Transport Layer 1

Real Time Protocol (RTP) Prof. Jean-Yves Le Boudec Prof. Andrzej Duda Prof. Patrick Thiran LCA, EPFL CH-1015 Ecublens [email protected]

http://icawww.epfl.ch

Transport Layer 2

Multimedia applications o Streaming multimedia applications need l l

hard real-time guarantees (do not tolerate losses or (excessive) delay jitter: need intserv, diffserv – next chapter) soft real-time guarantees (do tolerate small losses and delay jitter: need RTP)

o Soft real time applications l l l l l

should support mulicast cannot wait for lost packets/segments/datagrams to be retransmitted need to associate some timing information (timestamps) with packets/segments/datagrams What about TCP ? What about UDP ?

Transport Layer 3

Real Time Transport Protocol (RTP) o RTP l l l l

uses UDP defines format of additional information required by the application (sequence number, time stamps) uses a special set of messages (RTCP) to exchange periodic reports one RTP session, one media flow

PCMA audio

MPEG2 video

RTP

RTP

Application

Transport UDP

UDP

IP

IP

Network

Ethernet

Frame Relay

Data link

From a developer’s perspective, RTP belongs to the application layer rather than the transport layer.

Transport Layer 4

RTP source

receiver A

CSRC

RTP RTCP

source

Mixer

Router

receiver B

SSRC RTCP session control - RTSP

oRTP session RTP port , RTCP port l unicast or multicast IP adresses l

Mixer is an intermediate system that combines RTP streams from different sources into a single stream. It can change the data format of the RTP packets.

Transport Layer 5

RTP o Provides standard packet format for real-time application o Specifies header fields below o Payload Type: 7 bits, providing 128 possible different types of encoding; eg PCM, MPEG2 video, etc. l

different media are not multiplexed

o Sequence Number: 16 bits; random number incremented by one for each RTP data packet sent; used to detect packet loss

Transport Layer 6

RTP o Timestamp: 32 bytes; gives the sampling instant of the first audio/video byte in the packet; used to remove jitter introduced by the network l l l

clock frequency depends on applications random initial value several packets may have equal timestamps (eg. same video frame), or even in disorder (eg. interpolated frames in MPEG)

o Synchronization Source identifier (SSRC) : 32 bits; an id for the source of a stream; assigned randomly by the source o Miscellaneous fields: Contributing Source identifier (CSRC)

Transport Layer 7

Type of the payload o Audio PCM A-law PCM µ-law l GSM l l

o Video CelB JPEG l H.261 l MPEG l l

Transport Layer 8

RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) o Protocol specifies report packets exchanged between sources and destinations of multimedia information o Three reports are defined: Receiver report (RR), Sender report (SR), and Source description (SDES) o Reports contain statistics such as the number of packets sent, number of packets lost, inter-arrival jitter o Used to modify sender transmission rates and for diagnostics purposes

Transport Layer 9

RTCP Bandwidth Scaling o If each receiver sends RTCP packets to all other receivers, the traffic load resulting can be large o RTCP adjusts the interval between reports based on the number of participating receivers o Typically, limit the RTCP bandwidth to 5% of the session bandwidth, divided between the sender reports (25%) and the receivers reports (75%)

Transport Layer 10

RTCP o Functions l l l l l

supervise the network QoS – flow control and congestion control identification of participants – persistent id (CNAME = Canonical Name) determine the number of participants session information traffic of RTCP < 5%

o Format of RTCP packets l

l l l l

SR : sender reports – information on the source – source statistics RR : reception reports – receiver statistics SDES : source description – CNAME BYE : end of the participation APP : application specific functions

Transport Layer 11

SR and RR : sender and receiver reports o Information on the source (only in SR) absolute timestamp (NTP) timestamp (RTP) l number of packets sent RTP l number of bytes sent RTP l l

o o o o

Statistics report for source SSRC-1 Statistics report for source SSRC-2 ... Statistics report for source SSRC-n

Transport Layer 12

Statistics report o o o o o o o

SSRC-n Fraction of lost packets Number of lost packets Last sequence number received Estimation of the jitter Timestamp of the last SR received Delay since the last SR received

Transport Layer 13

Jitter estimation o S i - RTP timestamp RTP of packet i o Ri - reception instant of packet i o Di - jitter estimation for packet i l

Di = (Ri - R i-1) – (Si - Si-1 )

o Ji - temporal average of the jitter for packet i l

Ji = 15/16 Ji-1 + 1/16 | Di |

o Used for adaptive playout

Transport Layer 14

RTSP (Real-Time Streaming Protocol) o Similar to HTTP l

rtsp://france-info.fr/actualites

o Description of available media l

SDP (Session Description Protocol)

o Allows to establish RTP sessions o Session control l

start, pause, resume, end

Real Time Protocol (RTP) - EPFL

From a developer's perspective, RTP belongs to the application layer rather than the transport layer. 3. Real Time Transport Protocol (RTP). ❑ RTP. ○ uses UDP.

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