Word Building (Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs only) The English vocabulary is more extensive than that of most other languages of the world. The Oxford English Dictionary (2nd edition, 1989) contains more than 6,00,000 words. It has been estimated that the present English vocabulary consists of more than 1 million (10,00,000) words in total. We find a lot of borrowed words from every major and numerous minor languages in the English vocabulary. Furthermore, some processes like affixation have led to the creation of many new words. Words in English language, generally, are divided into two: (A) Root Words, and (B) Derived Words. (A) Root Words: book, clean, good etc. (B) Derived Words: kind + ness = kindness, en + courage = encourage etc. In thee above mentioned derived words, we find affixes like ness and en added to the root words kind and courage respectively. These affixes make some internal changes in the root words and form new words. Study the following information regarding affixation and try to understand how they form new words. Noun Makers: Affixes --age --al --ance --dom --ence --hood --ion --ity --ment --ness --ship --tion

Word Formation bond – bondage, mile – mileage, person – personage. propose – proposal, refuse – refusal. avoid – avoidance, annoy – annoyance. free – freedom, martyr – martyrdom. indulge – indulgence, differ – difference. brother – brotherhood, neighbour – neighbourhood. nominate – nomination, depress – depression. national – nationality, personal – personality. detach – detachment, commence – commencement. Conscious – consciousness, busy – business. relation – relationship, leader – leadership. bother – botheration, prescribe – prescription.

Adjective Makers: Affixes --able --al --an --ed --ent --ful --ive --ish --ous --y --less --some --ward

Word Formation habit – habitual, conceive – conceivable. nation – national, diagnose – diagonal. Africa – African, India – Indian. learn – learned, desert – deserted. differ – different, indulge – indulgent. care – careful, help – helpful. construct – constructive, nominate – nominative. slave – slavish, fool – foolish. fury – furious, fame – famous. scrub – scrubby, fun – funny. fault – faultless, harm – harmless. bother – bothersome, quarrel – quarrelsome. fore – forward, home – homeward.

Verb Makers: Affixes --ate --en en---fy/ify --ise/ize ac-be-em-en-ex-im--

Word Formation motive – motivate, cultivable – cultivate. threat – threaten, deep – deepen. courage – encourage, title – entitle. electric – electrify, beauty – beautify. nation – nationalise, symbol – symbolize. custom – accustom, knowledge – acknowledge. fool – befool, friend – befriend. power – empower, bitter, embitter. courage – encourage, slave – enslave. port – export, tend – extend. prison – imprison, port – import.

Here are given some important and frequently used nouns, adjectives and verbs in a table format. Noun absence absurdity acquisition action activity addition adequacy administration

adjective absent absurd acquisitive active active additional adequate administrative

verb ----------acquire act activate add -----administrate

adventure affection affirmation agony amazement ambition analysis application argument arrogance assignment assistant attention awareness addition basement beauty belief blood boredom bothering breath brilliance calculation character choice civilization comfort commerce comparison competition complaint comprehension compulsion confirmation connection consideration construction consultation contentment continuity/continuation contribution conviction cooperation courage

adventurous affectionate affirmative agonizing amazing ambitious analytical applicable arguable arrogant assigned -----attentive aware additional basic beautiful believable bloody boring bothersome -----brilliant calculative characteristic chosen civil/civilized comfortable commercial comparable competitive complaining comprehensible compulsory confirmed connective considerate constructive consultant contented continual/continuous contributory convincing cooperative courageous

adventure -----affirm agonize amaze -----analyze apply argue arrogate assign assist attend beware add base beautify believe bleed bore bother breathe -----calculate characterize choose civilize comfort commercialize compare compete complain comprehend compel confirm connect consider construct consult content continue contribute convince cooperate encourage

creditor culture cure deafness death dedication deduction defence democracy demonstration depression depth destruction difference digestion direction disaster division documentation/document economy education effect efficiency elevation emergence emphasis enclosure endurance energy enlargement entertainment envy equality erection essence eternity evidence exaggeration example exception excess excitement execution/executioner existence expansion

creditable cultural curable deaf dead dedicated deductive defensive democratic demonstrative depressed deep destructive different digestive directive disastrous -----documentary economical educational effective efficient elevated emergent emphatic enclosed endurable energetic large entertaining envious equal erect essential eternal evident exaggerative exemplary exceptional excessive exciting executive existent expansive

credit -----cure deafen die dedicate deduct defend ------demonstrate depress deepen destroy differ digest direct -----divide document economies educate affect -----elevate emerge emphasize enclose endure energies enlarge entertain envy equalize erect -----eternalize evidence exaggerate exemplify except exceed excite execute exist expand

exploration extension fame finance flight foolishness foresight formality foundation frequency fright generation glory gratitude hardness/hardship hatred health herb hesitation holder horror hospitality identity ignorance imagination simplicity impulse indication individuality industry infection inferiority infinity information injury innocence inspection/inspector intellect intensity intention interest interruption investigation invitation irritation

exploratory extensive famous financial flying foolish foreseen formal foundational frequent frightened generational glorious grateful hard hateful healthy herbal hesitant -----horrid hospitable identical ignorant imaginative simple impulsive indicative individual industrial infectious inferior infinite informative injurious innocent -----intellectual intense intentional interesting interrupting investigative inviting irritable

explore extend -----finance fly fool foresee formalize found frequent frighten generate glorify -----harden hate heal -----hesitate hold horrify -----identify ignore imagine simplify -----indicate individualise industrialize infect ----------inform injure -----inspect intellectualize intensify intend interest interrupt investigate invite irritate

isolation jealousy joy justice leader leakage life literacy luxury magnificence maintenance marvel medicine memory minimum mixture modification movement mystery narration/narrator nation need negligence newness nobility normalcy obligation occupation option originality payment penetration performance person pleasure politeness politics power practice prediction preference preparation prestige prevention pride

isolative/isolated jealous joyous/joyful just leading leaking live literate luxurious magnificent maintainable marvellous medical memorable minimum mixed modified movable mysterious narrative national needy negligent new noble normal obligatory occupational optional original payable penetrating performing personal pleasant polite political powerful practicing predictable preferable preparatory prestigious preventive proud

isolate -----enjoy ------lead leak live -----luxuriate magnify maintain marvel medicate memorize minimize mix modify move mysteries narrate nationalize need neglect renew ennoble normalize oblige occupy opt originate pay penetrate perform personify please -----politicize empower practise predict prefer prepare -----prevent ------

privacy proceedings product progress proposition prosperity protection provision purity qualification reaction realization reception recitation reflection refreshment refusal rejection relation reliance repetition resolution response revolution science secrecy security selection sensitivity sharpness significance slavery society solitude sophistication specialization specification storage strength substance success sufficiency suggestion suspicion sympathy

private procedural productive progressive proposed prosperous protective provisional pure qualified reactive real/reality receptive recital reflective refreshing -------rejectable relative reliable/reliant repetitive resolute responsive revolving scientific secret secure selective sensitive sharp significant slavish social/sociable solitary sophisticated special specific storable strong substantial successful sufficient suggestible suspicious sympathetic

privatize proceed produce progress propose prosper protect provide purify qualify react realize receive recite reflect refresh refuse reject relate rely repeat resolve respond revolve ----------secure select sensitize sharpen signify enslave socialize -----sophisticate specialize specify store strengthen substantiate succeed suffice suggest suspect sympathize

system temptation thought/thinker threat tolerance tourism tragedy truth urgency utilization vacancy vanity verification violence vitality volunteer width wonder

systematic tempting thoughtful threatening tolerant touring tragic true urgent utilized vacant vane verified violent vital voluntary wide wonderful

systematize tempt think threaten tolerate tour ----------urge utilise vacate -----verify -----vitalize volunteer widen wonder


cooperation cooperative cooperate. courage courageous encourage. Page 3 of 8. PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES.pdf. PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES.pdf. Open. Extract.

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