Marshmallow Media Elizabeth Phipps Science Fair Mrs. Authement/Mrs. Kellrooney April 5, 2016
Elizabeth Phipps Mrs. Authement/Mrs. Kellrooney Science Fair April 5, 2016 Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to find out whether or not changing the amounts of certain ingredients in a recipe adjusts the consistency and taste of a marshmallow. The research question asked was, does putting more or less of an ingredient in a recipe change the density and savor of marshmallows? It was hypothesized that if certain elements in a recipe would be changed, then the consistency and taste of a marshmallow would adjust because the different measurements will affect how the food will cook. The procedure consisted of boiling three different ratios of corn syrup and sugar, then combining with gelatin and beating the solution for a period of time. It was concluded that the different ratios resulted in consistency for some trials, but not for others. At the end of the experiment the results proved that adjusting the amounts of ingredients when making marshmallows, or other foods in general, will change the taste, texture, and density of the food. To synthesize these thoughts, keep in mind that when making marshmallows to roast over a campfire, make a marshmallow that has perfect melting, texture, and taste.
Elizabeth Phipps Mrs. Authement/Mrs. Kellrooney Science Fair April 5, 2016 Table of Contents Background Research Paper………………………………………………………Page 1 Question, Variables, and Hypothesis……………………………………………...Page 2 Materials and Procedure…………………………………………………………..Page 3 Data and Results…………………………………………………………………..Page 4 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………...Page 5 Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………..Page 6 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………….....Page 7
Page 1 Elizabeth Phipps Mrs. Authement/Mrs. Kellrooney Science Fair April 5, 2016 Background Research Paper Marshmallow Media A gooey marshmallow makes it to your mouth. You chew, savor the deliciously sweet flavor, and then swallow. The taste of marshmallows is one that most people love. Don’t you wish you could make your own marshmallows? That sounds like a great idea to me let’s get started right away! First, we should take a look at what happened to others when they tried to make marshmallows. Next, what workers do in food processing plants and how it applies to this experiment, and how about some definitions and concepts? Then we can make marshmallows! George Retseck, a scientist, found out many things that help make marshmallows the way most people like to eat them. This scientist found that the marshmallows made in one method had a higher boiling point, which made the former melt faster. He also found that the boiling point was higher if there was more sugar in the water. Also, he found that the marshmallows made in the first method he tried were the bloated marshmallow that was wanted, or the better quality marshmallows. Finally, he found two things out about the structure of the marshmallows. He found out that by putting gelatin in the marshmallows they are able to maintain their puffy shape. Additionally, the scientist found that corn syrup was added to to the marshmallows to keep crystals from forming while the syrup cools. Food processing plants that make marshmallows take many sanitary and measurement cautions, some that may apply to this experiment. Sanitary conditions are very important when working with food, wash hands often so as to keep as many germs off the marshmallows as possible. Correct measurements must be taken, if not the end product, the marshmallows, may be slightly different, which could cause a problem. Finally, the workers always make sure that all loose jewelry is taken off, and hair is held back off their face with a hairnet or headband. This is
so the consumer does not have a marshmallow with jewelry or hair in it, that could damage the company’s reputation.
There is a lot of vocabulary that may be unknown, here are some of the most important words to know. In marshmallows, a concentration is the amount of something that is put into a substance. In this case sugar concentration is added to boiling water. The boiling point is the point at which a substance starts to boil. The more sugar concentration added to the water, the higher the boiling point. Gelatin is a substance that makes things stay together and keep a certain shape. Gelatin helps marshmallows to maintain their inflated, cylinder shape. A candy thermometer is a special thermometer to help you measure the temperature to make candy that has a perfect texture and taste. A candy thermometer will help to make sure that the marshmallows are cooked to precisely the right temperature. This thermometer is preferred over other thermometers because other thermometers do not have the correct labels, labels like hardball or softball. Marshmallows are a fun, ooey gooey treat that most people love. Let’s review some of the most important details. George Retseck, a scientist, found out that in this experiment the marshmallows in the first method he tried were the better quality marshmallows. In a food processing plant that makes marshmallows they take many sanitary, and measurement cautions. Finally, gelatin helps marshmallows maintain the bloated cylinder shape, and a candy thermometer helps to make sure that the marshmallows are cooked to the right temperature. Now it’s time to have fun making homemade marshmallows.
Page 2 Elizabeth Phipps Mrs. Authement/Mrs. Kellrooney Science Fair April 5, 2016 Question, Variables, and Hypothesis Question Do the different ratios of corn syrup to sugar affect the consistency of a gooey, sticky, and billowy marshmallow? Independent Variable ● The ratio of corn syrup to sugar Constants ● The measurements of vegetable oil ● The measurements of gelatin ● The boiling point Dependent Variable ● The consistency of a gooey, sticky, and billowy marshmallow. Hypothesis If the ratio of corn syrup to sugar is changed, then the consistency of a gooey, sticky, and billowy marshmallow will not stay the the same because the amount of sugar put in determines the type of candy made after the syrup cools.
Page 3 Elizabeth Phipps Mrs. Authement/Mrs. Kellrooney Science Fair April 5, 2016 Materials and Procedure Materials ● Square or round foil cake pans, 20 23 centimeters or 8 9 inches ● Small strainer ● Measuring cups ● Large mixing bowls ● Small saucepan, with a lid ● Fork ● Candy thermometer must be able to read 240℉ or 116 ℃ ● Measuring spoons ● Timer ● Electric mixer or beater ● Spatula ● Pizza wheel ● Large airtight containers ● Cheese slicer with moveable cutting arm ● Ruler ● Cutting board ● Pennies (20) ● Paper towels (1 roll) ● Permanent marker or pen ● Masking tape ● Vegetable oil
● Powdered or confectioners sugar ● Granulated sugar ● Corn syrup ● Pure vanilla extract ● Water ● Plain, unflavored gelatin ● Volunteers to do taste testing ● Optional: Lab notebook ● Graph paper Procedure 1. Label the bottoms of the cake pans with masking tape pieces, numbered from 1 to 3. 2. Pour a little bit of vegetable oil on the paper toweling and lightly oil the pan bottoms. 3. Pour a little bit of powdered (confectioners) sugar into the strainer and lightly shake it over the three pans. 4. Pour ⅙ cup or 40 milliliters cold water into the large mixing bowl. a. To get this measurement fill a ⅓ cup or measure out 41.5 milliliters.
5. Sprinkle one ¼ ounce envelope of plain, unflavored gelatin into the cold water. 6. Stir the gelatin and water with a fork for five seconds, then set aside. 7. Add ¼ cup or 59 milliliters of cold water to the small saucepan. 8. Add granulated sugar, and corn syrup to the water in the saucepan using the table below as a guide. Add the corn syrup and sugar according to the recipe you are currently making. Ingredients
½ cup (120 ml)
⅔ cup (160 ml)
¾ cup (180 ml)
⅓ cup (80 ml)
¼ cup (60 ml)
⅙ cup (40 ml)
Ratio of sugar to
½ : ⅓ (120 : 80)
⅔ : ¼ (160 : 60)
¾ : ⅙ (180 : 40)
9. Put the lid on the saucepan and turn the stove to medium high heat. 10. Lift the lid every 30 seconds until the solution just comes to a boil 11. Remove the lid when it has just come to a boil and set it aside. 12. Measure the temperature of the syrup solution using the candy thermometer. Do not touch the bottom or the sides of the saucepan with the candy thermometer. 13. Continue heating the syrup solution until it reaches 240°F (116°C). 14. Immediately turn off the stove when the temperature reaches 2 40°F (116°C). 15. Turn the mixer on low and pour the syrup solution into the gelatin and water in the large mixing bowl. Make sure to pour quickly and carefully or the syrup solution may solidify. 16. Set the timer for 11 minutes and start it. 17. Slowly increase the speed of the mixer until it has reached full speed. 18. Beat the mixture for 11 minutes or until the mixture starts to become glossy, lukewarm, and very thick. 19. Add one half teaspoon of vanilla and beat for another minute. 20. Pour a thin layer of vegetable oil on the spatula and remove the marshmallow mixture from the mixing bowl and place it into the correctly labeled cake pan. 21. Wash and dry all cooking utensils used. 22. Repeat steps 121 two more times. 23. Allow the cake pans to sit out uncovered for 4 hours or overnight so they can become firm. 24. Turn the pans over unto the cutting board once the marshmallows are firm. 25. Roll a pizza cutter into some powdered sugar and cut into the marshmallows. Make the pieces to be about 3cm by 3cm. Use a ruler to help measure. 26. Sprinkle the marshmallows on all sides with powdered sugar using the strainer. 27. Place the marshmallows into the airtight containers according to each recipe and label the containers with the recipe number and trial. 28. Choose one marshmallow from each recipe that are about the same size.
29. Drop the marshmallow pieces into a pan of hot water. Start your timer to see which one melts fastest. 30. Repeat steps 2829 two more times. 31. Choose one marshmallow from each recipe and cut them in half with the cheese cutter. Repeat two more times. 32. Gather family and friends and have them test a marshmallow from each recipe. Repeat two more times. 33. Repeat this procedure two more times if able.
Page 4 Elizabeth Phipps Mrs. Authement/Mrs. Kellrooney Science Fair April 5, 2016 Data and Results Marshmallow Quality Testing
Sticky and hard to cut Did not have a good
Was very easy to cut
consistency for cutting Melting Test
Melted very slowly
Melted fast the slow
Melted the fastest
The table shows the results of the tests performed on the marshmallows. The first graph shows the time (in minutes) it took for the different ratios of corn syrup to sugar to boil. The second graph shows the time (in minutes) it took for the corn syrup, sugar, gelatin, and water mixture to become thick while being beat.
Page 5 Elizabeth Phipps Mrs. Authement/Mrs. Kellrooney Science Fair April 5, 2016 Conclusion In this experiment three batches of marshmallows were made, each with a different ratio of corn syrup to sugar to find out how the different amounts affect the consistency of a perfect marshmallow. A perfect marshmallow consists of good texture, taste, and stickiness. The purpose of doing this experiment was to find out if different amounts of ingredients affect the consistency of marshmallows. It was found that the different ratios of corn syrup and sugar in Recipe 3 made the marshmallows melt and cut easily, and in Recipe 2 the different amounts affected the taste for the better. However, some people liked the taste of Recipe 2, but liked the texture of Recipe 1. In the end, the hypothesis that the different ratios of corn syrup to sugar would affect the consistency of a perfect marshmallow was correct. In doing this experiment it was uncertain if all the measurements taken were exact and whether or not ingredients had been mixed the precise amount of time they should have been mixed. In doing this experiment it was learned that changing the amounts of ingredients added affects the results, and when making marshmallows it is better to act quickly and stay alert.
Page 6 Elizabeth Phipps Mrs. Authement/Mrs. Kellrooney Science Fair April 5, 2016 Acknowledgements First, I would like to thank my mom. My mom helped me during the actual doing of the experiment, and she was really helpful. During the act of doing the experiment she helped me to use my tools and time more efficiently than I would have on my own. Next, I would like to thank Mrs. Authement. Mrs. Authement helped me to get better in scientific writing and she was always there when I had a question. Additionally, I would like to thank Mrs. Kellrooney. Mrs. Kellrooney helped me to get better at my grammar skills and she challenged me more than I would have done myself. The biggest challenge she gave me was to find synonyms for repetitive words in my writing. Finally, I would like to thank my older sister Rebecca. Rebecca helped me to arrange my data and results so it looked more professional. I really appreciate the help that everyone listed above gave me and I couldn’t be more grateful for having the opportunity to do projects like this. Page 7
Elizabeth Phipps Mrs. Authement/Mrs. Kellrooney Science Fair April 5, 2016 Bibliography 1. "Ending the Essay: Conclusions." | . Web. 03 Apr. 2016. 2. "Metric Conversion Table Conversion Charts for Measurement Units." M etric Conversion Charts and Calculators . Web. 03 Apr. 2016. 3. "Mixing Your Own Marshmallows: Finding the Right Ratio of Sugar to Corn Syrup." Mixing Your Own Marshmallows: Finding the Right Ratio of Sugar to Corn Syrup . Web. 03 Apr. 2016. 4. "Sweet Science: Making Marshmallows." Scientific American . Web. 03 Apr. 2016. 5. www.nda.nebraska.gov/.../foods/food_processing_plant.pdf