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On the Stability and Agility of Aggressive Vehicle Maneuvers: A Pendulum-Turn Maneuver Example Jingang Yi, Senior Member, IEEE, Jingliang Li, Jianbo Lu, Senior Member, IEEE, and Zhaodu Liu

The front and rear tire forces in the wheel plane frame. The vehicle mass center velocities in the body frame. The vehicle mass center acceleration in the body frame. The vehicle mass center jerk in the body frame. Instantaneous jerk (acceleration) agility metric at location . Aggregated jerk (acceleration) agility metric over arclength . The front and rear tire angular velocities. The front and rear tire slip ratios. The front and rear tire slip angles.

Abstract—We present a dynamic stability and agility study of a pendulum-turn vehicle maneuver. Instead of optimizing the controlled inputs to mimic expert human driver performance, we focus on understanding the stability and agility performance of the vehicle motion using professional racing car driver testing data. We propose to use the rear side slip angle, rather than the vehicle mass center side slip angle, as one state variable to obtain the precise stable region. A hybrid physical/dynamic tire/road friction model is used to capture the dynamic friction force characteristics. We also introduce the use of vehicle lateral jerk and acceleration information as the agility metrics to compare maneuvering performance under the racing car driver and a typical human driver. The analysis and testing results show that during the pendulum-turn maneuvers, the professional driver operates the vehicle outside the stable regions of the vehicle dynamics to achieve superior agility performance than that under typical human driver control. Comparison results also show that the racing car driver outperforms in both the traveling time and the agility metrics. It is ongoing work to design a control strategy for autonomous aggressive maneuvers by using the new stability and agility results presented in this paper.

Vehicle’s yaw angle and yaw angular rate. Front wheel steering angle. Vehicle side slip angle. Vehicle side slip angle variable . The total mass of the vehicle. The mass moment of inertia of the vehicle system around the -axis at the mass center. The gravitational constant m/s . Distances between the front and rear wheel contact points and the vehicle mass center. Distances between the left and right wheel contact points and the vehicle mass center.

Index Terms—Aggressive maneuvers, agility, nonlinear dynamics, vehicle control, vehicle dynamics.

NOMENCLATURE A unit-vector set of the body-fixed moving coordinate system. A unit-vector set of the Frenet coordinate system along the vehicle trajectory. Curvature (signed curvature) of the vehicle motion trajectory. Manuscript received August 23, 2010; revised December 06, 2010; accepted February 16, 2011. Manuscript received in final form February 24, 2011. Date of publication March 24, 2011; date of current version April 11, 2012. Recommended by Associate Editor K. Y. Pettersen. A preliminary version of this paper was presented in part at the 2009 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Hollywood, CA, October 12–14, 2009, and the 2010 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Cambridge, MA, September 13–15, 2010. The work of J. Yi was supported in part by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant CMMI-0856095 and by CAREER Award CMMI-0954966. The work of J. Li was supported by a Fellowship from the Chinese Scholarship Council. J. Yi is with the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA (e-mail: [email protected]). J. Li was with the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University. He is now with the School of Mechanical and Vehicular Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China (e-mail: [email protected]). J. Lu is with the Global Vehicle Dynamics, Driver Assistance, and Active Safety Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48121 USA (e-mail: [email protected]). Z. Liu is with the School of Mechanical and Vehicular Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China (e-mail: [email protected]). Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TCST.2011.2121908

I. INTRODUCTION

E

XTREMELY skilled human drivers such as professional racing car drivers demonstrate superior capability to conduct seemingly unstable yet safe vehicle maneuvers. These extremely aggressive maneuvers can be used for designing new active safety features to handle vehicles under unstable motion, particularly in emergency situations such as high-speed obstacle avoidance and skidding on icy roads. The unstable motion of a vehicle in these aggressive maneuvers is mainly due to the fact that the forces of certain tires reach or pass saturation (peak) points. The controlled utilization of the tire force capacity by expert human drivers improves maneuvering agility. The goal of this paper is to study dynamic stability and agility of these aggressive vehicle motions by professional drivers, particularly a pendulum-turn aggressive maneuver. Studying aggressive maneuvers of robotic vehicles has drawn attention in recent years. Most existing work however focus on unmanned aerial vehicles [1]–[6] and there are few reported

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work of studying aggressive maneuvers of ground vehicles. This is partially due to the challenges of modeling, sensing, and controlling the complex tire/road interactions on which motion of ground vehicles heavily depends. In [7], [8], trail-braking and pendulum-turn cornering maneuvers by rally-racing drivers are studied and an optimization approach is formulated to parameterize the driver’s behavior. A complementary study [9] of the work in [8] considers steady-state properties of the cornering maneuvers and concludes that understanding and control of aggressive vehicle maneuvers are challenging. Motion stability is one of important characteristics for aggressive maneuvers. In [10], longitudinal stability under purely braking maneuvers is analyzed through tire slip dynamics. The lateral stability analyses in [11]–[14] consider the vehicle yaw rate and mass center side slip angle dynamics under assumptions of a constant longitudinal velocity and zero tire slip ratios. Due to the coupling between the longitudinal and lateral tire/road friction forces, in [15] we consider the influence of the tire slip ratios on lateral vehicle stability. It is shown that increasing tire slip ratio reduces the stable region of the vehicle motion. During aggressive maneuvers, vehicles are running under rapidly changing conditions and we shall consider the transient motion stability. Therefore, we use a hybrid physical/dynamic friction model in [16] to capture the dependence of friction forces on various running conditions. Pendulum-turn maneuver is a high-speed sharply cornering strategy that is used by racing car drivers [7], [17]. The maneuvering strategies during the pendulum turn include not only the coordinated and optimized actuation among braking/traction and steering, but also coordinated forces distribution among four tires and along longitudinal/lateral directions at each tire. We take pendulum-turn cornering strategy as one example to study aggressive maneuvers. Instead of optimizing the controlled throttle, braking and steering inputs to mimic the human performance [7], [8], we focus on fundamentals of vehicle motion stability and agility of the aggressive maneuvers. The rationale for this study is twofold. First, from testing data of pendulum-turn maneuvers, we observe that even under two different sets of coordinated braking/acceleration and steering actions, the vehicle motion can be qualitatively similar. Therefore, we shall take a different viewpoint to understand underlying dynamic properties that represent these aggressive maneuvers. Second, most existing safe vehicle controllers (e.g., [18], [19]) assume that the vehicle motion should be kept within the stable region of the vehicle dynamics. However, as we will show later in this paper, the testing data of the professional racing car driver demonstrate that the vehicle is often operated outside the stable regions of its dynamics for superior agility performance. Therefore, understanding the stability and quantifying agility of the vehicle motion by these expert drivers will provide the knowledge for designing new vehicle control strategies. Although the testing data are from pendulum-turn maneuvers, the approaches and analyses in this paper can be applied to other aggressive maneuvers. The main contributions of this paper are the new stability results and the new agility metrics for aggressive vehicle maneuvers. We propose to use the rear side slip angle to precisely capture vehicle stability. We analyze and demonstrate the new

modeling framework. We also analyze the coupled longitudinal/ lateral vehicle motion stability with consideration of comprehensive operating conditions, while most existing work neglect influences of tire slip and dynamic load-shifting on vehicle stability. The comparisons of racing car driver testing data and typical human driver simulations reveal that the unstable driving strategies are employed by racing car drivers and thus can be used for designing new superior-agility vehicle controllers. We for the first time use the lateral jerk and acceleration information of the vehicle motion as the agility metrics to quantify the vehicle maneuver performance. The new agility metric is inspired by the work in [6], [20]. We extend the developments in [6] by considering the vehicle motion characteristics, and also provide an analytical interpretation for the experimental results in [20]. The results presented in this paper also complement the developments in [7], [8] by providing a dynamics-oriented analysis framework for aggressive vehicle maneuvers. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. We first review basic vehicle and tire models in Section II. We then discuss the vehicle stability and agility metrics in Section III. We focus the experimental testing study in Section IV. We present the stability and agility comparison results in Section V before concluding the paper in Section VI. II. VEHICLE DYNAMICS MODELING A. Vehicle Dynamics Models Fig. 1 shows the schematic diagram of the vehicle model. We consider a planar motion of the vehicle system. Without loss of generality, we consider a motion in which the front wheel is braking and the rear wheel is in traction as shown in Fig. 1.1 It is straightforward to obtain the motion equations of the vehicle system as follows [21]: (1a) (1b) (1c) and for the where we use notation steering angle and the frictional forces , , . We define the variable , and for the front and rear wheel slip angles, we obtain the estimates (2) Using

and its derivative and (1), we obtain (3a)

(3b) (3c) where yaw angular rate

.

1For other cases, we shall obtain the same equations by defining the positive (negative) tire/road traction (braking) forces.

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Comparing (5a) and (6), we clearly see that the front tire lateral directly affects dynamics, while it has no direct force dynamics. influence on B. Tire/Road Friction Modeling Vehicle motion heavily depend on tire/road friction forces. The tire/road friction forces are related to longitudinal slip ratios and normal loads at each tire. For the front and rear wheels, the longitudinal slip ratios are defined as

respectively. We use the kinematics relationship in the above calculation. Due to the lateral and longitudinal accelerations, the load shifting can be obtained as

Fig. 1. Schematic of vehicle model.

We consider the dynamics of rear side slip angle . From (2), . Plugging we obtain the dynamics (3) into the above equation, we have

(4) The main difference of the dynamics (4) with vehicle side slip angle dynamics (3b) is the influence of the steering angle . This can be clearly seen from (2) that the steering angle has a direct relationship with the side slip angle (i.e., ) through (and therefore front tire forces), while such influence relationship is not directly shown in calculation. Because of this consideration, in industrial practice, the rear slip angle , rather than side slip angle , is typically used as a specification to charas one acterize the stability of the vehicle motion. We use state variable to study vehicle stability. Remark 1: By neglecting the longitudinal dynamics and (constant), using small angle approximations with from (3) we obtain the same nonlinear vehicle lateral dynamics in [11]–[13], [18] as follows: (5a) (5b) Similarly, if we consider a small angle approximation to (4) with for vehicles such as the Ford Explorer testing vehicle with parameters shown in Table II, we obtain the as simplified dynamics of (6)

where and . We define the longitudinal load shifting variable as the ratio (in percentage) of the total shifting load due to longitudinal acceleration and the vehicle weight, namely

We use the hybrid physical/dynamic friction model in [16] to capture the complex tire/road friction forces. The hybrid physical/dynamic model takes advantages of both physical and LuGre dynamic friction models. The model uses the physical model-based contact patch partition, while the steady-state bristle deformation and stress/force distribution on the contact patch is calculated by the LuGre dynamic friction model. Besides preserving the attractive properties from both physical and dynamic friction models, an additional advantage of the hybrid model is its property of bridging the LuGre model parameters, which are difficult to measure and obtain, with the measurable physical model parameters. The hybrid model captures the velocity dependency and longitudinal/lateral coupling effects of the friction forces in a compact form. In [16], we also use the hybrid model to resolve unrealistic results of non-zero bristle deformation (stress) at the trailing edge of the contact patch that results from a typical LuGre dynamic friction model. Assuming a zero tire camber angle and a rectangular contact patch with a size of (length) and (width), we setup a coordinate system shown in Fig. 2. We partition the contact patch into an adhesion region and a sliding region , where a critical length . We define , , and let denote the normal load on the tire. We consider a parabolic contact pressure distribution (per length) , where is the maximum pressure, the total normal force , and . The distributed LuGre dynamic model for the tire/road friction is given as (7a) (7b)

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TABLE I HYBRID PHYSICAL/DYNAMIC FRICTION MODEL PARAMETERS

Fig. 2. Schematic of tire motion kinematics and contact patch geometry.

where is the deformation of the bristle at location and time , , , , and are the bristle elastic stiffness, viscous damping coefficient, and sliding damping coefficient per unit length, respectively. For relative velocity , we have , where is the Stribeck velocity, and are Coulomb and static friction coefficients, respectively. We use a dimensionless variable in (7) to represent the effect of the normal load on the bristle deformation. Let and . The longitudinal friction force at the steady state is then [16] (8) is the solution of for a given . where For the 2-D case, the distributed LuGre friction model is similarly obtained and the steady-state forces are obtained as [16]

where of

, and

is the solution

, ,

is the magnitude of the

. relative velocity, and Fig. 3 shows an example of the steady-state friction force as functions of longitudinal slip with zero slip angle and 25 m/s. The hybrid friction model parameters for Fig. 3 are obtained by comparing with experimental data and validated in the CarSim simulation.2 These model parameters are listed in Table I. We also compare the predictions of the hybrid physical/dynamic friction model with the “magic” formula [22] as shown in Fig. 3 under various normal loads. Clearly, the hybrid model predicts the friction forces accurately. 2[Online].

Available: http://www.carsim.com/

Fig. 3. Comparison of longitudinal force F of the hybrid physical/dynamic model with the “magic” formula under various normal loads.

Remark 2: Due to the page limit, we only show the predictions of the longitudinal friction forces by using the hybrid physical/dynamic friction model and the “magic” formula under zero tire slip angle. We have conducted comparison studies under nonzero slip angles and the two models predict the similar performance [15]. A more comprehensive comparison study for a similar LuGre dynamic friction model has also been reported in [23]. III. VEHICLE MANEUVER STABILITY AND AGILITY In this section, we first define the vehicle maneuver stability and discuss how to determine the stability under a set of given vehicle motion states. We then discuss the maneuver agility and present several agility metrics. A. Maneuver Stability We define the vehicle maneuver stability as follows. Definition 1: The vehicle maneuver stable region is defined as the domain of attraction of the nonlinear dynamical systems and as the state variables) under the given (3c) and (4) ( vehicle motion and inputs. The vehicle maneuver is stable if the vehicle motion states at that time are located within the maneuver stable region. The above maneuver stability definition is similar to these in [11]–[13], [18] but we here use instead of as one state variable. Moreover, we use the hybrid physical/dynamic friction model in Section II-B for stability analysis and calculation. Fig. 4 shows some properties of the dynamics. Fig. 4(a) dynamics with steering illustrates the stable region of angle . We observe the following facts from the phase portraits: 1) there exist one single stable point (at origin) and two symmetric unstable saddle points under zero steering angle. A stable region is around the stable equilibrium; 2) when the steering angle is non-zero, the stable equilibrium is no longer

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Fig. 4. (a) Yaw rate versus rear slip angle ! phase portraits under zero steering angle  . (b) Equilibria trajectory when the steering angle is changing. The circles “ ” show the stable equilibria and the empty squares “ ” show the unstable saddle equilibria. The bifurcation point starts at the first solid square point as indicated with critical steering angle  . The (unstable) equilibria of the systems then follow the solid square points “ ” afterwards.

=0 

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Fig. 5. Phase portraits of ! for two slip values and zero steering angle  and a large stable region around the origin. (b)  . (a)   : and a significantly reduced stable region. 

= =0 = =02

=0

B. Maneuver Stability Analysis at origin and indeed, it moves towards to saddle point #1 as shown in Fig. 4(a). At a critical steering angle , the stable equilibrium will merge with the unstable saddle equilibrium and then there is no stable region. This bifurcation phenomenon ocdynamics [11]. Fig. 4(b) further shows curs also for the trajectory of the equilibria under the change of the steering angle . In Fig. 4(b), we plot the stable equilibria (solid circles), saddle equilibria (empty squares), and unstable equilibria (solid squares) after the bifurcation occurs (at the first solid square). The critical steering angle is around 3.3 degs. Remark 3: The stable regions of the vehicle motion shown in this section are numerically computed from nonlinear systems dynamics). It is possible to obtain the (3c) and (4) ( further analytical stability results shown in Fig. 4 by using (5) and (6) with a piecewise linear model for lateral tire/road friction forces [24]. The detailed analysis is out of the scope of this paper and we will report in the future work.

The complexity of vehicle stability analysis comes from several sources. First, many kinematic and kinetic variables affect friction forces and , . These variables include , slip angles , steering angle , and the tire slip ratios , etc. Capturing the dependency of frictire normal load tion forces on all of these variables into one mathematical model is challenging. Second, the nonlinear function relationship beand and aforementioned variables are complitween and further increases cated. The coupling effect between the complexity of the dynamical systems. In the following, we first illustrate the dependence of the maneuver stability on vehicle operating conditions and then discuss how to determine the stability at any given set of vehicle motion states. Due to the coupling effects, the longitudinal tire slip ratio affects the maneuver stability. Fig. 5 shows the phase and . portraits under two slip ratios with The phase portraits clearly show that under non-zero slip ratios the stable region around the equilibrium point

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Fig. 6. Four example plots of stable/unstable regions changing with (a) steering angle  , (b) vehicle longitudinal velocity v F . The stable regions are the 3-D areas between the two surfaces in each figure.

 , and (d) longitudinal load shifting

1

becomes much smaller [see Fig. 5(b)] comparing with the case of zero slip ratios [see Fig. 5(a)]. Fig. 6 further shows the stable dynamics under changing steering angles , regions of , slip ratios , and longitudinal load longitudinal velocities shifting . In Fig. 6, any points in the 3-D regions above the top surface and below the bottom surface are unstable, while those points in the regions between these two surfaces are stable. In each sub-figure of Fig. 6, we vary only one variable and fix are other three variables. The nominal values of , , and , the nominal value is 25 m/s. zero and for We summarize the observation from these plots as follows: 1) changing steering angle from zero will make the stable region ; see Fig. 6(a). asymmetric around the origin Moreover, up to the critical steering angle , bifurcation occurs and therefore the stable region is a closed volume in the state space; 2) increasing vehicle velocity will reduce the stable region [see Fig. 6(b)]; 3) as we illustrated in Fig. 5, the longitudinal tire slip has significant influence on the stable region. This is further demonstrated in Fig. 6(c) that increasing slip ratio will reduce the stable region; and 4) from Fig. 6(d), vehicle decelerating (i.e., changing ) will reduce the stable region due to the dynamic load shifting. To determine stability at any arbitrary vehicle operating state, we first compute the stability surfaces shown in Fig. 6 and then determine where the vehicle operating point is located relative to the stability surfaces. If the vehicle states are located in the stable region between the stability surfaces, then the motion is stable; otherwise, it is unstable. If the stability surface does not

, (c) tire longitudinal slip 

= =

exist, then the vehicle motion is unstable. We use this computational approach to determine the vehicle stability. Remark 4: In Fig. 6(c) we show the stable region under the ) for presentasame front and rear slip values (e.g., tion convenience and easy visualization of stability surfaces. For testing and CarSim simulation of aggressive maneuvers, the front and rear tire slip ratios are not the same and we use the actual front and rear slip ratios to calculate the stable regions. We consider the tire friction forces under the actual slip ratios in (3c) and (4) to compute the stable regions. C. Maneuver Agility and Agility Metrics We borrow the agility concept for aircraft maneuvers [25]. We define the vehicle maneuver agility by the physical properties of the vehicle which relate to its ability to change, rapidly and precisely, its motion path or heading axis and to its ease of completing that change. The definition of maneuver agility here is comprised of vehicle maneuverability (i.e., the ability to change magnitude and direction of the velocity vector) and controllability (i.e., the ability to change the maneuver state through rotation about the center of gravity by a change of control power, etc.) The maneuver agility defined here can be considered as an extension to driving qualities. To quantify agility performance for aggressive maneuvers, we use: 1) lateral jerk (the derivative of acceleration vector) magnitude and 2) relative lateral acceleration (defined as the ratio of the lateral acceleration magnitude and the maximum acceleration). The former metric is an absolute agility quantity and

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the latter is to quantify relative maneuver agility. Note that both metrics can be calculated in short-time scale to quantify the transient agility or longtime scale (e.g., 10-20 s) as functional agility metrics for any particular aggressive maneuvers. 1) Lateral Jerk Metric: Consider the vehicle motion trajectory shown in Fig. 1. In the Frenet frame, the jerk of the vehicle is calculated as [6] (9) are the tangent, normal, and binormal vecwhere tors, respectively, and and are the curvature and torsion of the trajectory, respectively. Note that non-negative curvature in (9), and the signed curvature for counfor clockwise turns. terclockwise turns and , (9) becomes For planar vehicle motion, torsion (10) is defined as axial agility and is defined as curvature agility [25]. To transform the formulation (10) into the vehicle body frame, we need to find out the relationships between the Frenet frame and the body frame, which depends on the trajectory turning directions as follows: where

(11) where function for and . Plugging (11) into (10), we obtain

for

We define the magnitude of the lateral jerk as the transient agility , namely metric (12) and the functional agility (over a distance ) as

Fig. 7. Vehicle trajectory of a pendulum-turn maneuver from racing driving experiments.

maneuvers by racing car drivers) will produce a larger lateral jerk, namely, large agility. When the side slip angle is small ), then (12) (e.g., maneuvers by typical human drivers, and a linear relationship becomes and rate of curvature, namely, is established between . Such a proportional relationship has been reported in [20] by the experiments without analytical justifications. Remark 6: It is interesting to notice that in [20] the lateral is shown proportional to the longitudinal acceleration jerk from the experimental data. The lateral jerk information is then used in [20] as a critical variable and an indicator for integrated longitudinal/lateral motion control by human drivers. From the agility calculation in (12), we show that the lateral jerk is a combination of the axial and curvature agilities. Indeed, is the inner product of the jerk vector and the the agility unit vector along the velocity direction in the body frame. The agility metric (12) thus captures the coordinated and combined axial/curvature agilities of vehicle motion. 2) Relative Lateral Acceleration Metric: We define the ratio and the maxof the magnitude of the lateral acceleration imum lateral acceleration as a relative acceleration agility metric (16)

(13) As an alternative to (12), we can use vehicle kinematics to . We denote the vehicle’s accalculate the agility metric at celeration in the body frame as time and location . It is straightforward to obtain the jerk vector in the body frame as (14) and therefore (15) We show that the formulation (14) is the same as (12) and therefore the agility formulations (12) and (15) are equivalent. Proposition 1: The jerk formulations (12) and (14) are equivalent. Proof: See the appendix. Remark 5: To see a physical interpretation of the agility , we consider a case of a circular trajectory, metric . If we further consider a constant longitudinal namely, velocity, , then (12) becomes . This calculation implies that a larger side slip angle (e.g.,

is to quantify the motion agility of utilizaThe use of only tion of the tire/road friction capacity. The metric quantifies the absolute motion agility and does not indicate the utilization of the limits of tire/road friction capacity. Therefore, to complement the agility metric . we introduce For example, during low- (friction) driving maneuvers, the rate change of cornering acceleration is usually smaller than that in , and can high- driving. This leads to a small still be large to indicate relative high agility. Hence those two agility metrics together provide better characterization than either of them alone. Similarly, we define an accumulated functional metric over a distance as (17)

IV. PENDULUM-TURN MANEUVERS: EXPERIMENTS AND CARSIM SIMULATIONS In this section, we first present the pendulum-turn maneuver experiments. We then compare the CarSim simulation results with experimental results of the pendulum-turn maneuver.

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Fig. 8. Testing data at four tires. (a) Longitudinal friction forces F . (b) Lateral friction forces F . (c) Normal loads F . (d) Tire slip ratios . (e) Tire slip angles and vehicle side slip angle . (f) Vehicle pitch and roll angles.

A. Pendulum-Turn Maneuver Experiments The pendulum-turn maneuver experiments were conducted at the Ford research facilities by professional racing car drivers. Fig. 7 shows the vehicle trajectory for a sharp pendulum turn. The testing vehicle is a Ford Explorer SUV and the vehicle was instrumented with various sensors. Since we do not have access to GPS positioning data, we use an extended Kalman filter to estimate the vehicle’s position information by fusing

the acceleration information with the velocity measurements [26]. From the collected sensor measurements and vehicle parameters provided by Ford, we calculate the tire slip ratios and angles and then estimate the friction forces at each tire using the hybrid physical/dynamic friction model discussed in Section II-B. Fig. 8(a)–(c) show the three-directional tire/road friction forces at four tires. Fig. 8(d) and (e) show the longitudinal slip ratios and tire slip angles, respectively. The vehicle pitch

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Fig. 9. Racing car driver input data. (a) Steering angle  and yaw rate ! . (b) Normalized throttle/braking actuation.

Fig. 10. Comparison of simulation results and testing data. (a) Longitudinal/lateral velocity v rate ! . (d) Vehicle side slip angle and tire slip angles and .

and roll angles are shown in Fig. 8(f). The driver steering, braking/traction inputs, and the vehicle yaw rate are shown in Fig. 9. The vehicle motion variables such as longitudinal/lateral velocity and accelerations are shown in Fig. 10. During the pendulum-turn maneuver, the driver first used 4 counter-steering at the beginning of the turn around

=v

. (b) Longitudinal/lateral acceleration a

=a

. (c) Yaw

s [see Fig. 9(a)] and then a “throttle blip” action was taken during the turn, namely, an applied throttle command around 6 s in between two braking actions around 5 s and 6.5 s, respectively; see Fig. 9(b). At the same time when the throttling was applied, the driver turned the steering to the cornering direction aggressively and turned it back around

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TABLE II TESTING VEHICLE PARAMETERS

9 s after the second brake command. It is interesting to note that the driver took advantage of dynamic load shifting and wheel locking as shown in Fig. 8. For example, the driver 7.5 s) used braking and locking the front wheels (around to generate: 1) a large longitudinal deceleration and 2) a large lateral acceleration [see Fig. 10(c)]. This driving strategy shifts the normal load between not only the front and rear tires but also the left and right tires; see Fig. 8(c) for large normal loads at front and rear right tires with small normal forces at front and rear left tires. The load shifting can also be observed from vehicle pitch and roll angles shown in Fig. 8(f). As a result of load shifting and rapidly changing [see Fig. 8(d)] and [see Fig. 8(e)], large lateral tire/road frictions are generated at right-side tires, while very small forces at left-side tires [see Fig. 8(b)]. Thus, it produces a large vehicle side slip angle [see Fig. 8(e)] and increases agility around 8 s. B. CarSim Simulation and Comparison To reproduce the vehicle motion and compare with other types of human driver models, we simulate the vehicle motion by using the CarSim simulation package with the steering, throttle and braking actuation of the racing car driver as inputs. Table II lists some parameters for the testing vehicle. We use the hybrid physical/dynamic tire/road friction model in the simulation with parameters listed in Table I. Fig. 10 shows an example of the CarSim simulation comparison results of the longitudinal and lateral velocity/acceleration, yaw rate, and tire and side slip angles. The simulation results in general match well with the testing data. We observed the similar matching results for other motion and force variables. The above validated simulation results confirm that we can use the CarSim vehicle and hybrid tire/road friction model to accurately predict vehicle motion and therefore to compare performance of the professional racing car drivers with other human driver models. V. COMPARISON STUDY: RACING CAR DRIVERS AND TYPICAL HUMAN DRIVERS In this section, we compare the maneuvering performance of the racing car driver and a typical human driver on the same track shown in Section IV. We first discuss the human driver model that is used for comparison and then we focus on the maneuver stability and agility comparisons. A. Human Driver Models and Comparisons We take a typical human driver model in [27] for comparison study. The human driver model in [27] is built on an optimal preview control mechanism for path-following and has been validated with experiments and implemented in CarSim. To use this human driver model, the longitudinal vehicle velocity profile

has to be provided as one input. We generate the longitudinal velocity profile by using the method described in [28]. The velocity profile given in [28] is designed for modeling racing car drivers and therefore can be considered as a fast velocity profile by human drivers. The generated velocity profile incorpo, vehicle braking limit, rates lateral acceleration limits as well as longitudinal acceleration limit . Given the coupling between longitudinal and lateral accelerations, we use the magnitude of maximum longitudinal acceleration as the parameter to capture aggressiveness levels of human drivers. Fig. 11(a) shows the simulated vehicle trajectory under 3 m/s , while the human driver model with Fig. 11(b) and (c) show the comparison results of rear slip angles and yaw rates by the racing car driver and the human driver model. It is interesting to notice that under a typical human driver, the rear side slip angle is much smaller (maximum less than 5 degs) than these by the professional racing car driver (maximum around 25 degs) though the maximum magnitudes of the yaw rate are comparable. This observation is consistent with the agility analysis discussed previously and also supported by the agility metric calculations shown (e.g., in Section VI. We also note that with a higher 3 m/s ), the vehicle performs a similar trend of as those by the professional driver, with a counter-steering action 100 m . around the location B. Maneuver Stability Comparisons We consider the motion stability at any instantaneously time. We analyze the local stability of the nonlinear systems (3c) and (4) around the any operating point as discussed in Section III-A. Fig. 12 illustrates the stability of the vehicle motion during the pendulum-turn maneuver. In Fig. 12, we plot the 3-D trajecversus rear slip angle over tory of the vehicle yaw rate , we calculate and determine the time. At each pair of stability of vehicle motion at that given set of vehicle motion states. For unstable points, we also use different symbols (i.e., stars or triangles) to indicate whether there exist stable regions at that moment. Fig. 13 illustrates the stability of the vehicle motion under the human driver model. We use the same plotting notations as those in Fig. 12 under two values: 1.5 and 3 m/s . Comparing the results shown in Figs. 12 and 13, we find that: 1) for the 1.5 m/s case, the vehicle is under stable motion throughout the entire maneuver [see Fig. 13(a)] and 2) the increased 3 m/s brings the unstable motion during short durations at aggressive turning points of the trajectory [see Fig. 13(b)]. The reason for existence of these unstable motions is due to large decelerations around these locations, which indeed produces large load shifting on the front and rear wheels and thus reduces the stable region as showed in Fig. 6(d). We also observe these stability facts by the comparison results shown in Fig. 11(b) and (c). It is clearly shown in Figs. 11–13 that the professional racing car driver often operates the vehicle outside the stable regions of the vehicle dynamics, while the typical human driver instead controls the vehicle within the stable regions. This observation

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=

Fig. 11. CarSim simulation results under the human driver model. (a) Vehicle trajectory with with a 3 m/s . (b) Comparison results of rear slip angles . (c) Comparison results of vehicle yaw rates ! . The shape and color of each data point indicate the stability result at that moment; see Fig. 12’s caption for explaining these data points in details.

C. Maneuver Agility Comparisons

0

Fig. 12. Trajectory of the ! and motion stability of racing car driver testing results. The empty circles “ ” indicate that the motion at that moment is stable; the empty triangular points “.” indicate that the motion is unstable and there does not exist stable region, while the solid star points “?” indicate that plane. the motion is unstable but there exists a stable region in !

0

provides new knowledge about how the racing car drivers control the vehicle during these aggressive maneuvers. The new knowledge is in contrast to the existing yaw stability controller such as the design in [18] and [19] in which the vehicle stability control is restricted only to stable regions of the vehicle dynamics. Running vehicles in unstable regions is an advanced driving skill by racing car drivers as we observed in the pendulum-turn maneuvers.

We compare the maneuver agility metrics of the racing car driver and the typical human driver. Table III lists the comparcalison results for both the travel time and agility metrics by (17). We estimate culated by (13) and from the experimental data and use it in calculation. From Table III, we first notice that the testing data and the CarSim simulation results of the racing car driver are consistent in both travel time and the agility metrics and . Second, used in the race car model to generate the vethe larger locity profile, the shorter travel time and larger agility metrics and . It is clear that the racing car driver outperforms the typical driver in both the travel time and the agility metrics. The main reason for such a difference is that the racing car driver uses the pendulum-turn maneuver strategy to obtain higher lateral velocities/accelerations and larger side slip angles than those under the human driver control. Therefore, the magnitude of the vehicle velocity is much larger than that under the human driver model, which results in a shorter travel time. Fig. 14 further illustrates the agility comparison results for [see Fig. 14(a)] and the transient agility metrics [see Fig. 14(b)], and the relationship between and [see Fig. 14(c)]. From Fig. 14(a) and (b), we clearly see that the instantaneous agility metrics and by racing car drivers (both testing data and CarSim simulation results) are much larger than those by the typical human driver model, par100 ticularly at locations of large trajectory radii (i.e., from to 160 m) because of large side slip angles and large curvature

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 20, NO. 3, MAY 2012

0

Fig. 13. Trajectory of the ! and motion stability of a simulated human driver with maximum longitudinal accelerations: (a) a a 3 m/s . The stability labels for each data point are the same as those in Fig. 12.

=

= 1.5 m/s

and (b)

TABLE III PERFORMANCE COMPARISON BETWEEN RACING CAR DRIVER AND HUMAN DRIVER WITH TWO DIFFERENT MAXIMUM LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATIONS (IN m/s ) a

Fig. 14. Comparison of agility metrics under the racing car driver and the typical human driver model. (a) Instantaneous agility metric A (s) at location s(t). . (b) Agility metric A (s) at location s(t). (c) Agility metric A versus a

agilities at those locations. The racing car driver also utilizes a are large at many locations; large friction capacity since see Fig. 14(b). It is of an interesting observation that the calculated is almost in a linear relationship with as shown in Fig. 14(c). It is also noticed that there are some differences between the and calculatesting and CarSim simulations for tions shown in Fig. 14(a) and (b). These differences could be partially due to that the calculation of the agility metrics are sensitive to any variation in vehicle motion estimation. Analysis and study on these observations need further investigations as future work. VI. CONCLUSION We presented dynamic stability and agility analyses of human-controlled aggressive vehicle maneuvers. We used the

hybrid physical/dynamic friction model to capture complex tire/road interactions, and used the rear slip (rather than vehicle side slip angle) to precisely capture the vehicle stable regions. We also used the vehicle lateral jerk and the relative lateral acceleration to define a metric to quantify the maneuver agility. From testing data of a pendulum-turn maneuver by professional racing car drivers and comparisons with high-fidelity human driver simulations, we found that racing car drivers control the vehicle in the unstable regions of the vehicle dynamics to achieve superior agility performance. The presented stability and agility results provide new knowledge to design human-inspired control systems that are different with the existing controllers in which the operation of vehicle maneuvers is strictly restricted within the stable region of vehicle dynamics. We are currently developing new human-inspired controllers for unstable yet safe aggressive maneuvers.

YI et al.: ON THE STABILITY AND AGILITY OF AGGRESSIVE VEHICLE MANEUVERS

APPENDIX To prove the equivalence of (12) and (14), it is enough to show that they are both equal to a common value. We first write the vehicle acceleration , where is the turning and and are radius at location the vehicle linear velocity and the turning angular velocity, respectively. Note that angular velocity is not the same as the because of the existence of the side slip vehicle yaw rate in the body frame; angle (of the vehicle velocity vector see Fig. 1). With the above formulation for , we rewrite (12) as follows:

(18) In the last step of the above derivation, we use the and fact . From (18), we obtain an alternative set of formulations to obtain axial and curvature agilities as (19) Without loss of generality, we consider the case the vehicle ) such as the one trajectory turns counterclockwise (i.e., shown in Fig. 1. From the relationship between the body frame . From (12) and (19), and Frenet frame, we have as we obtain the longitudinal jerk

(20) and the lateral jerk as

(21) To see that formulation (14) produces the same and as (20) and (21), we first write velocity . Then we obtain the acceleration vector

and further the jerk vector

(22)

Note that

and

and thus, , , , and . Plugging these formulations into

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(22), we then obtain the same expressions as those in (20) and and , respectively. This completes the proof of (21) for Proposition 1. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Prof. P. Tsiotras of Georgia Institute of Technology and Dr. E. Velenis of Brunel University for sharing the testing data. The authors would also like to thank four anonymous reviewers of the preliminary conference paper [29] and three anonymous reviewers of this paper for their constructive suggestions. REFERENCES [1] V. Gavrilets, E. Frazzoli, B. Mettler, M. Piedmonte, and E. Feron, “Aggressive maneuvering of small autonomous helicopters: A human-centered approach,” Int. J. Robot. Res., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 795–807, 2002. [2] E. Frazzoli, M. Dahleh, and E. Feron, “Real-time motion planning for agile autonomous vehicles,” AIAA J. Guid., Control, Dyn., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 116–129, 2002. [3] V. Gavrilets, B. Mettler, and E. Feron, “Human-inspired control logic for automated maneuvering of miniature helicopter,” AIAA J. Guid., Control, Dyn., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 752–759, 2004. [4] P. Abbeel, A. Coates, M. Quigley, and A. Ng, “An application of reinforcement learning to aerobatic helicopter flight,” in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, B. Schölkopf, J. Platt, and T. Hoffman, Eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007, vol. 19, pp. 1–8. [5] P. Abbeel, “Apprenticeship learning and reinforcement learning with application to robotic control,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Comput. Sci., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, 2008. [6] G. Avanzini, D. de Matteis, and L. de Socio, “Analysis of aircraft agility on maximum performance maneuvers,” J. Aircraft, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 529–535, 1998. [7] E. Velenis, P. Tsiotras, and J. Lu, “Modeling aggressive maneuvers on loose surface: The cases of trail-braking and pendulum-turn,” in Proc. Euro. Control Conf., 2007, pp. 1233–1240. [8] E. Velenis, P. Tsiotras, and J. Lu, “Optimal properties and driver input parameterization for trail-braking cornering,” Euro. J. Control, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 308–320, 2008. [9] E. Frazzoli, “Discussion on ‘Optimality properties and driver input parameterization for trailing-braking cornering’,” Euro. J. Control, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 321–324, 2008. [10] B. Olson, S. Shaw, and G. Stépán, “Stability and bifurcation of longitudinal vehicle braking,” Nonlinear Dyn., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 339–365, 2005. [11] E. Ono, S. Hosoe, H. D. Tuan, and S. Doi, “Bifurcation in vehicle dynamics and robust front wheel steering control,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 412–420, May 1998. [12] D.-C. Liaw, H.-H. Chiang, and T.-T. Lee, “Elucidating vehicle lateral dynamics using a bifurcation analysis,” IEEE Trans. Intel. Transport. Syst., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 195–207, Feb. 2007. [13] S. Shen, J. Wang, P. Shi, and G. Premier, “Nonlinear dynamics and stability analysis of vehicle plane motions,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 15–35, 2007. [14] V. Nguyen, G. Schultz, and B. Balachandran, “Lateral load transfer effects on bifurcation behavior of four-wheel vehicle system,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., vol. 4, no. 4, 2009, Paper #041007. [15] J. Yi and E. H. Tseng, “Nonlinear analysis of vehicle lateral motions with a hybrid physical/dynamic tire-road friction model,” presented at the ASME Dyn. Syst. Control Conf., Hollywood, CA, 2009, Paper DSCC2009-2717. [16] J. Yi, “On hybrid physical/dynamic tire-road friction model,” presented at the ASME Dyn. Syst. Control Conf., Hollywood, CA, 2009, Paper DSCC2009-2548. [17] T. O’Neil, “Rally driving manual,” Team O’Neil Rally School and Car Control Center, Dalton, NH, 2006. [Online]. Available: http://www. team-oneil.com/ [18] T. Chung and K. Yi, “Design and evaluation of side slip angle-based vehicle stability control scheme on a virtual test track,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 224–234, Mar. 2006. [19] C. G. Bobier, S. Joe, and J. C. Gerdes, “Sliding surface envelope control: Keep the vehicle within a safe state-space boundary,” presented at the ASME Dyn. Syst. Control Conf., Cambridge, MA, 2010, Paper DSCC2010-4144.

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[20] M. Yamakado and M. Abe, “An experimentally confirmed driver longitudinal acceleration control model combined with vehicle lateral motion,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., vol. 46, pp. 129–149, 2008. [21] U. Kiencke and L. Nielsen, Automotive Control Systems. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2000. [22] H. B. Pacejka, Tire and Vehicle Dynamics, 2nd ed. Warrendale, PA: SAE International, 2006. [23] W. Liang, J. Medanic, and R. Ruhl, “Analytical dynamic tire model,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 197–227, 2008. [24] J. Yi, Y. Zhang, and D. Song, “Autonomous motorcycles for agile maneuvers: Part I: Dynamic modeling,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision Control, 2009, pp. 4613–4618. [25] M. Innocenti, R. Jouty, and J. Beck, “Airframe agility: Flight mechanics,” Advisory Group for Aerosp. Res. Development (AGARD), Tech. Rep. AGARD AR-314, 1994, pp. 18–35. [26] J. Yi, H. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Song, S. Jayasuriya, and J. Liu, “Kinematic modeling and analysis of skid-steered mobile robots with applications to low-cost inertial measurement unit-based motion estimation,” IEEE Trans. Robot., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1087–1097, Sep. 2009. [27] C. C. MacAdam, “Application of an optimal preview control for simulation of closed-loop automobile driving,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 393–399, Jun. 1981. [28] F. Braghin, F. Cheli, S. Melzi, and E. Sabbioni, “Race driver model,” Comput. Structures, vol. 86, pp. 1503–1516, 2008. [29] J. Li, J. Yi, Z. Liu, and J. Lu, “On the dynamic stability and agility of aggressive vehicle maneuvers: A pendulum-turn maneuver example,” presented at the ASME Dyn. Syst. Control Conf., Cambridge, MA, 2010, Paper DSCC2010-4032.

Jingang Yi (S’99–M’02–SM’07) received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, in 1993, the M.Eng. degree in precision instruments from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 1996, and the M.A. degree in mathematics and the Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, in 2001 and 2002, respectively. He is currently an Assistant Professor with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ. His research interests include autonomous robotic systems, dynamic systems and control, mechatronics, automation science and engineering, with applications to biomedical systems, civil infrastructural and transportation systems. Dr. Yi is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). He was a recipient of the NSF CAREER Award in 2010. He currently serves as an Associate Editor of the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division and the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society Conference Editorial Boards. He also served as a Guest Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING.

Jingliang Li received the B.S. degree in automotive engineering from Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, in 2006. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree with the Department of Automotive Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China. During 2009–2010, he was a visiting Ph.D. student with the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ. His current research interests include vehicle engineering, vehicle dynamic systems and control. Mr. Li is a student member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).

Jianbo Lu (M’97–SM’09) received the Ph.D. degree in aeronautics and astronautics from Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, in 1997. He is a Technical Specialist with the Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI. He worked at Delphi Corporation from 1997 to 2000 and joined Ford Motor Company in 2000. His research interests include ground/space vehicle dynamics and control, semi-autonomous/autonomous systems, and active safety systems. He holds 60 U.S. patents, many of them were implemented in millions of vehicles. Dr. Lu was a recipient of the Henry Ford Technology Award. He currently serves as an Associate Editor for the IFAC Journal of Control Engineering Practice and the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, and he is on the editorial board of International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems.

Zhaodu Liu received the B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China, in 1982, and the Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1994. He is currently a Professor with the Department of Vehicular Engineering and the area Head of the Department of Vehicle Information and Technology at Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China. His research interests include vehicle system dynamics, vehicle safety devices design, and mechatronics. Dr. Liu is a member of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) of China and a member of the National Technical Committee on Operating Safe Technology and Testing Equipment for Motor Vehicles of Standardization Administration of China (SAC/TC364). He currently serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Automotive Engineering of China and the Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology.

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