Module 2 Summary 1
Running Head: MODULE 2 SUMMARY Module 2 Summary Emily Callender, Journey Herbeck, Justin Vann, March Kerschner, Mary Torske, Neely Vacura, & Scott King Northern Plains Transition to Teaching Montana State University
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The four articles selected for Module 2 reading can be discussed from the viewpoint of
today's students needing to be literate in the use and application of the myriad types of technology in use today. All the articles point out that using technology needs to be an integral part of today's education process. Students are willing learners when it comes to using technology and some studies have shown student outcomes are improved because they use technology.
Schools must necessarily change to accommodate today's students who readily use
technology. Success in the 21st century will come to the student who can use technology to his or her benefit, knows how to learn, and remains a life‐long learner.
The Educational Testing Service (ETS) worked with several colleges and universities to
develop the National Higher Education Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Initiative. The assessment was built upon the belief that a person’s cognitive skills have a bigger impact on a person’s ability to function in our current levels of technology‐rich society than knowledge of any specific computer program. According to Linda Tyler, they have determined a society needs citizens who not only know how to obtain information, but those who can analyze and evaluate what they learn in order to develop an informed opinion (Tyler 2005). The ICT initiative identified several factors administrators and professors would need in order to gauge effective education and training in ICT. The fruit of their efforts lies in the seven proficiency objectives developed. These objectives incorporate the range of activities involved in 21st Century ICT and are as follows: define, access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create, and communicate.
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The goal of our educational system is to prepare students to succeed in the
workforce. In order to prepare our students for 21st Century jobs, schools need to utilize 21st Century technology in the classroom. Unfortunately, educational institutions tend to adopt technology slowly. Once adopted, technology is used to perform familiar tasks in the same familiar ways such as writing an essay. Schools eventually start branching out to new methods as they learn to embrace the technology (Prensky, n.d.).
Prensky addressed the notion of two barriers preventing schools from adopting
technology faster: the lack of one‐to‐one computing and social resistance. In one‐to‐one computing, each student has a computer he or she can work on and take home. Until each student has this opportunity, true technological advancement cannot occur. In the second barrier, teachers and administrators are slow to change and in many cases are resistant to change. By resisting today's ICT methods such as cell phones, Myspace, and Wikipedia, schools are hampering our children's education. The only way to move forward effectively is to combine what they know about technology with what we know and require about education. Schools must take the first steps to integrate technology in new ways so students benefit from having technology available within learning institutions (Prensky, n.d.).
In the article, "A Quantitative Synthesis of Recent Research on the
Effects of Teaching and Learning With Technology on Student Outcomes" (2002), several recent meta‐analyses were discussed which focused on specific aspects of technology. The results of these meta‐analyses were both discouraging and encouraging. The discouraging aspect was the overall effects were quite modest, although they were similar to other recent meta‐analyses conducted in the arena of instructional technology. In addition, there have
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been criticisms of the quality of the research similar to previous concerns raised by other researchers in the field of instructional technology (Waxman, Connell, and Gray 2002).
The aspect of the present study which is most encouraging, and may stimulate future
research, lies in the extensive list of variables included in the meta‐analysis. This finding suggests teaching and technology processes may either directly impact student outcomes or interact with technology features which indirectly impact outcomes. There are many unanswered questions about the effects of teaching and learning with technology on student outcomes. The authors maintain, however, that research can play a critical role in answering some of these questions. Although recognition of the uniqueness of each school and classroom situation will always need to be considered, the accumulation of research evidence over time and across studies may provide consistent findings which will enhance all of our understandings of the role of teaching and learning with technology.
Partnership for 21st Century Skills believes that attaining 21st Century knowledge and
skills is an important new metric for judging students’ success in high school (2003). The Partnership feels we need to restructure high schools to teach and assess students’ capacity in 21st Century knowledge and skills. We also need to hold high schools accountable to this mission. According to the Partnership, we cannot ignore the compelling need for 21st Century learning, which has profound implications for the vision of tomorrow’s high schools (2003). Reform must be a collaborative effort amongst all stakeholders. The Federal Government must lead the conversation and work with state and local governments to fund and incorporate 21st Century skills education into graduation requirements.
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In the future, high schools will be most effective in educating students if new designs
are based on specific student outcomes and attributes that are valued in the world today. Outcomes should drive change. The Partnership has created a vision for education which is compelling, widely supported and relevant to high school reform initiatives. The vision encompasses: core subjects; 21st Century content such as global awareness, financial economic and business literacy; civic literacy; learning and thinking skills; creating the passion for lifelong learning; ICT literacy; life skills and authentic assessments within each category.
Professional development in 21st Century skills is critical for success. Educators need
support in helping high school students meet 21st Century expectations. Teacher preparation programs should prepare teachers to teach students effectively in the modern world. Teachers will need ongoing education and training, which will complement the work they are already doing, to prepare students with the new knowledge and skills relevant today in our growing global society. Professional development should create a culture of collaborative learning communities for educators and students (Partnership 2003). Advocates of high school redesign and 21st Century learning should partner with the business community and community based organizations. High schools should share the responsibility for providing opportunities for students to acquire 21st Century skills. Businesses and community‐based organizations can help high schools extend teaching and learning beyond the classroom walls and the school day into the real world.
Technology is an important tool needing to be infused into every classroom across
the country (Prensky, 2005; Tyler, 2002; Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2006), however the precise manner in which it will help classrooms the most is not well known. The No Child
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Left Behind Act (2001) requires educational programs be chosen based on their scientifically proven effectiveness, and therefore the way schools choose their technology suites should be no different. Increased study into the effectiveness of technology usage in teaching and learning needs to be performed in order to prevent schools from choosing technology simply based on a few anecdotal reports from individual classrooms and teachers.
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References Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2006) “Results that Matter: 21st Century Skills and High School Reform.” Retrieved March 2009 from http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/documents/RTM2006.pdf. Prensky, Marc. (n.d.) “Adopt and Adapt: Shaping Tech for the Classroom.” Retrieved March 2009 from Edutopia Database http://www.edutopia.org/adopt‐and‐adapt. Tyler, Linda. (2002) “ICT Literacy: Equipping Students to Succeed in an Information‐Rich, Technology‐Based Society.” Retrieved March 2009 from National Resource Center Database http://www.sc.edu/fye/resources/assessment/essays/Tyler‐11.3.05.html. Waxman, Hersh C., Connell, Michael L., & Gray, John. (2002) “A Quantitative Synthesis of Recent Research on the Effects of Teaching and Learning With Technology on Student Outcomes.” Retrieved March 2009 from http://www.coe.ufl.edu/Courses/eme5054/Foundations/Articles /waxman.pdf.