Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139 – 151 www.elsevier.com/locate/palaeo

Biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography of Lower Permian (lower Kungurian) conodonts from the Tak Fa Formation (Saraburi Limestone), Thailand I. Metcalfe a,⁎, M. Sone b a

School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia b Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan Received 8 July 2007; received in revised form 25 September 2007; accepted 26 September 2007

Abstract Lower Permian (lower Kungurian) conodonts are reported from the Indochina Block of Southeast Asia. The fauna from the Tak Fa Formation of the Saraburi Limestone Group exposed in limestone hills NNW of Khok Samrong, Thailand, includes Sweetognathus subsymmetricus Wang, Ritter and Clark (early forms) and Pseudosweetognathus costatus Wang, Ritter and Clark. The co-occurrence of these species indicates a Lower Permian age (upper half of the lower Kungurian) for the sampled limestones representative of the Mesogondolella siciliensis–S. subsymmetricus Zone of South China. Sweetognathus and Pseudosweetognathus are for the first time reported from the Indochina terrane located in the palaeoequatorial belt in the Kungurian. Pseudosweetognathus appears restricted to the Kungurian of the South China and Indochina terranes thus supporting palaeogeographic reconstructions that isolate these terranes within the Palaeo-Tethys during the Kungurian. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Conodonts; Lower Kungurian; Indochina Terrane; Palaeogeography; Palaeo-Tethys

1. Introduction Permian limestones widely distributed in Thailand, represent a wide range of depositional environments, indicating they were deposited in differing tectonic settings and on different tectono-stratigraphic terranes (see Fig. 1 and Metcalfe, 2006 for discussion of principal SE Asian terranes). “Lower Permian” conodonts that have been previously reported from Thailand and the Indochina Terrane are from southeast of Wang Saphung, NE Thailand (Igo, 1974). However, based on the current definition of the base of the Permian, this fauna, dominated ⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: [email protected] (I. Metcalfe). 0031-0182/$ - see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.09.014

by Streptognathodus elegantulus (Stauffer and Plummer) has been reinterpreted as Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) in age (Mei and Henderson, 2002). The only other Permian conodonts known from Thailand are Upper Permian conodonts from the Pha Huat Formation, northern Thailand, NE of Lampang and interpreted as Wordian in age (Carey et al., 1995). Mei and Henderson (2002) reinterpreted this fauna and based on revision of taxa, suggested the presence of Clarkina liangshanensis and Iranognathus socioensis indicates an upper Wuchiapingian age. The fauna was originally interpreted to represent a warm-water setting which they noted was at odds with its position west of the Nan-Uttaradit suture. We now know that the main Palaeo-Tethys suture lies further to the west (see Metcalfe 2005, 2006) and there is thus no

140

I. Metcalfe, M. Sone / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139–151

Fig. 1. Principal continental tectonostratigraphic terranes of East and Southeast Asia and location of the Tak Fa Formation conodont locality on the Indochina Terrane (after Metcalfe, 2006). KL = Kun Lun, QD = Qaidam, AL = Ala Shan, QT = Qiangtang, QS = Qamdao–Simao, L = Lhasa, WB = West Burma, SI = Simao, S = Sikuleh, SWB = South West Borneo, HT = Hainan Terranes, KT = Kurosegawa Terrane.

palaeogeographic conflict with this fauna. The other Lower Permian conodonts known from the SE Asian region are a small fauna from the Kanthan Limestone of NW Peninsular Malaysia (Sibumasu Terrane) including Mesogondolella bisselli and Hindeodus (Metcalfe, 1981), and a small Asselian fauna from the Terbat Formation of Sarawak, Borneo (SW Borneo Block) that includes S. elongatus and Hindeodus (Metcalfe, 1985). We here report Kungurian conodonts from the Tak Fa Formation of the Saraburi Limestone Group of central

Thailand which was deposited on the western margin of the Indochina Terrane. This is the first report of Kungurian conodonts from the Indochina Terrane and the first report of conodonts from the Saraburi Limestone Group. 2. Location, stratigraphy and sampling Permian limestone, exposed as numerous limestone hills, is widely distributed in the Saraburi to Phetchabun

I. Metcalfe, M. Sone / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139–151

141

Fig. 2. Distribution of Permian rocks of the Loei–Petchabun Fold Belt in Central Thailand (Khao Khwang and Pha Nok Khao Platforms and Nam Duk Basin) and location of the study area.

142

I. Metcalfe, M. Sone / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139–151

Fig. 3. Map of limestone hills and exposures of the Permian Tak Fa Formation, NNW of Khok Samrong showing conodont sample locations.

I. Metcalfe, M. Sone / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139–151

region, central Thailand (Fig. 2). These limestone deposits are stratigraphically termed the Saraburi Limestone Group, and form the Khao Khwang Carbonate Platform of the western margin of the Indochina Terrane (Wielchowsky

143

and Young, 1985). Foraminifers, corals, brachiopods, and bryozoans indicate that the Saraburi Limestone Group ranges in age from Kungurian to Capitanian (Yanagida, 1964; Sakagami, 1975; Toriyama, 1975, 1978, 1984;

Fig. 4. Conodont and fusulinid zonations and ranges of important conodont taxa for the Cisuralian and Guadalupian of South China, showing the stratigraphic overlap of Pseudosweetognathus costatus Wang, Ritter and Clark and Sweetognathus subsymmetricus Wang, Ritter and Clark in the upper half of the Lower Kungurian and interpreted age of the Tak Fa Formation conodont fauna. After Mei et al., 2002 and Henderson and Mei, 2003.

144

I. Metcalfe, M. Sone / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139–151

Toriyama and Kanmera, 1977, 1979; Toriyama et al., 1974; Sugiyama, 1982; Yanagida et al., 1988; Chonglakmani and Fontaine, 1990; Igo, 1992; Yanagida and Nakornsri, 1999). Conodonts have not previously been reported from these limestones. In the area between Saraburi and Phetchabun, massive to well bedded, light grey to bluish-grey limestones with intercalated sandstones and shales are extensively distributed. They were mapped as the Tak Fa Formation and assigned a Middle Permian age by Nakornsri (1977, 1981). In this study, three limestone hills north of Khok Samrong town, from south to north, Khao Wang, Khao Krachieo, and Khao Khok (Fig. 3), were visited, and samples for conodont extraction collected. 2.1. Khao Wang limestone Khao Wang is a relatively large limestone hill just southwest of the road junction at the Ban Nong Muang

village, about 2km NNW of the temple Wat Khiri Nakharattanaram along Route 1. Both macrofossils and fusulinoids are highly abundant in many exposures of this hill. Three conodont samples (KW4, KW1 and WTS2) were collected from Khao Wang hill via the footpath accessible from the temple Wat Tham Sangtisuk located on the northern side of the hill (Fig. 3). The sampled beds show a strike and dip of l80/20W. The limestone is dominantly bioclastic with abundant brachiopods, compound rugose corals, and foraminifers (both fusulinoids and smaller foraminifers). Limestones exposed 2km to the SSE at Wat Khiri Nakharattanaram have yielded the fusulinoids Nankinella (?) sp., Neofusulinella saraburiensis Toriyama, Kanmera and Ingavat, Parafusulina gigantea (Deprat), Verbeekina verbeeki (Geinitz), Pseudodoliolina pseudolepida (Deprat) and Sumatrina annae Volz indicating a lower Middle Permian age (Toriyama and Pitakpaivan, 1973).

Plate I. All specimens from sample KH1. Scale bars represent 100μm unless otherwise indicated (see page 145). 1–21. 1–7. 8–10. 11–13. 14. 15–17. 18. 19–21.

Pseudosweetognathus costatus Wang, Ritter and Clark Pa elements Oral, inner lateral, aboral, outer lateral, posterior and oral details (showing reticulate ornament) of specimen IM043 Oral, aboral and outer lateral views of specimen IM044 Oral, aboral and inner lateral views of specimen IM045 Oral view of specimen IM046 Oral and oral detail views of specimen IM047 Oral view of speciman IM048 Inner lateral, oral and oral detail views of specimen IM049

Plate II. 1–5. Pseudosweetognathus costatus Wang, Ritter and Clark Pa elements (sample KH1) (see page 146). 1. 2. 3. 4, 5. 6 ,7, 12. 6. 7. 12. 8–9. 10. 11. 13.

Oral view of specimen IM050 Oral view of specimen IM051 Oral view of specimen IM052 Oral and oral detail views of specimen IM053 Sc elements (sample KH1) Lateral view of specimen IM054 Lateral view of specimen IM055 Lateral view of specimen IM058 Oral and lateral views of Sa element IM056. (Sample KH1) Lateral view of Pb element IM060. (Sample KK1) Lateral view of Pb element IM057 (Sample KH1) Shark scale, specimen IM059 (Sample KH1)

Plate III. All specimens from sample KH1. Scale bars represent 100 μm unless otherwise indicated (see page 147). 1–22. 1, 2. 3, 4. 5–7. 8–10. 11–13. 14, 15. 16–20. 21, 22.

Sweetognathus subsymmetricus Wang, Ritter and Clark Pa elements Oral and inner lateral views of specimen IM035 Oral and inner lateral views of specimen IM036 Oral, outer lateral and basal views of specimen IM038 Oral , outer lateral and oral detail (showing pustulos ornament) views of specimen IM039 Oral, inner lateral and basal views of specimen IM040 Oral and inner lateral views of specimen IM041 Oral, inner lateral, aboral and two oral view details showing carinal ornament of specimen IM042 Oral and lateral views of specimen IM037

I. Metcalfe, M. Sone / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139–151

2.2. Khao Krachieo limestone A single conodont sample (KK1) was collected from the small limestone hill Khao Krachieo at Nl5°14.618′,

145

E100°39.033′ about 12km NE of Khao Wang (Fig. 3). The temple Wat Khao Krachieo sits on this hill, and thinly bedded limestone with a strike and dip of 005/ 10W are exposed on a short slope below the temple. The

Plate I (caption on page 144 ).

146

I. Metcalfe, M. Sone / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139–151

Plate II (caption on page 144 ).

I. Metcalfe, M. Sone / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139–151

Plate III (caption on page 144 ).

147

148

I. Metcalfe, M. Sone / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139–151

limestone here is dark grey in colour, and is not apparently as rich in fusulinoids as that of Khao Wang, yet cross sections of some Verbeekina tests were occasionally observed on the weathered surface in the field. Although not abundant, small brachiopod shells, often silicified, were found. One Pb conodont element was recovered. The Khao Krachieo limestone is interpreted, based on bedding structure, as stratigraphically younger than Khao Wang and Khao Khok. 2.3. Khao Khok limestone Khao Khok is the southeastern portion of a large limestone massif about 10km in length: a large hill Khao Phu Chongkho makes up the northern portion of the massif. A 31.5kg conodont sample KH1 was collected together with abundant brachiopods from the large limestone hill Khao Khok about 7km east of Khao Kracheio (Fig. 3). The sampled locality is in the core of an anticline near the foot of the southeastern end of the hill at Nl5°18.945′, E100°38.587′. The sampled limestones are probably near the lowest stratigraphic level of the Tak Fa Formation exposed in the study area. Brachiopods are abundant at this locality, yet species diversity is low, with only three species represented. Some small pectinoid, bivalves, crinoids and bryzoans are also rarely present, but no corals or fusulinoids were observed. The fossil beds comprise dark grey limestone, and thin sections made from the limestone reveal no foraminifers, unlike typically fusulinoid-rich limestone of other nearby hills. 3. Conodont fauna and age The three samples from Khao Wang (KW4, KW1 and WTS2) did not yield any conodonts. Sample KK1 from Khao Krachieo, yielded only one Pb conodont element (Plate II,10) from 5 kilograms of limestone. This element is not age diagnostic. The large (31.5kg) sample KH1 sample from Khao Khok however, yielded: Pseudosweetognathus costatus Wang Ritter and Clark Pa elements P. costatus Wang Ritter and Clark? Pb element Sweetognathus subsymmetricus Wang Ritter and Clark Pa elements S. subsymmetricus Wang Ritter and Clark? Pb element Pa (fragments) Sa element

14 1 8 1 11 1

Sc elements (Sample also contains various ichthyoliths)

3

Pseudosweetognathus costatus is restricted to the late Artinskian – lower Kungurian of South China (Mei et al., 1999; Mei et al., 2002; Henderson and Mei, 2003; Fig. 4) and Indochina (this paper). Early forms of Sweetognathus subsymmetricus would represent the early Kungurian M. siliciensis–S. subsymmetricus Zone of South China (Fig. 4; Wang et al., 1987; Mei et al., 1999; Mei et al., 2002) and the fauna recovered from sample KH1 of Khao Khok is therefore interpreted to be in the upper half of the early Kungurian. The acid insoluble residues also contain various ichthyoliths, in particular teeth and scales. An example of a possibly new shark scale (S. Turner pers. comm.) is shown in Plate II,13. The Khao Khok conodonts have a Colour Alteration Index (CAI) of 1 to 1.5 indicating that the Tak Fa Formation has been heated to between 50 and 90οC and falls within the incipient maturation to low liquid window in terms of organic metamorphic facies and thermal maturation (Epstein et al., 1977). 4. Taxonomic notes Pseudosweetognathus costatus Wang, Ritter and Clark 1987 Plate I,1–21; Plate II,1–5 Synonomy: Sweetognathus whitei Tian, 1983, p. 344, pl. 77, fig. 11 (only) Pseudosweetognathus costatus Wang Ritter and Clark, 1987, pp. 1051–54, figs. 6, 19 and 20. Pseudosweetognathus costatus Wang Ritter and Clark, 1987, Mei et al., 2002, figs. 11, 1–4. Original diagnosis (from Wang et al., 1987): Known only from pectiniform element with free blade adenticulate, fixed carina on left side, no median ridge connecting transverse costule ridges, microstructure reticulate. Original Description (from Wang et al., 1987): Pectiniform element with thin free blade, very slightly curved laterally in contrast with platform, and much higher anteriorly than posteriorly in lateral view. Anterior edge straight, forming an angle somewhat less than 90° with lower margin. Upper edge nearly straight in upper view, adenticulate, and extended on left side of platform as a longitudinal ridge (fixed carina) for about one-third length of platform. Three to five relatively short transverse ridges on right side of platform connect perpendicularly with fixed carina, in anterior part of the platform (Type III

I. Metcalfe, M. Sone / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139–151

carina). Transverse ridges extend to posterior tip and are widest and most complete at midpoint, becoming shorter and less complete posteriorly. Upper surface of transverse ridges, free blade, and fixed carina covered by pentagonal and hexangular microreticulations rather than pustulose micro-ornamentation as seen in species of Sweetognathus. Basal cavity occupies entire underside of platform and is excavated deeply. Outer side is expanded more widely than inner on some specimens. Lower edge of unit strongly arched. Posterior part of platform and free blade bend downwards. Anterior termination of blade is highest point of unit. Remarks: This is a very distinctive genus and species, readily distinguishable from other similar forms. The specimens recovered from Khao Khok are mainly Pa elements which are essentially identical to those previously described from South China and possess the characteristic polygonal microreticulate ornament on the platform ridges and furrows (Plate I,6,7,16 and Plate II,4,5). We did not recover other elements of the apparatus except one Pb element tentatively assigned (Plate II,11). The transverse ridges on the Pa element platforms tend to bifurcate or become somewhat disrupted or irregular in the posterior part of the platform (e.g. Plate I,1,7,20 and 21). Sweetognathus subsymmetricus Wang Ritter and Clark 1987 Plate III,1–22 Synonomy:

149

Sweetognathus subsymmetricus Wang et al., 1987, figs. 6.1–6.7. Sweetognathus paraguizhouensis Wang et al., 1987, figs. 6.14, 6.15. Sweetognathus sp. Beyers and Orchard, 1991, pl. 2, figs. 1, 2, 7. Sweetognathus subsymmetricus Wang, Ritter and Clark; Gullo and Kozur, 1992, fig. 6, H, I. Sweetognathus iranicus Kozur, Mostler et RahimiYazd; Wang and Dong, 1991, pl. I, fig. 3. Sweetognathus whitei (Rhodes); Wang and Dong, 1991, pl. I, fig. 17. Sweetognathus subsymmetricus Wang, Ritter and Clark; Wang and Shen, 1994, pl. 47, figs. 1–6, 8. Sweetognathus behnkeni Kozur; Wang and Shen, 1994, pl. 47, fig. 7. Sweetognathus sweeti Kozur, Mostler and Rahimi-Yazd; Wang and Shen, 1994, pl. 47, figs. 9. Sweetognathus paraguizhouensis Wang, Ritter and Clark; Wang and Shen, 1994, pl. 48, figs. 5, 6. Sweetognathus inornatus Ritter; Wang and Shen, 1994, pl. 48, figs. 3, 4, 8. Sweetognathus subsymmetricus Wang, Ritter and Clark; Mei et al., 2002, p. 86, figs. 10.23, 10.24. Emended diagnosis (Mei et al., 2002): A species of Sweetognathus with a Pa element possessing a discrete carina on which the anterior ridges reduce in width anteriorly, but distinctly more on one side than the other in the asymmetrical morphotype. In the wide morphotype the anterior one to three ridges are the widest

Fig. 5. Palaeogeographic reconstruction for the Early Permian (Kungurian) showing the geographic distribution of biogeographically important conodonts and conodont provinces. T = Tarim Block, S = Sibumasu Terrane, WB = West Burma Block, SI = Simao Block. After Metcalfe, 2006; Mei et al., 2002.

150

I. Metcalfe, M. Sone / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139–151

and the following ridges reduce gradually in width posteriorly. Remarks: Sweetognathus subsymmetricus can be differentiated from S. guizhouensis by the latter normally having the second anteriormost ridge as widest in the asymmetrical morphotype. The population of S. subsymmetricus reported here includes near symmetrical forms that resemble Sweetognathus whitei (e.g. Plate III,3,11) and forms that have a “rhomboid” carina similar to early forms of S. subsymmetricus reported elsewhere. This population thus represents an early development of S. subsymmetricus (post S. whitei). 5. Palaeobiogeography Provincialism of Permian conodonts has been established over the last decade with three latitudinally controlled provinces recognised, a southern peri-Gondwana Cool Water Province, an Equatorial Warm Water Province, and a North Cool Water Province (Kozur, 1994; Nicoll and Metcalfe, 1998; Mei and Henderson, 2001; Mei et al., 2002; Henderson and Mei, 2003). The Tak Fa Formation fauna is representative of the Equatorial Warm Water Province, consistent with the equatorial position of Indochina in the Kungurian (Fig. 5). The occurrence of Pseudosweetognathus, previously known only from the South China terrane, in the Tak Fa Formation fauna suggests biogeographic affinity and geographic proximity of the South China and Indochina terranes in the Kungurian. Such palaeogeographic proximity within the Palaeo-Tethys has been suggested on other grounds (e.g. Metcalfe, 2000, 2002, 2006; Scotese and McKerrow, 1990; Li and Powell, 2001; Stampfli and Boral, 2002). The fauna reported in this paper is consistent with palaeogeographic reconstructions that place South China and Indochina in close proximity but isolated from other shallow-marine portions of other continental masses in the Kungurian, but inconsistent with reconstructions that separate these two terranes significantly in the Early Permian (e.g. Ziegler et al., 1997, 1998). 6. Conclusions Kungurian conodonts occur in the Saraburi Limestone Group of Thailand. The co-occurrence of Sweetognathus subsymmetricus and Pseudosweetognathus costatus from the limestone hill Khao Khok of the Tak Fa Formation of the Saraburi Limestone Group, Central Thailand indicate a lower Kungurian age. These conodonts represent the Equatorial Warm Water Province, and the presence of Pseudosweetog-

nathus costatus on the Indochina terrane indicates close geographic proximity between South China and Indochina in the Kungurian. Palaeogeographic reconstructions that place South China and Indochina in close proximity but isolated from other continental masses in the Kungurian are supported by the findings of this paper. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Chongpan Chonglakmani, Kitsana Malila and Anisong Chitnarin for guidance and help with fieldwork in Thailand. We also thank Charles Henderson for valuable discussion on conodont taxonomy, and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. References Beyers, J.M., Orchard, M.J., 1991. Upper Permian and Triassic conodont faunas from the type area of the Cache Creek Complex, south-central British Columbia, Canada. In: Orchard, M.J., McCracken, A.D. (Eds.), Ordovician to Triassic Conodont Paleontology of the Canadian Cordillera. Geological survey of Canada Bulletin, vol. 417, pp. 269–287. Carey, S.P., Burrett, C.F., Chaodumrong, P., Wongwanich, T., Chonglakmani, C., 1995. Triassic and Permian conodonts from the Lampang and Ngao Groups, northern Thailand. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 182, 497–513. Chonglakmani, C., Fontaine, H., 1990. The Lam Narai-Phetchabun region: a platform of Early Carboniferous to Late Permian age. Development Geology for Thailand into the year 2000. Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, pp. 39–98. Epstein, A.G., Epstein, J.B., Harris, L.D., 1977. Conodont color alteration — an index to organic metamorphism. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 995, 27 pp. Gullo, M., Kozur, H., 1992. Conodonts from the pelagic deepwater Permian of central Western Sicily (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch fuÉr Geologie Palaontologie Abhandlugen 184, 203–234. Henderson, C.M., Mei, S., 2003. Stratigraphic versus environmental significance of Permian serrated conodonts around the Cisuralian– Guadalupian boundary: new evidence from Oman. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 191, 301–328. Igo, H., 1974. Lower Permian conodonts from northern Thailand. Geology and Palaeontology of Southeast Asia 14, 1–6. Igo, H., 1992. Orientoschwagerina (Fusulinacea) from Khao Tham Rusi, south of Lom Sak, central Thailand. Annual Report of the Institute of Geoscience, 18. University of Tsukuba, pp. 43–47. Kozur, H., 1994. Permian pelagic and shallow-water conodont zonation. Permophiles 24, 16–20. Li, Z.X., Powell, C.McA., 2001. An outline of the palaeogeographic evolution of the Australasian region since the beginning of the Neoproterozoic. Earth-Science Reviews 53, 237–277. Mei, S., Henderson, C.M., 2001. Evolution of Permian conodont provincialism and its significance in global correlation and paleoclimate implication. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 170, 237–260. Mei, S., Henderson, C.M., 2002. Comments on some Permian conodont faunas reported from Southeast Asia and adjacent areas and their global correlation. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 20, 599–608.

I. Metcalfe, M. Sone / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257 (2008) 139–151 Mei, S., Shi, X., Chen, X., Sun, K., 1999. Permian Cisuralian and Guadalupian Sequence Stratigraphy in South Guizhou and Central Guangxi and its relation to conodont evolution. Earth Science. Journal of China University of Geoscience 24, 21–31. Mei, S., Henderson, C.M., Wardlaw, B.R., 2002. Evolution and distribution of the conodonts Sweetognathus and Iranognathus and related genera during the Permian, and their implications for climate change. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 180, 57–91. Metcalfe, I., 1981. A late Wolfcampian (Early Permian) conodont fauna from Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. Warta Geologi 7, 76–79. Metcalfe, I., 1985. Lower Permian conodonts from the Terbat Formation, Sarawak. Warta Geologi 11, 1–4. Metcalfe, I., 2000. The nature and ages of Palaeo-Tethyan suture zones in East Asia. Geosciences Journal 4, 33–38. Metcalfe, I., 2002. Permian tectonic framework and palaeogeography of SE Asia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 20, 551–566. Metcalfe, I., 2005. Asia: South-East. In: Selley, R.C., Cocks, L.R.M., Plimer, I.R. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Geology, vol. 1. Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 169–198. Metcalfe, I., 2006. Palaeozoic and Mesozoic tectonic evolution and palaeogeography of East Asian crustal fragments: The Korean Peninsula in context. Gondwana Research 9, 24–46. Nakornsri N., 1977. Geological Map of Ban Mi Sheet ND 47–4, Scale 1:250,000, Geological Survey Division, Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok, Thailand. Nakornsri, N., 1981. Geology and Mineral Resources of Amphoe Ban Mi (ND 47–4). Geological Survey Report Number 3, 36. Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok, Thailand. Nicoll, R.S., Metcalfe, I., 1998. Early and Middle Permian conodonts from the Canning and southern Carnarvon basins, western Australia: their implications for regional biostratigraphy and palaeoclimatology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 110, pp. 419–461. Sakagami, S., 1975. Permian Bryozoa from Khao Hin Kling, near Phetchabun, North-Central Thailand. Geology and Palaeontology of Southeast Asia, 16, 33–43. Scotese, C.R., McKerrow, W.S., 1990. Revised world maps and introduction. In: McKerrow, W.S., Scotese, C.R. (Eds.), Palaeozoic Palaeogeography and Biogeography, 12. Geological Society Memoir, pp. 1–21. Stampfli, G.M., Borel, G.D., 2002. A plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic constrained by dynamic plate boundaries and restored synthetic oceanic isochrones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 196, 17–33. Sugiyama, T., 1982. Middle Permian corals from the Ratburi Limestone in the Khao Khao area, Saraburi, central Thailand. Geology and Palaeontology of Southeast Asia, 24, 15–29. Tian, C.R., 1983. Permian conodonts. Handbook of Paleontology in SW China (Pt. IV, Micropaleontology). Geoscience Press, Beijing, pp. 338–344 (in Chinese). Toriyama, R., 1975. Fusuline fossils from Thailand Part 9: Permian fusulines from Ratburi Limestone in Khao Phlong Phrab area, Saraburi, central Thailand. Memoir of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 23, pp. 1–116.

151

Toriyama, R., 1978. Fusuline fossils from Thailand Part 11: shell destruction of verbeekinids in the fusuline fauna from Khao Khao, Saraburi, central Thailand. Geology and Palaeontology of Southeast Asia 19, 29–33. Toriyama, R., 1984. Summary of the fusuline faunas in Thailand and Malaysia. Geology and Palaeontology of Southeast Asia 25, 137–146. Toriyama, R., Pitakpaivan, K., 1973. Fusulinacean fossils from Thailand Part 7: Middle Permian fusulines from Wat Kirinakratanaram, central Thailand. Geology and Palaeontology of Southeast Asia 12, 43–61. Toriyama, R., Kanmera, K., 1977. Fusuline fossils from Thailand Part 10: the Permian fusulines from the limestone conglomerate formation in the Khao Phiong Phrab area, Saraburi. Geology and Palaeontology of Southeast Asia 18, 1–27. Toriyama, R., Kanmera, K., 1979. Fusuline fossils from Thailand Part 12: Permian fusulines from the Ratburi Limestone in the Khao Khao area, Saraburi, central Thailand. Geology and Palaeontology of SoutheastAsia 20, 23–93. Toriyama, R., Kanmera, K., Kaewbaidhoam, S., Hongnusonthi, A., 1974. Biostratigraphic zonation of the Ratburi Limestone in the Khao Phlong Phrab area, Saraburi, central Thailand. Geology and Palaeontology of Southeast Asia 14, 25–48. Wang, C., Dong, Z., 1991. Permian conodonts from Suoxiyu in Cili County, Hunan. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 8, 41–56. Wang C., Shen H., 1994. Permian conodont biostratigraphy (chapter V), and, Permian conodonts (chapter VIII). In: Wang, C. (Ed.), Conodonts of Lower Yangtze Valley —An Index to Biostratigraphy and Organic Metamorphic Maturity. Science Press House, Beijing, pp. 96–97, 235–248. Wang, C., Ritter, S.M., Clark, D.L., 1987. The Sweetognathus complex in the Permian of China: implications for evolution and homeomorphy. Journal of Paleontology 61, 1047–1057. Wielchowsky, C.C., Young, J.D., 1985. Regional facies variations in Permian rocks of the Phetchabun foldand thrist belt, Thailand. Proceedings of the Conference on Geology and Mineral Resources Development of Northern Thailand. Khon Kaen University, pp. 41–55. Yanagida, J., 1964. Permian brachiopods from Central Thailand. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, pp. 1–22. Yanagida, J., Nakornsri, N., 1999. Permian brachiopods from the Khao Hin Kling area nea Phetchabun, north-central Thailand. Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History 18, 105–136. Yanagida, J., Sakagami, S., Ishibashi, T., Kawabe, T., Hatta, A., Nakornsri, N., Sugiyama, T., Chonglakmani, C., Ingavat-Helmcke, R., Chongkanchanasoontorn, Y., Piyasin, S., Wongwanich, T., 1988. Biostratigraphic Study of Paleozoic and Mesozoic Groups in Central and Northern Thailand (An Interim Report), 47. Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 33 pls. Ziegler, A.M., Hulver, M.L., Rowley, D.B., 1997. Permian World Topography and Climate. In: Martinin, I.P. (Ed.), Late Glacial and Postglacial Environmental Changes. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 111–146. Ziegler, A.M., Gibbs, M.T., Hulver, M.L., 1998. A mini-atlas of oceanic water masses in the Permian Period. Proceedings Royal Society of Victoria, 110, pp. 323–343.

Metcalfe & Sone 2008.. - UNE

and form the Khao Khwang Carbonate Platform of the western .... yet cross sections of some Verbeekina tests were ..... Development of Northern Thailand.

3MB Sizes 0 Downloads 48 Views

Recommend Documents

Sone ka Sitta.pdf
Page 1 of 21. Page 1 of 21. Page 2 of 21. Page 2 of 21. Page 3 of 21. Page 3 of 21. Page 4 of 21. Page 4 of 21. Sone ka Sitta.pdf. Sone ka Sitta.pdf. Open.

UNE Medicine Clerkship.pdf
There was a problem previewing this document. Retrying... Download. Connect more ... of the apps below to open or edit this item. UNE Medicine Clerkship.pdf.

Calend ar of UNE A -2 Activities
Mar 23, 2016 - Mobilizing Resources for Sustainable Investments ... UNEA-2 CoW Working Group 3 (10:00hrs-13:00hrs). UNEA-2 ... Sustainable Energy and.

Calend ar of UNE A -2 Activities
Mar 23, 2016 - Mobilizing Resources for Sustainable Investments ... UNEA-2 CoW Working Group 1 (10:00hrs-13:00hrs). UNEA-2 ... Sustainable Energy and.

2016-17 Metcalfe School Improvement Plan.pdf
W. A. Metcalfe Elementary School. Last Modified: 10/4/2016 Page 3 https://www.floridacims.org. Page 3 of 39. 2016-17 Metcalfe School Improvement Plan.pdf.

paris-alger-une-histoire-passionnelle.pdf
Mar 27, 2015 - Stock. 27/03/2015 - 10:10. PARIS - ALGER. 135*215 - Epreuve 5. Folio 3/378. Page 3 of 378. paris-alger-une-histoire-passionnelle.pdf.

Slack-Smith UNE WCGALP2010 Paper
We used BayesBFast (Fernando 2009 with the priors for proportion of SNPs excluded from the model set at 0.99 for prediction of SNP effects. Cross validation.

Slack-Smith UNE WCGALP2010 Paper
Border Leicester x Merino cross (28%), and Terminal breeds (Poll Dorset, Suffolk, White. Suffolk and Texel) x .... International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence Montreal,. Quebec ... J. C. (1991). Journal of Business Research 22: 111-118.

htay mg - pyout sone nay thaw kabar.pdf
Whoops! There was a problem loading more pages. htay mg - pyout sone nay thaw kabar.pdf. htay mg - pyout sone nay thaw kabar.pdf. Open. Extract. Open with.

NORMA UNE CONTADORES PLC.pdf
There was a problem loading more pages. Retrying... NORMA UNE CONTADORES PLC.pdf. NORMA UNE CONTADORES PLC.pdf. Open. Extract. Open with.

WHAT MESS (dessiner une creature) tom lichtenheld + prediction.pdf
Page 1 of 1. WHAT MESS (dessiner une creature) tom lichtenheld + prediction.pdf. WHAT MESS (dessiner une creature) tom lichtenheld + prediction.pdf. Open.

PDF Le bleu est une couleur chaude Full Books
Le bleu est une couleur chaude Download at => https://pdfkulonline13e1.blogspot.com/272349876X Le bleu est une couleur chaude pdf download, Le bleu est une couleur chaude audiobook download, Le bleu est une couleur chaude read online, Le bleu est

Addison.Wesley.Application.Specific.Integrated.Circuits.Oct.2008 ...
Application.Specific.Integrated.Circuits.Oct.2008.ISBN.0321602757.pdf. Addison.Wesley.Application.Specific.Integrated.Circuits.Oct.2008.ISBN.0321602757.pdf. Open. Extract. Open with. Sign In. Main menu. Displaying Addison.Wesley.Application.Specific.

Addison.Wesley.Application.Specific.Integrated.Circuits.Oct.2008 ...
Application.Specific.Integrated.Circuits.Oct.2008.ISBN.0321602757.pdf. Addison.Wesley.Application.Specific.Integrated.Circuits.Oct.2008.ISBN.0321602757.pdf.

PDF Walking Dead, Tome 22 : Une autre vie... Full Pages
Walking Dead, Tome 22 : Une autre vie... Download at => https://pdfkulonline13e1.blogspot.com/2756066362 Walking Dead, Tome 22 : Une autre vie... pdf download, Walking Dead, Tome 22 : Une autre vie... audiobook download, Walking Dead, Tome 22 : U