, including "A Comparative Religion Approach," "A Sociological Study of the Bahá'í Community," "The Bahá'í Faith in Historical and Comparative Perspectives," and "A Traditional Bahá'í Approach to the Bahá'í Faith." These outlines are designed to offer assistance for many of the different ways of http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.preface.html (1 of 4) [6-6-2004 16:14:00]

A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--preface

approaching the Bahá'í Faith. First, there is the "comparative religion" approach. Here we intentionally favor the term "comparative religion" over "history of religions" because we do not choose to emphasize history as much as an examination of the Bahá'í religion from the point of view of the major themes found in most religions: prophecy, doctrine, scripture, community life, ethics, ritual, pilgrimage, mysticism, and others. Second, there is the "sociological" approach, which emphasizes the members of the religion themselves: what they believe and why, how they have come to believe it, how they organized themselves into a community, and what that community means to them. Third, there is what might be called a traditional Bahá'í approach, which emphasizes the founders of the Bahá'í Faith, their writings and teachings, and the Bahá'í organizational system. In a sense, the three approaches can be epitomized by considering three terms: Bahá'í religion, Bahá'í community, and Bahá'í Faith. "Bahá'í religion" is a neutral term and carries the overtones of impartial scholarly study. "Bahá'í community" focuses on the members, individually or collectively, and de-emphasizes the doctrinal and leadership aspects of the tradition. "Bahá'í Faith" is the traditional term that Bahá'ís use for their religion and therefore conveys overtones of piety or sympathetic appreciation for the tradition.[1] In the appropriate sphere for each--the comparative-religious, the sociological, and the traditionally Bahá'í--each term claims primacy for expressing the essence of the Bahá'í phenomenon.

1. "Baha'ism" is considered inappropriate by Bahá'ís, for reasons that are not easy to determine; it is best avoided by scholars, just as "Mohammedanism" is now avoided in favor of the term "Islam" and "Musselman" or "Moslem" are avoided in favor of "Muslim."

2) Annotated Bibliography of Scholarship on the Bahá'í Faith The annotated topical bibliography, comprising the bulk of the Resource Guide, consists of definitions of most major aspects of Bahá'í history and belief and corresponding references. The contents of this bibliography are not intended to be exhaustive. Indeed, we have only listed a fraction of the available scholarship. In choosing what to list, we considered: (1) whether the source is too dated; (2) whether the source is academic enough to be useful in a university setting; and (3) whether the source presents enough information to be useful. For the most part, then, we have left out: (1) old scholarship, of which there is very little, anyway; (2) apologetic and "popular" works; and (3) sources with less than a few pages of applicable information. Exceptions to the above include: (1) dated works that are still useful or that have not yet been replaced by newer scholarship on the same topic; (2) popular works that yet provide useful information or, indeed, the only published http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.preface.html (2 of 4) [6-6-2004 16:14:00]

A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--preface

information on a topic; and (3) sources that, though being short, represent the only available information on a subject.

3) Assorted Resource Tools The Resource Guide includes a variety of appendices and indices of possible value to the researcher. First are bibliographies: writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the "Leiden List" of the major tablets of Bahá'u'lláh--which manuscripts contain them in their original language, their place of revelation, and their translation history--followed by lists of the major published works of the Báb, 'Abdu'l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi, respectively; the citations of the Bábí and Bahá'í religions found in some of the more common humanities indices, such as the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature and a table presenting the treatment of the Bahá'í Faith in religion textbooks, dictionaries, and Encyclopedias. Second are two essays: a brief article which clarifies the common misunderstanding that the Bahá'í Faith is a syncretism, and an explanation of the many Bahá'í resources available on the internet. Third are various listings: Bahá'í videos suitable for classroom use; a glossary of common Bahá'í terms, including pronunciation notes; and names and addresses of the major Bahá'í publishers and journals, both independent and official.

4) Indices Finally, a comprehensive bibliography and two indices complete the Guide. The bibliography lists every work cited in the Resource Guide. The two indices are one listing all journals and encyclopedias cited, and then one of all authors, titles, and subjects mentioned. The Resource Guide is not a completed product, but will undergo expansion, modification, and updating as new materials are published and as feedback leads to improvements. We encourage comments and criticisms. As well, we would like to know of any useful and scholarly books or articles that we have not cited. Please send any general comments to Robert Stockman, [email protected], or Research Office, Bahá'í National Center, Wilmette, IL, 60091; phone number (847) 733-3425 and fax number (847) 7333563. Please send any specific corrections or additions to Jonah Winters, [email protected] Email correspondence is preferred. Robert Stockman and the Research Office will also be glad to answer additional questions that the Resource Guide does not cover.

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--preface

Many people have assisted with the development of the Resource Guide, both in writing and editing it and in offering suggestions and corrections. The following individuals (in alphabetical order) have been instrumental in its production. Christopher Buck donated his New World Transliterator font system for use in the Guide, and offered bibliographic suggestions. Seena Fazel provided detailed editorial commentary and suggestions for additions, and his articles on citation analyses and other bibliographic studies helped organize our sections on these topics. Sen McGlinn also provided much editorial assistance and, in collaboration with others, compiled the in-depth "Leiden List" of the tablets of Bahá'u'lláh. Will C. van den Hoonard assembled the curriculum guide for "A Sociological Study of the Bahá'í Community."

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Resource Guide: Curriculum Guides

THE BAHÁ'Í FAITH A Short Introduction This introductory lecture on the Bahá'í religion is only one approach that can be taken to explaining the Bahá'í Faith. Depending on the course, one could emphasize the Bahá'í teachings more strongly, or the Bahá'í community, or other aspects of the religion. For another general approach, see the article on the Bahá'í Faith in the most recent Encyclopedia Britannica. For those interested in reading about the Bahá'í Faith from a perspective informed by Islamic Studies or Middle Eastern Studies, the articles on the Bahá'í Faith in the new Encyclopedia of Islam or in the Encyclopedia Iranica are highly recommended.

Books to start with -- Numerous introductory books on the Bahá'í religion have been written; the goal has been to include as many of them as possible in the subject modules, to allow the instructor complete freedom of choice. J.E. Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era is a classic introduction to the Bahá'í Faith, first published in 1923, and still popular; it is periodically updated to keep its contents current. John Ferraby's All Things Made New was composed in the late 1950s as an outline of basic Bahá'í teachings. It strongly emphasizes traditional Bahá'í categories like God, Manifestations, and prayer, and focuses little on the Bahá'í community or Bahá'í family life. John Huddleston's The Earth is But One Country was first published in 1976 and has a more secular, social-oriented and political focus than the previous introductory works. All of these works were prepared before the development of "Bahá'í Studies," which gradually is making an impact on the contents and quality of introductory works. William Hatcher and Douglas Martin's The Bahá'í Faith: The Emerging Global Religion was the first effort to write a college-level textbook on the Bahá'í Faith. Peter Smith's Bábí and Bahá'í Religions offers an innovative sociological approach to the Bahá'í religion, and his A Short History of the Bahá'í Faith is an excellent summary of the religion's history. The two non-Bahá'í journalists Colette Gouvion and Philippe Jouvion's The Gardeners of God: An Encounter with Five Million Bahá'ís is another very useful book: it would not work well for an introduction to the Faith, for the content is non-scholarly and is not always presented as clearly as a Bahá'í author would present it, but because of its external but sympathetic standpoint it often has a fresh viewpoint on Bahá'í matters. Moojan Momen's introductory textbook, A Short Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith, is a good but brief summary of Bahá'í teachings and history. Two short booklet-length summaries of the Faith are Mary Perkins and Philip Hainsworth's The Bahá'í Faith (96 small pages), and Gloria Faizi's The Bahá'í Faith (130 small pages). Basic information on the Bahá'í Faith's historic figures, significant places, important scriptural works, and salient teachings may also be found in Wendi Momen's A Basic Bahá'í Dictionary, and dates in Glenn http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.curricula.html (1 of 19) [6-6-2004 16:14:12]

Resource Guide: Curriculum Guides

Cameron and Wendi Momen's A Basic Bahá'í Chronology, both useful and rapid desk-top references. William Collins' A Bibliography of English-Language Works on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, 1844-1985 (Oxford: George Ronald, 1990) is the most exhaustive bibliographic work published in English (others are available on the internet--see "Description of Bahá'í Internet Resources," below) and is very useful for finding additional sources if one already knows the names of authors or titles for which to search. Introduction -- The Bahá'í Faith is the religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh (1817-92), whose name means "Glory (Bahá>) of God (Alláh)." In 1863 Bahá'u'lláh announced that he was the messenger sent by God to bring a new revelation to humanity for this day. Bahá'u'lláh recorded his revelation in the form of books, essays, and especially letters; the Bahá'í World Centre possesses over 15,000 authenticated documents by Him.[1] These constitute the core of the Bahá'í religion's sacred scriptures. Like most great religious teachers, Bahá'u'lláh suffered decades of persecution for his beliefs; he was tortured, imprisoned, and exiled. In his extensive writings Bahá'u'lláh addressed nearly every conceivable question, from the nature of spirituality to the setting of interest rates, from the importance of music, art, and science to child rearing. Many of these teachings can be classified into four categories; (1) teachings about God; (2) teachings about the individual's relationship to God; (3) teachings about how human beings should relate to each other and restructure human society; (4) teachings about the establishment of a Bahá'í community. Teachings about God -- Bahá'u'lláh describes God as an unknowable essence; that is, God is so great that no matter how much we can know about our Creator, there will always be something that transcends the grasp of our finite minds. To help human beings learn about God's nature and about truth, this Essence sends Manifestations of God,[2] individuals who manifest God's perfections and virtues to humanity and expound God's teachings. These Manifestations are very rare; they usually suffer for the teachings they bring; and their teachings become the basis of a new world religion. Bahá'ís believe God has always sent Manifestations to educate humanity. The legends and folklore of many tribes and peoples preserve stories of ancient personalities who may have been Manifestations of God. The Bahá'í writings specifically recognize Krishna, Zoroaster, Buddha, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, the Báb (the forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh), and Bahá'u'lláh as Manifestations. Thus Bahá'ís believe that all the major religions in the world constitute chapters in the Religion of God. The Bahá'í Faith is the most recent chapter in the story. Teachings about the individual -- Bahá'ís believe that God created the world and that everything within it reflects a sign or attribute of God. The Bahá'í scriptures describe the human soul as immortal and as containing all God's attributes, or qualities, but these qualities exist only potentially until they are developed. Developing them constitutes one of the principal purposes of life on this physical plane of existence. Development of these qualities and virtues, and of our knowledge and love of God, leads to a spiritual happiness that constitutes a kind of heaven, in this world or the next; failure to develop them constitutes a kind of hell. Bahá'ís believe that human beings have the volition to develop themselves; Bahá'ís reject, on the one hand, belief in a devil who manipulates and controls human beings, and, on the other hand, belief in a completely passive spiritual life where the individual waits for God to bring about all of his or her spiritual transformation.

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Resource Guide: Curriculum Guides

Rather, Bahá'u'lláh stresses an active spiritual life. Central to it is daily reading from and meditating on scripture, so that one internalizes divine teachings and spiritual qualities. Prayer is strongly emphasized, not because God needs the prayers of humans, but because prayer is a form of listening to God and because one needs to learn to speak to God. Bahá'u'lláh has revealed three obligatory prayers, one of which each Bahá'í is supposed to say each day; Bahá'u'lláh has also revealed hundreds of prayers for specific purposes such as illness, forgiveness, spiritual tests, and death, and prayers to say for one's spouse, children, parents, or for those who have died. Bahá'u'lláh urges Bahá'ís to bring themselves to account each day before God, so that they can review their actions, thank God for their successes, ask God to forgive them for their failures, and consider ways of doing better the next day. The Bahá'í religion also has an annual period of fasting; by choosing not to eat or drink from sunrise to sunset, Bahá'ís remember their dependence on God, express their severance from the material world, and strengthen the bonds between them and their fellow believers. Bahá'u'lláh describes two purposes of human existence; one is "to know and to worship God" and the other is "to carry forward an ever-advancing civilization." Bahá'ís accomplish the latter goal by teaching others about the spiritual and social teachings of their religion by word and by deed. Social Teachings -- Bahá'u'lláh wrote extensively about the urgent need to reform human society. His plan revolves around a single principle: the oneness of humanity. This principle rejects all efforts to subordinate any race, religion, nation, ethnic group, or social class to any other. As a result, from the beginning there has been a strenuous effort to diversify the Bahá'í community so that it includes individuals from all races, religions, ethnic groups, and social classes, and to integrate them into diverse and vibrant local Bahá'í communities. The oneness of humanity also includes the principle of the equality of men and women; the Bahá'í scriptures describe humanity as being like a bird with two wings, which must be of equal strength for the bird to fly. The oneness of humanity implies the importance of loyalty, first, to the human race, and second to one's own nation. The resources of the planet Earth must be allocated and distributed for the advantage of the whole. For this reason the Bahá'í Faith advocates a world federal system, to maintain world peace and regulate the world economy. It urges selection of a world language, which all would learn in addition to their native tongues. It supports universal compulsory education, so that everyone can have access to divine revelation and to the accumulated wisdom of humanity. But Bahá'ís do not believe that social reform can be accomplished only through world government; a change of basic attitudes toward others, toward money, toward work, toward knowledge, toward the family, and toward institutions is necessary. To exemplify these changes, Bahá'ís have formed a religious community. Teachings about Religious Community -- Bahá'u'lláh envisioned a diverse religious community that would function through the principles of consultation, that is, the principle that the opinions and ideas of every member are important; that they must be respected; and that in the Bahá'í community decisions are made and actions taken after discussion and consensus. Rather than having a clergy, the Bahá'í Faith has an elected, collective leadership. Each local Bahá'í community (which consists of all the Bahá'ís who live in a particular place) elects each year a nine-member local spiritual assembly, which owns the community http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.curricula.html (3 of 19) [6-6-2004 16:14:12]

Resource Guide: Curriculum Guides

property, plans the community meetings, disciplines members, oversees Bahá'í marriages, divorces, and funerals, counsels individuals, and often runs schools or other projects for the betterment of everyone in that locality. An effort is made to involve all members in the religion's decisions, activities, and functions; spiritual assemblies delegate much authority to representatives and committees, which tap the talents of many Bahá'ís. A nine-member national spiritual assembly, elected annually, coordinates national Bahá'í affairs such as publishing, educating the Bahá'í community, working with governments and non-governmental organizations, and creating long-term plans for expansion and consolidation. The Universal House of Justice, also having nine members, is elected every five years by all the members of the national spiritual assemblies and coordinates the Bahá'í religion at the world level. The Universal House of Justice also appoints individuals called Counselors, who in turn appoint local Auxiliary Board members, who in turn appoint assistants. The Auxiliary Board members and their assistants consult with and advise the local spiritual assemblies; the Counselors do the same with national assemblies and the Universal House of Justice and inform them about local conditions around the world. These individuals have no authority, but represent a tangible institution to maintain consultation between all regions and all levels of the Bahá'í world community. Bahá'í community life involves a minimum of ritual. Nine holy days throughout the year, which usually commemorate events in the lives of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh, represent times for Bahá'í communities to meet and for families to share their Bahá'í commitment together. Once every Bahá'í month (which has nineteen days) the Bahá'í community meets in what is called a feast. It consists of a worship portion, where Bahá'í scriptures and prayers are recited; a business portion, where the community and its spiritual assembly consult together; and a social portion, where fellowship is shared. Prayer meetings, deepenings (where the Bahá'í scriptures or teachings are studied) and firesides (where the Bahá'í teachings are discussed at an introductory level) are sponsored by many individuals and local spiritual assemblies in homes on a weekly or monthly basis, and constitute the most common social events in a local Bahá'í community. The Bahá'í Community consists of those persons who have accepted Bahá'u'lláh as the Manifestation of God for this day. Bahá'í communities are found in virtually every nation and territory on the planet. Initially drawing its members from the Shí'í Muslims of Iran, in Bahá'u'lláh's own lifetime the community expanded to include converts from Sunni Muslims, Jews, Zoroastrians, and Christians. From Iran it spread to Central Asia, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Palestine, and Egypt. In the 1870s it reached India and in the 1880s, Burma; there Buddhists became Bahá'ís. Bahá'í teachers traveled throughout southeast Asia, to China, and to Sudan. Bahá'u'lláh appointed his son 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1844-1921), whose name means "Servant ('Abd) of Bahá'u'lláh (Bahá>)," as his successor and head of the Bahá'í Faith and to be the exemplar and interpreter of its teachings. 'Abdu'l-Bahá wrote over 27,000 documents, mostly letters, which are also a part of Bahá'í scripture. Under 'Abdu'l-Bahá's guidance, the Bahá'í Faith spread to Europe, North America, the Pacific islands, and Australia. Bahá'í teaching was conducted in Japan, China, Korea, and southern Africa. 'Abdu'l-Bahá began to establish local and national Bahá'í governing bodies and laid the foundation for http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.curricula.html (4 of 19) [6-6-2004 16:14:12]

Resource Guide: Curriculum Guides

systematic plans for the spreading of the Bahá'í religion to the entire world. Under his successor, Shoghi Effendi (1897-1957), Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith from 1921 to 1957, local and national spiritual assemblies were established all over the world and systematic plans for carrying the Bahá'í Faith to Latin America, Africa, and other places where it had not penetrated were undertaken. Shoghi Effendi laid the foundation for the election of the Universal House of Justice, a body whose functions were described by Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá in great detail. The Universal House of Justice was first elected in 1963 and is the head institution of the Bahá'í Faith today. As of April 1991 the Bahá'í world community had over five million members and was growing at 4.4 percent each year. In at least 34 nations and significant territories the Bahá'í membership had exceeded one percent of the population; in Tuvalu, Tonga, Guyana, and Belize it had exceeded five percent of the population; in Kiribati (a small nation in the mid-Pacific) seventeen percent of the population was Bahá'í. As of April 1996, the Bahá'í international community had 174 national spiritual assemblies and almost 20,000 local spiritual assemblies. Over 2,100 ethnic groups can be found within it, and Bahá'í literature has been translated into 802 languages. The Bahá'í community operates over 1,300 social and economic development projects worldwide, including approximately 650 schools and seven radio stations. The United States has about 120,000 Bahá'ís, residing in approximately 7,200 localities, and 1,350 local spiritual assemblies. Its national headquarters is near the Bahá'í House of Worship in Wilmette, Illinois; the American Bahá'ís operate a publishing trust, five permanent schools and institutes, and a radio station.[3]

A Three-Hour Section on the Bahá'í Faith Occasionally instructors want not one hour, but several hours of material on a particular topic. This is particularly true if a course meets in the evening; such class sessions usually last two and a half to four hours. This part of the Resource Guide provides a section of three one-hour classes on the Bahá'í Faith, suitable for use in one evening or in three one-hour classes during the day. The material could also be rearranged and shortened so that it is suitable for a two hour or two and a half-hour class. A three-hour section is best prepared by using the information on various Bahá'í subjects provided in Section Two, "Annotated Bibliography of Scholarship on the Bahá'í Faith." One way a three-hour unit could be created would be to expand "The Bahá'í Faith: A Short Introduction" above by adding material from the various subjects in Section Two. An instructor could also assemble three hours of material by combining the introductory lecture with any two subjects chosen from the bibliography. This approach might be characterized as basic information plus "selected studies" on aspects of the Bahá'í religion. Two hours of introductory material plus a third, specialized hour of selected study could also be designed. However, for those who prefer three hours of material that is planned to be comprehensive and http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.curricula.html (5 of 19) [6-6-2004 16:14:12]

Resource Guide: Curriculum Guides

continuous, the following division is offered. The numbers in square brackets represent the various aspects of the Bahá'í Faith outlined in Section Two, the Annotated Bibliography.

1. Bahá'í Origins. Islamic and Iranian Background [¶7]. The Báb and Babism [¶6]. The life of Bahá'u'lláh [¶11]. 2. Bahá'í Teachings. The Bahá'í Concepts of God [¶28], Revelation [¶54], Manifestation [¶37], Creation [¶16], and Humanity [¶34]. Prayer and the Spiritual Life [¶38, ¶64]. Social Teachings [¶63]. 3. Bahá'í Community [¶12]. The Ministries of 'Abdu'l-Bahá [¶1] and Shoghi Effendi [¶61]. Creation of the Administrative Order [¶2] and Expansion of the Bahá'í Faith Globally, 18921996 [¶8, ¶10]. The Future [¶39, ¶48]. 4. Other subjects that could be included: community life [¶12]; consultation [¶13]; education [¶18]; family life [¶22]; holy places [¶32]; Houses of Worship [¶33]; oneness of humanity [¶34, ¶67]; pilgrimage [¶43]; prayer and fasting [¶46]; religious dialogue and pluralism [¶53]; race relations [¶51]; ritual [¶55]; progressive revelation [¶54]; science and religion [¶59]; spiritual life [¶64]; women [¶27]; work [¶68]; peace [¶40].

One-Semester Courses on the Bahá'í Faith: Four Samples The following course outlines were developed to give examples of different ways the Bahá'í religion could be taught in one semester. Undoubtedly other arrangements of the basic material could also be made; these outlines are not exhaustive of the possibilities. Two outlines were drawn up assuming that thirty-six one-hour class meetings were available for lecture and discussion (the remaining meetings being devoted to examinations, videos, etc.). One was drawn up for twenty 90-minute class meetings, as is typical in a school on a quarter system. The other outline divides the class into thirteen one-week segments. The four outlines below approach the Bahá'í Faith from the following perspectives: 1. A "comparative religion" perspective, typical of Religious Studies departments, that would examine the Bahá'í religion in terms of its concept of the holy; its view of God, Manifestations, other religions, humanity, and creation; its myths, narratives, and ritual practices; and its community organization and life. 2. A "sociological" perspective, typical of sociology departments, that emphasizes http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.curricula.html (6 of 19) [6-6-2004 16:14:12]

Resource Guide: Curriculum Guides

routinization of charisma, ideology, community structure and maintenance, recruitment, involvement in society, and case studies. 3. An outline that mixes both of the above approaches, with more emphasis on history. 4. A "traditional" Bahá'í approach, which emphasizes the lives of the central figures of the Bahá'í religion, Bahá'í history, and Bahá'í teachings. The numbers following the paragraph sign (¶) at the end of each line in the curriculum guides give the units in Section Two where one will find a detailed description and bibliography of each relevant topic. Because the four courses sometimes contain the same, or very similar, topics, it seemed best to place the descriptions and bibliographies of the topics covered by each course in a single section. This approach also makes it easier for instructors to prepare their own course by mixing units from different outlines.

A "Comparative Religion" Approach to the Bahá'í Faith Textbooks: James C. Livingston, Anatomy of the Sacred: An Introduction to Religion or some other comparative-religion textbook that describes the various aspects of religion; Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of Bahá'u'lláh; Peter Smith, The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions. For a more introductory class, Moojan Momen's A Short Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith could be substituted for Smith. The purpose of this course is to introduce the student to the academic study of religion, using the Bahá'í Faith as an example. It uses Livingston's textbook, which covers the different aspects of religion such as the sacred and holy, ritual, community, the world, the origin of things, and the purpose of human existence. Livingston's text does not mention the Bahá'í Faith; that material comes from original texts and from Peter Smith's text.

1. What is Religion? Livingston, ch. 1; Bahá'u'lláh, 481-82 (Gleanings CX); 420, bottom (Gleanings, XXXIV, near end); 233 (First Ishráq) [¶52]. 2. What is the Bahá'í Faith? A summary. Encyclopedia Britannica article reprint, "The Bahá'í Faith"; Shoghi Effendi, Call to the Nations, xi-xviii [¶9]. 3. How is Religion Studied? How has the Bahá'í religion been studied? Livingston, ch. 2 [¶9].

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4. The Sacred and the Holy. Livingston, 47-54 (ch. 3); prayers of the greatness and mystery of God, Bahá'u'lláh, 387-88 (Gleanings I); 412-16 (Gleanings XXVI, XXVII); 596-601 (Prayers and Meditations LXXV-LXXX) [¶28]. 5. Concepts of God. Livingston, ch. 7 (163-94); Bahá'u'lláh, 406-7 (Gleanings XIX XX) [¶28]. 6. Manifestations of God. Bahá'u'lláh, 407-423 (Gleanings, XXI-XXXV); 462-63 (Gleanings LXXXVII) [¶37]. 7. The Life of Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'u'lláh, 426 (Gleanings, XLI-XLII); 429-34 (Gleanings XLV-LIV); 43744 (Gleanings, LIX-LXVII); 446-48 (Gleanings, LXXXI-LXXXII) [¶11]. 8. Religious Symbol and Myth. Livingston, ch. 4 (68-93); Bahá'u'lláh, 423 (Gleanings, XXXVI); 73-77 (Íqán, interpretation of the symbols "sun," "moon," and "stars"); 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Some Answered Questions, 122-26 (interpretation of the Garden of Eden) [¶57]. 9. Revelation. Bahá'u'lláh, 245 (Tablet of Wisdom, where Bahá'u'lláh describes how he receives revelation); 424-25 (Gleanings, XXXVII-XL) [¶54]. 10. Religious Dialogue and Pluralism. Livingston, ch. 13 (351-68); Bahá'u'lláh 175-80 (Tablet to the Christians); 181-82 (first, second, and eighth Glad-Tidings); 187 (second Taráz); 235 (ninth Ishráq) [¶53]. 11. Nature: Its Origin and Purpose. Livingston, ch. 8 (198-224). Bahá'u'lláh, 452-53 (Gleanings, LXXVIIILXIX); 459 (Gleanings LXXXIV); 464 (Gleanings XC) [¶19]. 12. Investigation of Nature: Science. Bahá'u'lláh, 183 (eleventh Glad-Tidings); 189 (sixth Taráz); p. 195 (third Tajallí); 254 (part of tablet of Maqsúd) [¶59]. 13. Humanity: Its Nature and Purpose. Livingston, ch. 9 (228-51); Bahá'u'lláh, 456-59 (Gleanings, LXXXII-LXXXIII); 481 (Gleanings, CIX); 532-34 (Gleanings, CLV); 501 (Gleanings, CXXII) [¶34]. 14. The Spiritual Quest. Livingston, ch. 11 (p. 285-316); Bahá'u'lláh, 3-29 (Seven Valleys); 501-05 (Gleanings, CXXIV-CXXV) [¶38, ¶64]. 15. Sin, Tests, and Growth. Bahá'u'lláh, 183 (ninth Glad-Tidings); 188-89 (third and fourth Taráz); 24849 (Words of Wisdom) [¶64, ¶65]. 16. Life and Afterlife. Livingston, ch. 12, 33-7; Bahá'u'lláh, 35-59 (Hidden Words); 453-56 (Gleanings, LXXIX-LXXXI) [¶3, ¶53.12]. 17. Family Life and Work. Bahá'u'lláh, 162-63 (Synopsis and Codification extracts 8 and 12 / Aqdas paragraphs 48 and 63); 47 (Persian Hidden Words, 80-82); 234-35 (seventh Ishráq); prayers for marriage, http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.curricula.html (8 of 19) [6-6-2004 16:14:12]

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children, and family [¶22, ¶68]. 18. Divine Justice. Livingston, ch. 10 (254-82); Bahá'u'lláh, 51 (Arabic Hidden Words 2); 424 (Gleanings, XXXVII); 576 (Prayers and Meditations LV); 580 (Prayers and Meditations, LVII); 584 (Prayers and Meditations, LX) [¶35]. 19. Religious Community. Livingston, ch. 6, 130-41; Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, 160 (Synopsis and Codification extract 5 / Aqdas paragraph 30); 162 (Synopsis and Codification extract 9 / Aqdas paragraph 52); 169 (Synopsis and Codification extract 20 / Aqdas paragraph 173); 182 (fifth Glad-Tidings, in Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (henceforth "Tablets") 22-23); 184 (thirteenth Glad-Tidings, in Tablets 26-27); 185 (fifteenth Glad-Tidings, in Tablets p. 28); 203-4 (eighth and ninth leaves of Paradise, in Tablets 68-71); 234-35 (sixth, seventh, and eighth Ishráq, in Tablets 127-129); Prayer for the Hands of the Cause, in Malaysian Prayer Book, page 37) [¶12]. 20. The Bahá'í community in the Middle East, 1863-92 [¶7, ¶8]. 21. 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Interpreter, Mystery of God, Center of the Covenant. Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, 278-81 (Book of the Covenant, Tablet to the Land of Bá, also in Tablets 219-223 and 227-228); Shoghi Effendi, World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, 131-39 ('Abdu'l-Bahá section of Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh) [¶1]. 22. The Bahá'í world community, 1892-1921 [¶8]. 23. Shoghi Effendi, Guardian of the Faith. 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá [¶61]. 24. The Bahá'í Administrative Order. Shoghi Effendi, Call to the Nations, 36-44 [¶2]. 25. The Bahá'í world community, 1921-63 [¶10.2, ¶10.3]. 26. The Bahá'í world community, 1963-96 [¶10.4, ¶10.5]. 27. Consultation and Covenant. Livingston, ch. 6, 141-50 ("Protest and Change"); Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, 278-81 (Book of the Covenant, also in Tablets 219-223); 539 (Gleanings, CLXVI); Bahá'u'lláh, in Consultation: A Compilation [¶12, ¶15]. 28. Sacred Space (Bahá'í World Centre, Houses of Worship, places of pilgrimage). Livingston, 54-65. Bahá'u'lláh, 173-74 (Tablet of Carmel); 435-37 (Gleanings, LVII-LVIII); 677-81 (Tablet of Visitation) [¶32, ¶33, ¶43]. 29. Sacred Time: The Bahá'í Calendar and Holy Days. Livingston, 116-20; Bahá'í Calendar handout (from Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, 178-79) [¶24]. 30. Ritual. Livingston, ch. 5 (p. 97-126); Bahá'u'lláh, 681-86 (obligatory prayers); 576-80 (Prayers and http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.curricula.html (9 of 19) [6-6-2004 16:14:12]

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Meditations, LVI, fasting prayer) [¶55]. 31. Social Order. Livingston, ch. 6, 150-58); Bahá'u'lláh, 181-238 (Bishárát, Tarázát, Tajallíyát, Tablet of the World, Ishráqát) [¶63]. 32. The Oneness of Humanity. Bahá'u'lláh, 58 (Arabic Hidden Words, 68); 203 (sixth and seventh leaves of Paradise); 234 (sixth Ishráq) [¶67]. 33. World Peace. The Promise of World Peace; Bahá'u'lláh, 496-99 (Gleanings, CXVII-CXX) [¶40]. 34. A New World Order. Livingston, ch. 12, 320-34; Bahá'u'lláh, 233 (second Ishráq); 478-79 (Gleanings, CIV); 480-81 (Gleanings, CVI-CVIII); 482-83 (Gleanings, CXI-CXII); Shoghi Effendi, Call to the Nations, 45-66 [¶39]. 35. Prospect.

A Sociological Study of the Bahá'í Community by Will C. van den Hoonaard University of New Brunswick (Email: [email protected]) The following syllabus is designed to introduce the Bahá'í Faith to sociology students. It relates developments within the Bahá'í community to particular sociological concerns and tools. Since university and college teachers have individual interests and techniques in mind, the syllabus is simply one of many approaches to the sociological study of the Bahá'í community. While this outline covers the sociological aspects of the Bahá'í community, teachers could consider a follow-up course that outlines the Bahá'í perspective on society. In such a course, one would consider Bahá'í hermeneutics, Bahá'í political and social thought, the Bahá'í conception of historical and social processes, etc.

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Scholarly attention to study of the Bahá'í Religion: a review of the literature and field. Discussion of sources. II. Theoretical Issues in Sociology a. Typologies in the literature of new religions and social movements. b. The generation of data through the symbolic interactionist, functionalist, and conflict perspectives, and frame analysis. c. The debate of class versus ethnicity. III. Methodological Questions a. Obstacles and prospects of studying the Bahá'í community. b. What constitutes valid sources of information for studying the Bahá'í community? c. Various research strategies IV. Origins a. Background Islam, Shí'ism, Shaykhism 19th-century Iran b. The Báb Life and Teachings Sources and Social Context Rise and Growth of Bábism Persecution and Fragmentation of the Bábí community c. Bahá'u'lláh Life and Teachings Sources and Social Context d. 'Abdu'l-Bahá Biography V. Routinization of Charisma a. Bahá'u'lláh's Death and Succession of 'Abdu'l-Bahá b. Opposition General Principles underlying the Covenant Opposition during 'Abdu'l-Bahá's ministry, 1892-1921 Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá c. Establishment of the Guardianship d. The Period of the Hands of the Cause of God, 1957-63 e. The Establishment of the Universal House of Justice, 1963 http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.curricula.html (11 of 19) [6-6-2004 16:14:12]

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VI. Doctrine and Ideology a. Islamic sources b. Primary versus Secondary Sources c. The Question of Westernization d. Revealed Text, Interpretation, and Infallibility e. Bahá'í Political and Social Thought VII. Growth and Development of the Bahá'í World Community a. The early spread, 1844-92 b. Early spread from East to West, 1892-1921 c. The period from 1921 to 1937 d. Developments, 1937-53 e. Developments since 1953 VIII. Organizational Structures a. Bahá'í theory Bahá'í organizational structure Theory and nature of the institutions of the "rulers" and the "learned" b. Overview and nature of institutions of the "rulers" and the "learned" c. The local structure The Nineteen-Day Feast Local Spiritual Assembly d. The national structure The national convention e. The international structure The Universal House of Justice The International Teaching Centre Other institutions: The Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts, World Centre Library, International Bahá'í Archives IX. Recruitment and Socialization a. Explaining the growth of the Bahá'í community Structural explanations Deprivation model Social disorganization The deviant model, Simmel's "stranger" Conflict of ideology/reality b. Conversion process of acquiring Bahá'í common stock of knowledge http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.curricula.html (12 of 19) [6-6-2004 16:14:12]

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c. Teaching the Bahá'í Faith in various cultural contexts d. The sociological question of recruitment and participation of women in new religious movements X. Maintenance a. Member Commitment and mobilization b. Boundary maintenance c. Authority and power d. Principles of consultation XI. Direct Involvement in Society a. Bahá'ís and the United Nations b. Social and economic development projects c. Peace-related activities d. Racial equality e. Women's rights f. Contact with other religious communities g. The emergence from obscurity XII. Case Studies of Selected Bahá'í Communities a. Historical Iran, 1844-92 Asia, 1892-1921 Occident, 1892-1921 b. Contemporary A national Bahá'í community in an industrial society A Third-World Bahá'í community An emerging national Bahá'í community in Eastern Europe XIII. Some Contemporary Issues a. Non-partisan involvement in politics b. Impact of the persecution of the Iranian Bahá'ís c. Minorities and indigenous peoples d. Integration of Eastern and Western Bahá'ís

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and Comparative Perspectives This course is designed to introduce the student to the Bahá'í religion in its basic aspects: its history, the lives of its founders, its teachings, its practices, and its international community. It will follow a framework typical of courses in "comparative" religions. In addition, it will examine the Bahá'í religion from the point of view of questions of importance to scholars of religion today, such as: how does a new religion arise? How does it attract members, and why? How does it survive the death of its founder? How does it balance central authority and individual freedom? When its teachings inevitably evolve, how are the resulting changes justified, and what role does outside cultural, social, and religious influence play? Peter Smith's The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions: From Messianic Shí'ism to a World Religion is the best work to use as a basic textbook, but it will require considerable supplementation from historical and sociological works and from primary sources. Important supplementation comes from Abbas Amanat's Resurrection and Renewal.

Topics Covered: 1. Preliminaries. What is the Bahá'í Faith? A Summary of the Religion. 2. The Problem of Summarizing a Religion, and an Examination of Various Summaries of the Bahá'í Faith that have been produced. One quickly notices the summaries vary enormously in content; why is this? Is one summary "valid" or "better"? What is the history of producing summaries of the Bahá'í Faith? 3, 4. The Rise of the Bábí Movement in Iran, 1844-50. What was the Shí'ite Muslim culture of nineteenthcentury Iran like, and what social and cultural stresses did it face? What were the cultural and social precursors to the rise of Babism? To whom did it appeal, and why? What caused Shí'ite Muslims to become Bábís? Abbas Amanat's book Resurrection and Renewal will be the chief source. 5, 6. The Figure of 'Alí-Muhammad the Báb. Who did he claim to be, and did his claim change? Examination of the Báb's life experience, the question of its influence on his teachings, and the controversy surrounding his claims. Amanat's book will be used here as well. 7. The Bábí Movement. Marxist, polemical Islamic, sociological, and other examinations of it. 8. Husayn-'Alí Bahá'u'lláh. His claims and writings. Juan R. Cole on the sources of his ideas (articles by Cole in World Order magazine and in The International Journal of Middle East Studies). 9. The Bahá'í Community in Iran, 1863-92. Growth and organization. Several published and unpublished articles will provide the information and reading. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.curricula.html (14 of 19) [6-6-2004 16:14:12]

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10. Conversion of Iranian Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians to the Bahá'í Faith; Cultural and Social Factors that Brought Non-Shí'ite Minorities into the Community (Master's degree thesis and articles by Susan Stiles Maneck). Maneck sees minority conversion as being prompted by modernization of the country, the relatively modern Bahá'í teachings, and the ability of the Bahá'ís to portray their religion as the fulfillment of traditional religious expectations. 11. Midterm Examination. Or: if there is no exam, a time to discuss and review the first half of the quarter. 12. Bahá'u'lláh's Death and 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Succession, 1892. Development of the Bahá'í concept of the Covenant. Ideas of routinization of charisma in the Bahá'í community. (Readings from two sociological Ph.D. dissertations on the Bahá'í Faith, one by Vernon Elwin Johnson, the other by Peter L. Berger.) 13. Sources of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Ideas. Did 'Abdu'l-Bahá "westernize" or "modernize" the Bahá'í Faith? Arguments by western missionaries. 14. Introduction of the Bahá'í Faith to the United States, 1894-1899. Inadequate access to the Bahá'í scriptures leads to uniquely American interpretations of the Bahá'í religion, and considerable chaos when more Bahá'í scriptures become available in English. Readings from articles and manuscript works by Peter Smith and Robert Stockman. 15. The American Bahá'í Community, 1900-12. What sort of Americans became Bahá'ís, and why? Did the community have a "mainstream" and a "fringe"? Nature and cause of controversies in the American Bahá'í community. 16. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to the United States and Canada, 1912. What was its purpose, and what impact did it have? The visit is a case study in the difficulty the Bahá'í Faith has in influencing outside culture. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had less impact on American society and culture than Swami Vivekananda and other "oriental" religious teachers, but he was able to consolidate the American Bahá'í community to a considerable degree. 17. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Death and the Succession of Shoghi Effendi, 1921. How and why did Shoghi Effendi immediately establish the Bahá'í organizational system? What impact did it have on the Bahá'í community? Brief readings from works by Peter Smith, Robert Stockman, Loni Bramson-Lerche, Vernon Johnson, and Protestant missionary critics of the Bahá'í Faith. 18. Creation of an International Community, 1937-57. Spread of the Bahá'í Faith in Latin America, Africa, East and Southeast Asia, and the Pacific. Readings from Peter Smith on the role of organization and the development of a Bahá'í community in the Third World. 19. Developments in the 60s and 70s. Election of the Universal House of Justice, 1963. Explosive growth of the American Bahá'í community, 1967-73, through reaching the youth counterculture, involvement in http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.curricula.html (15 of 19) [6-6-2004 16:14:12]

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the civil rights movement, and controversial new teaching techniques that bring thousands of rural blacks into the Bahá'í Faith. Contemporary readings. 20. Developments in the 80s and 90s. The Iranian Revolution and persecution of the Iranian Bahá'í community; the new interest in Bahá'í scholarship; a new emphasis on social and economic development and literacy in the Bahá'í community; rapid growth and maturity of the Third World Bahá'í communities; explosive growth of the Bahá'í Faith in the former Soviet bloc.

A Traditional Bahá'í Approach to the Bahá'í Faith A course on the Bahá'í Faith that follows a fairly "traditional" Bahá'í approach may not be appropriate as a credit-course at a college or university, but might be useful as a non-credit course or as a course at a Bahá'í summer school. Various introductory textbooks could be used: Esslemont, Momen, Smith, or Hatcher and Martin are probably the best choices. The appropriate page numbers may be found in the modules in Section Two of this Resource Guide, "Annotated Bibliography of Scholarship on the Bahá'í Faith." For the study of the Bahá'í scriptures, the works of Bahá'u'lláh have been published together as a single volume titled Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, but no comparable work yet exists for 'Abdu'l-Bahá or Shoghi Effendi; thus the teacher cannot avoid assigning reading from a large number of books.

1. Introduction: Course Philosophy and Structure. Summary of the Bahá'í religion 2. Background: Islam and Shí'ism 3. Background: Nineteenth Century Iran and Shaykhism 4. The Báb: Early Life and Prophetic Career 5. The Báb's Teachings: Sources and Historical Context 6. The Bábí Movement 7. Bahá'u'lláh: Early Life and Prophetic Career

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8. The Early Writings of Bahá'u'lláh: The Hidden Words, Seven Valleys, Four Valleys, and The Kitáb-iÍqán. 9. Later Writings of Bahá'u'lláh: Proclamation to the Kings, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas 10. Creation of a Bahá'í Community, 1863-92 11. 'Abdu'l-Bahá: His Ministry and Works 12. Bahá'í Communities in Southwest and South Asia, 1892-1921 13. The Bahá'í Faith in the Occident, 1892-21 14. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Journeys in America and Europe: Impact on the Bahá'í Community and on Bahá'í Doctrine 15. Major Works of 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Tablets of the Divine Plan and The Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá 16. Shoghi Effendi: Life and Works, Summary 17. Establishment of the Bahá'í Administrative Order, 1921-37 18. Codification of Bahá'í Belief: World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, Advent of Divine Justice, and Promised Day is Come. 19. The Bahá'í Faith Worldwide: Growth, Persecution, and The First and Second Seven Year Plans (192153) 20. Globalization and Completion of the Administration: The Ten Year Crusade (1953-63) and the Death of the Guardian 21. The Interregnum and Election of the House of Justice (1957-63) 22. The Bahá'í Community, 1963-79: Emergence of a Third World Bahá'í Community 23. The Bahá'í World Community, 1979 present: Iranian Persecution, Globalization 24. Messages of the Universal House of Justice, 1963 present 25. Bahá'í Theology: God, Revelation, Manifestation, Humanity, and Creation http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.curricula.html (17 of 19) [6-6-2004 16:14:12]

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26. Bahá'í Epistemology: Science and Investigation of Reality 27. Bahá'í Sacred History: Progressive Revelation and the Bahá'í Theology of Religions 28. Bahá'í Piety: The Spiritual Path and Journey of the Soul 29. Bahá'í Pilgrimage; The Bahá'í World Centre 30. Marriage and Family; The Roles of Men and Women 31. The Community Experience: Bahá'í Community and Ritual Life 32. Bahá'í Houses of Worship: Architecture and Social Theory 33. The Experience of Diversity: Racial Integration in the Bahá'í Community 34. Peace, War, and the "Lesser Peace" 35. The "Most Great Peace": A Bahá'í Utopia? 36. Prospect

Footnotes: 1 See section ¶60. Scripture for a discussion of these numbers. 2 The term "Manifestation" will be consistently capitalized to distinguish the person of the Manifestation from the philosophical concept of manifestation (see 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Some Answered Questions, 205-207), which is wholly unrelated. 3 These statistics are as of April, 1996. Many are estimates.

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Section Two: Annotated Bibliography of Noteworthy Scholarship on the Bahá'í Faith TABLE OF CONTENTS

¶i. Some Prefatory Notes and Considerations ¶ii. Format of this section ¶1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá ¶1.1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Journeys in America and Europe ¶2. Administrative Order: History and Institutions ¶2.1. Establishment of the Administrative Order, 1921-37 ¶2.2. The Guardianship ¶2.3. Rulers and Learned ¶2.4. The Interregnum and Election of the House of Justice (1957-63) ¶2.5. Houses of Justice ¶3. Afterlife ¶4. Agriculture ¶5. Art, Literature, Music, Architecture ¶6. The Báb and the Bábí Movement, 1844-62 ¶6.1. The Báb: Early Life and Prophetic Career ¶6.2. The Báb's Teachings: Sources and Historical Context ¶6.3. The Bábí Community ¶7. Background of the Bahá'í Faith: Islam, Shaykhism, and Iran ¶7.1. Background: Islam and Shí'ism ¶7.2. Background: Nineteenth-Century Iran and Shaykhism ¶8. Bahá'í Communities of the World ¶8.1. The Bahá'í Faith in Africa, Latin America, and Oceania ¶8.2. The Bahá'í Faith in Europe ¶8.3. The Bahá'í Faith in Iran http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.biblio01.html (1 of 7) [6-6-2004 16:14:30]

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¶8.4. The Bahá'í Faith in North America ¶8.5. The Bahá'í Faith in the Former Soviet Union ¶8.6. The Bahá'í Faith in South and East Asia ¶9. Bahá'í Faith, Introduction to ¶10. Bahá'í History ¶10.1. Bahá'í History, 1863-92 ¶10.2. Bahá'í History, 1921-1953 ¶10.3. Bahá'í History, 1953-63 ¶10.4. Bahá'í History, 1963-79 ¶10.5. Bahá'í History, 1979-Present ¶11. Bahá'u'lláh ¶11.1. Bahá'u'lláh's Life and Mission ¶11.2. Bahá'u'lláh's Writings ¶12. Community ¶13. Consultation ¶14. Conversion ¶15. Covenant ¶16. Creation: Its Origin and Purpose ¶17. Economics ¶18. Education ¶19. Environment ¶20. Epistemology: The Bahá'í Theory and Sources of Knowledge ¶21. Ethics ¶22. Family Life: Marriage, Divorce, and Sexuality ¶23. Fasting ¶24. Feasts, Holy Days, and the Calendar ¶25. Female Imagery / Maid of Heaven ¶26. Funds and the Huqúqu'lláh ¶27. Gender Issues and Equality ¶28. God, Concept of ¶29. Health, Healing, and Medicine ¶30. Hermeneutics and Interpretation http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.biblio01.html (2 of 7) [6-6-2004 16:14:30]

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¶31. History and Historiography ¶32. Holy Places, Bahá'í (World Centre and the Arc) ¶33. Houses of Worship ¶34. Humanity: Its Nature and Purpose ¶35. Justice / Divine Justice ¶36. Law and Personal Conduct ¶37. Manifestations of God ¶38. Mysticism ¶39. New World Order ¶40. Peace and War ¶41. Persecution and Martyrdom ¶42. Philosophy ¶43. Pilgrimage ¶44. Pioneering ¶45. Politics ¶46. Prayer and Meditation ¶47. Principles, Bahá'í ¶48. Prophecy ¶48.1. Biblical and Islamic Prophecies ¶48.2. Prophecies in Hinduism and Buddhism ¶48.3. Native American Prophecies ¶48.4. Other Prophecies ¶49. Psychic Phenomena and the Occult ¶50. Psychology ¶51. Racial Diversity and Race Relations ¶52. Religion: Definition of ¶53. Religious Dialogue and Pluralism ¶53.1. Ahmadíyya ¶53.2. Buddhism ¶53.3. Christianity ¶53.4. Confucianism and Taoism ¶53.5. Hinduism http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.biblio01.html (3 of 7) [6-6-2004 16:14:30]

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¶53.6. Islam and Sufism ¶53.7. Jainism ¶53.8. Judaism ¶53.9. Manichaeism ¶53.10. Mormonism ¶53.11. Native and "Primal" Religions ¶53.12. New Age Movements ¶53.13. Sabaeanism ¶53.14. Sikhism ¶53.15. Zoroastrianism ¶54. Revelation ¶55. Ritual Practices and Ceremonies ¶56. Sacred History: Progressive Revelation ¶57. Sacred Story (Mythology) ¶58. Scholarship and the Academy ¶59. Science and Religion ¶60. Scripture ¶61. Shoghi Effendi ¶62. Sin, Evil, and Satan ¶63. Social Order ¶64. The Spiritual Life ¶65. Tests, and Growth ¶66. Theology ¶67. Unity / Unity in Diversity ¶68. Work

¶i. Some Prefatory Notes and Considerations: This guide is the product of years of work by a variety of people, and may display consequent inconsistencies. We are gradually making it more uniform as we revise it, but the sheer volume of articles and our attempt to link all parts of the guide into one uniform presentation make it unavoidable http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.biblio01.html (4 of 7) [6-6-2004 16:14:30]

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that there will be gaps. Below are the gaps we are aware of. * Where the writings of the primary figures are included in multiple books, as they usually are, we have included some of the more common sources but have made no attempt to be exhaustive. The exception is the volume Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, which, containing all of Bahá'u'lláh's translated writings--save parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh, and Bahá'í Prayers--is the most complete single collection of Bahá'u'lláh's texts in English. Since some instructors might wish to assign this one book and others use individual texts instead (and since Writings of Bahá'u'lláh neither contains an index nor is in REFER), we have cross-referenced all of these citations. * We have given some of the main scriptural citations for every topic, but these are not and could not be complete: not only are the writings too vast to cite every relevant quote, and not only are new translations, both authoritative (done under the auspices of the Universal House of Justice) and provisional (done by individuals) continually being produced, but not all of the extant writings have even been archived yet. * There are many academic and semi-academic journals which are both of quite limited circulation and are somewhat obscure. We have not included articles found in some of these partly because we sometimes could not find them and partly because only the professional researcher will have access to them. Indeed, even the most thorough of all bibliographies on the Bahá'í Faith, William Collins' Bibliography of English-Language Works on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths 1844-1985, does not cite every article ever published. * Many unpublished translations, articles, historical documents, bibliographies, pilgrims' notes, and book reviews are available on the internet. These have not been cited here. Please see "Description of Bahá'í Internet Resources," below. * Since this Guide has an index we have not extensively cross-referenced topics. The index should be consulted because sometimes more than one subject heading will include relevant information for any particular topic. For ideas on what related topics to look up, one can consult the sections given in the curriculum guides, above, or the cross-referencing provided in the index. * The guide is thorough, but not exhaustive. There are doubtless numerous books which deserve to be listed that we either do not know of or have overlooked. Recommendations for additions are encouraged.

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The format of entries in this section will, for the most part, follow the following pattern. The presentation of certain subjects may depart slightly from the following, for some entries will not feature all four of these elements.

¶X. Subject Heading ¶X.1. Subject sub-heading (if applicable) 1- Brief definition of subject (if applicable). 2- Primary source writings: i.e., works of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi, or the Universal House of Justice pertaining to the subject.* 3- References to the subject in the basic Bahá'í textbooks. Books cited here are J. E. Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.), Gloria Faizi's The Bahá'í Faith, John Ferraby's All Things Made New, William S. Hatcher and J. Douglas Martin's The Bahá'í Faith, John Huddleston's The Earth is But One Country, Moojan Momen's A Short Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith, and Peter Smith's A Short History of the Bahá'í Faith, (cited as Smith 1996) and The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions (cited as Smith 1987). Pages cited here supplement but are not identical with the page numbers offered in the indices of these books. Wendi Momen's A Basic Bahá'í Dictionary and Glenn Cameron and Wendi Momen's A Basic Bahá'í Chronology would also be useful to an instructor or researcher.

4- Bibliographic notes of modern scholarship on the subject. This latter section will, of course, be more temporally limited than the above. That is, while the references in the above textbooks will remain useful (indeed, Esslemont's book is now over s even decades old), the journal and book entries of contemporary scholarship will only be as current as the latest edition of this guide.

* It should be noted that the edition of Lights of Guidance cited here, 2d revised and enlarged edition 1988, differs in page and citation numbering from the 1st, 3d, and 4th editions. This edition was chosen to cite because it seems to be the most commonly-owned one.

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Annotated Bibliography of Noteworthy Scholarship on the Bahá'í Faith

¶1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá 'Abdu'l-Bahá, the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh, became the "Center of the Covenant" following Bahá'u'lláh's death. He is, to Bahá'ís, the perfect exemplar of human perfection: he was human, unlike his father who held the dual station of Manifestation of God and human, but he was the embodiment of all human perfections. His writings, though not divinely revealed, are considered sacred scripture. Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, 278-81 (Book of the Covenant, Tablet to the Land of Bá, also in Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (henceforth "Tablets") 219-223 and 227-228). 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives some idea of the suffering he endured as a result of the plots of his brothers. Shoghi Effendi's section on 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh, in World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, 131-39, is the authoritative statement of the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Lights of Guidance provides a variety of notes on 'Abdu'l-Bahá, 484-88. Esslemont, 51-70; 243-51 Faizi, 18-22 Ferraby, 224-38 Hatcher and Martin, 50-60

Huddleston, 204-14 Momen 126-7 Smith 1987, 69-71, 73-4 Smith 1996, 64-83

The life of 'Abdu'l-Bahá has been the focus of one biography, Balyuzi's 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Centre of the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, a work that makes little effort to set 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the context of his times or to assess the role he played in developing the Bahá'í community. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's station is most clearly defined by Shoghi Effendi in World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, 131-39. Numerous pilgrims' notes describe what it was like to meet 'Abdu'l-Bahá, what he talked about, and how he lived his life. Thornton Chase's In Galilee is perhaps the most analytical and literate example of pilgrim's notes, but Julia M. Grundy's Ten Days in the Light of 'Akká and Helen Goodall and Ella Goodall Cooper's Daily Lessons received at 'Akká, January 1908 are also interesting and useful. Myron Phelps' The Master in 'Akká (originally published as The Life and Teachings of Abbas Effendi) offers a sympathetic description of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and his teachings by a nonBahá'í. Juliet Thompson's Diary of Juliet Thompson offers a glimpse not only of 'Abdu'l-Bahá but especially of the devotion the Bahá'ís felt toward him, particularly the love and devotion of Juliet Thompson. Memoirs of meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Thornton Chase and Juanita Storch have been published in World Order, 25.1 (Fall 1993). Other relevant pilgrim's notes are listed in section ¶43. Pilgrimage. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.biblio02.html (1 of 8) [6-6-2004 16:14:45]

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A detailed account of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's passing, by two Americans present, is found in Florian and Grace Krug's "Accounts of the Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá," in World Order, 7.2 (Winter 1972-73). The entire Fall 1971 issue of World Order (6.1) was devoted to articles on 'Abdu'l-Bahá's life as a commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of his passing.

¶1.1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Journeys in America and Europe The 1909 overthrow of the Turkish government by the Young Turks ended the reign of those responsible for the exile of Bahá'u'lláh's family to 'Akká, and 'Abdu'l-Bahá was for the first time free to leave Palestine. He quickly embarked on what would be a three-year voyage to many Western countries, visiting Bahá'í communities and delivering talks in numerous cities. In 1910 he set sail for Egypt, where he remained for a year before traveling on to Europe. In 1912 he traveled across America, and finally spent almost a year in Europe before returning to Egypt in June 1913 and Haifa in December 1913. Esslemont, 60-1 Ferraby, 232-36 Hatcher and Martin, 56-8 Huddleston, 211-12

Momen, 126-7 Smith 1987, 103-4 Smith 1996, 79-82

STUDIES Several volumes collect some of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's talks in Europe, namely Paris Talks and 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London. Most of his talks in North America were collected and published as a single book titled The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Though much has been written on 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visits to America little has addressed his travel in Europe, save pilgrim's notes such as The Diary of Juliet Thompson. The most complete study of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to North America, Allan L. Ward's Two Hundred Thirty-Nine Days: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey in America, is a chronicle of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's trip, but it makes little effort to analyze the trip's impact on the Bahá'í community or on American culture. A shorter summary of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit may be found in Hasan Balyuzi's 'Abdu'lBahá, chapters 12-18. Gary L. Morrison's "'Abdu'l-Bahá and the Early American Bahá'ís," in World Order, 6.3 (Spring 1972), though short, is a good analytical piece on 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit, though it was written before the first critical works on American Bahá'í history had been published, and thus inevitably suffers from lack of context. ACCOUNTS Memoirs by Thornton Chase and Juanita Storch about 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to North America, describing the http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.biblio02.html (2 of 8) [6-6-2004 16:14:45]

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impact he had on Bahá'ís, their friends, and journalists, have been published in World Order, 25.1 (Fall, 1993). A series of short works on 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visits to specific sites, containing newspaper articles, itineraries, and photographs as well as transcriptions of his talks, include 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Canada, Hussein Ahdieh and Eliane A. Hopson's 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York: The City of the Covenant, and the article "'Abdu'lBahá in Chicago" in Bahá'í News, 558 (September 1977). The Diary of Juliet Thompson also includes a wealth of information about his visits to America, especially pages 223-395, and some of his time in Europe, especially pages 147-222. Agnes Parsons' diary, edited by Richard Hollinger and published as 'Abdu'l-Bahá in America: Agnes Parsons' Diary, and the biography of Lua Getsinger, Lua Getsinger: Herald of the Covenant, also cover much of the same ground. EGYPT Mirza Ahmad Sohrab provided a detailed record of three months of Abdu'l-Bahá's time in Egypt in Abdul Baha in Egypt, in which he includes a historical presentation of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's activities while there as well as translations of his talks.

¶2. Administrative Order: History and Institutions The Bahá'í Administrative Order is the organizational system of the Bahá'í religion. It is divided into two branches: "the Rulers" are legislative councils of nine members at local, regional/national, and international levels who are democratically elected by all believers; "the Learned" are individuals who function at local and regional/national levels as advisory and inspirational leaders, are appointed by "the Rulers," and have no individual executive authority. Bahá'ís believe that, on the one hand, this arrangement combines the best features of democratic, aristocratic, and monarchical institutions and that, on the other hand, its unique arrangement of checks-and-balances--such as consultation, prohibition on campaigning, and carefullydelineated jurisdiction of legislative authority--and the well-defined spheres of each branch preserves the administrative order from the potentially abusable features of common democratic and monarchical institutions. The entire administrative order derives directly from Bahá'u'lláh--Bahá'u'lláh appointed 'Abdu'lBahá, 'Abdu'l-Bahá appointed Shoghi Effendi, and Shoghi Effendi helped realize the establishment of the Universal House of Justice. Recognizing and obeying the Manifestation of God for this day is an aspect of the "Greater Covenant," and obedience to the institutions he inaugurated--seen as the only means by which a peaceful world order can be created--is an aspect of the "Lesser Covenant." The Administrative Order evolved gradually. Bahá'u'lláh established it by defining two institutions: the house of justice, a council of nine or more individuals, in each locality and at the worldwide level; and the Hands of the Cause of God, individuals Bahá'u'lláh appointed to travel, teach the Bahá'í Faith, and deepen the understanding of the Bahá'ís. No houses of justice were established in Bahá'u'lláh's lifetime. 'Abdu'l-Bahá temporarily changed the name of the institution of the house of justice to spiritual assembly so as to avoid judicial or political implications, and oversaw the establishment of the first spiritual assemblies in Iran, the United States, Egypt, and India. He also defined the complete organizational system in his will and testament: local spiritual assemblies, national spiritual assemblies elected by delegates from local http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.biblio02.html (3 of 8) [6-6-2004 16:14:45]

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communities, and a Universal House of Justice elected by the members of the various National Spiritual Assemblies. Shoghi Effendi established this system between 1921 and 1957, making it possible to elect the Universal House of Justice in 1963. Shoghi Effendi appointed additional Hands of the Cause of God and authorized the Hands to select Auxiliary Board members to serve them regionally. The House of Justice cannot appoint Hands of the Cause and thus has replaced that institution with another that carries out some of the same functions, called the Counselors. The Counselors are appointed to five-year terms, whereas the Hands were appointed for life. Most Counselors serve in large jurisdictional areas--the world is divided into five of these regions, called "continents." These Continental Counselors appoint Auxiliary Board members, who in turn appoint assistants, who work with individual local Bahá'í communities. There are also nine "International Counselors" who serve at the Bahá'í World Centre in a body called the International Teaching Centre. In 1997 the Universal House of Justice added a fourth governing body of the "Institution of the Rulers," called regional councils. The regional council lies between the local and the national spiritual assemblies; the members of the former elect its members though secret ballot, while the latter institution determines the boundaries of its jurisdiction. Regional councils report to and are subordinate to the national spiritual assembly. Since the insitution is new, its authority and repsonsibility are still being defined. Shoghi Effendi, Call to the Nations, 36-44, provides a detailed discussion of the differences between the Bahá'í administrative order and the organizational systems of secular governments and previous religions. Shoghi Effendi wrote a series of books that describe the features of Bahá'í administration, among them Bahá'í Administration, Advent of Divine Justice, and World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. Pages 143-57 of the latter work provide an essential description of the Administrative Order. The guidance of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi, and the Universal House of Justice about Bahá'í organization, especially at the local level, has been compiled into a single work titled Developing Distinctive Bahá'í Communities. A compilation of Bahá'í scriptures called The Continental Board of Counselors provides a clear picture of this branch of the administrative order. 'Abdu'l-Bahá discusses it in Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, 77-89. Lights of Guidance includes comments on a variety of administrative topics, 1-94, 164-75, 309-38. Esslemont, 131-32, 264-73 Ferraby, 256-75 Hatcher and Martin, 133-36, 144-51 Huddleston, 110-14

Momen, 68-73, 75-7, 80 Smith 1987, 120-26 Smith 1996, 91-2, 94, 118

One of the only general works on the administrative order is Eunice Braun's The March of the Institutions: A Commentary on the Interdependence of Rulers and Learned, which outlines the structure of the administrative order and details the interrelationships of its bodies. Adib Taherzadeh wrote an inspirational and historical work on the covenant and its relation to the administrative order, The Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh. A shorter analysis comparing Western versus Bahá'í types of governance is Arash Abizadeh's "Liberal Democracy and the Bahá'í Administrative Order," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2.3 (1990). Deepen magazine has begun a series of articles which will discuss the history and day-to-day functioning of the United States Bahá'í National Center; first is Deepen 10.4.1 (1996), "The Bahá'í National Center: part one: Forty-Nine Years, a personal perspective," followed by Deepen 11.4.2 (1996), "The Bahá'í National Center: part two: The Establishment of the Bahá'í Faith in America." http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.biblio02.html (4 of 8) [6-6-2004 16:14:45]

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¶2.1. Establishment of the Administrative Order, 1921-37 A history of this period is largely identical to a history of the life and work of Shoghi Effendi. To him fell the responsibility of designing and implementing many of the fine details of the administrative organization and fine-tuning the Bahá'í world community and its understanding of the Faith. Many of Shoghi Effendi's writings were letters to individual communities responding to their administrative concerns and guiding their development. Some of these have been collected in Bahá'í Administration: Selected Messages 1922-1932, and Principles of Bahá'í Administration: A Compilation. He also alludes to the administrative difficulties in the United States in World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, 3-5. Esslemont, 179-81; 264-73 Ferraby, 256-9 Hatcher and Martin, 66-68

Huddleston, 214-19 Smith 1987, 120-22 Smith 1996, 107-9

Loni Bramson-Lerche has published on the period in "Some Aspects of the Development of Bahá'í Administration in America, 1922-1936," in Moojan Momen, Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, volume 1, followed by her "Some Aspects of the Establishment of the Guardianship," in Studies in Honor of the Late Hasan M. Balyuzi: Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, volume 5.* The period is also outlined in Eunice Braun, From Strength to Strength, 5-8. One can also glean some information from Gayle Morrison's To Move the World: Louis Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America, 153-78. Adib Taherzadeh's The Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh provides some information, especially in chapter 26. Many passing mentions of the establishing of the administrative order can be found in Richard Hollinger, ed., Community Histories: Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, volume 6. * The inconsistency of the titles of this series is not an error. Volumes 1-4 of the series are titled Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, and volumes 5-7 are titled Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í Religions.

¶2.2. The Guardianship Bahá'u'lláh anticipated the institution of the Guardian in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, but it was left to 'Abdu'l-Bahá to clarify its nature and appoint Shoghi Effendi as the first Guardian. To the Guardianship was assigned the province of authoritatively interpreting the Bahá'í scriptures, appointing members of the branch of the Learned, and overseeing the promulgation and protection of the Faith. The Guardian had no legislative power.

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Lights of Guidance includes a section explaining the institution of the Guardianship, pages 309-14. Esslemont, 130, 261-3, 284-5 Ferraby, 256, 260-3 Hatcher and Martin, 133-36

Huddleston, 214-15, 222 Smith 1987, 115, 130, 132, 134-5 Smith 1996, 101, 106

Though much has been written on the first Guardian, Shoghi Effendi, almost no studies have been devoted to the institution itself. The Universal House of Justice has addressed certain aspects of the institution in "Comments on the Guardianship and The Universal House of Justice," in Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1968-1973. The decision that no additional Guardians can be appointed is also given by the Universal House of Justice in Wellspring of Guidance: Messages from the Universal House of Justice 19361968, 11, 81-91. Both of these letters have been reprinted in Adib Taherzadeh's The Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, in an appendix called "The Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice." Brent Poirier has examined this issue in "The Flow of Divine Authority: Scriptural authority for the Universal House of Justice to function infallibly without the presence of a Guardian," in Deepen Magazine, No. 9 (1996), reprinted in The American Bahá'í, August 1, 1996, pull-out section. Mentions of the institution of the Guardianship, its founding by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, and its ending with the death of Shoghi Effendi can be found scattered throughout The Ministry of the Custodians 1957-1963. The essays in Richard Hollinger, ed., Community Histories: Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, volume 6, contain many passing references to the institution of the Guardian.

¶2.3. Rulers and Learned Bahá'u'lláh, in describing the organization of his religion, refers to the "rulers and learned" several times. This phrase has come to capture the two halves of Bahá'í organization: the elected governing bodies, which function as a collective and have the authority to make major decisions, and the appointed Counselors, their Auxiliary Board members and their assistants, who primarily advise, consult with, and encourage Bahá'í communities, and who act as individuals, not as collective groups. The application of Bahá'u'lláh's term to these two institutions was made by the Universal House of Justice. Bahá'u'lláh refers to the Rulers and the Learned in Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, 279 (Kitáb-i-Ahd in Tablets 219223). The Universal House of Justice explained further in "Elucidation of the Nature of the Continental Boards of Counselors," in Messages of the Universal House of Justice, 1968-1973, 91-95. Esslemont, 263, 285 Hatcher and Martin, 133 Momen, 71-2

Smith 1987, 134-5 Smith 1996, 118

Also useful is the compilation of Bahá'í scriptures called The Continental Board of Counselors. "The Continental Board of Counselors: Its Role and Station: A talk by the Hand of the Cause William Sears," transcribed and printed in Deepen, 9.3/4 (1996), describes some of the basic functions of the institution of http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.biblio02.html (6 of 8) [6-6-2004 16:14:45]

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the Counselors.

¶2.4. The Interregnum and Election of the Universal House of Justice (1957-63) Shoghi Effendi's death on 4 November 1957 was completely unexpected and proved to be a great shock to the Bahá'í world. Bahá'ís had expected Shoghi Effendi to be only the first of a line of Guardians, but Shoghi Effendi had appointed no successor. He had appointed Hands of the Cause of God, however, and one month before his death he wrote a long letter about their importance, calling them the "chief stewards" of the Bahá'í administrative order. After Shoghi Effendi's passing, the Hands met and decided that the best course to pursue was to elect the Universal House of Justice, the supreme governing body of the Bahá'í Faith, in 1963, when the Ten Year Crusade--Shoghi Effendi's plan to take the Bahá'í Faith to most of the world--would end. A full compilation of texts relating to this period, Establishment of the Universal House of Justice, has been included in Compilation of Compilations, volume I. Ferraby, 261-3 Hatcher and Martin, 70-2 Huddleston, 221-23

Smith 1987, 128-32 Smith 1996, 112-5

No history of the period has yet been written, though many of the letters written by the Hands were published (see The Bahá'í World, vol. 13, 1954-1963, 333-78) and a comprehensive collection of their letters called The Ministry of the Custodians 1957-1963 is available. Adib Taherzadeh discusses concerns of this time period in The Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, chapters 34-36.

¶2.5. Houses of Justice Bahá'u'lláh described a system in which every community containing at least nine adult Bahá'ís would have a "House of Justice," an elected body of nine or more individuals who would exercise spiritual and administrative authority over their jurisdiction. While the Faith is still young and not always well known to the outside world, it has been deemed prudent to refer to the Houses of Justice instead as spiritual assemblies to help prevent possible assumptions about their having a political function: the local Houses of Justice are referred to as Local Spiritual Assemblies and the regional/national governing councils as National Spiritual Assemblies. The only level of governance which currently rules under its title of a House of Justice is the international one, the Universal House of Justice, the highest governing body in the Bahá'í world. As the only remaining recipient of conferred infallibility, it is the point of obedience of all Bahá'ís. Bahá'ís write to the Universal House of Justice when they wish guidance on certain matters or clarifications of Bahá'í http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.biblio02.html (7 of 8) [6-6-2004 16:14:45]

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teachings; though the Universal House of Justice does not have the authority to interpret the sacred writings, they do have the facilities to search the vast archives of the original writings to find guidance from one of the central figures* or Shoghi Effendi. The spiritual assemblies do not enjoy conferred infallibility, and this status will not change upon their eventually assuming the title "Houses of Justice." Lights of Guidance, 314-19. Esslemont, 129-30, 272-3 Hatcher and Martin, 59, 144-51, 134-5

Huddleston, 114 Smith 1996, 73

No significant scholarship has been produced on the institution of the Universal House of Justice. However, many of its writings have been published, either as the compilations of its letters Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1968-1973, Wellspring of Guidance: Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1968, A Wider Horizon: Selected Messages of the Universal House of Justice 1983-1992 and Third Epoch of the Formative Age: Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-86, or as excerpted in the many topical compilations of Bahá'í scripture. A significant document was the 1985 statement The Promise of World Peace. Eunice Braun has summarized the first ten years of the history of the Universal House of Justice in From Strength to Strength 55-64, and Adib Taherzadeh briefly discusses the institution in The Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, chapter 35. * The term "central figures" is a standard Bahá'í term for the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, and
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¶3. Afterlife The Bahá'í religion states that the soul is immortal, continuing to exist after the death of the body. The soul, according to 'Abdu'l-Bahá, has the powers of imagination, thought, comprehension, and memory. Bahá'í scripture states that it consists of divine attributes, and a major purpose of life is to develop and express these attributes. Such development, the achievement of faith in God's latest Manifestation, and one's deeds, together define one's spiritual state after death. The next world is seen as a numberless series of spiritual planes or kingdoms, rising ever closer to God. The Bahá'í religion does not believe in a literal heaven or hell, but sees heaven and hell as referring to the soul's spiritual proximity to or distance from God. It also rejects reincarnation, believing instead in the endless advancement and progress of the soul from one plane of existence to another. Scriptural discussions include Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, 453-56 (Gleanings, LXXIX-LXXXI) and 'Abdu'lBahá, Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, 183-201; Some Answered Questions, 223-43. A compilation of the Bahá'í writings on life after death has been assembled by Hushidar Motlagh and is titled Unto Him Shall We Return. Lights of Guidance discusses reincarnation, 536-8. Esslemont, 188-95 Faizi, 59-62 Ferraby, 145-51

Hatcher and Martin, 100, 104-06 Huddleston, 57-8 Momen, 110-14

An excellent discussion of the Bahá'í concept of the afterlife may be found in John Hatcher, The Purpose of Physical Reality, chapter 4, "The Eternal Consequences of the Physical Experience." Many popular books and collections of scripture have been produced, including Alan Bryson's Light After Death, subtitled A comparison of the Near-Death-Experience and the teachings of the Bahá'í Faith on life after death, which presents many quotations from primary Bahá'í sources, and Farnaz Ma'súmián's Life After Death: Religious Views and Near-Death Experience a more comprehensive compilation of texts from all the world's major religions in the topic of the next world and of this-world encounters with it. Hushidar Motlagh compiled some relevant Bahá'í texts in The Glorious Journey to God: Selections from Sacred Scriptures on the Afterlife. Statements on reincarnation are included in Lights of Guidance, 536-8.

¶4. Agriculture In the "Tablet of the World," Bahá'u'lláh lists the things "conducive to the advancement of mankind." He writes that "special regard must be paid to agriculture," which "preceedeth" in importance elements such as the Lesser Peace, world fellowship, education, and a univeral language. (Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, 90) Bahá'ís believe that agriculture is far more than simple farming, for it includes a whole spectrum of environmental,

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economic, and spiritual concerns relating to food and the ecological sustainable development of the planet. Lights of Guidance, 547, Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, 90 Ferraby, 102 Huddleston, 84

Momen, 45, 64

Iraj Poostchi's Agriculture Beyond 2000: A Bahá'í Perspective is the longest study of agriculture yet released. Paul Hanley argues for the often under-estimated importance of agriculture in "Agriculture: A Fundamental Principle," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3.1 (1990-1991).

¶5. Art, Literature, Music, Architecture The Bahá'í religion does not advocate a particular kind of art, but Bahá'ís who are artists have made various contributions to the art world, and have a unique perspective on art because of their religious beliefs. In its brief history the Bahá'í Faith has made some significant and unique contributions to the world of architecture through the construction of its Houses of Worship and the buildings of its World Centre; for details, see the entries for Houses of Worship and Holy Places. A short compilation of scriptural texts on the arts, simply titled The Arts, is in Compilation of Compilations, volume I. Esslemont, 153 Hatcher and Martin, 179, 181-84

Huddleston, 83, 172

One of the only compilations of original Bahá'í literature and artwork is Crystallizations: 20 Works by Bahá'í Artists, edited by Ross Woodman. This includes Juliet Thompson's dramatical play I, Mary Magdalene, essays, fiction, some visual art, and much poetry. Another source for Bahá'í visual and poetic arts is World Order magazine, which includes selections of original work in every issue. Most issues of the Bahá'í World up through volume XVIII include a final section of music, hymns, and poetry. Books about specific topics, such as on the painter Mark Tobey or the potter Bernard Leach, also contain samples of artwork. GENERAL A good overview of Bahá'í practice of, varieties of, and teachings on art is Ann Boyles' "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community," in The Bahá'í World: An International Record, 199495.<* Inder Manocha published some introductory ruminations on the nature of Bahá'í art as "Bahá'í Art: Fact or Fiction?" in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3.1 (1993). The most extensive sourcebook on Bahá'í art is http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.biblio03.html (2 of 5) [6-6-2004 16:16:34]

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Michael Fitzgerald, ed., The Creative Circle: Art, Literature, and Music in Bahá'í Perspective, a collection of essays on art by Bahá'ís. Glen A. Eyford's "Aesthetics and Spiritual Education," in World Order, 14.1 (Fall, 1979) explores the importance of aesthetic experience, symbol, and myth to the communication of spiritual ideas. Ludwig Tuman's "Toward Critical Foundations of a World Culture of the Arts," in World Order, 9.4 (Summer 1975), later expanded into the book Mirror of the Divine: Art in the Bahá'í World Community, both explore the role of the arts and the artist in society, their relationship to society's worldview, and their potential in advancing the world community's future spiritual attainments. Anne Gordon Atkinson briefly examines the history of the presentation of and participation by women in art in "Women in Art," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4.2 (June-Sept. 1991). LITERARY ART Eno Marconi's "Bahá'í Theatre?" in World Order, 8.4 (Summer 1974) discusses the Bahá'í teachings relevant to theatrical productions. Elham Afnan examines Bahá'í attitudes towards war and visions of peace as they relate to the modern novel in "The Good of the World and the Happiness of the Nations: A Study of Modern Utopian and Dystopian Literature," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1.4 (1988-1989). Her "'Abdu'lBahá and Ezra Pound's Circle," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6.2 (June-Sept. 1994), is a brief discussion of the Bahá'í Faith and some primary literary figures of the early twentieth century. One of the only examinations of Bahá'í literary expression and aesthetics is Suheil Bushrui's The Style of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. John Hatcher's The Ocean of His Words: A Reader's Guide to the Art of Bahá'u'lláh presents the writings of Bahá'u'lláh as literature and analyzes his use of metaphor and the structure, and style of his writings. POETRY Poetry is one of the most practiced art forms in the Bahá'í world, a fact that Shirin Sabri discusses in "The Purpose of Poetry," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1.1 (1988-1989). David L. Erickson and Jack McLean have each published comments on this article in the Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2.1 (1989-1990). There is a biography of Robert Hayden (poet of the United States Library of Congress, and a Bahá'í) by John Hatcher titled From the Auroral Darkness, aspects of which he has summarized in "Racial Identity and the Patterns of Consolidation in the Poetry of Robert Hayden," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3.2 (1990-1991). The Fall 1981 issue of World Order (16.1) was devoted to a series of retrospective essays on Robert Hayden; the Summer 1983 issue (17.4) was devoted to articles about Robert Hayden and contains a selection of poems. Several anthologies of poetry have been published by the Association for Bahá'í Studies: "Response to Revelation: Poetry by Bahá'ís" (Bahá'í Studies, 7); "Abiding Silence: An Anthology of Poems in Honour of the Bahá'ís of Iran" (Bahá'í Studies, 15) edited by Shirin Sabri; and Bahá'í Studies, volume 10, which consists of a collection of four essays by Bahá'ís about the artist and artistic expression. There are numerous volumes of poetry published by Roger White, such as Another Song, Another Season: Poems and Portrayals; Occasions of Grace: More Poems and Portrayals; and The Witness of Pebbles. One of the Bahá'í Faith's more famous artists was the preeminent British potter Bernard Leach, who was also a very good poet and visual artist; the most recent of his many collections of poetry and drawings is Drawings, Verse, and Belief. VISUAL ART

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Little work has been done on the visual arts. One article is Ross Woodman's "Bahá'u'lláh's Influence on the New York School of Painting: The 'Unapprehended Inspiration' of Newman and Rothko," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4.1 (Mar.-June 1991), in which Woodman argues for indirect Bahá'í influences on the work of these two painters and even mentions that Mark Tobey, the renowned abstract painter and a Bahá'í, should be seen as the founder of the New York School. Books of Mark Tobey's art that contain discussions of his participation in the Bahá'í Faith include Arthur Dahl's Mark Tobey: Art and Belief, Eliza E. Rathbone's Mark Tobey: City Paintings, the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States' Mark Tobey: paintings from the collection of Joyce and Arthur Dahl, an article on one series of his paintings, Julie Badiee's "Mark Tobey's City Paintings: Meditations on an Age of Transition," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1.4 (1988-1989), and Graham Hassall's essay "The Influences on Mark Tobey," in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4.1 (Mar. 1986). Further, the Spring 1977 issue of World Order (11.3) was devoted to a series of retrospective essays about Tobey and his art. Much of the focus of visual arts in Islam was on calligraphy; one of Bahá'u'lláh's followers, Mishkín-Qalam, excelled in the art. An article by Julie Oeming Badiee and Heshmatollah Badiee, "The Calligraphy of Mishkín-Qalam," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3.4 (Dec. 1990Mar. 1991), discusses his life and use of symbolism and includes some beautiful examples of his art. Jalalíyyíh Quinn's notes explaining her series of paintings currently on display at the office of the Association of Bahá'í Studies in Ottawa, "Notes to the Paintings in Honor of the Vision of Shoghi Effendi," in The Vision of Shoghi Effendi," includes color prints of five of these paintings. MUSIC Music is regarded with great esteem in the Bahá'í writings, and Bahá'í musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie and the songwriting team Seals and Crofts have done much to popularize and promote the Faith. See Kitáb-i-Aqdas paragraph 51 and Note 79. The most complete collection of quotations on music, simply titled Music, is found in Compilation of Compilations, volume II. See also Lights of Guidance, 410-13.

Adib Taherzadeh discusses music in Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, volume 3, 367-9. Mentions of and essays on music can be found in The Creative Circle: Art, Literature, and Music in Bahá'í Perspective, a collection of essays on art by Bahá'ís. Kerry Hart's "The Role of Music in the Advancement of Civilization," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2.1 (1989-1990), examines the effects of music on cultural and spiritual growth. Margaret L. Caton presents a picture of the place of music in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's cultural surroundings through an examination of the Bahá'í impact on one famous Middle Eastern musician in "Bahá'í Influences on Mírzá 'Abdu'lláh, Qájár Court Musician and Master of the Radíf," in Juan R. Cole and Moojan Momen, From Iran East and West, Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, volume 2. R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram's Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkár: Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, volume 4 contains detailed histories both of American Bahá'í hymnology and of the use of music in the houses of worship, as well as a detailed history of its architectural design. Robert Stockman offers differing perspectives of many topics in this book in his "Review of Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkár," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1.2 (1988-1989). ARCHITECTURE

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Besides Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, other articles that discuss architecture and the Faith are Leo R. Zrudlo's "The Missing Dimension in the Built Environment: A Challenge for the 21st Century," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3.1 (1990-1991), which asserts the lack of a spiritual dimension in much of modern architecture. Duane L. Herrman's "Houses as Perfect as Possible," in World Order, 26.1 (Fall 1994), and Tom Kubala's "Architectural Implications of the Bahá'í Community," in World Order, 9.1 (Fall 1974), describe the aesthetic styles of the Bahá'í houses of worship. Ugo Giachery's biography of Shoghi Effendi, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, includes a lengthy section on the Bahá'í World Center and its design considerations and describes at length the actual construction of some of its buildings and gardens. A discussion of the spiritual significances of art, complete with numerous photographs of Bahá'í architecture, has been published by Faríburz Sahbá, an architect and Project Manager for the Mount Carmel Bahá'í Projects, as "Art and Architecture: A Bahá'í Perspective," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (March-June 1997). * Subtitles of The Bahá'í World are inconsistent; they go by The Bahá'í World: A Biennial International Record, The Bahá'í World: An International Record, or just The Bahá'í World.

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¶6. The Báb and the Bábí Movement, 1844-62 The movement founded by Siyyid 'Alí Muhammad of Shíráz became known as the Bábí Movement, or Babism, after his assumed title, the Báb, "Gate" or "Door." The Báb made a series of claims to religious leadership, first as a "báb," or representative to the hidden Imám, then as the Qá'im, the Imám himself, and finally as an independent Prophet. He emphasized repeatedly that he was but the forerunner of "He whom God shall make manifest," Man yuzhiruhu'lláh. In 1863 Bahá'u'lláh claimed that he was this figure. Bahá'ís view the Báb as being a harbinger, a figure sent to tear down entrenched religious beliefs and pave the way for the renewal of civilization brought by Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'í sources treat the Báb and his movement in great depth. Chief among these is Bahá'u'lláh's Kitáb-i-Íqán (Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, 63-155), which he wrote before his own declaration, ostensibly for the purpose of defending the truth of the Báb's claims. The major events of the movement are vividly described in Nabíl-iZarandí's Dawn-Breakers and Shoghi Effendi's God Passes By. Bahá'ís view the former of these very highly, for it was commissioned and partially read by Bahá'u'lláh himself. Finally, 'Abdu'l-Bahá himself wrote a short history of the Bábí movement entitled A Traveler's Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Báb. Shoghi Effendi summarized and elucidated the Bahá'í understanding of the Báb's station in The Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh, reprinted in The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. See notes in Lights of Guidance, 469-71. Esslemont, 11-22 Ferraby, 193-97 Hatcher and Martin, 10-27

Huddleston, 183-88 Momen, 115-18 Smith 1987, 56

¶6.1. The Báb: Early Life and Prophetic Career* Much primary-source information on the Báb is presented in Nabíl-i-Zarandí's The Dawn-Breakers, 'Abdu'lBahá's A Traveller's Narrative, and Shoghi Effendi's God Passes By. Esslemont, 11-18 Ferraby, 186-99, 201-02 Hatcher and Martin, 6-9, 18-19 Huddleston, 177-90

Momen, 116-17 Smith 1987, 13-30 Smith 1996, 19-25, 27-31

BIOGRAPHY The only systematic biography of the Báb written according to the standards of modern scholarship is Abbas Amanat's Resurrection and Renewal, particularly chapters 3, 4, 5, and 9. A useful biography is Balyuzi's The Báb. Also useful is Stephen Lambden's "An Episode in the Childhood of the Báb," in Peter Smith, In Iran, Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, volume 3 (reprinted from Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1.4 (March 1983)).

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Kalimát Press' The Martyrdom of the Báb: A Compilation, brings together the Bahá'í scriptural accounts and a few eyewitness accounts of the Báb's execution. Descriptions of his execution can also be found in a collection of original accounts collected and edited by Firuz Kazemzadeh titled "The Báb: Accounts of His Martyrdom," in World Order, 8.1 (Fall 1973). Moojan Momen examines the significances of the principal confrontations between the Bábís and their opponents in "The Bábí Upheavals 1848-1853," in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4.2 (Jan. 1990). He further examines the demographics of the early Bábí community in "The Social Basis of the Bábí Upheavals," in International Journal of Middle East Studies 14 (1983) and "The Social Location of the Bábí Movement: A Preliminary Note," in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 3.3 (September 1985). Peter Smith provides estimates of Bábí and Bahá'í populations in Iran from the late 1840s-1979 in his dissertation A Sociological Study of the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions; the relevant section is amended and reprinted as "A Note on Bábí and Bahá'í Numbers in Iran," in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1.4 (1983), and also in Iranian Studies 17.2-3 (1984) Contemporary Western descriptions of the Báb have been published in Momen, The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts. Seena Fazel briefly discusses and reprints "The First Western Language Encyclopedia Article on the Bábí Religion" in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5.3-6.1 (June 1991). The Encyclopedia Iranica and the Encyclopedia of Islam both have excellent articles on the Báb. THOUGHT MacEoin's "Hierarchy, Authority, and Eschatology in Early Bábí Thought," in Peter Smith, In Iran, Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, volume 3, offers a variety of insights into the Báb's theology and discusses the gradually-increasing stages of the Báb's religious claims and the eschatological significances of them. Todd Lawson discusses similar topics, though with a more theological focus, in "The Terms "Remembrance" (dhikr) and "Gate" (báb) in the Báb's Commentary on the Sura of Joseph," in Moojan Momen, Studies in Honor of the Late Hasan M. Balyuzi: Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, volume 5. Another short but valuable study of the Báb's theology is Lawson's "The Structure of Existence in the Báb's Tafsír and the Perfect Man Motif," in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 6.2-3 (February 1992). MacEoin's Rituals in Babism and Baha'ism provides a comprehensive discussion of Bábí praxis, though its textual focus void of anthropological considerations lends it a somewhat suspect relevance. (Christopher Buck has offered a Bahá'í response to the latter in his "Review of Denis MacEoin's Rituals in Babism and Baha'ism" in the International Journal of Middle East Studies, 28.3 [1996].) * The scholar who has published the most work on the Bábí movement thus far is Denis MacEoin. This requires a brief note. MacEoin's work as a whole tends to be academic and penetrating, and is a very valuable resource. However, he has an open bias against aspects of the Bahá'í Faith which can occasionally color his scholarship. A number of exchanges between Bahá'í academics and MacEoin on this and related issues have been published in a variety of journals. MacEoin has honestly admitted that his work could be affected by his bias, and even that he sometimes writes in "a deliberate attempt to stimulate controversy" ("A Critique of Moojan Momen's Response to my `Problems of Scholarship in a Bahá'í Context,'" in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1.4 [June, 1983] 69). MacEoin's explanation, as given here and elsewhere, is that he is simply more honest about a facet of any and every scholar's work, namely his or her (usually unconscious) preconceptions.

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Context The only book of writings of the Báb available in English is Selections from the Writings of the Báb. The Arabic and Persian Bayáns and The Book of Seven Proofs are available in French translation by A.L.M. Nicolas. See part two of the bibliography "Writings of the Báb," below. Esslemont, 19-22 Faizi, 3-7 Ferraby, 199-201

Huddleston, 175-8 Smith 1987, 31-47 Smith 1996, 27-9, 35-8

GENERAL E. G. Browne was the first English-speaking scholar to study seriously about the Bábí movement and translate a significant portion of the Báb's writings. Most of his work, though now quite dated, is still a valuable resource. Of especial note is his translation of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's A Traveller's Narrative. Following the heavilyfootnoted translation, Browne includes over 250 pages of detailed notes about notable figures, events, and texts relevant to Bábí history. These are only included in the original 1891 edition and its 1930 reprint; the 1980 edition by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust contains none of Browne's copious notes and footnotes. Moojan Momen has compiled many of Browne's writings in his Selections from the Writings of E. G. Browne on the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions. The largest effort to set the Báb's teachings in historical context is Amanat's Resurrection and Renewal, particularly chapter 3. Denis MacEoin has published extensively on Babism, including The Sources for Early Bábí Doctrine and History, a hundred-page summary of the writings of the Báb in the approximate order they were composed. The book also has an excellent bibliography, including a listing of all the known Bábí manuscripts and the archives that contains them. Momen's "Early Relations Between Christian Missionaries and the Bábí and Bahá'í Communities," in Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, volume 1, addresses the reaction of Christian contemporaries to and their acceptance of the Bab. SHAYHKISM The fullest studies of the relation between the Báb's thought and his Shaykhí background are the doctoral dissertations of Denis MacEoin, From Shaykhism to Babism: A Study in Charismatic Renewal in Shí'i Islam, and Vahid Rafati, The Development of Shaykhi Thought in Shi'i Islam, especially chapters 6 and 7. A shortened version of the latter has been published under the same title in Heshmat Moayyad, ed., The Bahá'í Faith and Islam. MacEoin's "Early Shaykhí Reactions to the Báb and His Claims," in Moojan Momen, Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, volume 1, discusses the degree to which the Báb's Shaykhí contemporaries did and did not accept his claims. Todd Lawson's "Interpretation as Revelation: the Qur'án Commentary of the Báb" in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2.4 (1989-1990), an abridgment of portions of his doctoral dissertation, The Qur'án Commentary of Sayyid 'Alí Muhammad Shírází, the Báb, discusses the early thought of the Báb and also serves to locate it somewhat in its Shaykhí background. For a listing of original and secondary works about the Báb, his writings, and his community, in English, Persian, Arabic, French, Russian, and other languages, Moojan Momen's The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions: Some Contemporary Western Accounts has an excellent bibliography.

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¶6.3. The Bábí Community The best effort to examine the Bábí movement from the point of view of sociology, anthropology, and critical historical study, is Amanat's Resurrection and Renewal, particularly chapters 6, 7, and 8. A sociological study of the resources available to the Bábí movement is presented in Peter Smith's "The Bábí Movement: A Resource Mobilization Perspective," in Peter Smith, In Iran, Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, volume 3. The doctoral dissertations of Denis MacEoin, From Shaykhism to Babism: A Study in Charismatic Renewal in Shí'i Islam, and Vahid Rafati, The Development of Shaykhi Thought in Shi'i Islam, are fairly useful for understanding the forces that helped shape Babism. Moojan Momen's "Early Relations Between Christian Missionaries and the Bábí and Bahá'í Communities," in Moojan Momen, Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, volume 1, provides some information on the Western reactions to the Bábí movement. This work has been expanded in Moojan Momen, The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts. The latter has an extensive and excellent bibliography of recent as well as classic studies on Babism. MacEoin's The Sources for Early Bábí Doctrine and History contains a detailed section describing all known manuscripts by the Báb's followers and their contents; another section gives all histories of the Bábí movement. His "Divisions and Authority Claims in Babism (1850-1866)," in Studia Iranica 18:1 (1989) explores some of the political dynamics of the early community.

¶7. Background of the Bahá'í Faith: Islam, Shaykhism, and Iran Bahá'ís often describe the relationship between Islam and the Bahá'í Faith as being analogous to that between Judaism and Christianity. This is, to a large extent, a useful analogy. The thought of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh is of course in dialogue with their cultural and religious milieu. Though their social teachings were revolutionary, both expressed theologies that very much reflected Islamic thought. Both held Muhammad and the Qur'án in the highest regard and quoted from Qur'án and hadíth extensively. 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, however, utilize cultural and literary frameworks other than Islam in their writings--particularly the West--and thus present a Bahá'í religion that is less Islamic in language and approach. James Heggie's Bahá'í References to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam is a comprehensive resource of primary source references to Islam. Lights of Guidance, 494-8, has a variety of notes on Muhammad and Islam. Ferraby, 21, 46-47 Hatcher and Martin, 1-5

Huddleston, 23-4, 173-8

Many areas of Bahá'í scholarship--such as, for example, applied social change--would not necessarily require an examination of Islam. However, most scholars feel that in order to understand the rise of the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, it is extremely important to be familiar with Islamic thought and especially the social, religious, http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.biblio04.html (4 of 6) [6-6-2004 16:16:53]

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political, and cultural context of nineteenth-century Iran. Perhaps with this consideration in mind, Bahá'í academics have done more scholarship on Islam than on any other religion save the Bábí movement. (Apologetic "teaching" material in North America and Europe, however, addresses Christian themes more than Islamic ones.)

¶7.1. Background: Islam and Shí'ism Shí'ism split off from mainstream (later "Sunní") Islam over the issue of successorship to Muhammad, the Shí''is believing that Muhammad had during his lifetime appointed his son-in-law 'Alí to lead the community following his death, and the Sunnís holding that leadership fell to the community as a whole and its elected leaders. Shí'ism, as a separate branch of Islam, developed some distinguishing characteristics such as political quietism, esoteric spirituality, authoritative spiritual guidance and hierarchy, a highly-developed eschatology, and, with the advent of the Persian Safavid dynasty in the sixteenth-century, a strongly Iranian flavor. These and other unique qualities are reflected to a high degree in the Bábí and Bahá'í religions, such that a study of Shí'ism can be considered just as crucial for an understanding of the Bahá'í Faith as Islam as a whole. Bahá'u'lláh's Kitáb-i-Íqán (Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, 63-155) is an extended commentary of Shí'í and, to a lesser extent, Christian theology, a reading of which can provide much insight of Bahá'u'lláh's interpretations of Qur'ánic symbolism. Hatcher and Martin, 1-6, 20-4 Huddleston, 23-4 Momen, 115

Smith 1987, 5-8 Smith 1996, 13-17

ISLAM

¶7.2. Background: Nineteenth-Century Iran and Shaykhism A great number of Shaykhís accepted the Báb's claims, and the vitality of the movement, in large part, was absorbed by Babism. Bahá'ís were quick to interpret Shaykhism as a divinely-inspired precursor to the Báb. The narrative of Nabíl-i-Zarandí, the Dawn-Breakers, discusses the Shaykhí background of the Bábí movement in depth. Ferraby, 185-86 Hatcher and Martin, 6 Huddleston, 173-77

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IRAN No extended academic work has yet been devoted to placing the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in their Iranian context, but some short studies are very useful. Two articles published in The International Journal of Middle East Studies, Juan Cole's "Iranian millenarianism and democratic thought in the 19th century" in 24 (Feb. 1992) and Moojan Momen's "Social basis of the Babi upheavals in Iran (1848-53): a preliminary analysis" in 15 (May 1983) each offer a fairly in-depth examination of the sociological influences of the Bábí movement. The longest survey of the period is Mangol Bayat's Mysticism and Dissent: socioreligious thought in Qajar Iran, which offers two full chapters on Shaykhism and one on Babism. Juan R. Cole's "Iranian Millenarianism and Democratic Thought in the 19th Century," published in The International Journal of Middle East Studies, 24 (1992): 1-26, provides excellent context for the thought and writings of Bahá'u'lláh. SHAYKHISM Denis MacEoin's "Orthodoxy and heterodoxy in nineteenth-century Shí'ism: the cases of Shaykhism and Babism," in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 110 (April/June 1990) discusses the influences of the Bábí movement from a theological perspective. The single best work designed to provide Iranian and Shaykhí context is Abbas Amanat's Resurrection and Renewal: The Making of the Bábí Movement in Iran, 1844-1850, especially part one, "Historical Background," 33-105. Peter Smith, Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 5-13, provides an excellent summary of the context. A useful article on a related subject is Denis MacEoin's "Early Shaykhí Reactions to the Báb and his Claims," in Moojan Momen, Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, volume 1, a partial abridgment of his doctoral dissertation From Shaykhism to Babism: A Study in Charismatic Renewal in Shí'i Islam. Vahid Rafati's doctoral dissertation examines Shaykhí thought, especially as it relates to Babism, and thus is a valuable source of background. Rafati summarizes aspects of his dissertation an article of the same title, "The Development of Shaykhí Thought in Shí'í Islam," in The Bahá'í Faith and Islam. Momen briefly discusses the Shaykhí school in An Introduction to Shí'í Islam, pages 225-31.

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--writings

Writings of Bahá'u'lláh (see also the Leiden List of the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh) The following is a list of the major writings of Bahá'u'lláh published in English. Length may vary with different editions; page numbers are just included to give the reader an idea of the size of the work. More complete bibliographic entries for those works cited in the guide are given in the BIBLIOGRAPHY, below.

Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. 193 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. 346 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. The Hidden Words. 52 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Kitáb-i-Aqdas: The Most Holy Book. 296 p. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1992. Kitáb-i-Íqán. 274 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Prayers and Meditations. 347 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh. 127p. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1972. The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys. 65 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. 298 p. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre. Many editions. Writings of Bahá'u'lláh: A Compilation. 717 p. New Delhi: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1986.

Writings of the Báb Very little of the Báb's revelation has been translated into English. Denis MacEoin has provided the most complete description of the Báb's works in his Sources for Early Bábí Doctrine and History, which is an updated and expanded revision of his 1977 Fellowship Dissertation for King's College, A Revised Survey of the Sources for Early Bábí Doctrine and History. His Sources for Early Bábí Doctrine and History contains a full listing and summary of the Báb's known works, index of first lines, index of titles, the location of known manuscript copies, and histories of the preservation or loss of certain works. Shoghi Effendi provides a short list of the Báb's best-known works in appendix one of the Dawnbreakers.

Works of the Báb published in English:

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A Compilation of Passages from the Writings of the Báb. 56 p. Compiled by the Universal House of Justice. New Delhi: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1980. Bahá'í Prayers. 276 p. 2d ed. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1982. Though most of the prayers contained in this collection are from Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá, there are a few from the Báb. Selections from the Writings of the Báb. 235 p. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1976. This is by far the longest and most complete collection of the Báb's writings yet published in English.

Works which include some writings of the Báb: Materials for the Study of the Bábí Religion. 380 p. Compiled by Edward Granville Browne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1918. This random assortment of material includes a few pieces of tangential use, including documents on the Báb's examination at Tabríz in 1848, a bibliography of Bábí works, and an unreliable history by Muhammad Jawád Qazvíní. Selections from the Writings of E. G. Browne. 499 p. Edited by Moojan Momen. Oxford: George Ronald, 1987. This work does not contain any translations as such, but it does include Browne's summary of the Persian Bayán as well as a wealth of other useful information and snippets of translations. The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation. 685 p. By Nabíl-iZarandí, translated and edited by Shoghi Effendi. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1932. This work does not contain any translations of the Báb's works, but it does include many of his recorded statements and his "Address to the Letters of the Living," pp. 92-4. This address has been reprinted in Hidden Words and Selected Holy Writings, Malaysia: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1985, pages 93-8.

Works of the Báb in French There have also been significant translations of the Báb's works into European languages, especially Russian and French. I include here only the French, since they are likely to be more accessible to the casual scholar than the Russian. Journal Asiatique. 1866 translation of a work by Kazem Beg of an unidentified Arabic work of the Báb. Kitáb-i-nuqtat al-káf and Táríkh-i-Jadíd are two early histories of the Bábí movement translated by E. G. Browne, in 1910 and 1893, respectively. Though not containing major works of the Báb, and though their authorship and accuracy are disputed, they were influential and are still important translations.

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Le Bayán Arabe, translated by A. L. M. Nicolas. 235 p. Paris: Librarie Ernest Leroux, 1905. Le Bayán Persan, translated in four volumes by A. L. M. Nicolas. 669 p. total. Paris: Librarie Paul Geuthner, 1911 through 1914. Le Livre des Sept Preuves, translated by A. L. M. Nicolas. Paris: Librarie Maison-neuve, 1902. This and the above two translations of Nicolas are said to be accurate and valuable translations. Religions et philosophies dans l'Asie centrale. Comte de Gobineau. Paris, 1865. This history is the first detailed scholarly work by a Westerner on the Bábí movement. Gobineau included a partial translation of the Arabic Bayán as an appendix to this book. It is said to be a poor translation with many errors. La Religion de Bab, Reformateur Persan. M. Clement Huart. Paris: Earnest Leroux, 1889. 64 pp. Contains about 25 pages of translations.

Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá 'Abdu'l-Bahá's published teachings fall into two categories: translations of writings and transcriptions of talks. All of the former are considered authentic. The latter may contain errors, and so they carry slightly less authority. An exception is Some Answered Questions, the notes for which 'Abdu'l-Bahá personally proofread. The following list of his major writings published in English is divided between these two categories. Works that are short, old, or unavailable have been excluded. This list is culled, with permission, from William Collins, Bibliography of English-Language Works on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths 1844-1985, Oxford: George Ronald, 1990. Length may vary with different editions; page numbers are included merely to give the reader an idea of the size of the work. Multiple editions from different publishing houses are not listed. More complete bibliographic entries for those works cited in the guide are given in the BIBLIOGRAPHY, below.

'Abdu'l-Bahá's published writings: Christ's Promise Fulfilled. 76 p. Excerpts from Some Answered Questions. Many editions. Compilation of Passages from the Words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. 58 p. New Delhi: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. 1980. Faith for Every Man. London: 80 p. Bahá'í Publishing Trust. 1972. Memoirs of the Faithful. 208 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. 1971 and 1975. Mystery of God. 203 p. New Delhi: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. 1971 and 1979. (This book includes as many quotations about 'Abdu'l-Bahá as by him.) http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.writings.html (3 of 6) [6-6-2004 16:19:23]

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Secret of Divine Civilization. 126 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. 325 p. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre. 1978. Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Abbas. Three volumes. 730 p. total. Chicago: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. (These translations are old and some are unreliable.) Tablets of the Divine Plan. 54 p. (one edition is 107 p.) Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. A Traveller's Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Báb. 110 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. 26 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Wisdom of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. 171 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. n.d.

'Abdu'l-Bahá's published talks: 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Canada. 64 p. Toronto: National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada. 1962. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London. 134 p. London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York, the City of the Covenant, April-December 1912. 79 p. New York: Bahá'í Publishing Committee. 1912 and 1931. Foundations of World Unity. 112 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Paris Talks. 184 p. London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Promulgation of Universal Peace. 513 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Some Answered Questions. 350 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Talks by 'Abdu'l-Bahá Given in Paris. 171 p. London: G. Bell and Sons. Many editions.

Writings of Shoghi Effendi The following is a list of the major writings of Shoghi Effendi published in English. Works that are short, old, or unavailable have been excluded. Length may vary with different editions; page numbers are just included to give the reader an idea of the size of the work. More complete bibliographic entries for those works cited in the guide are given in the BIBLIOGRAPHY, below.

Advent of Divine Justice. 90 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. America and the Most Great Peace. 26p. Reprinted in World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Arohanui: Letters from Shoghi Effendi to New Zealand. 111 p. Suva, Fiji: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. 1982. Ascension of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. 30 p. Co-author Lady Blomfield. London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. 1985. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.writings.html (4 of 6) [6-6-2004 16:19:23]

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Bahá'í Administration. 155 p. New York: Bahá'í Publishing Committee. Many editions. Call to the Nations. 69 p. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre. 1977. (This is a collection compiled from other previously published works.) Citadel of Faith: Messages to America, 1947-1957. 178 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Dawn of a New Day: Messages to India, 1923-1957. 233 p. New Delhi: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. n.d. Directives from the Guardian. 92 p. New Delhi: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. 1973. Dispensation of Baha'u'llah. 65 p. Reprinted in World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. God Passes By. 412 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Guidance for Today and Tomorrow. 273 p. London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. 1953 and 1973. High Endeavours: Messages to Alaska. 85 p. Anchorage: National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Alaska. 1976. Letters from the Guardian to Australia and New Zealand, 1923-1957. 140 p. Sydney: National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Australia and New Zealand. 1970 and 1971. Light of Divine Guidance: The Messages from the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith to the Bahá'ís of Germany and Austria. 311 p. and 136 p. resp. Two volumes. Hofheim-Langenhain: Bahá'í-Verlag. 1982 and 1985, resp. Messages from the Guardian: Letters and Cablegrams Received by the National Spiritual Assembly from June 21, 1932 to July 21, 1940. 78 p. New York: Bahá'í Publishing Committee. 1940. Messages to America: Selected Letters and Cablegrams Addressed to the Bahá'ís of North America, 1932-1946. 118 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1947. Messages to Canada. 78 p. Toronto: National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada. 1965. Messages to the Bahá'í World 1950-1957. 130 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. 1958 and 1971. Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. 36 p. Co-author Lady Blomfield. Haifa: Rosenfeld Brothers. 1922. Passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf: A Tribute. 12 p. Reprinted in Bahíyyih Khánum: The Greatest Holy Leaf. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre. 1982. Principles of Bahá'í Administration. 125 p. London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions. Promised Day is Come. 136 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Committee. Many editions. Selected Writings of Shoghi Effendi. 37 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Committee. 1942 and 1975. Unfolding Destiny of British Bahá'í Community: The Messages from the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith to the Bahá'ís of the British Isles. 529 p. London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. 1981. World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. 234 p. Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Many editions.

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--Leiden list

Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies, No. 1 (June, 1997)

Writings of Bahá'u'lláh Part Two: The Leiden List of Bahá'u'lláh's Tablets Workshop Version 10 July 1997 Sen McGlinn, University of Leiden, ed.

This list is a work-in-progress by various hands. Your contributions and corrections, and requests for the latest version, can be sent to [email protected] The list's reliability and scope will only grow if those using a tablet in the course of their studies will make a habit of checking its entry in this list and sending any additions or corrections that are needed. There is also a need for volunteers to go through collections of tablets and make tables of contents for any ta blets of Baha'u'llah they contain, and to comb the scholarly literature in English and the original languages and send useful cross-references. The list will then become a combined index to the publication and discussion of the works of Baha'u'llah. The potential value of such an index should be clear. The present version is woefully incomplete and no doubt inaccurate. It could very quickly grow to real usefulness if the friends will be so good as to draw up contents tables of their Persian and Arabic books - a useful thing to have anyway - and send these to me to compile. [Notes: (1) due to software incompatibilities, diacritics were not included; (2) for brevity, this list has been slightly re-formatted and many words abbreviated.-J.W.]

Key to sources (not all of these have been collated thoroughly) AAx = Asraru'l-Athar (Fadil-i-Mazindarani) vol. x AHM = Ad'iyyih-i-Hadrat-i-Mahbub Alw-Braz = Alwah-i-Hadrat-i-Baha'u'llah Ila'l- Muluk-va'l-Ru'asa, Brazil, 140 BE, 148 pp Alw-gold = Alvah-i-Hadrat-i-Baha'u'llah, n.p., n.d., 290 pp. Since this has neither title publisher nor place of publication, it must be described: Pocket-size prayerbook format, Persian and Arabic. Litho with pages framed in gold, 13 lines per page, word s in red letters scattered throughout and lithographed marginal notes in places. [Any help in giving this a provenance or short name would be appreciated] Amr = Amr wa Khalq (ed. Fadil-i-Mazandarani) AQAx = Athar-i-Qalam-i-A'la. Volume 4 appears to be published in three editions, labelled AQA4, AQA(i) and AQA(rev) [1968]. AyT = Risalih Ayam Tis'ih Darakhshan = Faizi, Muhammad-'Ali, L'aliy-i-Darakhshan, BE 123 (1966) Tehran Dawud-Riv = Yuhanna Dawud, The River of Life, London, 1914 Dawud-IQ DiD = Daryai-i-Danish Gan = Ganjih Shaygan (by Ishraq-Khavari) GanHud = Ganjinih Hudud va Ahkam, Ishraq- Khavari, A.H., (ed.) India, 1980, IQT-Bombay = Iqtidarat, Bombay, n.p., 1310 A.H. (1892-3). It seems likely that this is in fact the same as Ishraqat-India, see http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.leiden.html (1 of 35) [6-6-2004 16:19:43]

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below. IQT = Alvah-i-Mubaraka-yi-hadrat-i- Baha'u'llah ... shamil-i-iqtidarat va chand lawh-i-Digar (n.p. n.d., apparently published by the Persian BPT in the 1970s) Ishraqat-India = Ishraqat, a compilation of the Tablets of Baha'u'llah, 1310 AH (1892-3) HKM1 = La'Ali Al-Hikmati, Brazil 1986 (thin volume) HKM2 = La'Ali Al-Hikmati, Brazil 1990 (thick volume) INBA = Iranian National Bahá'í Archives (Tehran archives) INBMC = Iranian National Bahá'í Manuscript Collection KB = Kitab-i-Badi' KHay = Kitab al-Haykal LAnvx = Lama'atu'l-Anvar volume x MaA = Majmu'ih-az Alwah-i-Jamal-i- Aqdas-i-Abha MaM = Majmu'ih-i-Alwah-i-Mubarakih. The Persian/ Arabic collection of "Tablets of Baha'u'llah" (Cairo, 11/1338AH, July 1920AD; reprinted BPT Wilmette 1978; MaMat = Majmu'ih-yi Matbu'ih ed. Muhyi'd-Din Sabri (Cairo 1920, Wilmette 1978) MAx = Ma'iydih-i-Asmani, v. "x" Mubin = al-Kitab al-mubin, (Tehran, 120 B.E./1963?) Naf = Nafahat-i quds (New Delhi, n.d.) RMx = Rahiq-i Makhtum, vol "x" Rosen2 = Collections scientifiques de L'institut de Langues Orientales du Ministere des Affairs Estrangeres, vol VI, 2e fascicule, 1891. MsX is the Ms number Rosen3 = Majmu' al-awwal min rasa'il al-sayk al-Babi, Publ. Rosen, Petrograd 1908 (t4 = tablet no. 4) Salat = Salat wa siyam, Tehran 124 BE/1967-8 TahRBx = Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Baha'u'llah, volume x, vol 1 rev edn of 1975 T&T = Risalih Tasbih va Tahlil Tuman3:6 = Aleksandr Tumanski, Kitabe Akdes, Zapiski Imperatorskoy Academii Nauk S. Petersburg, 8th series, vol. 3, no. 6, 1899

European language texts DB = Dawnbreakers, American Edition 1970 (and electronic text). NB page numbers in the British edition are lower by about 30% ESW = Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (U.S., 1988 pocket-size ed.) GPB = God Passes By, 1974 edition (and electronic text). NB: page numbers in earlier editions differ slightly, as do the numbers in the REFER version KIA = Kitab-i-Aqdas Momen, 'Selections' = Moojen Momen (ed.) Selections from the Writings of E.G. Browne on the Bábi and Bahá'í Religions, Oxford, George Ronald, 1987 Oeuvre = L'Oeuvre de Bahaou'llah, traduction Francaise par Hippolyte Dreyfus, Paris, Leroux, 1923 (2vols). PDC = Promised Day is Come, Revised edition 1980 (earlier editions page numbers slightly higher, e.g. 60=62) 'Rituals' = D. MacEoin, Rituals in Babism and Baha'ism, British Academic Press 1994 PM = Prayers and Meditations 'Sacred' = J. Walbridge, Sacred Acts, Sacred Space, Sacred Time, George Ronald, 1996 'Style' = Bushrui, S., The Style of the Kitab-i-Aqdas TB = Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Aqdas WebCole = Juan Cole's Web page: http:// www-personal.umich.edu/~jrcole/bhtrans.htm WOB = World Order of Bahá'u'lláh

Periods Tehran = 1817 - 1853 Bgd. = Baghdad = 1853 - 1863 (Sulaymaniyyih 1854 - 1857) Istanbul (Constantinople) = 1863 Edn. = Edirne (Adrianople) = 1863 - 1868 Akka = 1868 - 1892

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--Leiden list

The Leiden List of the Tablets of Baha'u'llah

1 Alvah-i-Khatun-Jan, Baghdad and later. Mentioned TahRB2 178-9.

2 Asl-i-Kullu'l-Khayr (Words of Wisdom), Akka. MaA 92-94; INBA30. Translated in TB 153-158.

3 Ay Bulbulan (O nightingales) Sulaymaniyyih. Ms in Fadil-i Mazandarani's Tarikh-i Zuhur al-Haqq, vol. 4, attributed by him to the Kurdistan period. Persian, prov. transl posted Juan Cole Irfan 8/96 (version 2); revised version Arts Dialogue June 97.

4 Az-Bagh-i-Ilahi (From The Garden of Holiness), Bgd. Gan 66 (incomplete). Alternating Persian and Arabic. Discussed TahRB1 218.

5 Bayan-i Hadith-i Sharif, 'Man 'arafa nafsahu fa qad 'arafa rabbahu' (Commentary on "He who knoweth his self hath known his Lord.") MaMat 346-361. Partially trans. Shoghi Effendi in Gleanings CXXIV, LXXXIII, LXXIII; complete trans. Juan Cole posted Talisman Dec 95 and at WebCole(with a "Zen Gloss"). Mentioned TahRB3 63. Addressee Hadiy-i-Qazvini.

6 Baz-Av-u-Bidih-Jami (Return and grant a chalice), Bgd. MA4 186-192.

7 Bisharat (Glad-Tidings), Akka. MaA 10-15; INBA30; MaM 116-24. Translated in TB 19-30.

8 Chihar-Vadi (Four Valleys), late Baghdad, 1858-1862. AQA3 140-157. Trans. by Gail & Khan published in numerous forms. Trans. by Juan Cole posted Irfan Nov/Dec 96. Discussion GPB 138

9 Fa lamma akhadha farahu'llah kulla ma siwahu (post-Baghdad). Arabic, describes departure from House and crossing of Tigris, entry to Ridvan and departure. Mentioned 'Sacred' 240.

10 Haft-Vadi (Seven Valleys), late Baghdad, 1858-1862. AQA3 92-137; INBA35. Numerous published trans. see Collins; trans. of Excordium by Stephen Lambden, with occasional notes, Pt. 01 BSB 6:2-3 (26-74). French trans. by Dreyfus and Chirazi bound with Les Paroles cachées contains additional excordium; French transl. by Dreyfus Oeuvre1 1923. Discussion GPB 139 (addressee

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11 Halih Halih Halih Ya Bisharat (Hallelujah, Hallelujah, Hallelujah, O Glad-Tidings), late Baghdad (1862-3?). Gan 33-35; Andalib magazine, Vol. 5, No. 18, pp 3-4; mss text in INBAMC Vol. 35:455-6; etext at WebCole. Persian, trans. S. Lambden in BSB 2:3 (December 1983), 105-112, revised transl. idem posted Talisman 95, with comments on textual variants Gan/INBAMC. The text at WebCole contains significant variants from Gan/INBAMC versions and is to be preferred. Discussed TahRB1 219.

12 Hur-i-'Ujab (The Wondrous Maiden), Baghdad. unpublished Arabic, rhyming prose. Discussed TahRB1 218; 'Sacred' 239.

13 Hurufat-i-'Allin, Hurufat-i-'aliyyat (The Exalted Letters), Baghdad. T&T 242-270; AHM 217-85. Arabic, but also translated by Baha'u'llah into Persian. Often used as a prayer for the deceased. Addressees Maryam and Havva. Discussion in TahRB1 122.

14 Ishraqat (Splendours), Akka (9 Dhi Qa'dih 1302/21 August 1885?). MaA 57-79. IQT 50-85. Earliest transcription in the International Archives is dated 12 Izzat 44 B.E. (1888), by Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin. Translated in TB 99-134.

15 Jawahiru'l-Asrar (The Essence of Mysteries, The Gems of Mysteries), Baghdad. AQA3 4-88; Leiden Ms Or 4970, item 1. Arabic. Trans. Juan Cole forthcoming. Mentioned GPB 139; Discussed TahRB1 149. In reply to questions of Haji Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani.

16 Kalimat-i-Firdawsiyyih (Words of Paradise), Akka. MaA 30-45. Translated in TB 55-80.

17 Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words), Bgd 1274/1857. MaM 17-32; MaM 373-398; INBA 30; Law-gold 1-55. Two trans. by Shoghi Effendi with slight variants, published in many forms. Earlier trans. of Arabic HW in Kheirella and McNutt, 1900; French transl. by Dreyfus Oeuvre1. Discussion GPB 138; TahRB1 71-83.

18 Kitab-i-'Ahd (The Book of the Covenant), late Akka. printed in AHM (reviewed by Abdu'l-Baha before printing) where the title is "Kitabu Ahdi" / Book of My Covenant; MaA 134-137. Trans. in TB 217-224; study by Shapour Rasikh in "Mahbub-i-'Alam", Canada, 1993, pp 534-549. Dating prob. prior to ESW, since it is referred to there as the Crimson Tablet.

19 Kitab-i-Aqdas (The Most Holy Book), Akka Arabic edition with Persian notes, 1995 Haifa. For a summary of earlier published editions see 'Rituals' 81-2 n2. English trans. Baha'i World Centre 1992; French Ms trans. by Dreyfus 190?,

20 Kitab-i-Badi' (The Wondrous Book), Edirne. KB. Mainly Persian. Mentioned GPB 170; Brief discussion in TahRB1 102; described TahRB2 370-387. Addressee is Mirza Mihdiy-i-Gilani or Mirza Mihdiy-i-Rashti, in the form of the

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62pp, and separate Ms trans. of Questions and Answers, n.d.; for the former see Paris Archives Boite 11107, Grand cahier noir:122 (according to Laura Dreyfus-Barney, "Hippolyte Dreyfus. Article for Baha'i World": "He [Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney] trans....the Aqdas which he annotated during a sojourn in 'Akka with the aid of 'Abdu'l-Baha".)

words of Aqa Muhammad-'Ali.

21 Kitab-i-Fajr see Lawh-i-Haji Siyyid Ibrahim.

22 Kitab-i-Iqan (The Book of Certitude), Baghdad, dated in various Mss A.H. 1278 or 1280 (1861/2 or 1863/4), the latter date possibly marking an editing with marginal glosses by Baha'u'llah. KII various printings. Bibliographical history in C. Buck, Symbol and Secret, pp. 14-37. Buck omits Rosen2 Ms244, while mentioning Rosen2 'Ms'(actually litho.)245. Persian. English trans. Shoghi Effendi 1946; Earlier trans. by Ali Quli Khan is more literal. French trans. "Le Livre de la Certitude" by Hippolyte Dreyfus & Mirza Habib-Ullah Chirazi, Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1904, contains an additional excordium. Discussion is very extensive, but see Buck, above (full-length study with bibliography and references to previous studies) and an extensive review by Frank Lewis in BSR6 1996 which mentions inter alia that Buck omits the discussion in AA1 266-84; Browne in Momen 'Selections' 250-254 and works mentioned there; Ishraq-Khavari, Qamus-i-Iqan (a 4-volume tafsir dictionary of the Iqan); GPB 137 (dates it 1862); TahRB1 153.

23 Kitab-i-Sidq (The Book of Truth), Akka.

24 Lawh-i-Abdu'l-Aziz va Vukala (Tablet to Abdu'l-Aziz and ministers), Istanbul Original lost, but incorporated into Tablet to the Kings (Suriy-i-Muluk).

25 Lawh-i-'Aba-Badi' (Lawh-i-Pedar-Badi') (Tablet to the father of Badi'). AQA1 189-91; Leiden Ms Or 4970 item 8. Mentioned TahRB3 179-80, 202-3. Addressee

26 Lawh-i-Abdu'l-Vahhab (Tablet to MaM 160-166. transl in Gleanings LXXXI.

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27 Lawh-i-Abdu'r-Rahim (Tablet for Discussed TahRB3 60.

28 Lawh-i-Abdu'r-Razzaq, Akka IQT-Bombay 43-78; IQT; incomp. in Dawud-IQ. Sections trans. in Gleanings LXXVIII, LXXX, LXXXVII; Similar material trans. by Dreyfus in Oevre1 134f., which includes (1) the text trans. in Gleanings LXXX and, in a slightly longer form, in Dawud-Riv 16 onwards; (2) the text of Gleanings LXXVIII, but the Dreyfus passage is 2 pages longer (middle of page 138 to p 140); and (3) the passage on Anti-deluvian times which is partially in Gleanings LXXXVII, and in Dawud-Riv 18-21, where Dawud and Dreyfus both provide a short piece of text missing in Gleanings after "the language of Revelation..." as well as one paragraph at the end omitted in Gleanings.

29 Lawh-i-Ahbab (Tablet of Friends), Akka. AQA1 96-113.

30 Lawh-i-Ahmad (Arabic), Edirne, (about 1865). T&T 215-218; Rosen3 t4; AHM 198. Arabic, hand of Baha'u'llah. Mss also in hand of 'Abdu'l- Baha. Transl. 1924 by Shoghi Effendi with the assistance of Dr. Esslemont and printed in many prayerbooks, P&M etc. from 1933 on, and in 'Rituals' 121-2. This trans. omits a short paragraph at the end which speaks of the one whom God will send forth on Resurrection day. Earlier trans. appear in early prayerbooks. Discussed TahRB2 107.

31 Lawh-i-Ahmad (Persian), Edirne. MaM 315-330; DiD 114-130. Almost two thirds has been transl. in Gleanings CLII, CLIII. Discussed in TahRB2 137-. Addressee is Haji Mirza Ahmad of Kashan. One of the tablets of Ahmad is in INBA30.

32 Lawh-i-'Ali (addressee not identified, but a brother and mother are mentioned. Translated in TB 262-4.

33 Lawh-i-'Ali Qabl Akbar (Tablet for 'Ali Qabl Akbar). GanHud 172. Mentioned 'Rituals' 62, 88 (n186).

34 Lawh-i-Amvaj (Tablet of the Waves), Akka. MaM 362-364.

35 Lawh-i-'Andalib (Tablet to 'Andalib). IQT 28-9; Amr3 70; GanHud 191. Mentioned 'Rituals' 67-8 and 90 (n236).

36 Lawh-i-Antal-Kafi (long healing prayer), Akka. T&T 207-215; AHM 187?-195?; Text with English trans.

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published as "Lawh-i-mubarak-i-Anta 'l-Kafi Anta'l-Shafi, ma'ruf bi Munajat-i-shafa': The Healing Prayer (Langenheim, 137BE/1980-1. English trans. "The Long Healing Prayer", London 1980; literal trans. in 'Rituals' 141. 37 Lawh-i-Aqa-Baba. Source of the Tablet of Visitation for the Bab and Baha'u'llah.

38 Lawh-i-Aqa Muhammad Hasan (?) Source of Gleanings I.

39 Lawh-i-Aqa Siyyid Hasan 328-331.

40 Lawh-i-Aqdas (The Most Holy Tablet, Tablet to the Christians, first Tablet to Faris the Physician), Akka. MaA 3-9; AQA1 138-144; Alwah-i Baha'u'llah..sura-yi haykal 163-172; St. Petersb. Ms see Rosen2 Ms246. Trans. TB 7-17, BSB June 1993, for earlier transls see Sours, a study of Baha'u'llah's Tablet to the Christians, Oxford, Oneworld 1990 p.7. French trans. by Dreyfus and Chirazi 1905 bound with 'Les paroles cachées'; French transl. by Dreyfus Oeuvre1. Discussion TahRB3 6, 11.

AQA4(i)

41 Lawh-i-Ard-i-Ta' (Tablet of the Land of Ta (Tehran)). Translated in Gleanings LV. See also Lawh-i-Shahr-iTehran, and unnamed tablet number 17.

42 Lawh-i-Ard-i-Ba (Tablet of the Land of Ba (Baghdad)). Translated in TB 225-229.

43 Lawh-i-Ashraf (Tablet for Ashraf (the Noble)), Edirne. MaM 211-219. Section translated in Gleanings LII (MaM 212-4). Discussed TahRB2 230-232.

44 Lawh-i-'Ashiq-va-Ma'shuq, (The Tablet of the Lover and theBeloved), Akka (?) MaM 334-337; AQA4 368-372 (see the publisher's note in AQA4(i)). Part trans. in Gleanings CLI. What appears to be the same tablet is discussed TahRB2 241-243, where it is entitled the Story of the Nightingale and the Crow, said to be in Persian and dated in Edirne, after the separation. TahRB gives the source as AQA4 368-72, and his description would be consistent with Gleanings CLI being an extract from the end of the tablet.

45 Lawh-i-Ayiy-i-Nur (Tablet of the Verse of Light), Bgd. MA4 49-82. Arabic, circumstances and discussion in TahRB1 125; GPB 138; Addressee is Mirza

46 Lawh-i-'Ayn Lam I (Tablet to 'Ayn Lam 1). Leiden Ms Or 4971 item 1.

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Aqay-i-Rikab-Saz. Also known as Tafsir-i-Hurufat-i-Muqatta'ib (Inter-pretation of the Isolated Letters). 47 Lawh-i-'Ayn Lam II (Tablet to 'Ayn Lam 2). Leiden Ms Or 4971 item 2 (revelation writing and transcription).

48 Lawh-i-Badi' (Baha'u'llah's instruction to Badi') circa 1868. Rosen2 pp. 192-3. See further Lawh-i-Sultan.

49 Lawh-i-Badi' II (Tablet of Badi') circa 1868 Malik Khosrovi, Tarikh-i-Shuhaday-i-Amr Vol 3 368 Mentioned TahRB3 183-4. This tablet was delivered to Badi'. Other tablets regarding Badi' written after his martyrdom are noted in the list of unnamed tablets (entry 0 and following).

50 Lawh-i-Baha (Tablet of Glory), Edirne, prior to separation. Gan 40-42 (incomp.). Arabic, with parts trans. into Persian by Baha'u'llah. Discussed TahRB2 171, 179-80. Addressee is Khatun-Jan.

51 Lawh-i-Banu Qurayzah. MA7 136; cited AA2 17-18. Persian. Trans. Juan Cole posted Irfan August 1996; mentioned TahRB2 348.

52 Lawh-i-Baqa (Tablet of Eternity), Akka. AQA1 218-220.

53 Lawh-i-Basitatu'l-Haqiqih (Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality). Akka IQT 105-116; MA7 140-147; Tuman3:6 61-4; Leiden Ms Or 4971 item 7a; partial paraphrase by Baha'u'llah in Kalimat Firdawsiyyih. Arabic/Persian, Transl. Moojan Momen posted Tarjuman Summer 95.

54

55 Lawh-i-Bismilih (Tablet of "In Name of God"), Akka. MaM 276-284.

56 Lawh-i-Bulbulu'l-Firaq (Tablet of the Nightingle of Bereavement), Baghdad. AQA4(i) 324 (incomp); Gan 42-45 (incomp.). Discussed TahRB1 244.

57 Lawh-i-Burhan (Tablet of the Proof, Tablet of Reasoning), Akka. MaA 125-133. Translated TB 203-216.

58 Lawh-i-Dhabih (?title). AA1 131. TahRB2 413 mentions this tablet addressed to Dhabih. It is clearly not the same as the Lawh-i-Ra'is II or the Suriy-i-Dhabih.

59 Lawh-i-Dunya (Tablet of the World), Akka. MaA 46-56; MaM 285-301; DiD 84-100. Partially trans. in Gleanings XLIII (MaM 286-298, but on page 95 there

60 Lawh-i-Dustan-i-Yazdani (Tablet for the friends in Yazd, Tablet for the Zoroastrians). MaMat 247. Persian. Draft trans. Juan Cole posted Irfan 1/97.

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Lawh-i-Bisharat, see Bisharat.

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should be lacunae marks between 'holy Book' and 'O People of Justice'), TB 81-98. Mentioned TahRB3 85 Addressee Mirza Aqay-i-Afnan, known as Nur'u'd-Din. 61 Lawh-i-Faris (Second tablet to Faris the Physician, see also Lawh-i-Aqdas), Akka. BSB 7:3-4, 27-28. Arabic. Sections transl. Shoghi Effendi PDC 77, 101, 102; transl. Stephen Lambden BSB 7:3-4, 22-47.

62 Lawh-i-Fu'ad (Tablet on death of Fu'ad Pasha) 1869. Rosen2 231-3; Mubin; WebCole. Trans. with commentary by J Cole posted H-Bahai May 97; idem at WebCole; sentence trans. PDC 61. Discussed TahRB3 87-107. Addressee Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar of Qazvin.

63 Lawh-i-Fitnih (Tablet of the Test), Baghdad or Edirne. MA4 261-265. Arabic. Discussion TahRB1 128-137. Addressee Shams-i-Jahan, entitled Varaqatu'r-Ridvan (one of several tablets for her).

64 Lawh-i-Ghulam-Husayn (?) IV.

65 Lawh-i-Ghulamu'l-Khuld (Tablet of the Deathless Youth, Eternal Youth, Youth of Paradise), Baghdad. AyT 92-99. Arabic and Persian. Trans. John Walbridge with annotations, posted Talisman 96 and at WebCole. Discussion TahRB1 213.

66 Lawh-i-Gul-i-Ma'navi (Tablet of the Divine Flower). AQA4(i) 336-338.

67 Lawh-i-Habib (Tablet of the Beloved), Edirne.

68 Lawh-i-Haft-Pursish (Tablet of Seven Questions), Akka. MaM 240-248 and reprod. in BSB 7:3-4 53-59; incomplete text (without introduction) in Zapiski Imperatorskoy Academii nauk S. Petersburg 8th series, Vol. 3, No. 6 (1899) 100-108, with Russian trans., and minor variant readings from MaM. Persian, trans. with notes Shahriar Razavi BSB 7:3-4, 48-68.

69 Lawh-i Haji Amin, in which Baha'u'llah indicates that a "Tablet of Trustworthiness" had been revealed in A.H. 1296 (around 1879).

70 Lawh-i-Haji Mirza Haydar-'Ali (Tablet(s) to Haji Mirza Haydar-'Ali). Translated in TB 243-7, and TB 259-60.

71 Lawh-i-Haji Muhammad-Baqir I (first tablet for Haji Muhammad- Baqir of Qazvini), Revealed in Baghdad, but withheld until Edirne. Mentioned TahRB2 276-7, citing Haji Mirza Haydar-'Ali's

72 Lawh-i-Haji Muhammad-Baqir II (second tablet for Haji Muhammad-Baqir of Qazvini), Istanbul (?). Mentioned TahRB2 278, as above.

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Gleanings

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Bihjatu's-Sudur pp. 74f. 73 Lawh-i-Haji Mirza Buzurg-i-Afnan unpublished? On trustworthiness, cited in Ishraqat and Tarazat.

74 Lawh-i-Haji Muhammad-Ibrahim (undated, BWC). Concerning some of the Islamic prophecies about the Day of God. Cited in Ishraqat and in ESW 131-4.

75 Lawh-i-Haji Siyyid Ibrahim (also known as Kitab-i-Fajr, the Book of Dawn). AQA4(i) 341-342.

76 Lawh-i-Hajj (Tablet of Visitation to be recited at Baghdad), Akka. AHM 97-104; Mubin 225-8. Section translated in Gleanings LVII (AHM 99-104). This is a ziyaratnama to be recited at Baghdad, not the Surih of the Hajj itself. See Suriy-i-Hajj II.

77 Lawh-i-Hawdaj (Tablet of the Howdah), Istanbul (actually at Samsun, en route from Baghdad to Istanbul). Gan 67 (incomp.); HKM1 4. Arabic, 1863. Trans. Stephen Lambden, BSB 3:4, 84-97. Mentioned TahRB2 6, 16 (with summary of contents). Also called Lawh-i Samsun.

78 Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom), Akka. MaA 80-91; INBA30. Translated in TB 135-152. French trans. by Dreyfus and Chirazi bound with Les Paroles cachées.

79 Lawh-i-Hirtik (Tablet to Georg David Hardegg), Akka, prob. late 1871-early 1872 (BSB 2:1 57-8). Translated Stephen Lambden, BSB 2:1, 32-61; discussed TahRB3 28-31.

80 Lawh-i-Huriyyih (Tablet of the Maiden, Tablet of the Houri), Baghdad. AQA4(i) 342-350; AQA4(rev) 379-391. Arabic, dialogue form. Trans. J Cole posted Irfan 6/96 and at WebCole. Brief discussion TahRB1 125. Shoghi Effendi says refers to "remoter future" GPB 138.

81 Lawh-i-Husayn (Tablet of Husayn), Akka. MA4 104-107; DiD 132-136. Possibly transl. at TB 234-5? French Ms trans. by Dreyfus, n.d. see Paris Archives Boite 11106 Carnet 149 - or is this the same as tablet in Dawud-Riv 48-49 (which is not the same as TB 234-5?

82 Lawh-i-huwwa munfikhu'r-ruh ("Breath of the Spirit"). MaM 272-274. Trans. posted Juan Cole, Irfan 9/96 (printed untitled, Begins: Bismihi 'lladhi huwwa munfikhu 'r-ruh fi ajsadi 'l-kalimat.

83 Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to Son of the Wolf), Akka. LID. trans. as ESW, Shoghi Effendi 1941.

84 Lawh-i-Ibrahim. MA8 172-3. Gleanings XXXIII, XXXVIII. The lacunae after 'created things' in the latter is a mistake.

85 Lawh-i-Ishqabad (Tablet regarding events in Ishqabad) about 1890. Rosen2 p. 250. see also Lawh-i-Karim.

86 Lawh-i-Ishraqat - see Ishraqat.

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87 Lawh-i-Ittihad (Tablet of Unity), Akka. AHM 388-406. Draft trans. by Shahrokh Monjazeb at 1985 ABS meeting in San Francisco.

88 Lawh-i-Jamal (Tablet to Aqa Jamal-i-Burujirdi, Tablet of Beauty), Akka. IQT 218-231. Section translated in Gleanings V (IQT 220-2); trans. by Khazah Fananapazir BSB 5:1-2, 4-12.

89 Lawh-i-Jawhar-i-hamd. INBA.Xerox coll. (=INBAMC), Vol.35, 161-8.

90 Lawh-i-Johanna (titles?). Leiden Ms Or 6131, collection of letters to Johanna Dawud (?from 'Abdu'l-Baha?) May be the Mss of some of the tablets included in Dawud-Riv, several of which bear the name Dawud in the first line.

91 Lawh-i-Jud (Tablet of Jud). Translated in TB 240-3.

92 Lawh-i-Karim (Tablet for Karim (the Noble)), Akka. AQA1 365-366; presumably same as the Lawh-i-Abdul-Karim of Ishqabad in Rosen2 248-9. See also Lawh-i-Muhammad Karim-i-'Attar.

93 Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), Akka. MaA 1-2. Translated in Gleanings XI, TB 1.

94 Lawh-i-Khadijih-Bagum. AQA4(i) 339-341 (incomp.?). Source of the tablet of visitation; there are many tablets for her (TahRB2 387).

95 Lawh-i-Kheirella, (Tablet to Kheirella). In Kheirella and MacNutt, Beha 'u'llah (1900), page 544, with trans. p 545.

96 Lawh-i-Khalil (Tablet to Jinab-Khalil (the friend)), Edirne. AQA1 65-68 (incomplete). Phrase translated in GPB 242; trans. by Stephen Lambden, BSB 4:1, 33-79. Discussed TahRB2 259-262. Addressee is Haji Muhammad Ibrahim-i-Qazvini.

97 Lawh-i-Khutba (the marriage homily). Amr4 157-8; T&T 205-6 Translated Baha'i Prayers (Wilmette, 1973) 186-7.

98 Lawh-i-Kuchik (Tablet of the child) ?early/mid Baghdad or late Akka?. Nafahat'l-Quds compilation of the Writings in the handwriting of the Hand of the Cause Mr. Samandari. See article by Nosratu'llah Muhammad-Huseini, in "Payam-i-Baha'i" November 1995. Trans. J Walbridge posted Talisman March 1996.

99 Lawh-i-Kullu't-Ta'am (Tablet of All Food), Baghdad probably late 1853, certainly before April 1854. A good text in INBA 36:268-277; MA4 265-276 (or is it 260-70?) said to be 'inadequate';

100 Lawh-i-Laylatu'l-Quds I (Tablet of the Sacred Night I). Edirne, possibly earlier. Extracts in Gleanings CXLVII. Mentioned TahRB2 164, discussed 188. Addressee Darvish Sidq-'Ali.

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RM2 416-426 (slightly better). Arabic. Partial transl Shoghi Effendi in GPB 116. Transl. Stephen Lambden, BSB 3:1 (June 1984):4-67, posted Talisman 96; comment in TahRB1 55. An esoteric commentary on Qur'an 3:87, and against antinomian tendencies in Babi community. Addressee 101 Lawh-i-Laylatu'l-Quds II (Tablet of the Sacred Night II): Akka T&T 174-181. Trans. by Juan Cole with commentary posted Talisman Aug. 95 and at WebCole.

102 Lawh-i-Layla-yi-mab'ath. AyT 180-83. 'Rituals' 64 says this is intended to be recited on the anniversary of the declaration of the Bab.

103 Lawh Madinatu'r-Rida (The City of Radiant Acquiescence), Baghdad. Published in AQA4 (first edition) 135-149: in the second edition (AQA4(i)) it is listed among the tablets removed because no reliable Ms could be found. Arabic. Trans. by Juan Cole posted H-Bahai 3 April 97. Circumstances and description in TahRB1 108.

104 Lawh-i-Madinatu'l-Tawhid (The City of Unity), late Baghdad (or later?) AQA4 313-329; MA4 313-29. Section trans. in Gleanings XXIV. English title and dating by Shoghi Effendi in GPB 138; circumstances and discussion TahRB1 109-119; unpublished study (transl?) by Steve Lambden (not sighted). Addressee Shaykh Salman.

105 Lawh-i-Mahdi (? title). Or 4971 item 7b.

106 Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria), Akka. AQA1 61-66; Alw-Braz 131-141 (and reprod. in BSB 7:3-4, 11-21); Leiden Ms Or 4970 item 4; partially in Rosen2 p. 147-8. Arabic. Trans. in Baha'i Scriptures 111-115; sections transl. PDC 25-26 and identical in Gleanings CXIX, PDC 34-36 corresponds to ESW 59-62 (minor variations), ESW 63-4, part of Gleanings CXX (beginning "We behold it"); PB 33-35; by Shahrokh Monjazeb BSB 7:3-4; by Browne in (?). Browne's trans. also published in Kheirella and McNutt 1900. Discussed TahRB3 123-132.

Leiden Ms

107 Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus (Tablet to Czar Alexander II of Russia), Akka. AQA1 57-61; Alw-Braz 121-128. Arabic. Trans. in PB 27-30, PDC 32; by E.G. Brown in (?), also printed in Kheirella and McNutt 1900. Discussed TahRB3 118-123.

108 Lawh-i-Mallahu'l-Quds (Tablet of Holy Mariner), Bgd. AQA4 335-341; ?MA4 335-41?. Photographic reproduction in frontispiece of TahRB1. Arabic and Persian sections. Arabic section trans. Shoghi Effendi and published in many sources, including Prayers for Special Occasions (=Baha'i Prayers,

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British) 51-7; 'Rituals' 127-8. Earlier trans. in Star of the West, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 75-77 contains misprints. Persian section: draft trans. by Shahroakh Monjazeb at 1996 ABS Edmonton(?). Discussion in TahRB1 228-244 with full trans. of Arabic section. 109 Lawh-i-Malmiri (Tablet for Haji Muhammad Tahir-i-Malmiri). TahRB1 facing page 142 - photographic reproduction of original in hand of Baha'u'llah.

110 Lawh-i-Manikji-Sahib (Tablet of Manikji-Sahib), Akka. MaM 259-267. Translated Juan Cole (forthcoming in Abha).

111 Lawh-i-Maqsud (Tablet of Maqsud, Tablet of the Goal), Akka, Dec. 31 1881 (JC). MaA 95-111; Lawh-i Maqsud, Egypt, 1920, 33 pages; Rosen2 Ms249. Persian. Translated in Gleanings CX, CXII, CXVII, CXXII; TB 159-178.

112 Lawh-i-Maryam Ak1 (Tablet to M. from Akka), Akka. AyT 366-371; RM2 430-435.

113 Lawh-i-Maryam B1 (Tablet to Maryam from Baghdad). TahRB1 gives a short extract, cited from the Chosen Highway p. 45. There were several tablets known as Alwah-i-Maryam. One of them in INBA 28. Part of one apparently sent from Baghdad is translated by Browne in Materials p. 8. Addressee and circumstances see TahRB1 13. See also Ziyarat-Namih-i-Maryam

114 Lawh-i-Mawlud (Tablet for Birth of the Bab), Akka. AyT 12-15 Apparantly trans. at TB 233-4; 'Rituals' 64 says this is intended for the evening [before?] the birth of the Bab.

115 Lawh-i-Mazzah (title?) (Tablet of the Humourist). Arabic. Begins: "In My Name, the Humourist". Mentioned in memo of the Research dept of 12 Jan 1997, which gives no source but says "the Tablet does not contain a humorous anecdote. Rather, it is a serious mystical poem, revealed in the form of a prayer. The text does not illuminate the reference to the "Humourist". It is, however, interesting to note that, while dealing with an exalted theme, the language of expression is, unexpectedly, that of the common people -- light, simple, and even colloquial.".

116 Lawh-i-Mihdi. Apparently published in AQA4-first edition, since in the second edition (AQA4(i)) it is listed among the tablets removed because no reliable Ms could be found.

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117 Lawh-i-Mirza Abu'l-Fadl, in AQA7, is the Lawh-i- Manikji-Sahib

118 Lawh-i-Mubahilih I (Tablet of Confrontation I), Edirne. MA4 277-281. Mentioned GPB 166-7.

119 Lawh-i-Mubahilih II (Tablet of Confrntatn. II), Edirne. Mentioned GPB 166-7, a letter to Siyyid Muhammad written after the Muhahilih, with seal of Baha'u'llah. In the papers of Nabil?.

120 Lawh-i-Muhammad (Tablet to a Persian Mystic) ? Dawud-Riv xxviii (page with seal, in handwriting of 'Abdu'l-Baha) Dawud-Riv 45-48.

121 Lawh-i-Muhammad-'Ali. Trans. in Gleanings CXLII. Identification of addressee as Muhammad-'Ali based on Taherzadeh 2:117. Could be Haji Mirza Muhammad-'Ali, the Bab's cousin?.

122 Lawh-i-Muhammad Husayn (Tablet to M. Husayn). Translated in TB 250-1.

123 Lawh-i-Muhammad Karim-i-'Attar, (Tablet for Muhammad Karim). MA4 366. Contains a prayer to be said after disturbed dreams. This is translated in 'Rituals' 123.

124 Lawh-i-Mulla 'Ali Bajistani, 12 Jumada II 1293 / 6 June 1876. MA7 254-255. Passage regarding the revelation of the Lawh-i-Fu'ad translated J Cole in commentary on Lawh-i-Fu'ad.

125 Lawh-i-Nabil-i-A'zam. Trans. Gleanings CXXXIX. Mentioned TahRB3 26-7. GPB 174 mentions a tablet addressed to Nabil, revealed in Edirne after the separation, but from the description there it is not certain that this is the Tablet translated in Gleanings CXXXIX.

126 Lawh-i-Napulyun (First Tablet to Napoleon III), Edirne, after separation. unpublished. Mentioned GPB 170, 171.

127 Lawh-i-Napulyun II (2d Tab. Napoleon III), Akka 1869. AQA1 47-57; Alw-Braz 95-117; KHay; one of the tablets to Napoleon is in Leiden Or Ms 4970 item 5; one tablet to Napoleon in Rosen2 Ms247 item 2. Trans. PB 17-23 based on self-citation ESW 46ff, omitting two paragraphs ESW 52-3 beginning "And if anyone ask them:" and another 2 paragraphs ESW 54-55 beginning "Doth it behoove you to relate yourselves.." The first of these may not be from the Tablet to Napoleon, although the form implies it is. The latter has a close parallel in Gleanings CXXVIII (Suriy-i-Bayan). The section trans. in PDC 28-30 is extracts from the text trans. in PB 17-23, with minor

128 Lawh-i-Nasir (Tablet of Nasir (the defender) of Qazvini), Edirne, after separation. MaM 166-202. Mainly Persian. Sections trans. in Gleanings LIII (MaM 170), LXXV. Sentence(s?) quoted GPB 169. Discussed TahRB2 245-259. Addressee is Haji Muhammad-Nasir of Qazvin. There is also a tablet to Nasir (= Hajji 'Abbas), recorded in Mirza Jawad's historical epitome, transl. E. G. Brown in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion pp 53-4).

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variations, but PDC 29 has one paragraph beginning "Abandon thy palaces" which is is not in PB. A section included in ESW 49-50 as part of this tablet is separately presented in PB 95-6 with numerous significant trans. differences some affecting content. Section trans. Gleanings CLVIII. French trans. by Dreyfus (published?). The French trans. by Louis Catafago may be in Paris State Archives. Discussed TahRB3 110-115, who mentions sections on the festivals of Ridvan and of the Declaration of the Bab, the twin birthdays, and the law of fasting. 129 Lawh-i-Nasir al-Din Shah see Lawh-i-Sultan.

130 Lawh-i-Naqus (Tablet of Bell): see Subhanika- Ya-Ha.

131 Lawh-i-Nikah, (Marriage tablet). Amr4 157; GanHud 172. Trans. 'Rituals' 62, said to be almost identical to passage from Su'al wa jawab qv. See also Lawh-i-khutba.

132 Lawh-i-Nuqtih (Tablet of the Point), Edirne, before separation. unpublished. Mentioned GPB 169.

133 Lawh-i-Panj Kanz. Late Baghdad. Published in late 60s in Ahang-i-Badi'. Persian.

134 Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX), Akka around 1869. AQA1 38-46; Alw-Braz 73-90; Leiden Ms Or 4970 item 2; Rosen 2 Ms 247 item 2. Arabic. Trans. PB 83-6; by E. G. Browne in (?). Also printed in Kheirella and McNutt 1900. Discussed PDC 55-56; TahRB3 116-118.

135 Lawh-i-Pedar-Badi' see Lawh-i-Aba-Badi'

136 Lawh-i-Pesar-'Amm (Tablet to the Cousin), Akka. IQT 174-182.

137 Lawh-i-Pesar-Dhabih. TahRB2 413 mentions a tablet addressed to Ghulam-'Ali, the son of Dhabih.

138 Lawh-i-Qina' (Tablet of the Veil), Akka. MaM 67-87; IQT ??? Mentioned TahRB1 334, AA4 519. The section in which Baha'u'llah comments on Shaykh Ahmad's prophecies (the mystery of reversal) is printed in MaM 85-86 and transl. with commentary in 'Rituals' 147-152. Addressee is the Shaykhi leader Haji Mirza Karim Khan.

139 Lawh-i-Quds (Tablet of Holiness). AQA4(i) 325-327.

140 Lawh-i-Rad'ar-Ruh (Tablet to Unpublished. Described TahRB3 7-10.

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141 Lawh-i-Rafi' (Tablet of Elevation).

142 Lawh-i-Rasull (Tablet of the Prophet), Akka.

143 Lawh-i-Ra'is I (?) Istanbul. TahRB2 58 describes a long tablet 'severely condemnatory in tone', which was delivered via Shamsi Big for 'Ali Pasha before Baha'u'llah left Istanbul. The opening was addressed to the Sultan. The text may be in the Ottoman Archives.

144 Lawh-i-Ra'is (Arabic), see Suriy-i-Ra'is.

145 Lawh-i-Ra'is II (Tablet to 'Ali Pasha), Akka. MaM 102-116. Persian. Discussed TahRB3 34, 36-7.

146 Lawh-i-Raqsha (Tablet of the She-serpent), Akka. MA4 107-108 (incomp.).

147 Lawh-i-Rida' MA1 77-78; MaM 333-334. Gleanings XXXII.

148 Lawh-i-Ridvan I (Qad ata Rabi'u'l-Bayan) Tablet of Ridvan (Baghdad, at Ridvan? TahRB2 397 lists one of these as Edirne). AyT 254-61, section cited in another tablet MA7 186. Dialogue form. Translated completely in Gleanings XIV. Discussed 'Sacred' 239-40.

149 Lawh-i-Ridvan II. Arabic, beginning 'Huwa 'l-Mustawi 'ala hadha 'l-'arshi'l-munir' 'He is seated upon this luminous throne'. Refrain after each verse: 'Glad tidings! This is the Festival of God, manifest from the horizon of transcendent bounty'. Mentioned 'Sacred' 239. One of the Tablets of Ridvan is mentioned in GPB 169 as revealed in Edirne before the separation.

150 Lawh-i-Ridvan III, Akka, prob. 9th day Ridvan 1869. AyT 313. Discussed TahRB3 53-57.

151 Lawh-i-Ridvan - see also Fa lamma akhadha farahu'llah kulla ma siwahu.

152 Lawhu'r-Ruh, Lawh-i-Ruh (Tablet of the Spirit), Edirne, before separation. AQA4(i) 123-154; AQA4(rev) 150-200. Arabic. Mentioned GPB 169; discussed TahRB2 181-.

153 Lawh-i-Ru'ya (Tablet of Vision), Akka (1 Muharram 1290 / 1 March 1873). AyT 16-20. Trans. posted Juan Cole Talisman 8/96; for the anniversary of the birth of the Bab.

154 Lawh-i-Sahab (Tablet of the Cloud), Akka. Leiden Ms Or 4970 item 10; MA4 168. Gleanings LX.

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155 Lawh-i-Salat, Salat-i-Thalath (Tablet of Daily Obligatory Prayer) Akka? AHM 68-84; GanHud; Salat; T&T; A&K4. Translated in various Baha'i Prayer books. Trans. PM CLXXXI; PM CLXXXII; PM CLXXXIII. 'Rituals' 39 and 82 (n10) says the AHM edition is not entirely reliable, in particular that the short prayer is incomplete, yet it is the incomplete version which has been trans. into English in many prayer books and in PM CLXXXI. The versions in GanHud 24, Salat 14 and T&T 21-2 are complete. NB An early tablet with obligatory prayers was lost. This is the second tablet, with the prayers now in use.

156 Lawh-i-Salat-i-mayyit (obligatory prayer for the Dead). Amr4 203; GanHud 138-9; T&T 239-41 and corrections 241. PM CLXXVII and numerous prayerbooks.

157 Lawh-i-Salman I (Tablet of Salman I), Edirne. MaM 128-160. Mainly Persian. Paragraphs translated PDC 72, Gleanings XXI (MaM 144-5), Gleanings CXLVIII, CLIV. Trans. by J. Cole posted H-Bahai 3/97. Mentioned TahRB2 263-4, TahRB3 89, described TahRB2 283-90. Subject of a paper by J Cole, Second Irfan Mysticism Conference, February 1997.

158 Lawh-i-Salman II (Tablet of Salman II), Akka, early in imprisonment. MaM 124-128. Trans. posted Juan Cole, Irfan 9/96. Discussed TahRB3 25-.

159 Lawh-i-Salman (Commentary on a verse by Rumi) Late Edirne, after separation. MaMat 128-160.

160 Lawh-i-Samsun (Tablet of Samsun), SA. Same as Lawh-i-hawdaj.

161 Lawh-i-Sayyah (Tablet of Sayyah (the Traveller)), Edirne, before separation. Gan 80-81 (incomp.). Sentence translated in GPB 182. Mentioned GPB

162 Lawh-i-Shahr-i-Tihran (? title) (Tablet of the city of Tehran), Akka AQA2 Translated Gleanings LXIII (partial? covers AQA2 87-88). Mentioned

169; TahRB2 210-215, TahRB3 13. Addressee is Mulla Adi-Guzal, entitled Sayyah by the Bab.

TahRB1 48. Begins: Bismi 'l-mazlum al-zahir fi 'l-sijn al-a'zam.

163 Lawh-i-Shaykh Abdu'l-Husayn [Tihrani] (Tablet to Leiden Ms Or 4970 item 9.

164 Lawh-i-Shaykh-i-Fani (Tablet to Shaykh-i-Fani), Akka.

165 Lawh-i-Siraj (Tablet for Siraj)

166 Lawh-i-Siyyid-i-Mihdiy-i-Dahaji I

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Edirne. INBA 76 (?); MA7 (Page references range from 18 to 92 but these are not necessarily the first and last pages of this tablet). A long tablet. Sections trans. in Gleanings L (MA7 57-8), XCVII (MA7 18). Two sentences trans. GPB 169 (etext). Discussed TahRB2 262-3, 268-9, TahRB3 89. According to 'Rituals' 86 (n108) refers to several Hajj tablets. Addressee is 'Ali-Muhammad-i-Siraj of Isfahan.

(Tablet of Siyyid-i- Mihdiy-i-Dahaji I). AlA-Be 163-8. Translated in TB 193-202.

167 Lawh-i-Siyyid-i-Mihdiy-i-Dahaji II (Tablet of Siyyid-i- Mihdiy-i-Dahaji II). MA8 40. Section translated in GPB 251.

168 Lawh-i Siyyid Muhammad ibn Vahid. AQA4(i) 358-359.

169 Lawh-i-Sultan, (Tablet to the King of Persia, to AQA1 66-96; Alw-Braz 145-201; Leiden Ms Or 4970 item 6 or 7; Rosen2 195-216 (with numerous glosses); Lawh-i-Mubarak-i-Sultan-i-Iran (with notes by Azizullah Sulaymani), 132 BE, and repr. India, 158 pages. Another edition not sighted publ. Egypt 1940. According to a letter from Mirza Sa'id Khan to Mirza Husayn Khan, the original of this Tablet was sent to the latter, so it may be in Ottoman archives. Arabic and Persian, long. Sections trans. PB 57-60; PDC 39-41, 44, 72; self-citations in ESW 11, 39. Full text trans. by Browne in Traveller's Narrative, 112ff and in the appendix beginning 390. The appendix translates the portions of the tablet which are not cited by 'Abdu'l-Baha in the version of TN which Browne had. But in the Persian edition of TN 'Abdu'l-Baha cites the whole tablet (?). Browne indicates variant readings, but the Sulaymani edition has significant phrases missing in TN. Rosen2 192 also gives Baha'u'llah's instructions to Badi', and describes the Mss (part of Ms247) in St Petersburg. These instructions and the excordium not cited in TN are produced in Browne's edition of TN 390f, with the Persian of the instructions. Browne's trans. of the instructions reprinted in Balyuzi, Baha'u'llah King of Glory 299

170 Lawh-i-Tal'at'l-Hub (Tablet of Countenance of Love). Apparently published in AQA4-first edition, since in the second edition (AQA4(i)) it is listed among the tablets removed because no reliable Ms could be found.

171 Lawh-i-Tawhid (Tablet of Unity), Akka. MaM 307-315. Part translated in Gleanings XXVI (Ma 307-11).

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and TahRB3 176. Part of the Arabic exordium also trans. in ESW 11, 39, and PB 57f, with only minor differences in translation. Mentioned GPB 170, 171-2; discussed in Browne, The Babis of Persia, their Literature and Doctrines, JRAS XXI 958-60; TahRB2 337-40, 346-57, TahRB3 109, 174172 Lawh-i-Tibb (Tablet of Medicine), Akka. MaM 222-226 (reproduced BSB 6:4-7:2 25-29). Arabic-Persian, early 1870s. Trans. by Khazeh Fananapazir & Stephen Lambden BSB 6:4-7:2 (October 1992) 18-65. Discussed TahRB3 358-360.

173 Lawh-i-Tuqa (Tablet of Virtue), Edn, before separation. unpublished. Mentioned GPB 169.

174 Lawh-i-ulama-i-Manshad (Tablet to the ulama of Manshad) Akka. unpublished. Part of last section trans. in PM CLIII. Discussed TahRB3 44-46 (gives text of question posed by the ulama).

175 Lawh-i-Umm-i-'Attar (Tablet for the Mother of 'Attar). MA4 365. Mentioned TahRB2 127.

176 Lawh-i-Ustad Muhammad Salmani (?). Source of Gleanings III.

177 Lawh-i-Varqa (Tablet to Varqa) Ak. Unpublished. According to the BWC, this tablet, of some 40 pages, appears to have been revealed over a period of more than a month and bears on its final page the date 19 Muharram 1303 A.H. (29 October 1885).

178 Lawh-i-Yusuf (Tablet of Joseph), Akka. Unpublished.

179 Lawh-i-Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin I (Tablet to Z.-M.), ? MaM 337-338.

180 Lawh-i-Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin II (Tablet to Z.-M.), Akka Unpublished

181 Mathnaviy-i-Mubarak, Istanbul. AQA3 160-192; MA4; INBA30. Persian, 300 lines. Discussed en passant in TahRB2 29-54.

182 Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting), Edirne, after separation. 22-76. Mentioned GPB 170.

183 Musibat-i-Hurufat. Mentioned GPB 139. Compare Hurufat-i-'aliyyat.

T&T

184 Qad-Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun (The Fire Tablet), Akka. T&T 219-224; AHM 169-79; INBA30; published separately as Qad-Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun, London, 1980.

185 Qad nuzzila fi al-Kitab al-Aqdas (on arabic language) Gan 210-213 and Naf 5-8. Mainly Persian, trans. in BSB 4:3-4 (April 1990), 28ff.

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Trans. 'Rituals' 134-7; Addressee is Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji. 186 Qasidiy-i-Varqa’iyyih (Ode of Dove), Sulaymaniyyih. AQA3 196-215; MA4 197-209. Arabic, with Persian notes by Baha'u'llah. Short extract transl. Shoghi Effendi GPB 116. Trans. by Denis MacEoin, BSB 2:2, & comments 2:3, 2:4; by Juan Cole posted Talisman 95, revised 96, also at WebCole. Circumstances see GPB 123-, TahRB1 62.

187 Rashh-i-'Ama (Sprinkling of the Cloud of Unknowing), Tehran 1853/3. M4:184-6; INBAMC 36:460-1. Persian, trans. & commentary Stephen Lambden BSB 3:2 September 1984; brief commentary in TahRB1 45.

188 Risaliy-i-Khal (Epistle to the Uncle), early name for the Kitab-i-Iqan.

189 Risalih-'i Su'al va Javab (Epistle of Questions and Answers), Akka. INBA 63, 40 pp.; GanHud 14; Amr4 91. From the discussion of contents in 'Rituals', this appears to be the Questions and Answers relating to the Aqdas (English trans. see Kitab-i-Aqdas), but it appears that the present 'Q&A' is a selection or edition of the total material bearing this name, since 'Rituals' p 88 n181 says that the Lawh-i-nikah is almost identical to a passage from the Su'al va Javab, but the present Q&A does not contain a text comparable to the trans. in 'Rituals' 62.

190 Ridvanu'l-Adl (Ridvan al-'adl) (The Garden of Justice), Edirne. AQA4(i) 245-258; AQA4(rev) 299-319; MA4. Sections trans. in Gleanings XII, LXXXVIII, sentence in PDC 73; trans. by Juan Cole, Talisman 2/96.

191 Ridvanu'l-Iqrar (The Garden of Confession), Edirne. AQA4(i) 180-192; AQA4(rev) 42-60.

192 Sahifiy-i-Maknunih Fatimiyya ("The Hidden Book of Fatima"), early title of Kalimat-i-Makninih.

193 Sahifih-'i-Shattiyyih (Book of the Tigris, Book of the River), Baghdad (1857?). MA4 142-149; RM1 349-357. Persian, with Arabic citations. Trans. by Juan Cole posted H-Bahai 5/97. Mentioned GPB 139; Discussion TahRB1 105-8.

194 Salat-i-Hajat (Prayer for Need), Akka? A&K4.

195 Salat-i-Mayyit (Prayer for the Dead), Akka.

196 Salat-i-Mulud (Prayer for the Newly

197 Salat-i-Thalath see lawh-i-salat.

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Born), Akka?.

A&K4.

198 Saqi-Az-Ghayb-i-Baqa (Cupbearer from the Invisible Eternity), Sulaymaniyyah. Persian. Two lines quoted in TahRB2 141, dated in DB 137. Brief description in TahRB1 64.

199 Shikkar-Shikan-Shavand, (Sweet Scented Being) Baghdad (?title). DiD 147-153; INBA30. Persian. First half trans. in "The Baha'i World", vol 18, p 11 (by Habib Taherzadeh?). Draft trans. by Shahrokh Monjazeb at 1984 ABS meeting in Boston. Addressee Mirza Sa'id Khan, although Taherzadeh says it was Siyyid Husayn-i-Mutivvaly-i-Qumi. IshraqKhavari and Muhammad-Ali Faizi consider this was the tablet referred to in the Tablet to the Shah, cited in Traveller's Narrative p 110 of Browne's trans., p 62 of the etext, but the content does not seem to match. Discussed TahRB1 147-9.

200 Subhana-Rabbiya'l-A'la (Praise to the Exalted Lord), Baghdad. Gan 61-64. Arabic. A Maiden tablet. Addressee Haji Mirza Musay-i-Javahiri, known as Harf-i-Baqa. Discussion in TahRB1 211.

201 Subhanaka-Ya-Hu (Praised be Thou, O He!), also known as the Lawh-i-Naqus (Tablet of the Bell), Istanbul. 18 Oct 1863. AyT 100-106; AHM 141-53. Discussed TahRB2 18. Trans. Rituals 169-172; section trans. BW14 632. Title refers to a constantly repeated refrain of "Subhanika Ya Hu". Addressee is Aqa Muhammad-'Aliy-i-Tambaku-Furush-i-Isfahan i. 'Composed in a style that lends itself to collective chanting'. 'Rituals' 64 says this is intended for the anniversary of the declaration of the Bab.

202 Suratu'llah (Surah of God), Edirne. AQA4(i) 68-72 reproduced in BSB 6:4-7:2 12-16; AQA4(rev) 16-23; IQT 105-116 (facs. of Ms Mishkin-Qalam, Rajab A.H. 1310/January 1893); MA7 140-147; Tuman3:6 61-4; Leiden Ms Or. 4971, section 7, item 1. Arabic. Trans. with notes and dating Juan Cole BSB 6:4-7:2 4-17; idem at WebCole. Discussion in TahRB1 245 (where it is dated in last days of Baghdad period).

203 Suriy-i-Ahzan (Surah of Sorrows), Edirne (Late Edirne/Edirne period, Sept. 1867 - summer 1868). AQA4(i) 221-235; AQA4(rev) 75-98. Trans. by Juan Cole posted in two parts Talisman 5/96, Irfan 10/96 and at WebCole.

204 Suriy-i-Amin (Tablet of Trustee), Akka. AQA1 170-173; AQA4(i) 320-323; Leiden Ms Or 4970 item 11.

205 Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command), Edirne, before separation (early 1866 /late 1865?). Unpublished, but photographic reproduction of the first

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page, in Baha'u'llah's hand, in TahRB2 frontispiece. Mentioned GPB 164, 168; discussed TahRB2 161-2; Mirza Jawad in Browne Materials 21 (as Lawhu'l-Amr); Browne dates it 1863. 206 Suriy-i-A'rab (Surih of the Arabians). AQA4(i) 215-220; AQA4(rev) 61-69.

207 Suriy-i-Ashab (Surih of the Companions), Edirne, before separation (JC: about Winter 1866). AQA1 149-154; AQA4(i) 1-22; AQA4(rev) 205-239. Arabic. Short passage trans. in WOB 108-9; introduction and trans. by Juan Cole BSB 5:3-6:1, 4-74, short passage posted Talisman 1/97; mentioned GPB 169; TahRB1 286 and discussed more fully in TahRB2 65-106. Principal addressee is 'Habib': in TahRB1 identified with

208 Suriy-i-Asma' (Tablet of Names).

209 Suriy-i-Bayan (Tablet of the Utterance), Akka (TahRB2 397: Edirne). AQA4(i) 108-123; AQA4(rev) 392-417. Sections translated in Gleanings CXXVIII, CXXIX.

210 Suriy-i-Dam (Surat al-damm) (Tablet of Blood), Edirne, before separation. AQA4(i) 59-67; AQA4(rev) 1-15. Arabic. Sections trans. Gleanings XXXIX (AQA4(i) 64-5); trans. and literary analysis of passages by Juan Cole publ. Poetics Today; Trans. by Juan Cole posted Talisman Jan 96 with commentary; sentence trans. WOB 139. Mentioned GPB 169; discussed TahRB2 236-240. Addressee is Nabil-i-A'zam.

211 Suriy-i-Dhabih I (Tablet of the Sacrifice I), Edirne. AQA4(i) 100-107; AQA4(rev) 29-41. Trans. Juan Cole posted Talisman 21/4/96 (dates it 1866/7).

212 Suriy-i-Dhabih II (Tablet of the Sacrifice II), Akka (early Akka). IQT 323-328 Translated in Gleanings, CXV, pp 240-46.

213 Suriy-i-Dhikr (Tablet of Remembrance), Baghdad. AQA4(i) 236-245; AQA4(rev) 108-122.

214 Suriy-i-Fadl (Tablet of Mercy).

215 Suriy-i-Fath (Tablet of Conquest).

216 Suriy-i-Fu'ad (Tablet to Fu'ad Pasha), Akka. AQA1 176-179. Is this the same as the Lawh-i-Fu'ad (Akka) mentioned TahRB2 375?.

217 Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch), Edirne, after separation. AQA4(i) 331-335; AQA4(rev) 424-430; MA4 115-119. Arabic. Extracts in WOB 134-135. Some verses explained by

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'Abdu'l-Baha in a tablet to Haji Mirza Haydar-'Ali, part of which is trans. in WOB 238. Discussed TahRB2 388-9. Addressee is Mirza 'Ali-Riday-i-Mustawfi. Mentioned GPB 177, phrases trans. GPB 242. WOB 135-6 (1980 edn) mentions and translates extracts from at least 5 other tablets and prayers of Baha'u'llah for 'Abdu'l-Baha, of which one was written while 'Abdu'l-Baha was in Beirut. GPB 242 mentions another tablet written in Edirne regarding 'Abdu'l-Baha, but addressed to Haji Muhammad Ibrahim-i-Khalil. 218 Suriy-i-Hajj I (Tablet of Pilgrimage I - Shiraz), Edirne, after separation AQA4(i) 75-100; Amr4 120-134 part; Gan 82-3 part. Section translated in 'Rituals' 154-163. Described 'Rituals' 52-3; one of these tablets is dated in GPB 169 as prior to the separation in Edirne; TahRB2 240.

219 Suriy-i-Hajj II (Tablet of Pilgrimage II - Baghdad), Edirne, after separation. AQA4(i) 192-215; Amr4 109-120; Gan 83-4 part. Section trans. 'Rituals' 163-168, mentioned TahRB2 240. 'Rituals' 86 (n116) notes textual variants between AQA4 204f and Amr4, without specifying. See also Lawh-i-Hajj.

220 Suriy-i-Haykal, Suratu'l-Haykal (Surah of the Temple), Akka, first written in Edirne but revised in 'Akka, probably in 1869 (UHJ memo). AQA1 2-38; AQA4(i) 268-300; Mubin 2-38, with numerous variations; Rosen2 Ms 247, reproduced in full pp. 149-192; revised AQA1 (forthcoming) will deal with differences between the 2 versions of the tablet. Arabic. Sections trans. by Shoghi Effendi in PDC (1961) 47-48 (end of the tablet), WOB (1955) 109-10, 117, 138-39, 169 and GPB 101-2 (maiden passage). Early trans. circulated widely in mimeo. Paragraphs trans. in 'Style' 40, 62. Discussed TahRB3 133-146. Baha'u'llah had this tablet and those to Pius IX, Napoleon III, Alexander II and the King of Persia (Nasiri'd-Din Shah) written in the form of a pentacle (see GPB 212-3), but these are considered in this list as five separate tablets. See also Baha'i World Center, "Questions about the Suratu'l-Haykal," unpublished memo, 5 September 1993.

221 Suriy-i-Hijr (Tablet of Separation) (Suriy-i-Hifz, Tablet of Protection?) Edirne. AQA4(i) 72-74; AQA4(rev) 24-28. Mentioned TahRB2 397.

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222 Suriy-i-'Ibad (Tablet of the Servants), Edirne. AQ4(i) 23-34. Partial translated in Gleanings XXXI (AQ4 24-25). Mentioned TahRB2 272. Addressee Siyyid Mihdiy-i-Dahaji.

223 Suriy-i-Ism (Tablet of the Name).

224 Suriy-i-Ismuna'l-Mursal (Tablet of "Our Name, the Messenger"), Akka. AQA4(i) 311-317.

225 Suriy-i-Javad (Tablet of Javad), Akka. Translated TB 237-8.

226 Suriy-i-Khitab (Tablet of the Sermon).

227 Suriy-i-Ma'ani (Tablet of Meanings).

228 Suriy-i-Man' (Tablet of Prohibition).

229 Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih of the Kings), Edirne, after separation (1867). Alw-Braz 3-70; partially in Rosen2 p. 147-8; INBA34 Alvah-i Nazilih khitab bi Muluk va Ru'asa-yi Ard (Tehran: MMMA, 1968); Mubin. Arabic. Sections translated in Gleanings LXV, LXVI, CXIII, CXIV, CXVI, CXVIII, and PDC 20-24. Sections are addressed to the Kings collectively PDC 20-24, Gleanings CXVI (same as PDC 23-24), CXVIII (same as PDC 21-22 except that the phrase "that the burden of your expenditures may be lightened" is omitted on PDC 21); to Discussed GPB 169-74; TahRB2 61, 301f.

230 Suriy-i-Nida (Tablet of Proclamation), Akka.

231 Suriy-i-Nush (Tablet of Advice), Baghdad. MA4 135-136 (incomp.). Arabic, addressee Siyyid Ja'far-i-Yazdi. Discussed TahRB1 137-47.

232 Suriy-i-Qadir (Surah of the Omnipotent), Cole dates Edirne (?1866?); Taherzadeh dates Baghdad. AQA4(i) 317-320; AQA4(rev) 373-378. Trans. based on from AQA4(rev) by Juan Cole posted Talisman/Irfan 8/96. Discussion in TahRB1 119.

233 Suriy-i-Qahir (Tablet of the Powerful).

234 Suriy-i-Qalam (Tablet of the Pen), Edirne AQA4(i) 258-267; T&T 124-139.

235 Suriy-i-Qamis (Tablet of the Garment), Edirne. AQA4(i) 34-59; AQA4(rev) 320-362. Section translated in Gleanings VII (AQA4(i) 50-51).

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236 Suriy-i-Ra'is, Surat-ar-Rais (Lawh-i-(Lawh-i-Ra'is II) (Tablet to Ottoman first minister Mehmet Emin `Ali Pasha), Edirne (summer of 1868, en route to Gallipoli) MaM 87-102; (Leiden Ms Or 4970 item 3?). One of the three tablets is in Rosen2 224-231. Arabic. Sections trans. in Baha'i Scriptures 225, sentences in PDC 60, 72-3; GPB 177-8 (twice); WOB 94-5; 164. French trans. in Beha-Ullah, "Les Preceptes du Behaisme" trans. by Hippolyte Dreyfus & Mirza Habib-Ullah Chirazi, Paris, Editions Ernest Leroux, 1906, 1-21 (or is this lawh-i-Ra'is III?). Described GPB 170-172; TahRB2 411; Mirza Jawad in Browne, Materials 29-30. Addressee is 'Ali Pasha, but revealed for Dhabih (known as Anis).

237 Suriy-i-Sabr, Lawh-i-Ayyub, Madinatu's-Sabr (Surih or City of Patience, tablet of Job), Baghdad (Ridvan, on 22 April 1863). AyT 262-304; LAnv1 379-408. Arabic, long. Draft trans. are said to have been prepared by Habib Taherzadeh and S. Lambden. The first part of a draft by Khazeh Fananapazir posted H-Bahai June 97. Mentioned GPB 138 ("extols Vahid and his fellow-sufferers in Nayriz"); TahRB1 141, described TahrRB1 263-73; 'Sacred' 239. Addressee Haji Muhammad-Taqi-i-Nayrizi.

238 Suriy-i-Sultan (Tablet for Sultan-Abad believers), Akka. AQA4(i) 154-180.

239 Suriy-i-Vafa (Tablet of Fidelity), Akka. MaA 112-119; AQA4(i) 350-358; AQA4(rev) 418-423. Translated in Gleanings LXXIX, TB 179-192.

240 Surih-i-Ziyarat (Tablet of Visitation [for the Bab]). AQA4(i) 301-310. 242 Suriy-i-Zuhur (Tablet of Manifestation). (inadequate?) trans. by unknown translator posted Talisman Mar 96. Apparently published in AQA4-first edition, since in the second edition (AQA4(i)) it is listed among the tablets removed because no reliable Ms could be found.

241 Suriy-i-Zubur (Tablet of the Psalms).

243 Tablet of Baha'u'llah-Khadimu'llah, [suggest: Tablet of the four verses?] Mss photostatically reproduced in INBMC 44:225. Persian. Partial trans. by Stephen Lambden posted Talisman 95 (?). Apparently same as the unnamed tablet discussed in TahRB1 278. Contents refer to the Ridvan declaration, with four 'verses' (fiqra) abrogating jihad, no new Manifestation for 1000 years, manifestation of divine names in all things (i.e., the abrogation of uncleanliness), and being mentioned in presence of Baha'u'llah is equivalent to attaining. Does the "Baha'u'llah-Khadimu'llah" of the title refer to Baha'u'llah as the servant of God (which seems unlikely) or to Mirza Aqa Jan "Khadimu'llah" Kashani, in which case it tells us only that this tablet is in the hand of Mirza Aqa Jan, and

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'The Tablet of the four verses' might be more informative. 244 Tafsir-i-Bayti az Sa'di (Commentary on a Verse by Sa'di). MA1 57-60. Trans. by Juan Cole posted Irfan 9/96.

245 Tafsir-i-Hu (Commentary on "He is"), Baghdad. G 64 (incomp.). Mentioned GPB 139.

246 Tafsir-i-Hurufat-i-Muqatta'ih (Interpretation of the Isolated Letters), see Lawh-i-ayiy-i-Nur.

247 Tafsir-i-Suriy-i-Va'sh-Shams (Commentary on the Surah of the Sun, Tablet to Shaykh Mahmud), Akka. MaM 2-17. Section translated in Gleanings LXXXIX. Full trans. and commentary by Juan Cole, 4 April 94; BSB 4:3-4, 4-27, 1990, posted Talisman 95 and at WebCole (with introduction); circumstances in TahRB1 32.

248 Tajalliyat (Effulgences), Akka. 25-29. Translated in TB 45-54.

MaA

249 Tarazat (Ornaments) Dhi'l-Hajjih 1305 (appr. 1888). MaA 16-24. Translated in TB 31-45.

250 Ziyaratnamih (Tablet of Visitation of the Bab and Baha'u'llah), Akka. T&T 277-280 - Compilation by Nabil-i-A'zam: paragraphs 1-4 from Lawh-i-Aqa-Baba; para 5-6 unidentified; para 7 said to be from Lawh-i- Khadijih-Bagum (?). Translated PM CLXXX.

251 Ziyarat-Namih-i333.

Mentioned TahRB2

252 Ziyarat-Namih-i-Awliya (Tablet of Visitation of exalted ones), Baghdad.

253 Ziyarat-Namih-i-Babul-Bab va Quddus (Tablet of Visitation of Mulla Husayn and Quddus), Akka.

254 Ziyarat-Namih-i-Bayt (Tablet of Visitation of the House), Akka. AQA1 226-228.

255 Ziyaratnamih-i Haram-i Hadrat-i A'la (Tablet Visitatn. for the Wife of the Bab, see Lawh-i-Khadijih-Bagum.

256 Ziyarat-Namih-i-Maryam (Tablet of Visitation of Maryam), Akka. Gan 205 (incomp.). Circumstances see TahRB1 13.

257 Ziyarat-Namih-i-Sayyidu-Shuhada (Tablet of Visitation of the Prince of the Martyrs), Akka. AyT 235-244; MaM 202-214. Arabic

The following tablets have no known Persian or Arabic name, and in most cases I have chosen a name myself from some characteristic phrase at the beginning - usually the beginning of the section trans. in English. -Sen

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258 Unnamed tablet revealed on 24 Safar 1304 A.H. (22 November 1886). AQA6 51-59. Untranslated.

259 Unnamed (Abraham in the fire). Gleanings XXIII.

260 Unnamed (tablet against antinomianism). MA8 7-9. Gleanings CXXXVII; transl by Juan Cole posted H-Bahai 3/97 includes one extra paragraph at the beginning.

261 Unnamed (against incarnation). Gleanings XX.

262 Unnamed (Akka Barracks, conditions in). RM2 771. Could this relate to Gleanings XLII?

263 Unnamed (regarding Badi'), Akka. Darakhshan 396. Tablet via Mirza Aqa Jan, regarding Badi', mentioned in TahRB3 179.

264 Unnamed (regarding Badi'), Akka. AQA1 166. Mentioned TahRB3 179. 266 Unnamed (regarding Badi'), Akka. AQA1 208. Mentioned TahRB3 199.

265 Unnamed (regarding Badi'), Akka. AQA1 169. Mentioned TahRB3 179. 267 Unnamed (regarding Badi' and Lawh-i-Sultan as sufficient proof), Akka. MA4 34. Mentioned TahRB3 200, 201.

268 Unnamed (regarding Badi' and famine following his martyrdom), Akka. Darakhshan 411-12. Mentioned TahRB3 200-1. Addressee Haji Mulla 'Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi, known as Haji Akhund.

269 Unnamed (regarding the Baghdad House). Gleanings LVIII.

270 Unnamed (The beauty of holiness). AHM 153-8. Translated 'Ritual' 132. A maiden poem, with the refrain 'And this is a wondrous thing' (with variations).

271 Unnamed (beside the Jordan). Gleanings LIX

272 Unnamed (Bi-nam-i Khudavand-i binanda-yi dana). MaM 268-69.

273 Unnamed (Bismi 'llah al-muqtadir). MaM 236-8. Gleanings XXXV.

274 Unnamed (Breeze of God). XLI.

275 Unnamed (to a Christian Bishop residing in Istanbul). MA7 130-131; IQT 93. This is not the same as the Tablet of the Bell, despite the frequent reference to bells (which probably date it sometime after 1863). It is partially translated in Gleanings XXXVI, and in a

Gleanings

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fuller form in Dawud-Riv 33-38. The Iqtidarat text quotes it as from a previous Tablet. Begins: Bi-ism-i mahbub-i yakta. 276 Unnamed (describing creation). MaM 338-42. Gleanings XXVII. Begins: Huwa 'llah al-bahi al-abha.

277 Unnamed (Day of God).

278 Unnamed (departure from Edirne). MA8 5-6. Translated Juan Cole posted H-Bahai 2/97.

279 Unnamed (divines of Persia) Ishraqat-India 247.

280 Unnamed (Tablet of the Elixir). 24-25.

281 Unnamed (the Emblem).

MA4

Gleanings XXV.

Gleanings XL.

282 Unnamed (equality of the Manifestations). Gleanings XXXIV.

283 Unnamed (foretells hardships of Akka) Adrianople. Unpublished. Mentioned TahRB3 21.

284 Unnamed (Tablets of the Hair). Arabic, actually consists of 5 separate short tablets. Trans. by Mr. Samimi and Dr. Khan in Baha'i News, no. 121, December 1938, p. 11; 1981 authorized trans. available from the World Centre and posted on Mashriq Jan. 97 with a memo on the topic from the Research Department. No source given.

285 Unnamed (the Hour). Gleanings LXI.

286 Unnamed (the Hour). KHay 249-51. Translated Gleanings XVIII. Begins: Bismi 'llah al-baqi bi-la zawal.

287 Unnamed (beginning of all things is the knowledge of God). AQ2 60. Extract translated in Gleanings II. Begins: Huwa 'l-shahid al-sami' al-'alim al-hakim.

288 Unnamed (Tablet of Immortality). Partial trans. in Gleanings LXX, also translated in Dawud-Riv 16-18. Dawud's trans. is one paragraph longer, otherwise no significant differences.

289 Unnamed (Interpretation of the letter Vav), Baghdad GPB 138 reports an "interpretation of the letter Vav, mentioned in the writings of

290 Unnamed (Jews, Christians, Moslems, Babis) Gleanings XLVII.

291 Unnamed (Tablet of the Journey, Tablet of ice and snow?). Revealed during the journey from Tehran to Baghdad in winter. Translated GPB 109 (incomp.).

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Amr4 472-3.

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292 Unnamed ('kissed the hands') Gleanings XLVIII.

293 Unnamed (the learned of the world). Gleanings XLIV. Source unidentified, but see GPB 173, which says the concluding passage of the Suriy-i-Muluk is addressed to the philosophers of the world.

294 Unnamed (Lettre sur le Bayan). Translated by Dreyfus, Oeuvre1, 109-143. No source. The text from page 134 - 143 is from the Lawh-i-

295 Unnamed (to Mulla 'Ali Mu'allim?). Cited Tarikh-i-Samandari 204. Contents summarized TahRB3 91.

296 Unnamed (to Mustafa, the sorrows of exile) Gleanings LXII.

297 Unnamed (Manifestations and mirrors). Gleanings XXX.

298 Unnamed (Noah and Canaan). MaM 236-38. Gleanings XXXV. The passage regarding Jesus has a parallel in Iqan 132, and in the Tablet to the Shah, page 137 of Browne's trans. of the citation in Traveller's Narrative. The passage regarding

299 Unnamed (The ocean from which all seas have proceeded). MA4 87. Gleanings LI. Begins: Bismi'llah al-abda' al-mana' al-aqdas al-abha.

300 Unnamed ("On this Day the Kingdom is God's!") Gleanings XV.

301 Unnamed (Out of Zion hath gone forth the Law). Gleanings X.

302 Unnamed (power of detachment) 175-6 Mentioned TahRB3 194.

303 Unnamed (purpose of creation is to come to know God). MaM 368-71. Gleanings XXIX. Begins: Huwa 'l-'aziz.

MA4

304 Unnamed (rebuke to Mirza Muhammad-'Ali). MA1 65. Mentioned TahRB2 260.

305 Unnamed MaM 221-22. Gleanings XXVIII. Begins: Bismi 'lladhi irtafa'a 'alam al-Hidaya bayna 'l-biriyya.

306 Unnamed (A short healing prayer revealed in the Barracks of Akka). Mentioned TahRB3 21.

307 Unnamed (station of the true believer). Gleanings VI.

308 Unnamed (suffering of Baha'u'llah), Akka. KHay 307 Gleanings XLV. Begins: Bismi 'llah al-aqdas al-abha.

309 Unnamed (suffering of Baha'u'llah). Gleanings XLVI.

310 Unnamed (This is a Matchless Day), Akka. Gleanings XVI. Discussed TahRB2

311 Unnamed (to 'Asad'). MA1 16; RM1 687. Includes commentary on mystery of

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417. Taherzadeh apparantly does not know the source. 312 Unnamed (to Persian believers dispossessed for participation in constitution revolution?). Dawud-Riv 50-51.

reversal. Sentence translated in 'Rituals' 148. 313 Unnamed (Tehran, Abode of supreme blissfulness). Gleanings LXIV.

314 Unnamed (Tribulations), early Akka. KHay 252-54. Translated Gleanings XVII. Mentioned TahRB3 32. Begins: Bismi 'llah al-ra'uf al-rahim.

315 Unnamed (twin nature of the Manifestation). Gleanings XLIX.

316 Unnamed (Tablet of Visitation for Vahid). Trans. by Ahang Rabbani, posted Talisman 16 Dec 1995.

317 Unnamed (worldly leadership). Gleanings LIV.

Some prayers for which both the original and a translation. is available follow. Those which have an identifiable name or are discussed in the literature should be in the 'tablets' list. It follows that the names here are my own invention, using a subject or striking phrase which is identifiable in the first half-page or so. The opening formula is generally omitted in citing the first two lines, unless it is quite distinctive. The list should ideally be expanded to list all prayers by opening lines in bot h the original and trans. Assistance with this would be greatly appreciated. -Sen

318 Long Healing Prayer - see Lawh-i-Anta 'l-Kafi.

319 Prayer before sleep. 85-7. PM CLXXI.

320 Prayer for Haji Niaz. Sohrab, in 'Abdu'l-Baha in Egypt 362, gives trans.: O God O God! I beg of Thee by Thy Radiant, Collective name, to change the humiliation of thy Chosen ones into Thy Glory.

321 Prayer for inspiration in sleep. AHM 212-4; T&T 213-5. Translated 'Rituals' 124. God hath spoken thus in the Tree of Separation: O Friends! Be patient and beware lest ye fail to make mention of us. Similar texts in 'Rituals' 125 might be from Baha'u'llah.

322 Prayer for morning. Amr4 60; AHM 210-11. Translated 'Rituals' 119.

323 Prayer for pioneers. Source unknown. Transl by Prof. Zaine, 1956, circulating informally. O thou who has pioneered! Listen to the Voice of God from the shores of the Prison. There is no God but Him, the Mighty,.

324 Prayer for protection (entering and leaving). Amr4 67. Translated

325 Prayer for protection (night and morning). Amr4 68. Translated

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T&T 225-6; AHM

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'Rituals' 138. Make this land, O my God, blessed and secure for me. Guard me, then, O my God, at the time of my entering into it and my.

'Rituals' 138. O God, my God, I ask Thee by Thy name whereby Thou didst protect Abraham from the fire and Moses from Pharaoh....

326 Prayers for the Fast. T&T 22-76; Salat 17-83. Of these, T&T#1 transl PM CLXXVIII; T&T#2 transl PM LVI; T&T#3 (i.e., 4) in PM (?); T&T#4 (=5) in PM LXXXV.

327 Prayer for the Dead (before burial). T&T 237-9; Baha'i Prayers (Wilmette 1973) 24-6.

328 Prayer for the Dead (obligatory prayer at burial) see lawh-i-salat-i-mayyit.

329 Prayer for the Fast before dawn. T&T 57-64; AHM 121-31; PM CLXXVII. I beseech thee O my God by Thy mighty Sign...and clinging to the hem of the robe to which have clung all in this world and in the world to come (refrain).

330 Prayer for the Fast - 'the long prayer'. AHM 110-114. Gleanings CXXXVIII. Thou seest, O God of Mercy, thou Whose power pervadeth all created things, these servants of Thine, Thy thralls, who,.

331 Prayer in time of need. Amr4 74-9; MA7 -135 (translates the directions into Persian and compresses them). Arabic. Translated in 'Rituals' 115-118.

332 Prayer of 'no God is there but thee'. AHM 45-52. Translated 'Rituals' 131.

333 Prayers on waking. T&T 226-9; AHM 87-91. PM CXLIV; PM CLVI; PM CLVII.

334 Prayer on leaving a city. T&T 236; AHM 209-10. Partial trans. in PM CLXIV.

335 Prayer on leaving home. AHM 92. PM CLXXV.

336 Prayer to conceive a child. Amr4 69. Translated 'rituals' 126. I ask of Thee, then, O God of all existence and King of the Seen and the Unseen, to bestow upon me a healthy child.

337 Talisman against Satan. AHM 206-8. Trans. by MacEoin in 'Rituals' 138-9. Praise be unto Thee, O God, my God, my Lord and my Master, My Reliance and my Hope, my Refuge and my Light. I beseech.

338 Talisman of 4484137. Amr4 68. Transl by MacEoin in 'Rituals' 138. 4484137 He is the Glorified 137444. Praise be to Thee, O my God, I and all created things bear witness.

339 Talisman of the final destination. AHM 208-9. Trans. by MacEoin in 'Rituals' 208-9. Praised be Thou, O my God, I and all things bear witness that Thou art God, no god is there but Thee. From all eternity.

340 Unnamed prayer, Edirne. Translated PM CLXVIII. TahRB1 277 dates in Edirne. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.leiden.html (31 of 35) [6-6-2004 16:19:44]

T&T 235;

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Begins: "Praised be Thou, O Lord my God! I supplicate Thee by Him Whom Thou hast called into being, Whose Revelation Thou hast ordained to be Thine own Revelation and His Concealment Thine own Concealment." Refers to recreation of all things at Ridvan.

Index of key English words and names (numbered by entry, not by page) Some lengthy names have been abbreviated for ease in formatting.

'Abdu'r-Rasul 251 'Abdu'r-Razzaq 287 'Ali 32 'Ali Pasha 143, 145, 236 'Ali Qabl Akbar 33 224 'Ali-Muhammad-i-Isfahan 165 'Andalib 35 'Attar, mother of 175 'Ayn Lam 1 46 'Ayn Lam 2 47 Abdu'l-Aziz and ministers 24 Abdu'l-Vahhab 26 Abdu'llah Ubayy 303 Abdu'r-Rahim 27 Abdu'r-Razzaq 28 Abraham 258, 323 Advice 231 Ahmad arabic 30 persian 31 Akka 277 Akka Barracks 273 All Food 99 Antinomian 99 Antinomianism 302 Aqa amal-i-Burujirdi 88 Aqa Muhammad Hasan 38 Aqa Muhammad-Isfahani 201 Aqa Siyyid Hasan 39 Arabians 206 Asad 311

Glory 50 Goal 111 God 202 Hadiy-i-Qazvini 5 Hair 305 Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji Haji

'Abdu'l-i-Nishapuri 25 Akhund 265 Amin 69 Mirza Ahmad 31 Mirza Buzurg-i-Afnan 73 Mirza H.'Ali 70-1, 217 Mirza Husayn Khan 229 Mirza K.'d-Din Naraqi 99 Mirza Karim Khan 138 Mirza Muhammad-'Ali 121 Mirza M.-i-Javahiri 200 Muhammad I-i-Khalil 217 Muhammad I.-i-Qazvini 96 Muhammad T-i-Malmiri 109 Muhammad-Baqir 71, 72 Muhammad-Ibrahim 74 M.-Nasir of Qazvin 128 Muhammad-T.Nayrizi 237 M. Ali-i-Shahmirzadi 265 Niaz 318 Siyyid 'Ali-A.Dahaji 184 Siyyid Ibrahim 75

Obligatory prayer 155, 156 Ocean 292 Omnipotent 232 Ornaments 249 Our Name, the Messenger

Patience 237 Pen 234 Persian Mystic 120 Pilgrimage 218, 219 Pioneers 321 Point 132 Pope Pius IX 134 Powerful 233 Praise to Exalted Lord 200 Praised be Thou, O He! 201 Prince of the Martyrs 257 Proclamation 230 Prohibition 228 Proof 57 Prophet 142 Protection 221, 322, 323 Psalms 241 Queen Victoria 106 Questions and Answers 189 Ra'is 236 Rad'ar-Ruh 140 Radiant Acquiescence, City of 103 Haji Siyyid M.-i-Isfahani 15 Reasoning 57 Hajj 165 Rememberance 213 Hallelujah, O Glad-Tidings 11 Remembrance 213 Hardegg, Georg David 79 Return and grant chalice 6

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Ashraf 43 Bab 51,243,338 birth of 114, 153 birthday of 127 declrtn. 102, 127, 201 visitation 240, 250 Babis 284 Badi' 48, 49, 260-265 father of 25 Baghdad 42 Baghdad House 266 Baha'u'llah birthday of 127 visitation 250 Baha'u'llah-Khadimu'llah 243 Banu Qurayzah 51 Bayan 209, 287 Beauty 88 Beauty of holiness 267 8 Bell 201 Beloved 67 62 Bishop 289 Blood 210 Book of Certitude 22 Book of Dawn 75 Book of the Covenant 18 Book of the River 193 Book of Truth 23 199 Branch 217 Breath of the Spirit 82 Breeze of God 271 Carmel 93 Child 98, 334 Christian Bishop 289 67 Christians 40, 284 City Radiant Acquiescnce 103 City of Unity 104 Cloud 154 Cloud of Unknowing 187 Command 205 187 Commentary on "He is" 245 1 Commentary on verse Rumi 159 Commentary on verse Sadi 244 Commentary on Surah Sun 247 Companions 207

Harf-i-Baqa 200 Havva 13

Rida' 147 Ridvan 9,127,148-

He who knoweth his self 5 Healing 36, 298 Hidden Book of Fatima 192 Hidden Words 17 Holiness 139 garden of 4 Holy Mariner 108 Hour 278, 279 Houri 80 Howdah 77 Humourist 115 Husayn 64, 81 Ibrahim 84 Immortality 309 In the Name of God 55 Incarnation 259 Interpretation of Vav 283

Rumi 159 Sa'di 244 Sacred Night 100, 101 Sacrifice 211, 212 Salman 157, 158 Samsun 77 Satan 335 Separation 221 Sermon 226 Servants 222 Seven Questions 68 Seven Valleys 10 Shah 303 Shams-i-Jahan 63 Shamsi Big 143 Shaykh Abdu'l-Husayn 163 Shaykh-Abdu'r-R-i-Karkuti

Ishqabad 85, 92 Isolated Letters 45

Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsa'i 283 Shaykh Kazim-i-S Qazvini

Istanbul 229, 289 Jamal 88 Javad 225 Jesus 303 Jews,, Moslems, Babis 284 Jihad 243 Jinab-Khalil 96

Shaykh Mahmud 247 Shaykh Muhyi'd-Din 10 Shaykh Salman 104 Shaykh-i-Fani 164 She-serpent 146 Shi'ih Islam 297 Siyyid Husayni-M-i-Qumi

Job 237 Jordan 268 Joseph 178 Journey 307 Jud 91 Justice 190

Siyyid Ja'far-i-Yazdi 231 Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti 283 Siyyid Mihdiy-i-Dahaji 222 Siyyid Muhammad 119 Siyyid Muhammad Vahid 168 Siyyid-i-M.-i-Dahaji 166-

Karim 85, 92 Khadijih-Bagum 94, 250 Khatun-Jan 1, 50 Kheirella 95 King of Persia 169 Kings 229

Sleep 317, 319 Son of the Wolf 83 Sorrows 203 Spirit 152 Splendours 14 Sprinklng Cloud Unknwng

Kissed the hands 285

Suffering Baha'u'llah 300-

Land of Ba 42 Land of Ta 41 Lawh-i-Sultan 264 Learned of the world 286

Sultan 48, 169 Sultan 'Abdu'l-'Aziz 229 Sultan-Abad 238 Surah of the Sun 247

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Conceive a child 334 Confession 191 Confrontation 118, 119 Conquest 215 Countenance of Love 170 Cousin 136 Covenant 18 Creation 282 Cupbearer Invsbl Etrnity 198 Czar Alexander II 107 Darvish Sidq-'Ali 100 Dawud, Johanna 90 Day of God 74, 272 Dead 156, 195, 325, 326 Deathless Youth 65 Defender 128 Dhabih 58, 236 son of 137 Divine Flower 66 Divines 274 Dove 186 Dreams 123 Edirne 288 Effulgences 248 Elevation 141 Elixir 304 Emblem 275 Epistle to Son of Wolf 83 Essence of Mysteries 15 Eternal Youth 65 Eternity 52 Exalted Letters 13 Famine 265 Faris the Physician 40, 61 Fasting 127,182,324,327,328 Father of Badi' 25 Fatima 192 Fidelity 239 Final destination 337 Fire 184 Four Valleys 8 Four verses 243 French ambassador 229 Friend 96 Friends 29 in Yazd 60 Fu'ad Pasha 62, 124, 216 Garden of Confession 191 Garden of Holiness 4 Garden of Justice 190 Garment 235 Gems of Mysteries 15

Leaving a city 332 Leaving home 333 Letters, isolated 45 Lover and the Beloved 44 Maiden 80, 200, 220, 267 the Wondrous 12 Manifestation 242, 314 Manifestations 276, 291 Manikji-Sahib 110 Maqsud 111 Marriage 131 Marriage homily 97 Maryam 13, 112, 113, 256 Matchless Day 310 Mathnavi 181 Meanings 227 Medicine 172 Mehmet Emin 'Ali Pasha 236 Mercy 214 Messenger 224 Mihdi 116 Mirrors 291 Mirza 'Ali-R.-i-Mustawfi 217 Mirza Abu'l-Fadl 117 Mirza Aqa Jan 243, 260 Mirza Aqay-i-Afnan 59 Mirza Aqay-i-Munib 207 Mirza Aqay-i-Rikab-Saz 45 Mirza Habib-i-Maraghi'i 207 Mirza Mihdiy-i-Gilani 20 Mirza Mihdiy-i-Rashti 20 Mirza Muhammad-'Ali 296 Mirza Sa'id Khan 199 Morning 320, 323 Moses 323 Moslems 284 Most Holy Book 19 Most Holy Tablet 40 Muhammad 120 Muhammad Husayn 122 Muhammad Karim 'Attar 92, 123 Napoleon III 126, 127 Nasir-i-Qazvini 128 Nasiri'd-Din Shah 169 Need 194, 329 Newly Born 196 Night 323 Nightingale and the Crow 44 Nightingales 3 Nightingle of Bereavement 56 Noah and Canaan 303 Noble 43, 92

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Suriy-i-Bayan 127 Sweet Scented Being 199 Tehran 41 Temple 220 Test 63 Tigris 9, 193 Tihran 162 Traveller 161 Tribulations 313 True believer 299 Trustee 204 Trustworthiness 73 Ulama of Manshad 174 Uncle 188 Uncleanliness 243 Uncompounded reality 53 Unity 87, 104, 171 Ustad Muhammad Salmani 176 Utterance 209 Vahid 306 Varqa 177 Vav, interpretation of 283 Veil 138 Verse of Light 45 Virtue 173 Vision 153 Visitation 'Abdu'r-Rasul 251 Bab 37, 250 Baghdad 76 Baha'u'llah 37, 250 exalted ones 252 Khadijih-Bagum 94 Maryam 256 Mulla Husayn 253 Prince of Martyrs 257 Quddus 253 the Bab 240 the House 254 Vahid 306 Wife of the Bab 255 Waking 331 Waves 34 Wisdom 2, 78 Wondrous Book 20 Wondrous Maiden 12 Words of Paradise 16 Words of Wisdom 2 World 59 Worldly leadership 315 Youth of Paradise 65 Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin 179,

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180 Ghulam-'Ali 137 Glad-Tidings 7

Nur'u'd-Din 59 O nightingales 3

Zion 294 Zoroastrians 60

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Resource Guide: Citations from Major Humanities Indices

Citations from Major Humanities Indices This appendix is a list of articles cited in some of the major indices of humanities journals. It is not an exhaustive list of articles published on the Bahá'í Faith, for it is limited to: (1) articles published within the past two and a half decades; (2) articles found in those journals or magazines commonly available in public and college libraries; (3) articles referenced under the keywords Bahai, Bahaism, Bahá'u'lláh, Bábí, and Bábísm. It does, however, list all articles (some short book reviews have been excluded) cited in these sources. It is for the first two of these reasons that the researcher might find it helpful--that is, the articles contained herein are precisely those most easily accessible. More complete bibliographies can be found by consulting the Index Islamicus and William Collins' Bibliography of English-Language Works on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths 18441985, the Arts and Humanities Citation Index, and the Social Sciences Citation Index. The Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 6.2-3 (Feb. 1992) includes an appendix listing citations from AHCI and other academic indices, and many of the later issues of the Bulletin list addenda to Collins' Bibliography. Further, Seena Fazel has demonstrated in "Some Observations Regarding Bibliographic Citations in Non-Bahá'í Periodicals and the Academic Study of the Bahá'í Faith," in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 6.2-3 (Feb. 1992), and "The Bahá'í Faith and Academic Journals," in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3.2 (1994), that humanities indices, including AHCI and SSCI, are not always wholly accurate or consistent about citing Bahá'í materials. The following indices and dates are included: Essay and General Literature Index, 1970-June 1988; Humanities Index, April 1974-June 1996; Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, March 1970-June 4 1996; Social Sciences Index, April 1974-June 1996. The following keywords were searched: "Bahai," "Bahaism," "Bahá'u'lláh," "Bábí," "Bábísm."

Afnan, Hatcher, and an Old Bone. Denis MacEoin. Religion, 16:193-195 Ap '86. ❍ Attack on the Bahá'ís. F. Kazemzadeh. New Republic, 186:16-18 Je 16 '82. ❍ Bábí Concept of Holy War. Denis MacEoin. Religion, 12:93-129 Ap '82. ❍ Bahá'í Faith 1957-1988: a survey of contemporary developments. P. Smith and M. Momen. Religion, 19:63-91 Ja '89. ❍ Bahá'í Fundamentalism and the Academic Study of the Bábí Movement. Denis MacEoin. Religion, 16:57-84 Ja '86. ❍ Bahá'ís of Iran. J. R. I. Cole. History Today, 40:24-9 Mr '90. ❍ Bahá'ís report increased assemblies doubling of membership in the U.S. Christian Century, 88:616 ❍

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Resource Guide: Citations from Major Humanities Indices

My 19 '71. ❍ Bahai in black Africa: a force to contend with. O Okite. Christianity Today, 14:53 MR 13 '70. ❍ Death inside Khomeini's jails. T. Clifton. Newsweek, 103:57 Je 18 '84. ❍ Divine Logos and redemption: a comparison of Bahá'í and early Christian perspectives. M. Curtotti. Journal Ecumenical Studies, v30 p227-44 Spring '93. ❍ End is nearish! [prediction by a Bahá'í sect that New York City would be blown up]. Harper's, v289 p22+ F '95. ❍ Flower of faith that is set in concrete. J. Bhatia. Far East Econ Rev, 136:36-7 Ap 2 '87. ❍ From Allah's earth. Economist, 287:55 My 28-Je 3 '83. ❍ From Bábísm to Bahá'ísm: Problems of Militancy, Quietism, and Conflation in the Construction of a Religion. Religion, 13:219-255 Jl '83. ❍ Hanging heretics [Iran]. Economist, 287:43 Je 25-Jl 1 '83. ❍ Holy Terror [persecution of Bahá'ís in Iran]. F. M. Bordewich. Atlantic, 259:26+ Ap '87. ❍ In the stranglehold of Teheran's mullah regime. A. J. Fischer. Contemp Rev, 244:190-2 Ap '84. ❍ Individual psychology and Bahá'ís. Blumenthal, E. In Alfred Adler: his influence on psychology today, 228-37. ❍ Intolerance for the tolerant. Economist, 276:40 S 13 '80. ❍ Iran's Bahá'ís: victims of continuing genocide. B. Frelick. Christian Century, 103:1095-7 D 3 '86. ❍ Iran's "holy war" against the Bahais. J. Mann. US News World Report, 95:40 Ag 29 '83. ❍ Iran's holy war on the Bahá'ís. K. L. Woodward. Newsweek 99:73 Ja 25 '82. ❍ Iranian millenarianism and democratic thought in the 19th century. J. R. I. Cole. International Journal Middle East Studies, 24:1-26 F '92. ❍ Iranian purge of a divergent faith. F. Geraci. Macleans, 94:47 Jl 13 '81. ❍ Khomeini vs. the Bahá'ís. C. Ullman. World Press Review, 29:61 N '82. ❍ Life crises among the religiously committed: do sectarian differences matter? H. R. F. Ebaugh and others. Journal Scientific Study Religion, 23:19-31 Mr '84. ❍ Minority that Iran persecutes. K. L. Woodward and others. Newsweek, 95:61 Mr 24 '80. ❍ Motif Research: Peter Berger and the Bahá'í Faith. Peter Smith. Religion, 8:210-234 Autumn '78. ❍ Note on MacEoin's 'Bahá'í Fundamentalism.' Muhammad Afnan and William S. Hatcher. Religion, 16: 187-193 Ap '86. ❍ Notes and Comment [persecution of Bahais in Iran]. New Yorker, 60:31-2 F 4 '85. ❍ Orthodoxy and heterodoxy in nineteenth-century Shi'ism: the cases of Shaykhism and Bábísm. D. MacEoin. Journal American Orient Society, 110:323-9 Ap/Je '90. ❍ Persecution continues. Economist, 297:48 O 26 '85. ❍ Review of Denis MacEoin, Rituals in Bábísm and Bahá'ísm. Christopher Buck. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 28:418-422 Au '96. ❍ Review of Moojan Momen ed., The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 1844-1944. Denis MacEoin. Religion, 12:405-408 O '82. ❍ Scholarship and anti-scholarship [review article] D. MacEoin. Asian Affairs, 17:309-12 O '86. ❍ Science and the Bahá'í Faith. W. S. Hatcher. Zygon, 14:229-53 S '79. ❍ Slow death for Iran's Bahá'ís. R. N. Ostling. Time, 123:76 F 20 '84. ❍ Social basis of the Bábí upheavals in Iran (1848-53): a preliminary analysis. M. Momen. International Journal Middle East Studies, 15:157-83 My '83. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.citations.html (2 of 7) [6-6-2004 16:20:12]

Resource Guide: Citations from Major Humanities Indices

Terror facing the Bahá'ís. F. Kazemzadeh. NY Review of Books, 29:43-4 My 13 '82. Their crime is faith [persecution of Bahá'ís in Iran]. F. M. Bordewich. Reader's Digest, 125:61-2+ D

❍ ❍

'84. Western Islamic Scholarship and Bahá'í Origins. Muhammad Afnan and William S. Hatcher. Religion, 15:29-51 Ja '85.



Note: to repeat, the above listing only includes common non-academic articles. More complete listings can be found by consulting the Index Islamicus, William Collins' Bibliography of English-Language Works on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths 1844-1985, the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), and the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI).

The Bahá'í Faith in Religion Textbooks and Encyclopedias This Resource Guide is designed largely to assist in the creation of introductory seminars or courses on the Bahá'í Faith. Many textbooks that a teacher would assign in such a course either do not mention the Bahá'í Faith or offer misleading or even incorrect presentations of it (e.g. describing it as a heretical sect of Islám). Seena Fazel describes various treatments of the Faith in encyclopedias in his "The Bahá'í Faith Seen Through the Eyes of Major Encyclopedias," in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:3 (Sept-Dec 1991). More recently, Paul D. Numrich examined the treatment of the Bahá'í Faith in some of these textbooks, tracing the development of the presentation in subsequent editions of a few, in "The Bahá'í Faith in World Religions Textbooks," in World Order 25:1 (Fall 1993). Here are listed the most common introductory textbooks and dictionaries on the world's religions, as well as some major encyclopedias, organized by the degree to which they include a useful presentation of the Bahá'í Faith. Since the focus of this bibliography is books more than authors, they are alphabetized by title. Parenthetical notes follow most entries.

** Introductory religion textbooks, encyclopedias, and dictionaries which include a complete, useful, and accurate presentation of the Faith Encyclopaedia Iranica. Ed. Ehsan Yarshater. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985-. (Without doubt the encyclopedia containing the most complete and most numerous entries on the Faith, its history, and its major personages. Articles by a veritable who's who of Bahá'í academics on a good variety of subjects, from Azalís to Cosmology, Bahá'í.)

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Resource Guide: Citations from Major Humanities Indices

Encyclopedia of Islam. Ed. H. Gibb et al. London: Luzac & Co., 1960. (Accurate articles but short.) Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. Ed. James Hastings. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1909. (Though of course outdated, the entries contained are by Browne and are classics.) A Handbook of Living Religions. Ed. John R. Hinnells. London: Penguin Books, 1985. (The article contained here is lengthy [23 pages] and accurate . . .) Religions of the World. Lewis M. Hopfe. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1987. (This discussion of the Faith is relatively complete and well- written, though at ten pages it is a little too abbreviated.) World Faiths. S. A. Nigosian. New York: St. Martins Press, 1994. (Probably the most complete treatment of the Bahá'í Faith in any introductory textbook. Save for a few minor inaccuracies the presentation is quite reliable.) ** Introductory religion textbooks and dictionaries which include a useful and accurate but short presentation of the Faith America's Alternative Religions. Ed. Timothy Miller. Albany: SUNY Press, 1995. (Article on the Faith, "The American Bahá'í Community in the Nineties," is good but too specific to use as a general introductory text.) Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago: William Benton, Publisher, 1979. (Good but insufficient entries for an encyclopedia of this size.) Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Mircea Eliade. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1987. (The entries, by Alessandro Bausani, are good but noticeably short for this, the definitive encylopedia of religion.) Living Religions. Mary Pat Fisher. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1994. (Though only two pages long, this section is well-written and sympathetic.) The Religious Experience of Mankind. Ninian Smart. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1984. (Well-written and accurate but only two pages long.) A Sourcebook for Earth's Community of Religions. Ed. Joel Beversluis. New York: CoNexus Press, 1995. Also published as Sourcebook for the Community of Religions, A. Ed. Joel Beversluis. Chicago: The Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions, 1993. (This book consists of a series of brief overviews, and the section on the Faith provides a good explnation of basic Bahá'í history and teachings. However, it and the other summaries are too short to use as effective introductions.) World Religions. Warren Matthews. St. Paul: West Publishing, 1991. (Matthews' discussion of the Faith, though not very long, contains a good amount of detail on the Faith's history and is fairly presented.) World Religions: Western Traditions. Ed. Willard G. Oxtoby. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. (The section on the Bahá'í Faith, pp. 500-503, is well-written and useful, suffering only from brevity.) The World's Religions. Ed. Peter Clarke. London: Reader's Digest, 1993. (Small introduction on p.205, under the "Islamic" section.) http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.citations.html (4 of 7) [6-6-2004 16:20:12]

Resource Guide: Citations from Major Humanities Indices

The World's Religions. Ninian Smart. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1989. (Like Smart's The Religious Experience of Mankind, presentation is accurate and fair but only two pages long.) ** Introductory religion textbooks, encyclopedias, and dictionaries which include a relatively accurate but dated or marginally useful presentation of the Faith The Encyclopedia Americana. Danbury, Connecticut: Grolier Incorporated, 1992. (Articles are out of date and contain the consequent inaccuracies, but are otherwise complete summaries.) History of the World's Religions. David S. and John B. Noss. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1990. (An otherwise very respectable textbook, its discussion of the Faith is brief and often misleading.) Larouse Dictionary of Beliefs and Religions. (Though suffering from a bad writing style and minor errors, these entries are sufficiently long and detailed to include in this section.) ** Introductory religion textbooks and dictionaries which include a poor, partial, or inaccurate presentation of the Faith Academic American Encyclopedia. Danbury, Connecticut: Grolier Incorporated,1995. (Entries are mostly accurate but too short to be of use. Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. (Contains numerous errors.) The Dictionary of Bible and Religion. Gen. Ed. William H. Gentz. Nashville: Parthenon Press, 1986. (Sympathetic but brief and not well-written.) The Harper Collins Dictionary of Religion. Jonathon Z. Smith, ed. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers, 1995. (Relatively complete entries, but containing serious and even humorous errors.) Many People, Many Faiths. Robert S. Ellwood. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1992. (Brief mention of the Faith as a new religious movement, on p.387.) A New Dictionary of Religions. John R. Hinnells, ed. Oxford: Penguin Books Ltd. 1995. (Fairly accurate but short.) Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. William E. Paden. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988. (Accurate but minimal entry.) Ways to the Center: An Introduction to World Religions. Denise and John T. Carmody. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1993. (Contains only one small paragraph on the Faith, but includes a large picture of the Shrine of the Báb.) World Religions: An Introduction. Charles R. Monroe. Amherst: Prometheus Books, 1995. (Minimal entry.) The World's Religions. Huston Smith. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991. (Though otherwise one of the very best introductory texts on world religions, this book makes only one mention of the Faith.)

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Resource Guide: Citations from Major Humanities Indices

** Introductory religion textbooks and dictionares which make no mention of the Faith After Patriarchy: Feminist Transformations of the World Religions. Ed. P.M. Cooey. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1992. Exploring Religious Meaning. Ed. Robert C. Monk et al. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1994. Historical Atlas of the Religions of the World. Ed. I. Faruqi. New York: MacMillan, 1974. The Illustrated World's Religions. Huston Smith. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers, 1994. The Major Religions: An Introduction with Texts. T. Patrick Burke. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1996. Man's Religious Quest - A Reader. Ed. W. Foy. London: Open University Press, 1978. Mysticism in the World's Religions. Geoffrey Parrinder. London: Sheldon Press, 1976. Our Religions. Arvind Sharma, ed. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993. Pluralism: Challenge to World Religions. H. Coward. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1985. Problems of Suffering in the Religions of the World. J. Bowker. London: Cambridge University Press, 1975. Religions of the World. Niels C. Nielsen, Jr., et al. New York: St. Martins, 1988. Religious Traditions of the World. H. Byron Earhart, ed. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993. The Great Religions of the Modern World. Ed. E.J. Jurgi. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1946. The World's Religions. Ed. S. Sutherland. London: Routledge, 1988. This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature and the Environment. Ed. RS Gottlieb. NY: Routledge, 1996. The Varieties of Religious Experience. William James. (First appeared in 1902 and since republished numerous times. No mention of Faith, but listed because it is a classic and a standard.) World Religions - Our Quest for Meaning. Raush, D.A. and C. Voss. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1989. World Religions and Human Liberation. D. Cohn-Sherbok. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1992. World Religions and World Community.R.L. Slater. NY: Colombia UP, 1963. World Religions in War and Peace. H.O. Thompson. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988. A World Religions Reader. Ed. Ian S. Markham. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.

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Resource Guide: Citations from Major Humanities Indices



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Description of Baha'i Internet Resources

DESCRIPTION OF BAHA'I INTERNET RESOURCES by Jonah Winters last updated August 15, 1997 [Note: This article is continually being updated. Please advise if any errors are found in it or if significant omissions have been made. The BCCA has also prepared a similar article with less description and more links, Baha'i Resources on the Internet. -J.W.]

Contents: Introduction BCCA Email World Wide Web Usenet FTP Software

Introduction The internet is a complex, unorganized, rapidly evolving, and ever-changing environment. Thus, while the structure and technology of it can be explained relatively easily, it is rarely possible to give a complete content description for any specific topic. This document will list most of the major resources available. The reader can use these as entrance points into cyberspace, from which points he or she can search and discover the rest. One can also consult the list of Publishing Houses and Journals for email and homepage addresses. Many of these web addresses also provide lists of links and thus can serve as starting points. The internet is often equated with the World Wide Web, largely because of the relatively recent advent of graphical web browsers like Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer. These allow the user to interface with many different types of internet resource through one program, masking what is in reality a variety of distinct internet functions. The primary types of basic functions, or "protocols," are the World Wide Web, which allows one to view pages of text and graphics from distant computers; email, which allows one to send data, usually letters, from one person's private "account" to another's; the Usenet, which http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.internet.html (1 of 10) [6-6-2004 16:21:00]

Description of Baha'i Internet Resources

allows one to read from or add to a public message database, much as one would tack notes on to an office bulletin-board; FTP, which transfers files from one computer to another; and Internet Relay Chat, with which computer users who are logged-on at the same time can type messages to each other, much like a large telephone conference-call conducted through computers. There are other basic protocols but they tend to be out- dated (like gopher), little-used (like hytelnet), for somewhat advanced application (like telnet), or not yet functional (like virtual reality). The internet rapidly changes in many ways. Web sites and listservs (defined below) come into and go out of existence with great rapidity, and their addresses change even more regularly (many are operated by students on their university's computers and so have to change addresses every time they change or leave schools). The information contained in this section is all current as of August, 1997, but will gradually decrease in accuracy. Should an address be invalid, the best option is to do an internet search for it (using a source such as Yahoo or Altavista) to see if the site has relocated. This guide to internet resources will first describe the main Baha'i source for organizing and assisting with the internet, the Baha'i Computer and Communications Association-the BCCA-and then list the major resources for the primary features in relative order of common availability: email, the web, the usenet, and ftp. Quotations included are from the relevant webpages or listservs discussed and so their sources are not cited. 1.

BCCA The Baha'i Computer and Communications Association is, according to its mission statement, "a group of Baha'is dedicated to promoting use of computer, network and telecommunication technologies in the service of the global Baha'i community and humanity in order to foster consultation, and to propagate the healing message of Baha'u'llah." Its mandate includes: (1) providing a pool of Baha'i technical volunteers; (2) disseminating information and details on Baha'i computer projects around the world; (3) providing assistance to Baha'i institutions and individuals to develop solutions with computer and telecommunications technology; (4) encouraging individual Baha'is to form local computer user groups which will serve local Baha'i institutions in a given area; (5) creating conferencing and consultation forums linking Baha'is around the world by telecommunications and computer technologies; (6) seeking to establish computer and communications standards that can be adopted by the Baha'i World Community; (7) disseminating information on computing and communications technology to the Baha'i World Community; (8) developing Computer Mediated Communication techniques that will efficiently communicate the healing message of Baha'u'llah to the generality of humankind; and (9) providing, in a systematic way, a full range of communication and consultation facilities to Baha'i educational institutions around the world. The Baha'i Computer and Communications Association can be contacted at:

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Description of Baha'i Internet Resources

BCCA 203 Bellevue Way N.E. Suite 314 Bellevue, WA 98004 USA

Phone: (206) 453-8766 FAX:(206) 453-7083 Webpage: www.bcca.org Email: [email protected]

The BCCA maintains a few basic files describing matters of interest to Baha'i on the internet, an index for which can be obtained by sending a blank email to get- [email protected] One of these, a good if dated summary of Baha'i online activities, can be obtained by sending a blank email to [email protected] 2.

Email The most common use of email is for users to send messages back and forth to each other as individuals. This is not a public feature and is not a resource. However, there is a mechanism called a "listserv" (no 'e') by which email postings can be shared amongst a private group of individuals. One host computer will act as a central switching station for the listserv, sending a copy of every email sent to it back out to every member of the group. It is thus like the usenet (see below), save that the medium of transmission is different and it tends to be a more regulated environment. Unlike the usenet, listservs are sometimes private, not automated, in which case one must write to a contact person to get added. Like the usenet, listserv groups are each focused on one topic. Unlike the usenet, these topics tend to be more specific and useful: where the usenet tends to feature groups discussing popular culture and events, listservs often address the needs of more private professional or academic communities. There are numerous listservs, from private ones for small Baha'i clubs at individual universities or for Baha'is employed at individual corporations to public ones such as fora for Baha'i announcements, Baha'is in Japan, Baha'i singles, Baha'i literature, Baha'i women, or Baha'i academics. Since many of these are regional and/or private, far more exist than any one database could know of and list. The best ways to seek specific listservs are either to write to the BCCA at [email protected] or post a question to an appropriate public one or to soc.religion.bahai (see below).

3.

General Baha'i listervs Two of the major general Baha'i listervs are bahai-announce and bahai-faith. Bahai-faith is the email version of the usenet newsgroup soc.religion.bahai (see below), designed for those without usenet access. Subscription requests can be sent to bahai-faith- [email protected] Both the subject line and the body of the message are left blank. To post messages to the newsgroup (which will be first screened by the moderators), emails are sent to [email protected] Other available services include the Noble Creation list, which discusses social and economic development issues, and can be subscribed to by sending a blank email to noble-creation-

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[email protected] Postings to Noble Creation are sent to [email protected], and more information can be obtained at http://www.bcca.org/services/ lists/noble-creation/. There is a variety of listservs for Baha'is only, including bahai-announce, which focuses on news and other announcements of interest to the Baha'i community; Baha'i International News Service- BINSwhich is a regular listing of news relating to Baha'i communities and projects around the world; Bahai-discuss, which is a somewhat random discussion of Baha'i-related issues; Bahai-womenconverse, of issues for and about women; and others. Listservs for both Baha'is and non-Baha'is available here include Race Unity, for discussions of racial equality and elimination of prejudice, and Bahai-Readings, a daily posting of excerpts from Baha'i sacred texts. To subscribe to one of these, write to [email protected] Include the following in the email: (1) Email address of person subscribing, in lowercase letters only (it usually comes with the mail, but it may have an interim host included or it may have to be extracted from other extraneous header information); (2) name of the person subscribing, last name first; (3) The NAME(s) of the LIST(s) you wish to subscribe to (there is more than one list managers); if a Baha'i-only listserv, then include either one's Baha'i ID number or, if not available, then the name of a Baha'i that can verify your status; and (5) place of residence (city, state/province (for US or Canada), and country). You may include your full home address and phone numbers (home, work including area code and country code, where applicable) for inclusion in the BCCA database, but if you do, then you must indicate if this information can be given out to other Baha'is on e-mail database queries. For a description of all other BCCA mailing lists send a blank email to [email protected] 4.

Academic Baha'i listservs A variety of scholarly listservs has been born and died in the past three years. The four main ones in existence as of this writing are Bahai-studies, H-Bahai, Irfan, and Talisman (this is actually Talisman two: after a brief hiatus, the group Talisman one changed mandates and owners in June, 1996). These four groups have slightly different atmospheres, levels and types of discussion, and often different memberships. However, their overall focus and academic level tend to be relatively similar. Bahai-studies Bahai-studies is an unmoderated group maintained by Mark A. Foster. Its mandate is "the consultative investigation of truth/reality, using the Baha'i Teachings as its spiritual foundation. In light of the list's purposes and objectives, it is not a discussion/announcement list in the usual sense." It is available both in a regular version (mailings are received in one's mail inbox as and when posted) and as a digest (mailings are collated and received as one compilation of postings in one's inbox once per day). To subscribe, send a message to [email protected] The subject line is to be left blank, and in the body of the text one writes "subscribe bahai-st" (without quotation marks). All other information, such as tag lines and signature files, should be removed.

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To subscribe to the digest version, do the same but write "subscribe bahai-st-digest" in the body instead. To post a message to the Baha'i Studies list, send it to [email protected] For this the subject line and the body of the message can be whatever the writer wishes to post; this message will go to every member of the group, not to the automated subscription program. H-Bahai H-Bahai is "an academic forum for the discussion of technical issues in the study of the Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i movements. Not only university teachers and graduate students, but exceptionally qualified high school teachers, librarians, and other intellectuals are potential candidates for membership. A degree in the humanities or social sciences is usually required." Membership is restricted "to individuals who have demonstrated a serious interest in the academic study of the Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Faiths, as evidenced in professional training, publications, teaching or service to these or closely related fields, or by other relevant significant achievements or signs of ability to contribute to academic discourse on the subject." H-Bahai is sponsored by H-Net, the Humanities and Social Sciences On-line of Michigan State University. Its level of discussion tends to be fairly scholarly, and its membership is almost exclusively academic. To join H-BAHAI, send a message to [email protected], with no subject line, and only this in the body: "sub HBAHAI firstname lastname, institution," where personal information is substituted for "firstname lastname, institution." Capitalization does not matter, but spelling, spaces and commas do. When you include your own information, the message will look something like this: "sub H-BAHAI Jonah Winters, University of Toronto." If you have any questions or experience any difficulties in attempting to subscribe, send a message to Juan Cole, [email protected] H-Bahai also has a website homepage: see below. Irfan and Talisman Irfan and Talisman have very similar types of discussion, similar mandates, and indeed a great deal of membership overlap. Each is unmoderated, meaning that any posting automatically is sent to all group members, and unlike H-Bahai neither has an expectation that its members will hold a higher or post-secondary degree. The mission statement of Irfan applies equally well to both: "The purpose of the Irfan list is to disseminate information and ideas emerging from the academic study of the Baha'i Faith beyond the academic community and to facilitate discussions of issues relating to the Baha'i Faith that are informed by academic scholarship." The original distinguishing feature was that events which led to the closing of Talisman one inspired Talisman two to have a certain "no- rules" mandate, meaning that there would be no expectation that its members would need to adhere to any guidelines beyond politeness and dignity. Irfan, however, was begun with an expectation of greater privacy, and it retains a strict "no-forwarding" policy. Irfan can be subscribed to by sending a normal email message (i.e. not automated) to Juan Cole, [email protected], and messages intended for group dissemination can be sent to [email protected] Talisman can be subscribed to by sending a normal email message to Joshua Greenbaum, [email protected], and posted to by writing to [email protected]

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Description of Baha'i Internet Resources

5.

World Wide Web Though the most famous and visible part of the internet, the web is actually one of its newest. It is, however, one of the most useful means of searching for and downloading information. Indeed, the number of unpublished articles, histories, and provisional translations available online, as well as the complete set of sacred writings, Baha'i International Community statements, and other official material, makes the web an indispensable source of information.

6.

Standard Baha'i Sites There are perhaps four hundred Baha'i oriented sites currently available online, and the number is growing by at least 20% per year. One need not list more than just a few of these, though, because one of the prime features of the web is its ability to "link," i.e. to connect different documents and distant sites to each other: from each one the internet user can find indices of numerous others and quickly explore dozens of different sites. Most of these are what are here termed "standard" Baha'i sites, so-called because for the most part they present the same information and the same links, differing mostly in manner of presentation and items of regional or personal interest. The sacred writings have been available by ftp (see below) from the Baha'i World Center for some time. They are now mirrored to many other sites around the world and available through web browsers. An index to some of these sites is available at http://www.bcca.org/info/texts/topiclist.html. The BCCA homepage, http://www.bcca.org, is a good starting point for other internet Baha'i resources. From here one can find links to online compilations, The Baha'is magazine online (http://oneworld.wa.com/bahai/magazine/cover.html), Baha'i International Community statements, relatively complete lists of individuals' and groups' homepages, Baha'i-related photographs and clip-art, and explanations of other resources such as chat groups and listservs. Indices to all of these resources, organized differently and perhaps more clearly, can also by found at http://www.bcca.org/~glittle. The Baha'i International Community's homepage also opens with a good introductory online magazine on the Faith, at http://www.bahai.org/index.netscape.shtml. Another good starting point for one wishing to explore the Baha'i webpages without necessarily searching for specific items is the Baha'i Webring. The Webring is a service which allows sites with a common theme to interconnect. When one enters a webring, one can choose options such as jumping to the next page on the ring, the previous one, or any random site. To join this service, or to enter the Baha'i Webring from the top, go to http://www.webring.org/cgibin/webring?home&ring=bahai (this server is frequently down; if no response, try again a day later). To enter the ring at a randomly-chosen site, type http://www.webring.org/cgibin/webring?id=112&ring=bahai&random into your web browser. Finally, Baha'is who have a valid United States Baha'i identity card can access the United States

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Description of Baha'i Internet Resources

Baha'i National Center's website, http://www.usbnc.org/. This site contains among other things feast messages, news, annual reports, descriptions of the major departments at the Baha'i National Center, their functions, and answers to common question about them. 7.

Academic Baha'i Sites Academic Baha'i Sites are harder to find than the standard ones-while there are well over a hundred sites providing information of a personal or regional interest, and linking to the same few providers of sacred texts, images, and other common information, there is only a handful of sites providing new and original academic information, or information presented in a scholarly fashion. The largest online resource for Baha'i studies is Jonah Winters' Baha'i Academics Resource Area, http://www.interlog.com/~winters . This site features approximately five hundred documents broken down into headings such as Primary Source Material, which includes provisional translations, letters from the Universal House of Justice, historical documents, and pilgrims' notes; Secondary Source Material, which includes articles, journalistic pieces, book reviews, court documents, and personal essays; Resource Tools, which includes a database of Baha'i scholars, bibliographies, journal indices, and philological tools; and a listing of all of the useful academic sites. This Resource Guide is also available at this site in an online format. Those without web access who need an etext version of it can also request one by emailing [email protected] The other sites of academic utility will all be listed here, because it could take some time for the researcher to find them on his or her own. The H-Bahai listserv, run by H-Net, the "Humanities and Social Sciences On-Line" initiative sponsored Michigan State University and supported by National Endowment for the Humanities and the Michigan Council for the Humanities, also has a webpage at http://h-net.msu.edu/~bahai. Here is included a variety of articles, provisional translations, historical materials in the original Arabic and Persian (available as graphic files), book reviews, and other documents such as the "Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies" series. The H-Bahai homepage is emerging as a very useful site for original online publishing, and is the most scholarly and selective collection of academic materials available. Juan R.I. Cole's Home Page, http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jrcole/bahai.htm, was the first academic webpage on the Faith. It includes numerous original Baha'i material as well as other Islamic studies and related links. Some of these documents, and others similar, are included at the website for the H-Bahai listserv, http://h-net.msu.edu/~bahai. Both of these websites also feature documents related to Babi and Baha'i history in their original Arabic and Persian-these have been scanned and entered as photo images, which can then be viewed online page-by-page. Moojan Momen's Religious Studies page, http://www.northill.demon.co.uk/relstud/, includes a few original and not otherwise- available articles authored by him, and his Arjmand Colloquia page, http://www.northill.demon.co.uk/irfan/, includes abstracts from and reports on the Haj Mehdi Arjmand seminars for the study of sacred texts. Stephen Fuqua's Baha'i Studies page, http://ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/~saf/lowres/bahai/study.htm, also offers a wide variety of materials,

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some not available elsewhere. Finally, worthy of note is Sifter: An Institute for the Study of Baha'i Writings, http://www.shodjai.org/new.html. Among other things Sifter features one thousand letters of Shoghi Effendi which are available only in books elsewhere online but here are indexed chronologically, complete with publishing information. The North American Association for Baha'i Studies also has a webpage, www.bahai-studies.ca/~absnam. 8.

Usenet The usenet is a public "bulletin-board" system accessed through applications with titles like "newsreader," "net news," or, in UNIX, "trn," "rn," and "tin." It is divided up into numerous-over 21,000-individual "newsgroups," each one dedicated to discussing a specific topic. Though joining a group is called "subscribing," joining is actually free and automated. Newsgroups have names like alt.fan.michael.jackson, alt.binaries.art.digitized, comp.macintosh.utilities, rec.humor, soc.culture.iranian, talk.clubs.boy.scouts, etc. Thus far two newsgroups are dedicated to discussing the Baha'i Faith: alt.religion.bahai and soc.religion.bahai. The former is new and hence not carried by all internet service providers. It is unmoderated, and tends to contain many postings, sometimes critical, by non-Baha'is. In contrast, soc.religion.bahai (often abbreviated "srb") has been in existence for a few years and is stable and reliable. It is moderated, meaning that editors read all submissions to the group before posting them publicly to screen out junk mail and the occasional hate mail. Soc.religion.bahai's mission statement defines it thus: "The newsgroup will act as a nonthreatening forum for discussing and sharing information about the tenets, history, and texts of the Baha'i Faith. Prior to its formation there was a good amount of traffic on this topic in other newsgroups; this group provides a 'single point of contact' for such discussion. Examples of posts that fall within the group's scope are: (1) The Baha'i Faith's relation to other religions; (2) Relevance of Baha'i principles to current world events/problems; (3) Analysis of particular scriptural passages or themes; and (4) General Q & A." One can subscribe to soc.religion.bahai within one's newsreader application. If it does not appear to be available, contact the customer service representative of your internet service provider to get it added to your newsfeed. More information can be obtained by visiting its website, the Soc.Religion.Bahai home page, at http://www.bcca.org/services/srb/. At this site one can access the srb archives, as well as read introductory articles about srb, the Baha'i Faith, a bibliography for the Faith, and a document on Baha'i Resources on the Internet. As well, if one does not wish to or cannot use a newsreader, all srb postings can be obtained via email-see above.

9.

FTP To date, the original collection of sacred and related texts from the Baha'i World Center is only

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available via file transfer protocol-ftp-though they are mirrored in many other places via the web (via hypertext transfer protocol, http). If for any reason one seeks to access these files from the world center instead of from the sites mirrored on the web, one can simply use one's web browser. Type ftp://ftp.bwc.org/bahai/ into the "location" or "go" bar. Explore the directories or read the "readme" files to get directions. To download a file, simply click on the file name. Before downloading a zipped file, be sure to have the appropriate decompression software. With UNIX, at the command prompt type "ftp," then "open ftp.bwc.org." When connected, type "anonymous" as login and your login name (e.g., for me it's "winters") as your password. Commands include "help" to list topics; "ls" to list files and directories; "cd (directory name)," e.g. "cd bahai" to change directories; "cd .." (note two periods) to move to one directory higher; "get (filename)," e.g. "get nabil.zip" to download a file, and "quit" to exit. If it won't let you download it is likely that you are seeing a directory, not a file. For example, "iqan" is a folder containing different format versions of the Kitab-i-Iqan. One must first change directory, "cd iqan," then list contents, "ls," and then download the desired file, e.g. "get iqa-eng-txt01-Z." This process may seem more foreign to the new internet user and is more difficult to navigate than simply accessing the files via the web. It is listed here for the sake of completeness. 10.

Software Many pieces of Baha'i-related computer software, such as search programs, can be either ordered or downloaded online. Knowledge Wave Software offers free "Deepening & Educational Resources" at http://www.islandnet.com/~ezahrai/startup.htm , including rich- text format versions of compilations and letters from the Universal House of Justice and study guides for individuals and communities for the Four-Year Plan. More information can be obtained by writing to [email protected] Other software can be ordered from Ian Vink Software, http://ianvink.icis.on.ca/, which includes free programs such as study guides and graphics as well as purchasable software for community administration and other study guides. "Immerse: The Electronic Baha'i Library," by Bernal Schooley, available from http://www.tranquillity.com/immerse/, is a free set of all the sacred Baha'i writings complete with a full text proximity search feature (including boolean, wildcard, and phrase support searching) which allows the user to find passages in nearly four hundred books, messages by the Baha'i Central Figures, the Universal House of Justice, and holy books from the major world religions. It is currently available for Windows 95 and Windows 3.1, with a Java- based version for Macintosh and other platforms expected soon. For information write to Bernal Schooley, [email protected] A final software resource to list is True Seeker, which is an online search engine for the Baha'i sacred writings. The True Seeker home page allows you to do key word searches of the Baha'i Writings, either by searching all texts or a specific subset. This can be found at http://sunsite. unc.edu/Bahai/TrueSeeker.

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VIDEOS Most of these videos on the Bahá'í Faith are designed to highlight an aspect of the Bahá'í Faith, but are usually prepared in a documentary or news magazine format, and thus are often suitable for use in the classroom. For information on how to obtain these tapes, contact the Bahá'í Distribution Service: phone (800) 999-9019; email [email protected]

Bahá'í Education in India. This documentary explores the impact the Bahá'í teachings on education and economic development are having in rural India and describes the role of grassroots Bahá'í governing bodies (local spiritual assemblies) in fostering development. Bahá'í National Convention Telecast. 120 minutes. This video, transmitted live from the 88th Bahá'í National Convention in Chicago in 1997, gives an insight into the proceedings of a national convention. Includes the statement "Two Wings of a Bird: The Equality of Men and Women." Bahá'í Newsreel. Approx. 30-60 minutes. A series of news videos on current events in the Bahá'í Faith, produced three or more times a year by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. The "Bahá'í Newsreel" is designed to inform the Bahá'ís of the major developments in their religion, to emphasize the current concerns of the National Spiritual Assembly and the Universal House of Justice, and, to a lesser extent, to demonstrate what the Bahá'í Faith is doing to solve world problems. Some newsreels may be suitable for classroom use, depending on the need of the class and the nature of the audience. From Haitian Roots. 20 minutes. A documentary about education and development projects carried out by the Haitian Bahá'í community, especially at the Anís Zunúzí School, a Bahá'í elementary school near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The Green Light Expedition. Several hours in length. A documentary about the trip of Madame Rúhíyyih Rabbání, widow of Shoghi Effendi and one of the most prominent Bahá'ís in the world, up the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers and into the Andes Mountains of Peru to meet indigenous peoples of South America and encourage them to strengthen their knowledge of the Bahá'í Faith. Parts may be suitable for anthropology audiences, as it highlights the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and native peoples. Jewel in the Lotus. 27 minutes. A video about the Bahá'í House of Worship at Bahapur, outside New Delhi, India, from its conception in the early years of this century through the enormously complex construction phase to its dedication in 1986. Lasting Remembrances. Appr. ten hours. This series of five videos consititute the oficial video recordings of the second Bahá'í World Congress in New York, 1992. Contents include speeches, http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.videos.html (1 of 3) [6-6-2004 16:21:18]

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dramatic presentations, and performances by the World Congress choir. Mona With the Children and The Making of the Mona Video. Approx. 45 minutes. In 1983 Islamic officials ordered ten Bahá'í women in Shíráz to be hanged for refusing to deny their religion and to convert to Islam. Among the ten was eighteen-year-old Mona Mahmudnezhad. She was executed for her "crime" of teaching Bahá'í children's classes. Her heroism inspired the writing of a song by Canadian pop star Doug Cameron titled "Mona with the Children" which was made into a brief "rock" video. Following the video is a description of why the video was made and what its various scenes signify. In the process, the video describes the persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran in a powerful, poignant, and dignified way. A video particularly suitable for high school and junior college classes. Morning Stars: A Profile of Kevin Locke. 28 minutes. An introduction to the Bahá'í Faith as it relates to Native American culture, religion, and prophecy, featuring Kevin Locke, a Lakota Sioux musician and dancer who is a former member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. Nova Bahá'í Video Series. A series of seven tapes, available in many languages and formats, on the basic subjects of the Faith, including Bahá'í history, teachings for leading a Bahá'í lifestyle, and how to teach the masses and spread the Faith. Peace: The Promise. A documentary on the Bahá'í International Peace Conference, held in San Francisco in 1986, which explores the Bahá'í commitment to world peace. The Pilgrimage. 120 minutes. A visit to the Holy Places at the Bahá'í World Centre in Haifa and 'Akká, Israel. Rúhíyyih Rabbání, perhaps the most respected Bahá'í in the world, conducts the tour. Excellent for classes interested in the nature of Bahá'í pilgrimage, the purpose of the Bahá'í World Centre, Bahá'í devotion to the lives of its founders, and its modern administrative functioning. The Prisoner of Akka. 30 min. A popular exposition of the life of Bahá'u'lláh and his new message for humanity. The Seat of God's Throne. 33 minutes. A documentary about the Bahá'í World Centre of the Bahá'í Faith in Haifa, Israel, its history, and the massive construction project it has initiates to complete three more monumental marble buildings on the "Arc" on the side of Mount Carmel. Though primarily designed for a Bahá'í audience, this video is suitable for non-Bahá'ís as well.

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GLOSSARY This glossary aims to define terms unique to the Bahá'í Faith, but it is not exhaustive. The phonetization of Bahá'í terms is according to the Persian, not the Arabic, pronunciation. American Bahá'ís pronounce some words in a slightly different fashion. Consonants, for the sake of simplicity, are rendered as in English; -q should be pronounced like a hard -g. Vowel sounds are rendered as follows: -aw as in law; -a as in bad; -ay as in bay (or better, as in the final -e of resumé); -e as in bed; -ee as in reed; -oo as in moon; -o as in note.

'Abdu'l-Bahá (AB-dol ba-HAW) (1844-1921): Son of the founder of the Bahá'í Faith and head of the Faith from 1892 to 1921. Author of some 27,000 writings (mostly letters) which Bahá'ís consider scripture; he is considered the infallible interpreter of his father's writings and a perfect example of how to live a Bahá'í life. 'Alá (a-LAW): The Arabic word for "loftiness" and the name of the Bahá'í month of fasting (2-20 March). Aqdas, Kitáb-i- (ke-TAWB-e-AQ-das): The "Most Holy Book" of Bahá'u'lláh, it was composed about 1873 and contains the main laws, ordinances, and principles of the Bahá'í Faith. Auxiliary Board members: Individuals appointed by the Universal House of Justice, on the advice of the Counselors, to advise, assist, and instruct Bahá'ís, Bahá'í communities, and Bahá'í institutions. They are appointed to five-year terms and serve in specific regions under the guidance of the Counselors. They in turn can appoint assistants. Báb (bawb), The (1819-50): Born 'Alí-Muhammad, he declared himself the Qá'im, the Promised One of Islam in 1844 and was executed as a heretic. He wrote extensively, especially about "Him Whom God would make Manifest," a messenger of God he said would succeed him. Bábís (baw-bees): Followers of the Báb. Bahá'í (ba-haw-ee; American pronunciation, ba-HIGH): Literally "follower of bahá." Also used as an adjective. (Usage thus is the same as the word "Christian.") Bahaism: A term sometimes used for the Bahá'í Faith, it is avoided by English-speaking Bahá'ís, for it has come to be seen as disrespectful. Bahá'u'lláh (ba-haw-oo-LAW) (1817-92): Prophet Founder of the Bahá'í Faith. He declared himself the Promised One of the world's religions in 1863 and, in spite of imprisonment and persecution, wrote

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thousands of letters and other documents, about 15,000 of which are extant. Bishárát, (be-shaw-RAWT) (Glad-Tidings) Tablet of: One of Bahá'u'lláh's chief works of social ethics, composed in the 1870s or 1880s. Counselor: An individual appointed by the Universal House of Justice to advise, assist, and instruct Bahá'ís, Bahá'í communities, and Bahá'í institutions. Counselors have no formal authority but are highly respected. They are appointed to five-year terms. They oversee the activities of the Auxiliary Board members, who have similar responsibilities, but for smaller regions. Dawn-Breakers, The: An account of the life of the Báb and the development of the Bábí religion by Nabíl-i-Zarandí, a companion of Bahá'u'lláh; it was edited and translated into English by Shoghi Effendi in 1932. Deepening: A meeting held to discuss a Bahá'í book or teaching at an advanced level. Fast, The: A crucial element in Bahá'í devotional life, it involves abstaining from all eating, drinking, and smoking from sunrise to sunset from 2 March to 20 March inclusive. Exempt from the fast are children under the age of 15; senior citizens over the age of 70; persons who are sick, traveling, or performing heavy labor; and women who are pregnant, menstruating, or nursing. Feast: A meeting of all the Bahá'ís in a local community, held once every Bahá'í month (nineteen days) for the purpose of worship, consultation about community business, and fellowship. Fireside: A meeting, usually held in a person's home, for the purpose of discussing the Bahá'í Faith at an introductory level. It is attended by Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís and usually includes hospitality. Guardianship: The institution 'Abdu'l-Bahá created to succeed him as "Head of the Faith." Shoghi Effendi was the first and only Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. Greatest Name: Some Islamic popular traditions hold that God has one hundred names or attributes of God; ninety-nine are known; and that the hundredth or Greatest Name would be revealed on the Day of Judgment. Bahá'u'lláh maintained that the Greatest Name was bahá (ba-HAW), "glory," and its superlative abhá (ab-HAW), "most glorious." Bahá'ís use various forms of the two as a prayer and a greeting. Hands of the Cause of God: Individuals appointed by Bahá'u'lláh, 'Abdu'l-Bahá, or Shoghi Effendi to a high spiritual rank in the Bahá'í community. They have no legislative power, but their advice is highly prized. They also are responsible for overseeing the protection of the Faith and its growth. Hidden Words: A work composed by Bahá'u'lláh in 1858. It consists of Arabic and Persian halves with seventy-one and eighty-two paragraph-sized sections respectively. Each section consists of an aphorism http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.glossary.html (2 of 4) [6-6-2004 16:21:25]

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on an ethical or spiritual topic. Holy Day: A day on which Bahá'ís commemorate an event in the Bahá'í religion. There are nine holy days throughout the year on which work should be suspended, most of which commemorate events in the life of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh; there are two more holy days, on which work does not need to be suspended, which are connected with the life of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. House of Justice: The governing council of a local or national Bahá'í community in the future, and of the Bahá'í world today. Local and national houses of justice are temporarily styled spiritual assemblies. Íqán, Kitáb-i- (ke-TAWB-e ee-GAWN): A work composed by Bahá'u'lláh in 1862 in response to a list of questions prepared by an uncle of the Báb. It consists of interpretation of biblical and quranic terms, images, and prophecies, as well as containing many ethical and spiritual exhortations. The title means "Book of Certitude." Ishráqát (esh-raw-GAWT) (Splendors), Tablet of: One of Bahá'u'lláh's works on social ethics, composed in response to questions by a prominent Persian Bahá'í in the 1870s or 1880s. Local Spiritual Assembly: The nine-member governing body of the Bahá'ís in a locality, elected annually by secret ballot by all the local adult Bahá'ís. Manifestation of God: A Bahá'í term for the founders of the major world religions, who are seen as mouthpieces of divine revelation and examples of a divine life. Bahá'í scripture clearly identifies ten historic individuals as Manifestations: the founder of the Sabaean religion, mentioned in the Qur'án; Abraham; Moses; Jesus Christ; Muhammad; Krishna; Zoroaster; Buddha; the Báb; and Bahá'u'lláh. Master: Popular title of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, used to translate the Arabic word áqá (aw-GAW). National Spiritual Assembly: The nine-member governing body of the Bahá'ís of a particular country, elected annually by regionally elected delegates. Progressive Revelation: The Bahá'í belief that the major religions have been founded by Manifestations of God and that the Manifestations succeed one another, each bringing a greater measure of divine truth to humanity. Secret of Divine Civilization: A work composed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 1875 detailing the social reforms that Iran should undergo in order to become a modern nation. It serves as one of the Bahá'í Faith's major treatises on social reform. Seven Valleys: A mystical work composed by Bahá'u'lláh between 1856 and 1862, in response to questions asked him by a Sufi leader. It is Bahá'u'lláh's major mystical work.

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Shoghi Effendi (1897-1957): Grandson of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and his successor as head of the Faith on 'Abdu'lBahá's death in 1921. Spiritual Assembly: Temporary title 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave houses of justice in 1902, because the latter title could be misunderstood to refer to a political body or an official court. Tablet: The translation of the Arabic word súrih (pronounced soo-RAY) or, more commonly, the word lawh (pronounced loh), used in many of the titles of some of the writings of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, and 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Tajallíyát (ta-ja-lee-YAWT) (Effulgences), Tablet of: One of Bahá'u'lláh's most important social and ethical works, composed about 1885. Tarázát (ta-raw-ZAWT) (Ornaments), Tablet of: One of Bahá'u'lláh's major ethical and social works, composed in the 1870s or 1880s. Universal House of Justice: Supreme governing body of the Bahá'í religion worldwide. It is elected every five years when the members of the national spiritual assemblies convene in Haifa, Israel, and vote for its nine members. It was first elected in 1963.

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--publishers

Publishing Houses and Journals Below are listed the few Bahá'í Publishing Trusts, Associations for Bahá'í Studies, and independent publishing houses and journals that publish material the reader might find useful. The list of Bahá'í Publishing Trusts is not complete, but only details those whose publications have been cited in the Resource Guide; complete listings of all but the independent houses are included in every recent edition of The Bahá'í World. Most of the below will fulfill orders or provide catalogues upon request. [Note: be careful to distinguish between the number "1" and the letter "l" in the email addresses.]

Arts Dialogue Homepage: http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/7324/ For subscriptions, write: Kathleen Babb Kirikushi, Etajima-cho Aki-gun, Hiroshima-ken 73721, Japan Email: [email protected] Cost: equivalent US$20 year

Arts Dialogue, produced by the Bahá'í Association for the Arts (BAFA), is a quarterly newsletter of news, letters, profiles, articles, illustrations, photographs, poems and creative writing from around the globe. The purpose of the newsletter is to develop the arts across all disciplines and cultures, to follow what artists and arts-related people are doing, and to provide an opportunity to exchange ideas and a forum for the analysis and critique of the arts.

Association for Bahá'í Studies: Australia c/o Natalie Mobini-Kesheh, secr. P.O. Box 4239 University of Melbourne Parkville VIC 3052 Australia

The Australian ABS publishes occasional collections of ABS articles and essays.

Association for Bahá'í Studies: English Speaking Europe For subscriptions, write: The Secretary, ABS-ESE Rutland Gate London SW7 1PD England

The Association for Bahá'í Studies: English Speaking Europe (ABS-ESE) publishes the Bahá'í Studies Review, which contains articles of about the same level of scholarly interest as the Journal of Bahá'í Studies.

Association for Bahá'í Studies: North America For both subscriptions and editorial matters, write: 34 Copernicus Street Ottawa, Ontario K1N 7K4 Canada Phone: (613) 233-1903 Fax (613) 233-3644 Email: [email protected]

The North American ABS is the first and largest of the world's Associations for Bahá'í Studies. Its journal, the Journal of Bahá'í Studies, is the preeminent academic journal of the Faith.

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--publishers

Homepage: http://www.bahai-studies.ca/~absnam

Bahá'í Book Collectors: Jon and Chris Hendershot 1039 Ninth Street Manhattan Beach, CA 90266, USA Email: [email protected] Homepage: http://www.loop.com/~jcdhender/

Bahá'í Booksource International 5755 Rodeo Rd. Los Angeles, CA 90016, USA Telephone: (213)933-8297 Fax: (213)933-1820 Email: [email protected] Homepage: http://www.booksource.org

"Jon and Chris Hendershot: Bahá'í Book Collectors" is an online meeting place for collectors of Bahá'í books, magazines, pamphlets, and ephemera in English. They help organize book auctions, coordinate collectors, and provide "want" and "for trade" lists for those seeking hard-to-find materials.

The Bahai Booksource International features the largest selection of Bahá'í books available, in a variety of languages. They carry over 4,000 different items in 91 languages, as well as various gift items.

Bahá'í Distribution Service For catalogues or orders, write: 5397 Wilbanks Rd. Chattanooga, TN 37343 Phone: (800) 999-9019 Fax: (423) 843-0836 Email: [email protected]

The Bahá'í Distribution Service is the central book warehouse and distribution service in the United States. Most books cited in the guide can be purchased from them.

Bahá'í Publishing Trust: Australia For subscriptions to Herald of the South, write: Bahá'í Publications Australia P.O. Box 285 Mona Vale NSW 2103 Australia Phone: (02) 9913 1554 Fax: (02) 9970 6710 General correspondence, write: GPO Box 283 Canberra ACT 2610 Australia Fax: 61 (0)6 247 2943 Email: [email protected]

The Australian BPT produces, among other things, editions of compilations of the sacred writings. Their magazine, Herald of the South, includes general articles on the Faith and often features essays on or photographic essays of greater Oceania.

Bahá'í Publishing Trust: Brazil Editora Bahá'í Brasil Rua Conego Eugenito Leite, 350 05414 Sao Paolo SP - Brazil Phone: 55-(11)-8534628

The Brazilian BPT produces some Persian and Arabic editions of the sacred writings.

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--publishers

Bahá'í Publishing Trust: Germany Bahá'í-Verlag Eppsteiner Strasse 89 D-65719 Hofheim Germany Phone: 49-(6192)-2292 Fax: 49-(6192)-992999 Email: [email protected]

The German BPT produces much original scholarship and Persian and Arabic editions of the sacred writings.

Bahá'í Publishing Trust: United Kingdom 6 Mount Pleasant Oakham Leicestershire LE15 6HU England Phone: 44-(1572)-722780 Fax: 44-(1572)-724280 For sales, write: [email protected] For editorial matters, write: [email protected]

The UK BPT occasionally publishes works of interest to scholars.

Bahá'í Publishing Trust: United States For general correspondence, contact: Phone: 1-(708)-2511854 Fax: 1-(708)-2513652 Email: [email protected] For World Order editorial matters, write: World Order 415 Linden Avenue Wilmette, IL 60091 Email: [email protected] For World Order subscriptions, write: World Order Subscriber Service Bahá'í National Center Wilmette, IL 60091

The US BPT produces, among other things, World Order magazine, which is "intended to stimulate, inspire, and serve thinking people in their search to find relationships between contemporary life and contemporary religious teachings and philosophy" (World Order statement of purpose). Its essays are academic but not always solely on the Faith.

Bahá'í Studies Bulletin

The Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, a publication of scholarship, provisional translations, and occasional correspondence from the Universal House of Justice, was published from 1982 to 1993. Back issues or reprints of articles are not available as of the moment. However, a reprint series of most of the old Bulletin articles, as well as a new journal called Abhá: A Journal of Bábí-Bahá'í Studies, will soon be launched by Stephen Lambden's Hurqalya Publications.

Crimson Publications For general correspondence, write: P.O. Box 1613 San Juan Capistrano, CA 92693 Phone: (714) 240-2092 Fax: (714)

Crimson Publications is best-known for Multiple Author Refer System (MARS), usually known as REFER, the PC computer databases of all English writings of the Bahá'í primary

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--publishers

240-9599 Email: [email protected] For REFER orders, contact either Crimson Publications or the Bahá'í Distribution Service

figures. They offer databases for the writings of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi, and major compilations, and soon may be releasing a database of the secondary sources of Taherzadeh's The Covenant and the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláhseries, Balyuzi's biographies of the central figures, Nabíl's Dawn-Breakers, and Lights of Guidance. Crimson also publishes Bahá'í software designed by private developers.

Deepen magazine Tsavo West Bahá'í Institute P.O. Box 6081 Wilmette, IL 60091-6081 Phone: (312) 274-6593 Email: [email protected] Webpage: http://home.earthlink.net/~tsavowest/

The Tsavo West Bahá'í Institute is a non-profit organization dedicated to the research, publication, and dissemination of materials in support of the Bahá'í Faith. Its quarterly journal, Deepen magazine, publishes both popular and somewhat scholarly articles and includes teaching materials such as posters and clip art in each issue.

dialogue: A Quarterly Journal Exploring the Implications of the Bahá'í Faith for Our Time. write to Kalimát Press, below, for ordering back issues.

dialogue was produced by a group of Bahá'ís in Los Angeles publishing independently. Its focus was "a more dynamic engagement with contemporary intellectual, social, religious, political, and cultural currents of thought and action." (1:1, p.2) Only six issues, between 1986 and 1988, were produced. Some of these back issues can be ordered from Kalimát Press (see below).

George Ronald 46 High Street Kidlington Oxford, England OX5 2DN Email: [email protected] For orders within the US, write: 8325 17th Street North St. Petersburg, FL 33702

George Ronald is a major publisher of secondary Bahá'í books. They produce a great variety of both popular and academic books.

Institute for Bahá'í Studies in Persian P.O. Box 65600 Dundas, Ont. L9H-6Y6 Canada Phone: (905) 628-3040 Fax: (905) 628-3276 Email: [email protected]

The Institute for Bahá'í Studies in Persian produces many study materials and monographs in Persian, and occasionally publishes Persian and Arabic editions of the sacred writings. Currently they are reprinting the Athár-i-Qalam-i-A'lá series.

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--publishers

Images International 5010 Austin Rd. Hixon, TN 37343-3913 Phone: (423) 870-4525 or (800) 470-4525 Fax: (423) 870-4774 Email: [email protected] Homepage: http://www.globweb.com/image

Images International carries Bahá'í audio-visual products, including deepening tapes and books on tape, as well as special materials like t-shirts.

Kalimát Press Email: [email protected] Webpage: www.kalimat.com Editorial matters, write: 1600 Sawtelle Blvd., Suite 34 Los Angeles, CA 90025 Phone: (310) 479-5668 or (800) 788-4067 For orders, write: Publishers Services P.O. Box 2510 Novato, CA 94948 Phone: (415) 883-3530 Fax: (415) 883-4280

Kalimát Press is a small company dedicated to the publication of books and other materials on the Bahá'í Faith. It has produced over 100 titles since its founding in 1978, focusing on Bahá'í history, scholarship, translations from Persian, and Bahá'í childrens' materials. Kalimát publishes the series Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History and -Religions, cited extensively throughout this guide.

Landegg Academy CH-9405 Wienacht/AR Switzerland Tel: 41-71-891 91 31 Fax: 41-71-891 43 01 E-mail: [email protected] Homepage: http://www.landegg.org/landegg/

Landegg Academy has published a few useful materials, such as proceedings of conferences. Its main service is as one of the major centers of Bahá'í studies in Europe. Landegg also provides a listserv of Landegg-related news. Write to [email protected], in the subject line write "subscribe," and leave the body of the message blank.

Naturegraph Publishers P.O. Box 1075 Happy Camp, CA 96039 Phone: (916) 493-5353 Fax: (916) 493-5240 Email: [email protected]

Naturegraph specializes in books on natural history, crafts, wildlife, and Native American studies. They also carry a selection of Bahá'í books on a variety of topics.

One Country One Country Bahá'í International Community Suite 120 866 United Nations Plaza New York, New York 10017 Phone: 212-803-2543 Fax: 212-803-2566 Email: [email protected] Homepage: http://www.onecountry.org/

One Country is published quarterly by the Bahá'í International Community, an international NGO (non-governmental organization) which represents the worldwide membership of the Faith. Its articles include a great deal of news about United Nations activities and Bahá'í development projects around the world.

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--publishers

OneWorld Publications For editorial matters, write: 185 Banbury Road Oxford, England OX2 7AR Phone: 01865-310597 Fax: 01865-310598 Email: [email protected] For orders within the US, write: P.O. Box 7 New York, New York 10024 Phone: (202) 799-3854 Fax: (212) 799-7116

OneWorld's logo is "Books for Thoughtful People." They publish a wide selection of books on the Faith, both academic and popular. As well, they publish or reprint many scholarly works on other religions, mysticism, science, psychology, and other topics.

Palabra Publications 3735 B Shares Place Riviera Beach, FL 33404 Phone: (561 ) 845-1919 Fax: (561) 845-0126 Email: [email protected]

Palabra publishes a variety of teaching and deepening materials, including occasional compilations from the writings of Bahá'u'lláh or the Universal House of Justice. They also carry Library 2.1, a software program similar to REFER but designed for Macintosh.

Special Ideas 2900 W. Bristol Dr. Bloomington, IN 47404 Phone: (800) 326-1197 (812) 876-3742 Email: [email protected], or [email protected] Webpage: www.special-ideas.com Seekernet 1-800-seekernet (800-733-5376) Webpage: http://bahai.seeker.net

Special Ideas is a company founded to help provide Bahá'ís with low-cost teaching materials. They sell introductory teaching aids such as games, posters, pamphlets, displays, t-shirts, and books, and offer free advice and teaching tips. Special Ideas also sponsors Seekernet, a free information service. Those investigating the Faith can call 1-800-Seeker-Net (800-733-5376) to get a free packet of introductory literature on the Faith and the number of a Bahá'í community local to their area.

Unity Arts Inc. Nine Pines Publishing 26 Concourse Gate Nepean, Ont. K2E-7T7 Phone from both US and Canada: (800) 465-3287, or (613) 727-6200 Fax: 613- 727-3704 Email: [email protected]

Unity Arts is the central Bahá'í book distribution service for Canada. They carry both a full selection of Bahá'í material and as well certain non-Bahá'í items such as children's books. They and their Nine Pines division also publish original books and manufacture audio-visual and special materials.

University Microfilms International 300 N. Zeeb Rd. Ann Arbor Michigan 48106 Phone: (313) 761-4700 or (800) 521-0600

UMI has copies of most master's theses and doctoral dissertations done in North America and many foreign ones as well. Almost all unpublished theses listed in this guide can be purchased from them. Average cost is

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--publishers

around US$30-50.

Whitcomb Publishing, Inc 32 Hampden Street Springfield, MA 01103 Phone: (800) 354-1789 or (413) 737-9630 Email: [email protected]

Whitcomb Publishing produces both Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books designed to help apply Bahá'í principles to contemporary world issues. Their latest series of works is on Bahá'í solutions to the problem of racism.

White Cloud Press P.O. Box 3400 Ashland, OR 97520 Phone/fax: (541) 488-6415 Email: [email protected] Webpage: www.jeffnet.org/whitecloud

White Cloud Press has published books of interest to Bahá'í scholars but not directly on the Faith, including works of Háfiz and T. Izutsu; J. Cole's and J. Walbridge's translations of K. Gibran; anthologies of essays on religion and mysticism; and Wisdom of the Master, a new compilation of the writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, forthcoming.

White Mountain Publications P.O. Box 5180, R. R. #2 New Liskeard, Ontario P0J-1P0 Canada Phone, toll-free from within Canada only: (800) 258-5451, or from elsewhere: (705) 647-5424 Fax: (705) 647-8366 Email: [email protected]

White Mountain Publications carries both deepening and teaching materials, such as study guides, compilations, and some historical material, and organizational aids, such as planning calendars.

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A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--glossary

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ALL WORKS CITED The following bibliography is alphabetical and represents the long form of citation for all the works cited in this Resource Guide. The bibliography is certainly not exhaustive; rather, it represents a selection of works on the Bahá'í Faith that are of particular scholarly interest. The most complete bibliography is William P. Collins, A Bibliography of EnglishLanguage Works on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, 1844-1985 (Oxford: George Ronald, 1990), which contains references to at least 1,390 works of Bahá'í scripture; over 2,814 works about the Bábí and Bahá'í religions; 142 Braille works; over 1,645 references to the Bahá'í Faith in works on other subjects; over 1,128 periodical articles about the Bahá'í Faith; and 73 theses about the religion. Peter Smith has also included a good, though now dated, annotated bibliography of primary texts and secondary scholarship in his Bábí and Bahá'í Religions: From messianic Shí'ism to a world religion, 225-38. Of final mention is Joel Bjorling's Bahá'í Faith: A Historical Bibliography (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc, 1985), which is useful in that its non-Bahá'í but sympathetic commentary lends it perspectives of occasional interest. Its bibliographic usefulness is minimal, though, for Collin's work is more comprehensive.

Abdo, Lil. "Female Representations of the Holy Spirit." Bahá'í Studies Review, 4.1 (1994): 27-36. 'Abdu'l-Bahá. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London: Addresses and Notes of Conversations. London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1987. ------. "'Abdu'l-Bahá on Christ and Christianity." Introduction by Seena Fazel. The Bahá'í Studies Review, 3.1 (1993): 1-18. ------. "Commentary on the Islamic Tradition: 'I Was a Hidden Treasure.'" Trans. Moojan Momen. Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 3.4 (Dec. 1985): 4-64. ------. Paris Talks: Addresses given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912. 11th ed. London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1969. ------. The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Compiled by Howard MacNutt. 2d ed. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1982. ------. Secret of Divine Civilization. Translated by Marzieh Gail. 3d ed. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1975. ------. Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Compiled by the Research Department of the http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.bibliography.html (1 of 44) [6-6-2004 16:22:03]

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Universal House of Justice. Translated by the Bahá'í World Centre. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1978. ------. Some Answered Questions. Compiled and translated by Laura Clifford Barney. 5th ed. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1981. ------. Tablets of the Divine Plan. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1977. [------.] A Traveller's Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Báb. Translated by Edward G. Browne. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1891. Reprinted by Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1980. ------. Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Translated by Shoghi Effendi. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1944. 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. "Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union: A Compilation of Bahá'í Writings." Comp. the Universal House of Justice. Bahá'í Studies Review, 3.1 (1993): 97-117. ------. "Europe: A Compilation from the Bahá'í Writings." Comp. the Universal House of Justice. Bahá'í Studies Review, 1.1 (1991): 40-53. ------. "A Compilation of Bahá'í Writings on Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland." Comp. the Universal House of Justice. Bahá'í Studies Review, 4.1 (1994): 105-128. 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi, and the Universal House of Justice. Importance of Teaching Indigenous People. Comp. the Universal House of Justice. Toronto: The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, 1968. Abizadeh, Arash. "Because Bahá'u'lláh Said So: dealing with a non-starter in moral reasoning." Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995): 83-87. ------. "Commentary on 'On Human Origins: A Bahá'í Perspective.'" Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3.1 (19901991): 67-73. ------. "Liberal Democracy and the Bahá'í Administrative Order." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2.3 (1990): 113. Abu'l-Fadl Golpáygání, Mírzá. Bahá'í Proofs. Translated by Ali-Kuli Khan. 3d ed. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1983. ------. Miracles and Metaphors. Translated by Juan Ricardo Cole. Los Angeles: Kalimát Press, 1981. ------. Letters and Essays 1886-1913. Translated by Juan R. I. Cole. Los Angeles: Kalimát Press, 1985. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.bibliography.html (2 of 44) [6-6-2004 16:22:03]

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------. "Why Moses Could not See God." In Letters and Essays 1886-1913. Trans. Juan R. I. Cole. Los Angeles: Kalimát, 1985. Afnan, Elham. "'Abdu'l-Bahá and Ezra Pound's Circle." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6.2 (June-Sept. 1994): 1-14. ------. "The Good of the World and the Happiness of the Nations: A Study of Modern Utopian and Dystopian Literature." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1.4 (1988-1989): 1-20. Afnán, Muhammad, and William S. Hatcher. "Western Islamic Scholarship and Bahá'í Origins." Religion, 15 (1985): 29-51. Afnan, Ruhi. Baha'u'llah and the Bab Confront Modern Thinkers: Book II: Spinoza: Concerning God. New York: Philosophical Library, 1977. ------. Mysticism and the Bahá'í Revelation: A Contrast. New York: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1934. ------. The Revelation of Baha'u'llah and the Bab: Book I: Descartes' Theory of Knowledge. New York: Philosophical Library, 1970. Ahdieh, Hussein and Eliane A. Hopson. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York: The City of the Covenant. New York: The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the City of New York, 1987. Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A Religious History of the American People. Garden City, N.Y.: Image Books, 1975. Aidun, Gol. "Manekji Limji Hataria and the Bahá'í Faith." Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 1.1 (December 1980): 47-62. 'Ala'i, Sitarih and Colleen Dawes, eds. Role of Women in an Advancing Civilization. Australia: Bahá'í Publications Australia, 1989. Amanat, Abbas. Resurrection and Renewal. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press, 1989. Anderson, Angela. Valley of Search: A Personal Quest for Truth. Oxford: One World, 1990. Armstrong-Ingram, R. Jackson. Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkár: Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History, volume 4. Los Angeles: Kalimát Press, 1987. ------. "Politics, Text, and Context." dialogue, 1:3 (Summer/Fall 1986): 20-23.

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Association for Bahá'í Studies. The Bahá'í Faith and Marxism: Proceedings of a Conference, January 1986. Ottawa: Bahá'í Studies Publications, 1987. Atkinson, Anne Gordon, et al. Green Acre on the Piscataqua. Eliot, Maine: Green Acre Bahá'í School Council, 1991. ------. "Women in Art." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4.2 (June-Sept. 1991): 1-10. Aull, Brian. "The Faith of Science and the Method of Religion." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1.2 (1988): 117. ------. "The Process of Social Change." World Order, 23.3 (Spring/Summer 1989): 9-18. Ayman, Iraj, ed. A New Framework for Moral Education. Wienacht, Switzerland: Landegg Academy, 1993. Báb, The. A Compilation of Passages from the Writings of the Báb. Comp. the Universal House of Justice. New Delhi: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1980. ------. Selections from the Writings of the Báb. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1976. Bach, Marcus. A Meeting with Shoghi Effendi. Oxford: OneWorld, 1993. Backwell, Richard. The Christianity of Jesus. Peterhead, Scotland: Volturna Press, 1972. Badiee, Julie. "Mark Tobey's City Paintings: Meditations on an Age of Transition." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1.4 (1988-1989): 21-39 Badiee, Julie Oeming and Heshmatollah Badiee. "The Calligraphy of Mishkín-Qalam." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3.4 (Dec. 1990-Mar. 1991): 1-22. "Bahá'í Archives: Preserving and Safeguarding the Sacred Texts." 'Andalíb magazine, 12.48 (Fall 1993): insert. Bahá'í Canada Publications. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Canada: revised edition. Thornhill, Ontario, 1987v Bahá'í Community of Canada. "A Bahá'í Perspective on Issues of Concern to the World's Aboriginal Peoples." The Bahá'í World: An International Record, 1993-94. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1994. Bahá'í International Community. The Bahá'í Question: Iran's Secret Blueprint for the Destruction of a Religious Community. New York, N.Y.: Bahá'í International Community Publications. 1993. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.bibliography.html (4 of 44) [6-6-2004 16:22:03]

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------. The Bahá'ís in Iran: A report on the Persecution of a Religious Minority. New York: Bahá'í International Community, 1982. ------. Freedom of Religion on Trial in Morocco: The Nador Case. N.p., 1963. ------. Turning Point for All Nations. United Nations Office, 1995. Reprinted in World Order, 27.2 (Winter 1995-96): 7-32. "The Bahá'í National Center: part one: Forty-Nine Years, a personal perspective." Deepen 10.4.1 (1996): 12-19. ------. "The Bahá'í National Center: part two: The Establishment of the Bahá'í Faith in America." Deepen 11.4.2 (1996): 20-29. Bahá'u'lláh. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. Translated by Shoghi Effendi. Rev. ed. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1976. ------. Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. Translated by Shoghi Effendi. 2d ed. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1976. ------. The Hidden Words. Translated by Shoghi Effendi. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1939. ------. Kitáb-i-Aqdas: The Most Holy Book. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1992. ------. Kitáb-i-Íqán. 2d ed. Translated by Shoghi Effendi. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1950. ------. Prayers and Meditations. Translated by Shoghi Effendi. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1938. ------. The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1972. ------. The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys. Translated by Marzieh Gail and Ali-Kuli Khan. 3d ed. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1973. ------. A Synopsis and Codification of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, the Most Holy Book of Bahá'u'lláh. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1973. ------. "Tablet to the Physician." Trans. Stephen Lambden and Khazeh Fananapazir. Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 6:4-7:2 (October 1992): 18-65. ------. Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Translated by Habib Taherzadeh. Haifa: http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.bibliography.html (5 of 44) [6-6-2004 16:22:03]

A Resource Guide for Baha'i Studies--glossary

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------. "References on Philosophy." Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5.1-2 (Jan. 1991): 76-87. ------. Third Epoch of the Formative Age: Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-86. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1996. ------. Wellspring of Guidance: Messages 1963-1968. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1969. ------. A Wider Horizon: Selected Messages of the Universal House of Justice, 1983-1992. Comp. ed. Paul Lample. Riviera Beach, Fla: Palabra Publications, 1992. Vader, John Paul. For the Good of Mankind: August Forel and the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: George Ronald, 1984. Vick, Holly Hanson. Social and Economic Development: A Bahá'í Approach. Oxford: George Ronald, 1989. Vision of Shoghi Effendi: Proceedings of the Association for Bahá'í Studies Ninth Annual Conference. Ottawa: Association for Bahá'í Studies, 1993. Vreeland, Claire. And the Trees Clapped Their Hands: Stories of Bahá'í Pioneers. Oxford: George Ronald, 1994. Waite, Gary K. "The Religious State: A Comparative Study of Sixteenth- and Nineteenth-century Opposition." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:1 (March-June 1995): 69-90. Walbridge, John. Sacred Acts, Sacred Space, Sacred Time: Bahá'í Studies volume I. Oxford: George Ronald, 1996. Walbridge, Linda. "Rituals: An American Bahá'í Dilemma." Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995): 89-92. Walbridge, Linda S., and John Walbridge. "Bahá'í Laws on the Status of Men." World Order, 19.1/2 (Fall 1984/Winter 1984-85): 25-36. Walters, H.A. The Ahmadíya Movement. New Delhi: Anohar Publications, 1918, reprinted 1991. Warburg, Margit. "The Circle, the Brotherhood, and the Ecclesiastical Body: Bahá'í in Denmark, 19251987." In Armin W. Geertz and Jeppe Sinding Jensen, eds., Religion, Tradition, and Renewal. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Univ. Press, 1991. ------. "Conversion: Considerations Before a Field-Work in a Bahá'í Village in Kerala." In Asko Parpola and Bent Smidt Hansen, South Asian Religion and Society: Studies on Asian Topics, No. 11. London: Curzon Press, 1986. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.bibliography.html (41 of 44) [6-6-2004 16:22:03]

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------. "Economic Rituals: The Structure and Meaning of Donations in the Baha'i Religion." Social Compass, 40 (1993), 25-31. ------. "Growth Patterns of New Religions: The Case of Bahá'í," in Robert Towler, ed. In New Religions and the New Europe. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1995, Ward, Allan L. Two Hundred Thirty-Nine Days: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey in America. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1979. Weaver, Craig W. and Helen Bond. The Glorious Journey: a Bahá'í Approach to Work and Service. Taipei: Bahá'í Publishing Trust of Taiwan, 1989. Weinberg, Robert. Ethel Jenner Rosenberg: The Life and Times of England's Outstanding Bahá'í Pioneer Worker. Oxford: George Ronald, 1995. Weixelman, Joseph O. "The Traditional Navajo Religion and the Bahá'í Faith." World Order, 20.1 (Fall, 1985): 31-51. Wells, Bruce. From Discontent: The Biography of a Mystic. Oxford: George Ronald, 1985. White, Robert. "Spiritual Foundations for an Ecologically Sustainable Society." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2.1 (1989): 33-57; reprinted in The Bahá'í World: An International Record, 1992-93. Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1993; reprinted in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (June-September 1995): 47-74. White, Roger. Another Song, Another Season: Poems and Portrayals. Oxford: George Ronald, 1979. ------. Occasions of Grace: More Poems and Portrayals. Oxford: George Ronald, 1992. ------. A Witness of Pebbles. Oxford: George Ronald, 1981. Whitehead, O. Z. Portraits of Some Bahá'í Women. Oxford: George Ronald, 1996. ------. Some Bahá'ís to Remember. Oxford: George Ronald, 1983. ------. Some Early Bahá'ís of the West. Oxford: George Ronald, 1976. Whitmore, Bruce W. The Dawning Place: The Building of a Temple, the Forging of the North American Bahá'í Community. Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1984. Wilcox, Patricia. Bahá'í Families: Perspectives, Principles, Practice. Oxford: George Ronald, 1991. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.bibliography.html (42 of 44) [6-6-2004 16:22:03]

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Willoya, William, and Vinson Brown. Warriors of the Rainbow: Strange and Prophetic Dreams of the Indian Peoples. Happy Camp, Cal.: Naturegraph Press, n.d. Wilson, S. G. Modern Movements Among Moslems. New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1916. Winters, Jonah. Dying For God: Conceptions of Martyrdom in the Shi'i, Babi, and Bahai Religions. Master's thesis, University of Toronto, 1997. ------. "Review of Buddhism and the Bahá'í Faith." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6.4 (Dec. 1994-Mar. 1995): 70-74. Woodman, Ross. A Bahá'í Academy Course on the Gleanings. Thornhill, Ont.: The Bahá'í Academy, 1990. ------. A Bahá'í Academy Course on the Kitáb-i-Íqán. Thornhill, Ont.: The Bahá'í Academy, 1990. ------. A Bahá'í Academy Course on the Promised Day is Come. Thornhill, Ont.: The Bahá'í Academy, 1990. ------. "Bahá'u'lláh's Influence on the New York School of Painting: The "Unapprehended Inspiration" of Newman and Rothko." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4.1 (Mar.-June 1991): 67-89. ------. Crystallizations: 20 Works by Bahá'í Artists. Ross Woodman, ed. Ottawa: Bahá'í Studies Publications, 1996. ------. "The End of the World: Whatever Happened? Or Leftover Time to Kill." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3.3 (1990-1991): 49-66. ------. "In the Beginning Was the Word: Apocalypse and the Education of the Soul." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5.4 (Dec. 1993-Mar. 1994): 33-57. Yancy, Trey, and Randy Ricklefs. "Astrology: A romantic view of science." Deepen, 2.1 (Spring 1994): 19-26. Zohoori, Elias, comp. The Throne of the Inner Temple. Kingston, Jamaica: University Printery, Univ. of West Indies, 1985. Zrudlo, Leo R. "The Missing Dimension in the Built Environment: A Challenge for the 21st Century." Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3.1 (1990-1991): 49-66.

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Index of Authors and Subjects See also the index to the "Leiden List," p. 142, above. As this index was generated automatically, subjects have not been thoroughly collated. For example, "America," "North America," and "United States" are all separate entries. The following names and terms were not included due to their frequency: 'Abdu'l-Bahá, The Báb, Bahá'í, Bahá'u'lláh.

A Ahmadíyya 98 Ahsá'í, Shaykh Ahmad 95 Attár. Fáridu'd-Dín 82 Abdo, Lil 72 Abedi, Mehdi 85, 107 Abizadeh, Arash 40, 69, 90, 110 Abjad numerology 72, 95 Abraham 8, 102, 105 Abu'l-Fadl Golpaygání, Mírzá 94, 103, 116 Adamic Cycle 61 Adkin, Laurie 91 Administrative order 38, 39, 40, 42, 59, 64, 73, 112 Adrianople 61 Afnán, Elham 45, 95, 152 Afnán, Muhammad 85, 92 Afnan, Ruhi 82, 89 Africa 10, 24, 52, 59 Afterlife 43, 116 Agriculture 43, 44, 67 Ahdieh, Hussein 38 Táhirih 75 Aidun, Gol 58 Akká 37, 61, 78, 174 Ala'i, Sitarih 74 Amanat, Abbas 23, 47, 48, 49, 51, 95 America 10, 37, 38, 40, 64

Gollmer, Ulrigh 100 Golpaygani Memorandum 86 Goodall Cooper, Ella 37, 89 Goodall, Helen 89 Gouvion, Collette 7, 63, 78 Government 9 Greek 87, 93 Gregory, Louis 53, 96 Grundy, Julia 37, 89 Guardian 10, 40, 42, 59, 111 Guardianship 40, 41, 59, 176 Gurdjieff 105 Guyana 10 H

Obligatory Prayers 8 Occultism 94, 95, 105 Oeming Badiee, Julie 45 Oneness 9, 96 Ouspensky, P. D. 105 P

Pacific Islands 10, 24, 52, 59 Palestine 10, 37 Parrinder, Geoffrey 70 Hacker, Barbara 67 Parry, Robert 89 Haifa 38, 78, 111, 174 Parsons, Agnes 38 Hainsworth, Philip 7, 84, 113 Pascoe, Julie 75 Haiti 173 Patriotism 9 Haj Mehdi Arjmand 111 Peace 9, 45, 60, 67, 83, 88, 95, 113, Hakim-Samandari, Christine 86 174 Hampson, Arthur 54, 57 Hands Of The Cause Of God 39, 42, 59, Penn, Michael 97 Perkins, Mary 7 176 Perry, Mark 96 Hanley, Paul 44 Persecution 8, 58, 60, 85, 87, 90 Hanna, Nabila 94 Persian 48, 49, 46 Hanson, Holly 114 Phelps, Myron 37, 89 Harmsen, Rick 109 Philosophy 88, 97, 115, 159 Hart, Kerry 46 Pilgrimage 78, 89 Hassall, Graham 45, 52, 56, 59 Hatcher, John 43, 45, 65, 70, 75, 77, 80, Pioneering 89 Plans 2, 9, 10, 59, 60, 89, 111 81, 88, 111, 116 Plato 88 Hatcher-Kennedy, Sharon 70 Pluralism 97, 98, 116 Hatcher, William 7, 25, 35, 66, 68, 76, Poetry 45 82, 85, 88, 92, 96, Poirier, Brent 41 100, 109, 110, 113, 114, 152

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Anabaptists 85 Anderson, Angela 105 Anthropology 173 Anti-Bahá'í Society 85 Apartheid 96 Apophatic theology 116 Arabic 48, 49, 53, 87, 146 Arc 78, 174 Architecture 44, 46, 79 Ark 78 Armstrong-Ingram, Jackson 46, 55, 75, 79, 90, 92 Art 8, 44-46, 79 Asceticism 91 Asia 10, 24, 56, 57, 58 Astrology 94-95 Atkinson, Anne Gordon 44, 75 Augustine 84 Aull, Brian 90, 110, 113 Australia 10 Authoritative translations, defined 33 Auxiliary Board 9, 39, 41, 175 Ayman, Iraj 67 Ayyám-i-Há 71, 72 B Babism 10, 46-51, 58, 71, 78, 175 Bach, Marcus 112 Backwell, Richard 99 Badiee, Heshmatollah 45 Baghdad 61, 78, 89 Bahá'í communities 52- 55, 63, 94 Bahá'í Era 61 Bahá'í National Center (U.S.) 40 Bahá'í World Center 8, 39, 44, 46, 60, 78, 89, 103, 111, 174 Bahá'í World Community 40 Bahá'í World Congress 173 Bahá'u'lláh's literary corpus 62, 159 Balch, Robert 93 Balyuzi, H.M. 37, 38, 7, 51, 58, 61, 105 Banani, Amin 86 Barker, Patrick 73, 74 Barnes, William 117 Bartee, Jim 75 Bartholomew, G. A. 110 Bausani, Alessandro 83 Bayat, Mangol 51 Beg, Kazim 146

Haydar-'Alí, Haji Mírzá 89 Hayden, Robert 45 Health 76 Heaven 8, 43 Hebrew 93, 95 Hegel 88 Heggie, James 50, 99, 101, 103 Hein, Kurt 113, 114 Hell 8, 43 Hellaby, Medaline 69, 92 Heller, Wendy 53 Hermeneutics 19, 77, 111 Hermes Trismegistus 116 Herrman, Duanne 46, 70 Hick, John 97 Hillenbrand, Carole 50 Hinduism 68, 92, 94, 101, 102, 105, 111, 160 Historiography 77, 88 History 1, 13, 19, 42, 57, 77, 81, 97 Hofman, David 112 Holley, Horace 96, 114 Hollinger, Richard 38, 40, 41, 55, 112 Holy Days 10, 62, 71, 107, 176 Hoonaard, Will C. van den 19, 55, 86 Hopson, Eliane 38 House Of Justice 39, 42, 62, 176 Houses Of Worship 10, 44, 46, 55, 56, 58, 173 Huart, Clement 146 Huddleston, John 7, 35, 66, 84, 90 Huggins, Janet 75 Human Rights 84 Humanity 8, 9, 79, 84, 115, 117 Huqúqu'lláh 73, 74 Huxley, Aldous 97 Hyde-Dunn, Clara 52 I Imám 46, 87 Independent Investigation Of Truth 68 India 39, 52, 56, 58, 64, 173 Infallibility 42, 111 Inheritance 80 Institutions 39 International Bahá'í Bureau 53 Internet 33, 163-169 Interpretation 77, 99, 110, 111 Ioas, Leroy 112

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Politics 19, 39, 90 Poostchi, Iraj 44 Pound, Ezra 45 Poverty 73, 113 Praxis 48 Prayer 7, 8, 10, 70, 71, 76, 91, 107 Principles, Bahá'í 9, 92 Progressive Revelation 92, 107, 108, 160, 161, Prophecy 92 Provisional translations, defined 33 Psychic phenomena and the paranormal 94, 105 Psychology 82, 84, 87, 95 Publishing 9, 10 Q Qá'im 46 Qabbalah 95 Queen Marie 53 Quinn, Jalalíyyih 45 Qur'án, The 49, 50, 51, 72, 77, 102, 105, 111, 160 R Rabbani, Rúhíyyih 69, 90, 112, 173, 174 Race 9, 96, 113, 117 Racism 45, 74 Radio 10, 114 Rafati, Vahid 49, 52, 53 Raman, Pattabi 67, 101, 113 Rathbone, Eliza 45 Rawlings, Felicity 101 REFER 33, 182, 184 Reincarnation 43, 97, 160 Revelation 9, 37, 67, 68, 72, 81, 97, 107, 110, 159 Ridván 72 Ricklefs, Randy 95 Riggs, Robert 93, 95 Ritual 10, 13, 15, 63, 71, 73, 107 Robiati, Giuseppe 66 Roesch, Ronald 84, 95 Romania 53 Roohizadegan, Olya 86 Rosenfeld, Robert 63

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Belize 10 Berger, Peter 24, 64, 152 Besant, Annie 105 Bethel, Fereshteh Taheri 86, 87, 95 Beveridge, Kent 61 Bharati, Agehananda 64 Bible, The 93, 103, 111, 160 Bishárát 175 Blumenthal, Erik 105, 152 Bolivia 52 Bond, Helen 118 Bosworth, Edmund 50 Boyles, Ann 44, 75 Bramson-Lerche, Loni 24, 40, 52, 59, 83 Braun, Eunice 40, 43, 59, 60, 78 Brazil 67 Breneman, Anne 88, 114 Brill, Susan 109 Brown, Keven 94 Browne, E. G. 48, 53, 54, 58, 65 145, 146 Bryson, Alan 43 Buck, Christopher 48, 51, 61, 62, 77, 81, 92, 95, 100, 103, 152, 194, 106, 108, 109, 117 Buddhism 8, 10, 57, 68, 92, 94, 98, 101, 1`02, 111, 160 Bulgaria 53 Burma 10, 56, 57 Bushrui, Suheil 45, 62 C Cabala 95 Calendar 71, 72 Calligraphy 45 Cameron, Doug 173 Cameron, Glenn 7, 35 Campbell, Joseph 97 Canada 24, 54, 55, 58, 59 Caton, Peggy 46, 74 Central America 59 Ceremonies 107 Chance, Hugh 78 Chase, Thornton 37, 38, 55, 89 Chastity 70 Chew, Phyllis 99, 101 Chicago 38, 117, 173 Children 69

Iran 10, 23, 24, 39, 45, 48,49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58, 60, 64, 70, 75, 78, 85, 86, 89, 90, 173 Iraq 10, 89, 102 Ishqábád 56 Ishráqát 176 Islam 49, 50, 72, 82, 88, 92, 95, 93, 101, 102, 109, 116, 160 Israel 78, 89, 103, 111

Rost, H. T. D. 66, 69 Rubinstein, Donald 52 Ruhe, David 61, 78 Rulers and Learned 38, 41 Rumi 134 Russell, Jane 74 Russia 56 Russian 86 Rutstein, Nathan 64, 67, 96

J

S

Jack, Marion 53 Jainism 102 James, William 68 Japan 10, 57 Jasion, Jan 56 Jeffords, Raymod 79 Jensen, Mehri-Samandari 70 Jews 10, 23, 57, 108, 111, 159 Jihád 84 Johnson, K. Paul 24, 105 Jordan, Dan 67, 114 Jouvion, Philippe 7, 63, 78 Judaism 49, 92, 102, 103, 160 Thomas, June Manning 117 Jung, C. G. 97 Justice 69, 73, 80, 113

Sabaeans 105, 106 Sabet, Huschmad 84, 100 Sabri, Shirin 45 Sacred Writings 42 Sacrifice 86, 87 Safavid Dynasty 50 Sahbá, Faríburz 46 Saiedi, Nader 68, 84 Samandarí, Tarázu'lláh 89 Satan 112 Savi, Julio 65, 76, 79, 81, 92, 107, 116 Schaefer, Udo 69, 81, 83, 98, 100, 102, 105, 107, 111, 116 Scholarship 60, 68, 98, 109 Scholl, Steven 77, 102 Schools 9, 10, 79, 110 Schuon, Frithjof 97 K Schweitz, Martha 74, 80 Science 8, 68, 88, 110 Kahn, Annie 94 Scripture 8, 10, 37, 60, 111 Kalinowski, Michael 67 Seals and Crofts 46 Kansas 55 Sears, William 41, 86, 94 Karbilá 87 Seow, Jimmy 57 Karch, Olin 94 Sexuality 69, 70 Kazemzadeh, Firuz 47, 151, 152 Sháh-Bahrám 106 Keene, James 64 Shaykhism 49, 51, 52 Kennedy, andrew 70 Shepard, Raymond 67 Khavari, Khalil 69 Shíí Islam 10, 23, 50, 57, 87, 95 Kheiralla, Ibrahim 55 Shíráz 78, 89, 173 Khursheed, Anjam 110, 117 Shoghi Effendi 10, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, Kiribati 10 46, 47, 49, 58, 59, 60, 62, 64, 77, Kitáb-i-Aqdas 33, 40, 62, 75, 80, 88, 91, 111, 177 95, 175 Shook, Glenn 82, 95 Kitáb-i-Íqán 15, 47, 50, 62, 77, 111, 176 Sikhism 106 Knowledge 68, 80 Sims, Barbara 57 Kolstoe, John 63 Sin 112, 108, 115 Korea 10 Singapore 57

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China 10, 57 Chistianity 112 Chouleur, Jacques 57 Christ 8, 99, 108, 159, 160 Christianity 10, 23, 48, 49, 50, 57, 58, 82, 85, 87, 89, 92, 93, 94, 99, 100, 108, 111, 115, 116, 159, 160 Civilization 9, 79 Clergy 9, 62 Cole, Juan R. I. 23, 46, 51, 61, 62, 65, 76, 77, 81, 91, 100, 102, 107, 111, 116, 151, 152 Coleman, John 67 Collins, William 7, 33, 51, 55, 56, 104, 109, 111, 147 Colombia 64 Communities, Bahá'í 2, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 19, 24, 39, 41, 54, 60, 62, 107 Comparative religion 1, 13, 23 Comte, Auguste 68 Confucianism 99, 100, 101 Conner, Daniel 99, 103 Conow, B. Hoff 88, 106, 116, 117 Conrader, Constance 75 Consultation 9, 39, 63, 71 Conversion 23, 52, 56, 58, 63, 64, 103, 106 Coomaraswamy 97 Cooper, Roger 85 Cosmology 68, 115, 116 Counselors 9, 39, 41, 175 Covenant 24, 37, 39, 64, 72, 80 Covenant-breaking 93 Coy, Genevieve 114 Creation 8, 13, 65, 79, 114 Cyprus 58

Krishna 8, 56, 101 Krug, Florian 37 Kubala, Tom 46, 79 L

Singh, Raj 106 Smith, Peter 7, 15, 23, 24, 25, 35, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 58, 60, 64, 77, 93, 97, 103, 152, 189 Smoking 69, 70, 81 Social issues 9, 10, 60, 69, 80, 90, 104, 113 Sociology 1, 9, 13, 19, 44, 71, 77 Soul 8, 43, 79 Sours, Michael 62, 67, 72, 77, 94, 99, 100, 111 South Africa 96 South America 59, 173 Soviet Union 24, 52, 53, 56, 84, 86 Spinoza 89 Spiritual Assemblies 39, 62, 177 Spirituality 8, 9, 46, 50, 67, 69, 82, 88, 96, 105, 114, 115 Sprague, Sidney 56 Stalin, Joseph 56 Stendardo, Luigi 53 Stephens, Kenneth 94, 103 Stiles-Maneck, Susan 23, 53, 58, 64, 75, 103, 106, 107 Stockman, Robert 3, 24, 46, 53, 54, 55, 63, 64, 77, 100, 104, 159, 163 Stoddard, Susan 67 Storch, Juanita 37, 38 Streets, Donald 67 Sudan 10 Sufism 92, 101, 102 Sunní Islam 10, 50 Symbolism 50, 82, 111 Syria 10

Labib, Muhammad 85 Lalonde, Roxanne 67, 117 Lamb, Susan 70 Lambden, Steven 47, 61, 76, 102, 103, 109, 110, 111, 115, 113 Land, George 110 Language 9, 43, 92, 159 Laszlo, Ervin 110 Latin America 10, 24, 52, 58 Laws 63, 80 Lawson, Todd 48, 49 Leach, Bernard 44, 45 Leadership 9 Lee, Anthony 56, 75, 84, 86, 109, 113 Lee, Kathy 84 Lerche, Charles 66, 69, 80, 83, 84, 91, 114, 117 Lesser Peace 43, 82, 83 Leys, Colin 91 Liberation Theology 116, 160 Life-After-Death 43, 105 Lincoln, A. L. 90 Literary art 45, 77 Literature 10, 44, 45, 79 Livingston, James 15 Local And National Bahá'í Governing Bodies 10 Local Spiritual Assemblies 9, 10, 39, 42, 173, 176 T Locke, Kevin 90, 104, 174 Loehle, Craig 67, 76, 93, 110 Ta'eed, Lata 75 D Taherzadeh, Adib 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, M 58, 61, 62, 65, 72, 74 Dabell, Richard 69 Tai-Seale, Thomas 94 Mahmúd-i-Zarghání 54 Danesh, Amelia 112 Taiwan 57 Ma'súmián, Farnaz 43, 82 Danesh, Helen 112 Tanyi, Enoch 81 Ma'sumián, Bijan 115 Danesh, Hossein 69, 77, 84, 95, 96, 113, Taoism 99, 100, 101 Ma'ani, Baharieh 53, 75 114, 117 Tax 73 MacEoin, Denis 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 58, Danesh, John N. 84, 112 Taylor, Bonnie 96 85, 87, 92, 95, 108, 109, 151, 152 Danish 53 Teachings 42 Mahávíra 102 Davidson, John 67, 84 Temple 136 Mahmoudi, Hoda 68, 69, 75 Dawes, Colleen 74 Ten Year Crusade 42 Mahmudnezhad, Mona 173 Death 8, 43 Tests And Growth 8, 115 http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/rg/rg.index.html (4 of 8) [6-6-2004 16:22:20]

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Deepenings 10, 176 Deganawida 104 Democracy 39 Descartes 89 Devil 8 Diessner, Rhett 95 Divorce 9, 69 Drewek, Paula 72 Drug use 69

Mahyad, Zaerpoor 117 Maid Of Heaven 72 Maitreya 98 Malaysia 57 Mandaeans 105 Maneck, Susan. See Stiles-Maneck, Susan Manekji 58 Manichaeism 103 Manifestations 7, 8, 10, 13, 37, 39, 61, 63, 64, 65, 76, 79, 80, 81, 88, 97, 100, E 102, 103, 104, 107, 108, 115, 177 Manocha, Inder 44 Earl, David 81 Marconi, Eno 45 Earth 9, 43, 67 Marks, Geoffrey 61 Ecology 43, 67 Marriage 9, 69, 96, 107 Economics 9, 10, 43, 60, 65, 66, 73, 80, Marsella, Elena Maria 93, 95 90, 113, 114, 173 Martin, Douglas 7, 25, 35, 83, 85, 86, 87, Eden 108 98, 100 Education 9, 43, 66, 67, 69, 74, 88, 104, Martyrdom 72, 85, 87, 95 114 Marxism 66, 78, 85, 91, 113, 160 Egypt 10, 38, 39 Mashriqu'l-Adhkár 79 Eliade, Mircea 97 Matthews, Gary 93 Enáyat, Mohsen 102 May, Dann 77, 97, 98, 111, 117 Encyclopedias 57 Mcglinn, Sen 75, 78, 83, 91 England 53 Mclaughlin, Robert 62 Environment 43, 67, 117 Mclean, Jack 45, 68, 82, 92, 100, 114, Epistemology 68 116 Equality 9, 70, 73, 74, McMullen, Mike 96 75, 80, 92, 96, 113, 117 Medicine 76, 82 Erickson, David 45 Meditation 91 Eschatology 93 Mehrabkhani, Ruhulla 85 Esperanto 53 Metaphysics 55, 68, 76, 88 Esslemont 7, 35, 83 Middle East 58, 84, 101, 159 Ethics 68, 80, 81, 109 Militancy 85 Europe 10, 37, 38, Miller, William 87 52, 53, 58, 59 Mishkín-Qalam 45 Evil 112 Mitchell, Glenford 112 Evolution 23, 83, 93, 110 Moayyad, Heshmat 51, 102 Exegesis 77 Momen, Moojan 7, 15, 35, 46, 47, 48, 49, Eyford, Glen 44 50, 51, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 61, 68, 75, 78, 81, 82, 94, 97, 99, 100, 101, 102, 109, F 114, 116, 152 Momen, Wendi 7, 35, 92, 95 Money 9, 73 Faizi, Gloria 7, 35, 73, 74 Monjazeb, Shahrokh 84 Family Life 9, 69 Montreal 56 Famine 139 Fananapazir, Khazeh 76, 77, 100, 102, Morality 66, 67, 69, 80 Mormonism 92, 94, 103, 104 Farnsworth, Glen 93 Morocco 86 Fasting 8, 70, 72, 91, 176

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Theatre 45 Theology 48, 70, 81, 88, 97, 115, 116 Theosophy 105 Thomas, Richard 96 Thompson, Juliet 37, 44 Tidman, Marjorie 67, 84 Tobey, Mark 44, 45 Tolstoy, Leo 53, 56 Tonga 10 Towfigh, Ulrigh 100 Townshend, George 104 Truth 68, 92, 116 Tuman, Ludwig 44 Turkey 10, 78 Tuvalu 10 U Ullman, Chana 64 United States 24, 39, 54, 58 United States Bahá'í National Center 40 Unity 65, 82, 90, 116 Unity In Diversity 107, 116, 117 Universal House Of Justice 9, 10, 24, 33, 39, 41, 42, 43, 60, 73, 177 V Vader, John Paul 53 Vegetarianism 76 Vick, Holly Hanson 114 Vietnam 84 Vivekananda 24, 105 Vreeland, Claire 90 W Waite, Gary 85 Walbridge, John 70, 72, 74, 75, 80, 82, 89, 92 Walbridge, Linda 75, 80, 108 Walter, S. 98 War 45, 83, 84, 86, 93 Warburg, Margit 53, 56, 73 Ward, Allan 38, 54 Wealth 73, 92, 113 Weaver, Craig 118

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Fazel, Seena 48, 77, 80, 97, 98, 100, 102, 109, 111, 151, 153 Feast 10, 62, 71, 107, 176 Female Imagery 72 Feminism 74, 75, 160 Ferraby, John 7, 35 Finch, Trevor 74 Firesides 10, 176 Fischel, Walter 103 Fischer, Michael 85, 107 Fish, Mary 114 Fitzgerald, Michael 44 Forel, Auguste 53, 88 Fozdar, Jamshed 94, 99, 101 French 146 Friedmann, Yohanan 98 Funds 73

Morrison, Gayle 38, 40, 96 Moses 8, 102 Most Great Peace 82, 83 Motlagh, Hugh 43, 94 Mottahedeh, Roy 54 Mount Carmel 78, 89 Muhammad 849, 50, 51, 72, 87, 98, 101, 102, 159, 160 Mundy, Blue 94 Music 8, 44, 46, 67 Muslims 23, 57, 70, 71, 82, 91, 92, 100, 101, 105, 160 Mysticism 65, 72, 81, 82 Mythology 108 Myths 13, 82 N

G

Nabíl-i-Zarandí 47, 51, 145, 176, 182 Nakhjavání, Bahíyyih 58, 68 Gabriel 72 Nanak, Guru 106 Garden Of Eden 108 Nash, Geoffrey 78, 86 Gardner, Martin 95 National Spiritual Assemblies 9, 10, 39, Garlington, William 56, 42, 177 64, 101 Native Americans 81, 92, 94, 104, 173, Garvin, Alexander 96 174 Gender 70, 74, 75, 80, 88 Nature 65, 110 Genesis 108 Naw-Rúz 71, 72 Geneva 53 Nazis 86 Germany 53, 86 New Age 75, 104, 105 Getsinger, Lua 38, 89 New World Order 82, 88, 90, 105 Ghadirian, A. M. 56, 87 New York 173 Ghaznavi, Agnes 70 Nicolas, A. L. M. 48, 146 Giachery, Ugo 46, 78, 112 Nietzsche, Freidrich 88 Gillespie, Dizzy 46 Nigosian, Solomon 57 Glist, Paul 90 Nikjoo, Hushang 67 God 7, 8, 13, 65, 71, 75, 79, 80, 81, 110, Noah 102 115, 159 North America 38, 52, 54, 55, 90, 75 Numbers Of Babi Martyrs 87 Numerology 95 Numrich, Paul 57, 153 O O'Neil, Linda 70, 75

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Weixelman, Joseph 104 Wells, Bruce 82 White, Robert 45, 67 Whitehead, O. Z. 55 Whitmore, Bruce 55, 79 Wilcox, Patricia 69 Wilkins, Sue 93 Willoya, William 94 Wilmette 10, 55, 58 Wilson, Samuel 98 Winger-Bearskin, Michael 63 Winters, Jonah 3, 87, 99, 163 Wisdom 126, 130 Women 44, 53, 70, 74, 75, 84, 113, 118, 173, 210 Woodman, Ross 44, 45, 62, 72, 88, 109, 112 Work 9, 65, 71, 118 World Order 39 Worldly Leadership 140 Writings 33, 45, 62, 111, 112, 177 Y Yancy, Trey 95 Yazd 85, 107 Yoga 92 Young Turks 37 Z Zamenhof, Lidia 53, 86 Zarghání, Mahmud 52 Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin 135 Zen Buddhism 92 Zionism 140 Zohoori, Elias 76 Zoroastrianism 8, 10, 23, 57, 58, 64, 92, 103, 106, 111, 159, 160 Zrudlo 46

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Index of Journals Cited Herald of the South 180 History Today 85, 151 International Journal Middle East Studies 47, 48, 51, 61, 91, 95, 108, 152 Abhá: Journal of Bábí-Bahá'í Studies 181 Iranian Studies 48 The American Bahá'í 41 Jewish Review 103 Andalíb 92, 111 Jewish Social Studies 103 Arts Dialogue 114, 179 Journal of the American Oriental Society 51, 152 Bahá'í News 38 Bahá'í Studies (monograph series) 76, 82, 107, 113, 104, 209 Journal of Bahá'í Studies 40, 44, 45, 46, 49, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, Bahá'í Studies Bulletin 45, 47, 48, 51, 52, 55, 58, 61, 63, 76, 77, 82, 84, 85, 88, 89, 102, 103, 109, 110, 111, 113, 115, 116, 80, 81, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 90, 95, 96, 97, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 107, 109, 110, 111, 114, 116, 117, 153, 179 151, 181 Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 64, 93, 152 Bahá'í Studies Notebook 58, 66, 69, 76 Bahá'í Studies Review 44, 52, 53, 56, 69, 70, 72, 74, 75, 77, 78, Moslem World 98, 106 One Country 183 80, 81, 83, 91, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 104, 108, 109, 111, 151, Poetics Today 77 179 Reality Magazine 55 Bahá'í World 44, 46, 57, 59, 67, 71, 75, 82, 86, 87, 88 Religion 60, 64, 85, 88, 92, 110, 151, 152 Deepen 40, 41, 82, 95, 101, 104, 109, 112, 115, 182 Skeptical Inquirer 95 dialogue 75, 80, 90, 96, 110, 182 Social Compass 73 Encyclopedia Britannica 7, 15, 57, 153 Star of the West87, 96 Encyclopaedia Iranica 7, 48, 53, 57, 97, 153 Studia Iranica 49, 50, 95 Encyclopedia of Islam 7, 48, 57, 153 World Order37, 38, 44, 45, 46, 47, 51, Encyclopedia of Religion 57, 154 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 66, 67, 68, 74, 75, 77, 79, 80, Harper's 93, 151 81, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 90, 95, 96, 98, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 113, 114, 153, 181

A Resource Guide for the Scholarly Study of the Bahá'í Faith has been set in nine, ten, and twelve point New World Transliterator. For information on New World Transliterator contact Dr. Christopher Buck, Department of Religion, Millikin University, Decatur, Illinois 62522-2084.

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Resource Guide: ordering

How to order copies of A Resource Guide for the Scholarly Study of the Bahá'í Faith

Note: This document may no longer be available.

The on-line version of the Resource Guide closely approximates the printed edition, but suffers from a certain lack of formatting and the loss of many diacritics. Hard copy editions of the Resource Guide can be purchased from the Bahá'í Distribution Service. Cost is US$9.95, not including shipping. Contact: Bahá'í Distribution Service 5397 Wilbanks Rd. Chattanooga, TN 37343 Phone: (800) 999-9019 Fax: (423) 843-0836 Email: [email protected] Discounts for bulk orders and for classroom use may be available. Contact either the Bahá'í Distribution Service or: Robert Stockman Research Office Bahá'í National Center Wilmette, Illinois 60091 Phone (847) 733-3425 Fax (847) 733-3583 Email: [email protected]

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Resource Guide: Table of Contents

a university setting; and (3) whether the source presents enough information to be useful ..... of charisma, ideology, community structure and maintenance, recruitment, ...... However, he has an open bias against aspects of the Bahá'í Faith which can ..... [Notes: (1) due to software incompatibilities, diacritics were not included; ...

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