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Open-Access Journals and Institutional Repositories Paul Royster University of Nebraska-Lincoln, [email protected]

Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Library and Information Science Commons Royster, Paul, "Open-Access Journals and Institutional Repositories" (2012). Library Conference Presentations and Speeches. 82.

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Open-Access Journals and

Institutional Repositories

UNL College of Engineering September 6, 2012 Paul Royster Coordinator of Scholarly Communications, UNL Libraries

Q: What is “open access”? A: There are two schools of thought now engaged in a sometimes bitter disagreement.

School #1 = “Gratis OA”

“Open access” means free to access, use, and store, with no purchase, fees, or registration required. (Owner retains copyright and control over re-use.)

School #2 = “Libre OA” “Open access” means all the above plus: Freedom to re-use, modify, re-distribute, repackage, make derivative works, etc. (Owner retains “copyright” but grants a Creative Commons license that permits all other uses subject only to attribution requirement.)

Creative Commons licenses

BY = must credit original authors NC = non-commercial uses only (though what exactly is included/prohibited is unclear). SA = share alike: subsequent re-uses must apply same CC license A Massachusetts-chartered 501(c)(3) tax-exempt charitable corporation, founded in 2001, with approximately $3.5 million operating budget & $5 million in assets. Develops usage licenses to apply to everything from software, to film, to publications, and all types of intellectual property.

So, “Gratis” or “Libre” ? In my view, they are both “open access” even though some advocates say “gratis” is not OA enough.

But that’s not all:

There are 2 recognized business models of OA

Green OA (nobody pays) or

Gold OA (author pays) Obviously, publishers prefer a model where somebody pays.

Most leading Open Access journals will be • Libre OA (Creative Commons licensed) • Gold OA (author pays model) “article processing fees” range from $500 to $4,000 • PLOS (Public Library of Science) • BMC (BioMed Central [Springer]) • Hindawi

The whole journal is OA. This is an OK deal, if you can afford it.

However, Some commercial publishers (Wiley, Sage, etc.) offer a “hybrid” OA model, where only some articles (whose authors pay an extra fee) are open access. Most of the journal is toll-access, and the OA articles are usually not CC-licensed or “libre” OA. I don’t think this is a good deal at all.

And there are also Green OA journals, which do not charge “processing fees” Usually published by departments, libraries, societies, etc.

See DOAJ -- Directory of Open Access Journals 8,000+ journals (gold + green) Quality-controlled & peer-reviewed

920 OA journals in Technology & Engineering

So, “Open-Access” doesn’t necessarily mean “low-quality” any more than

“Subscription Access” necessarily means “high quality”

“Open-Access” does mean • • • • • •

Easily and widely disseminated More often seen More often downloaded More available in developing world More often cited More visits and visitors

Part 2:

Institutional Repositories

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Institutional repository ― an online locus for 1. collecting 2. preserving 3. disseminating the intellectual output of a research institution. UNL’s IR is called the UNL DigitalCommons

Features of an IR • Online digital content • Free (“open access” [gratis])

• Full text • Associated (somehow) with the institution

The four main objectives for having an institutional repository are: 1. to create global visibility for an institution's scholarly research;

2. to collect content in a single location; 3. to provide open access to institutional research output by self-archiving it;

4. to store and preserve other institutional digital assets, including unpublished or otherwise easily lost ("grey") literature (e.g., theses or technical reports). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (emphasis added)

Traditional library mission • Acquire resources from world marketplace • Deliver to local community

Mission of the IR • Acquire locally developed resources • Deliver to worldwide community

BASE - Bielefeld Academic Search Engine says: • Approximately 37 million documents in OA repositories worldwide • 6 million new documents deposited in 2011

Registry of Open Access Repositories says:

• 1879 institutional repositories worldwide

• 462 IRs in USA



#2 ! (in USA)

72,114 59,005



Nebraska …


UNL DigitalCommons is • “Gratis” open-access

• Not “libre” open access

Institutional repositories are • Green OA: no cost to author or users (in our case, the UNL Libraries foots the bill).

• Populated by “self-archiving”: author (or representative) deposits a version of the article, which sits on institution’s site, not publisher’s site.

How do I get my articles into the repository ? 1. email me your vita (or publication list) [email protected] 2. ( There is no step 2. )

Services UNL Digital Commons provides: • • • • • • • • •

permissioning hunting and gathering scanning typesetting metadata-ing uploading & posting usage reporting promoting POD publication

Copyright & Permissions 1. Inclusion in the repository does not alter an article's copyright status. 2. We only post articles for which we can obtain the publisher's or copyright holder's permission. (About 80% of publishers allow some version to be used.)

Publisher’s Policies* (simplified) 1. Good guys: Allow us to use their PDFs or pages 2. OK guys: Allow us to use their content but not their versions 3. Bad guys: Don’t allow us to use anything * Regarding works by UNL faculty authors.

We can prepare “author versions” where the publisher’s PDF is not allowed, but sometimes we run into material that is just too math-y for us. We can handle equations, even complex ones, but when there is page after page of embedded symbols in the text, we have to make a “triage” decision of whether to spend 10-20 hours on that one article or to do 5 or 6 others instead.

We are always happy to accept and load your MS Word or τεκ-based PDF file of the MS.

Some universities have an IR mandate • This “requires” faculty to deposit new articles in the institutional repository. • Harvard, MIT, et al. prefer to call it a “policy” since authors are permitted to “opt out”. • UNL has no mandate and no policy of this sort. The IR is voluntary for faculty & PhDs.

Dissertations PhD dissertations (since 1888) are available to campus via the IR. These are held at ProQuest, and the IR only acts as a “portal.” Available to non-UNL users by subscription only. This is a required deposit. Some recent PhD dissertations are also available openaccess because they have been self-archived voluntarily by the authors in the regular IR. This makes them widely available and easily downloaded—an advantage for job applicants.

Master’s Theses • Since 2008, all master’s theses are required to be deposited in the UNL DigitalCommons. • This replaces the previous hard-copy deposit requirement. • If necessary, theses can be embargoed, with permission of the department and the UNL Graduate Office.

Why be in it ? 1. Global distribution 2. Immediate access 3. Convenient collection

4. Archival preservation 5. Feedback & usage statistics

Last Semester January–May 2012 • 2.15 million downloads furnished avg = 15,000/day • 3,137 articles added avg = 21/day • Average repository article was downloaded 50 times

To Faraway Places Togo Haiti Pitcairn Is. Niue Virgin Is (Br.) Burundi Liechtenstein Kiribati Gibraltar Djibouti Ascension Is. Cook Islands Guadalupe

9 9 8 8 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 4 3

Nauru Sao Tome & Principe Niger Jersey (Island of) Guernsey Christmas Island Cape Verde Is. Congo Congo, Dem Rep Turkmenistan Tajikistan Faroe Is. Andorra

3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

Most Frequent Visitors India Great Britain Canada Australia Philippines Hong Kong Germany Malaysia France Pakistan South Africa Poland Indonesia

62,802 62,379 48,395 24,462 16,202 14,501 14,308 13,877 10,712 10,573 10,563 9,395 8,783

Italy 7,743 Spain 7,653 Netherlands 7,610 Nigeria 7,395 Brazil 7,030 Turkey 6,685 Mexico 6,544 Japan 6,507 Russia 5,979 Korea 5,832 Thailand 5,642 Egypt 5,005 190 countries in all

Recommendations 1. Include money for Gold OA article processing fees in your grant requests 2. Publish in journals that allow self-archiving to Green OA institutional repositories 3. Email me your publication list 4. Email me when you publish a new article 5. Read your publication contracts before signing

Contact Paul Royster UNL Libraries, Scholarly Communications 306 Love Library 402 472-3628 [email protected]

Open-Access Journals and Institutional Repositories

Sep 6, 2012 - [email protected]University of Nebraska - Lincoln · Library Conference ... Part of the Library and Information Science Commons. This Article is brought ... 920 OA journals in Technology & Engineering .... Hong Kong. 14,501.

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