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J. Phys. Stu. 2, 1 2 (2008)

Physics

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Effect of interplanetary disturbances on cosmic rays and interplanetary parameters R. Agarwal1, R. K. Mishra 2* 1

2

Department of Physics, Govt. Model Science College (Autonomous), Jabalpur (M.P.) 482 001, India Computer and I.T. Section, Tropical Forest Research Institute, P.O.: RFRC, Mandla Road, Jabalpur (M.P.) India 482 021 * Corresponding Author: [email protected] or [email protected] Received 31 August 2007; received in revised form 9 October 2007; accepted 10 October 2007

Abstract - In the present work analogous analysis has been made for the extreme events occurred during July 2005. Specifically, rather intense Forbush decrease was observed at different neutron monitors all over the world during 16 July 2005. It started some hours before arrival of a weak shock associated with a CME from 14 July 2005. It is rather a peculiar event, as it is not a ground level enhancement of solar cosmic rays and not a geomagnetic effect in cosmic rays. An effort has been made to study the effect of this unusual event on cosmic ray intensity as well as various solar and interplanetary plasma parameters. It is noteworthy that during 11 to 18 July 2005, the solar activity ranged from low to vary active. Especially low levels occurred at the 11, 15 and 17 July whereas high levels took place on the 14 and 16 July 2005. A series of Forbush effects took place from 12 July causing a decrease in cosmic ray intensity of about 2%, by the 16 July 2005. An intensive Forbush decrease of cosmic ray intensity observed on 16th July, 2005. The characteristics of this Forbush decrease on 16th July, 2005 indicate that it does not comprise ground level enhancement of solar cosmic rays neither a geomagnetic effect in cosmic rays. The Sun is observed active during 11 to 18 July 2005 and the interplanetary magnetic field intensity lies within 15 nT and solar wind velocity was limited to ~ 500 kms-1. The geomagnetic activity during this period remains very quite, Kp index did not exceed 5, the disturbance storm time Dst index remains ~ - 70 and no sudden storm commencement (SSC) has been detected during this period.

PACS: 96.40.Kk, 96.40. -z, 96.40.cd Keywords: cosmic ray, interplanetary magnetic field, sunspot numbers, Forbush decrease and geomagnetic activity.

1. Introduction The transient disturbances in the interplanetary space usually are accompanied by the short period decreases — Forbush effects of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity [1–5]. Generally, two types of the Forbush effects of the GCR intensity are distinguished — sporadic and recurrent. The sporadic Forbush effects are characterized with a rapid decrease phase during the one–two days and by a subsequent recovery phase lasting for few days. Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) produced large variations in cosmic ray intensity. A lot of attempts have been made in the past to explore the relation between these phenomena as well as their impact on cosmic rays [6-8]. 2

Nowadays, the analysis of spacecraft data reveals that these events are common in the solar wind. About 30% of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed in the solar wind exhibit internal field rotations, characteristic of magnetic flux rope. However, the relationship between the CMEs observed near the Sun and magnetic clouds is poorly understood. Forbush decreases associated with shock-associated cloud are caused by magnetic field variations associated with interplanetary disturbances [9]. Badruddin et al. [10] have reported a possible correlation between magnetic clouds and cosmic ray intensity decrease while Kudo et al. [11] have reported an increase in cosmic ray intensity that may be related to the geomagnetic Dst index and Iucci et al. [12] have found short term increase in cosmic ray intensity occurring inside the Forbush decrease, that possibly may be associated with magnetic clouds. Zhang and Burlaga [13] infer that the cosmic rays are mainly modulated by fluctuation rather than by drifting in the strong smooth field in the magnetic cloud. The magnetic clouds can interact with other flows [14]. Magnetic clouds are ideal objects for solar terrestrial studies because of their simplicity and extended intervals of southward and northward magnetic fields [15]. Gosling [16] has shown that approximately 1/3 of interplanetary manifestations of solar ejecta (also called CMEs by some authors) are magnetic clouds. A magnetic cloud like a well defined CME acts as a driver and forms a driver shock wave; propagation and properties of the shock and driver it self. Hence like interplanetary shock, magnetic clouds provide us with a link between ejected material, field and energy on the Sun and significant magnetospheric activity via solar wind. These events are not always associated with interplanetary shocks but only when they travel faster than the ambient solar wind. Besides the identification of magnetic clouds locating cloud boundaries is an open problem [17]. Zhang and Burlaga [13] showed that the clouds are usually spatially shorter than the interval defined by counter-streaming electrons, suggesting that the clouds are parts of larger transient structures. Many workers have shown the structure and dynamics of interplanetary magnetic clouds and their effects on the magneto sheath and magnetosphere. The association of geomagnetic activity to magnetic clouds and other IMF features are given by Farrugia et al. [18] and Tsurutani and Gonzalez [19]. Farrugia et al. [20] have shown that a major geomagnetic storm and associated aurora were produced by the extended interval of the negative Bz in the front part of magnetic cloud. As the magnetic cloud moved past the Earth, the magnetic field slowly rotated northward giving an extended interval with positive Bz in which the geomagnetic activity subsided. Kudela and Brenkus [21] rigorously studied the decreases in cosmic ray intensity for the time period 1982–2002 and compared with simultaneous changes in Dst index using the data from four neutron monitors with different vertical cutoff rigidities. They noticed that Dst behaviour during different periods of cosmic ray decreases is rather complex. Along with the events when cosmic ray decreases are accompanied by corresponding Dst depressions, there are several effects when geomagnetic activity (measured by Dst) is not changing significantly. In some cases large Dst depression is not marked by cosmic ray decreases. Their work presents 2 tables of cosmic ray events as a function of geomagnetic activity. The tables, indicating 19% of cosmic ray decreases without Dst variability and 28% of Dst variabilities without clear cosmic ray decreases, may be useful for investigating the relation between cosmic ray flux values and atmospheric effects and for eventual discrimination between cosmic ray flux and geomagnetic activity level influence on the atmospheric processes. 2. Data and analysis The temperature and pressure corrected hourly data (counts of neutrons) of cosmic ray intensity from Moscow neutron monitor have been used, where the long-term change from the data has been removed by the method of trend correction. The days of Forbush decreases have also been removed from the analysis to avoid their influence in cosmic ray variation. Interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind plasma data have been taken from the interplanetary medium data book. 3

3. Results and discussion In the present work we have rigorously studied the extreme events occurred during July 11 to 17, 2005. The hourly data of cosmic ray neutron monitor of Moscow for these events have been plotted in Fig 1. As depicted in figure, a series of Forbush effects took place from 12 July causing a decrease in cosmic ray intensity of about 2%, by the 16 July 2005. As a result an intensive Forbush decrease of cosmic ray, on 16th July is evident. A sharp enhancement of cosmic ray intensity occurred right after the main phase of the Forbush decrease on 16th July, was followed by a second decrease within less than 12 hours. The characteristics of this event indicate that it does not comprise a ground level enhancement of solar cosmic rays neither a geomagnetic effect in cosmic rays. The event seems to be caused by the interplanetary disturbances in the inner heliosphere at the time when earth crossed a periphery of a giant Forbush effect started after the flare on 14th July and play a significant role for the solar activity of the previous days.

CRI

8800

11/07/2005

8700 8600 8500

CRI

8625

12/07/2005

8600 8575

CRI

8550 8700 8650 8600 8550 8500

13/07/2005

14/07/2005

CRI

8675 8625 8575 8525

CRI

15/07/2005 8550 8350

CRI

8700 8500 8300 8100 7900

CRI

8350 8250 8150 8050

CRI

8150

8550 8450 8350 8250 8150

16/07/2005

17/07/2005

18/07/2005

1

4

7

10 13 Hours

16

19

22

Fig 1. Cosmic ray intensity variation during July 11 – 18 2005. 4

The Sun was rather active during this period and we have observed 35 C-class, 13 M-class and 1 X-class solar flares and five Halo coronal mass ejections during 11 to 18 July 2005. Though the main flares occurred, the interplanetary space near the Earth was not strongly disturbed during this period. The interplanetary magnetic field intensity lies within 15 nT and solar wind velocity was limited to ~ 500 kms-1. The geomagnetic activity during this period was also very quite, Kp index did not exceed 5, the lowest Dst index remains ~ - 70 and no sudden storm commencement (SSC) has been detected during this period. It is noticed that the solar activity remains low to very active during the period 11 to 18th July 2005. Particularly the solar activity found to remain low during 11, 15 and 17 July, whereas it remains very high during 14 and 16 July 2005. The sunspot numbers as depicted in Fig 2 found to continuously decreased from 11th July until it remain completely absent on 18th July 2005. Thus a blank Sun appeared on 18th July and it remains blank for a number of days till 22nd July 2005. 14 16% 15 11%

13 22%

Other 10%

16 6%

17 4% 12 20%

11 21%

18 0%

Fig 2. Frequency of occurrence of sunspot numbers during July 11 – 18 2005.

The cosmic ray decrease was probably influenced by the weak shock that reached the Earth on the 16 July 2005 approximately six hours after the beginning of the cosmic ray decrease. The sudden increase of cosmic ray within 17th July 2005 could be the result of solar activity that had been recorded earlier and reached the Earth at that time. This is the possibility because during previous days four coronal mass ejections (CMEs) noticed, two bright and fast halo CMEs on the 14th and two partial halo CMEs on the 15th and 16th July 2005 respectively. The first of the two halo CMEs that took place on 14th July 2005 may be responsible for the cause of Forbush decrease. th

4. Conclusions • • • • •

From the present investigations following conclusions may be drawn: A series of Forbush effects took place from 12 July causing a decrease in cosmic ray intensity of about 2%, by the 16 July 2005. An intensive Forbush decrease of cosmic ray intensity observed on 16th July, 2005. The characteristics of this Forbush decrease on 16th July, 2005 indicate that it does not comprise ground level enhancement of solar cosmic rays neither a geomagnetic effect in cosmic rays. The Sun is observed active during 11 to 18 July 2005 and the interplanetary magnetic field intensity lies within 15 nT and solar wind velocity was limited to ~ 500 kms-1. The geomagnetic activity during this period remains very quite, Kp index did not exceed 5, the disturbance storm time Dst index remains ~ - 70 and no sudden storm commencement (SSC) has been detected during this period. 5

Acknowledgements The authors are indebted to various experimental groups, in particular, Prof. Margret D. Wilson, Prof. K. Nagashima, Miss. Aoi Inoue and Prof. J. H. King for providing the data. The authors are also very much thankful to the anonymous referees for their useful comments/suggestions. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

[7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21]

S.E. Forbush, J. Geophys. Res., 59, 525 (1954). J. A. Lockwood, J. Geophys. Res., 65, 19 (1960). L. I. Dorman, Cosmic Rays Variations and Space Exploration, Nauka, Moscow, (1963). J. A. Lockwood, W.R. Webber, Proceedings of 20th International Cosmic Ray Conference, Moscow, 3, 283 (1987). H. V. Cane, Space Sci. Rev., 93, 49 (2000). J. Hundhausen, "Coronal mass Ejections", in K.T. Strong, J.L. Saba, B.H.Haisch and J.T. Schmelz, (eds.), The many faces of the Sun: a Summary of the results from NASA’s Solar Maximum Mission, Springer, New York, 143 (1999). R. A. Harrison, Astron. & Astrophys., 304, 585 (1995). H. V. Cane, Space Science Rev., 93, 55 (2000). Badruddin, R. S. Yadav, N. R. Yadav, Solar Phys., 105, 413 (1986). Badruddin, R. S. Yadav, and S. P. Agrawal, Proc. 19th, Int. cosmic ray conf. SH-5, 1-12 NASA Cof. Publ., 2376, 258 (1985). S. Kudo, M. Wada, P. Tanskanen, and M. Kodama, Proc. 19th Int. cosmic ray conf. SH5, 1-8 NASA conf. Publ., 2376, 246 (1985). N. Iucci, M. Parisi, C. Signorini, M. Storini, and G. Villoresi, Proc. 19th Int cosmic ray conf. Publ., 2376, 226 (1985). Z. Zhang, and L. F. Burlaga, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 2511 (1988). L. F. Burlaga, International Magnetohydrodynamics, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, (1995). L. F. Burlaga, R. Lepping, and J. Jones, Geophys. Monogr. Series, 58, 373 (1990). J. T. Gosling, Geophys, Monogram, 58, 343 (1990). R. P. Lepping, L. F. Burlaga, and J. A. Jones, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 11957 (1990). C. J. Farrugia, L. F. Burlaga, and R. P. Lepping, Geophys. Monogr. Series. Ed. By Tsurutani et al., (1997). B. T. Tsurutani, and W. D. Gonzalez, The Interplanetary causes of magnetic stroms, a Rev. in Geophys. Monogr. Series, (1997). C. J. Farrugia, R. P. Lepping, L. F. Burlaga, A. Szabo, D. Vassiliadis, P. Stauning, and M. P. Freeman, EOS, Trans. AUG. 77(17), Spring Meet. Suppl., S2 41, (1996). K. Kudela and R. Brenkus, J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., 66 (13-14), 1121 (2004).

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