Parimalam - an Internet Magazine dedicated for Dvaita Philosophy Issue: August 2008
Table of Contents Life and History of Sri Madhwacharya - Part 20 - By M Rama Rao, Kumbakonam
Life and History of Sri Madhwacharya - Part 20 By Late M Rama Rao, Kumbakonam Elucidation of the nine doctrines: VI. Moksha or Liberation This is a goal of life. In Bhagavata 2-10 6 we have the definition of Mukti or Moksha. It is the self-conscious existence of the soul in his own distinctive nature after his release from the extraneous bondages. The former is the positive constituent and the latter is the negative one. The real nature of the souls is three-fold, since they are of three groups already mentioned. The nature of the Satvika group is unalloyed bliss, knowledge, devotion and so on., that the Tamasa group, a mixture of both the extraneous bondages are common to the three groups and they are (the Lingadeha, Sthula deha), the material subtle and gross bodies and others, which envelop the souls, so tightly that they cannot experience or realise their own joy or sorrow. The soul is like the edible kernel of the coconut fruit, within the hard shell and outer cover. When the bondages are got rid of, the nature manifests itself and is experienced by them, and infinitum without a rebirth. Gita 14-18 gives the three goals of the three groups. The Satvikas go upwards to the regions of Vaikunta, Anantasana, and the Shwetadvipa. The description of Vaikunta and the enjoyment of bliss there, are already given. The Rajasas remain in the middle regions of Heaven, hell and earth. The Tamasas go down to the two eternal hells called Tamisra and Andhatamisra (Brahma Sutra 3-1-16) without ever attaining God. The Satvikas enjoy unalloyed bliss, the Rajasas, a mixture of bliss and misery, and the Tamasas unalloyed misery (eternal damnation). Because their nature is such and no interchange is possible (Brahma Sutra 3-4-35). God Vishnu, though omnipotent, does not change the natures and the fundamentals. This may savour of cruelty on his part, since he is proclaimed to be an ocean of mercy. However, the Vedas say so and theirs are the last word upon the subject, though it may be opposed to our reasoning. What are found to be false in the souls, are verily virtues in God. He is free from all faults. This is Sri Madhva's concept of Moksha. The Buiddhistic conception is the annihilation of soul. The Jains- the souls take to an everlasting upward flight, just as a bird does, after being set free from the cage. The Charvakas- Death closes all and it is Moksha. Imference and scriptures are denied by them. The Mimamsakas- Swarga or heaven itself is Moksha. The Advaita- Karma Mukti is a lesser one which is the enjoyment of bliss in Vaikuntha and so on, the adobes of Saguna Gods; Parama Mukti is the higher one, which is becoming one with the Nirguna brahman. The Visistadvaitathe perfect similarity between God and Soul. Everyone of us shuns sorrow and aspires after the enjoyment of unalloyed bliss alone and not after any kind of the Moksha described by those, other than Sri Madhva. So Sri Madhva's Moksha alone is suited to the aspiration of everyone of the Satvika group.
Sri Madhwesharpanam Astu
Parimalam - August 2008 - http://dvaita.parimalam.googlepages.com - Page 1