Measurement ●

We are now entering the wide field era

Single gains no longer adequate

Gains are direction dependant

Components of DDEs ●


Pointing errors


Open Loop vs Closed Loop ●

Open Loop –

Measurement seperated from target observations

Holography, pan & scan

Closed Loop –

Beam determined by the target field

Smirnov's DDEs ●

Extensive analysis of WSRT DDEs with MeqTrees

Differential Gains

V. High Dynamic Range

dE ●

The Good –

Fly swatter approach

Great maps

The Bad –

Rolls up beam, atmosphere, source structure

Comutational cost

Degrees of freedom

Seperating beam and sky ●

The beams can only be determined realatively with a good sky model Brisken suggested scanning around the sky to trace the flux over the beam by linked tracks of sources

Pointing Self-Cal ●

Given a beam model solve for pointing errors

Low number of solvable terms –

2 reals per antenna vs. 1 complex per source

Our beam models are quite poor, does not consider the atmosphere

Pointing Self-Cal ●

Resutls were poor

Pointing Self-Cal ●

Not sufficient to model the effects

Scale parameter aborbs some of this

Need better beam models and combine with atmospheric models

Pointing Self-Cal success story ●

WSRT pointing analysis

The WSRT wobble

ATA Beams ●

Open loop measurements

ATA Beams

ATA Squint

Summary ●

Beam measurement is not easy

Can constrain our calibration models

Limits degrees of freedom in our solutions

Measurement - GitHub

Measurement. ○ We are now entering the wide field era. ○ Single gains no longer adequate. ○ Gains are direction dependant ...

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