LONG TERM ADAPTATION SCENARIOS: ADAPTATION POLICY AND LAW REVIEW July 2015 DEVELOPMENT TRAJECTORY ITEM

INSTRUMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

KEY INDICATORS

DOES THE INSTRUMENT ADDRESS THE ADAPTATION OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE RESPONSE POLICY (NCCRP)?

DISCUSSION POINTS (This column is a broader discussion of the issues raised under “Key Indicators)

HIGH LEVEL POINTS TO NOTE

SECTOR: DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT 1.

Key elements of the NCCRP for Disaster Management:

a) b) c)

Vulnerabilities include heat waves, floods, droughts, wildfires and storm surges. Extreme weather events may be cross regional and may require a region wide approach. Disaster Management is likely to strain public resources, due to the need to declare and support disaster areas in an immediate crisis as well as during long term recovery. Actions (as informed by the DMA):: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q)    





The identification and establishment of mechanisms to enable South Africa to participate internationally in disaster risk management; Disaster management centres have full participation in integrated development planning processes and structures; National Standards for conducting comprehensive disaster risk assessments by the National Disaster Management Centre; with relevant guidelines for disaster risk assessment methodology; Disaster Risk Assessments which focus on climate change are conducted and progressively integrated into the development plans of organs of state and other role players; A National Indicative Disaster Risk profile which includes the impacts of climate change is generated; There is monitoring, updating and dissemination of disaster risk information, particularly with a focus on climate change; Provincial and municipal disaster frameworks (in addition to the National Disaster Framework) are developed, as are management planning guides for National, Provincial and Municipal organs of state; Priority areas and disaster risks (particularly focusing on climate change) are mapped; Disaster risk reduction plans and projects arising from case studies and lessons learnt are developed; Risk information is incorporated into spatial development frameworks; End monitoring is undertaken and measureable reduction in social relief in disaster prone economically vulnerable communities is recorded; Early warning strategies are developed; Guidelines and uniform Methods for assessment, classification and declaration of a disaster are developed; There are integrated response and recovery efforts; Regulations for the management of relief operations have been developed and gazetted; Data needs are identified as are data sources; and an information management and communication system has been designed and implemented; A national disaster risk management education and training framework is developed and an education programme.

The DMA regulates disaster management by providing for an extensive institutional framework; establishing various disaster management policy development mandates; and elaborating procedures for the management, classification and declaration of disasters. The DMA also establishes institutional structures that seek to support and facilitate effective disaster management, including: the Intergovernmental Committee on Disaster Management (“ICDM”) which comprises Cabinet members, MECs and members of municipal councils involved in disaster management, and which advises Cabinet on issues relating to disaster management. With respect to local government, the DMA enables metropolitan and district municipalities to establish municipal disaster management advisory forums and DMA calls for the establishment of disaster management centres within each sphere of government; and that municipalities have disaster management capability. The DMA compels each sphere of government to engage in disaster management policy development through the preparation of disaster management frameworks and disaster management/disaster risk management plans. Disaster management frameworks must be prepared for the national sphere of government and each province, while district and metropolitan municipalities are specifically required to establish Municipal Disaster Management Frameworks (“MDMF”) which must ensure an integrated, coordinated and uniform approach to municipal disaster management. The MDMF is a strategic tool for disaster management and must include (but not be limited to): establishment of formal consultative processes that provide participative planning for disaster management and disaster risk management; definition of an appropriate vision of and approach to disaster management and disaster risk management for the area concerned; definition of the processes for undertaking disaster risk assessment for the area concerned; specification of the arrangements for disaster risk reduction planning, including response and recovery planning; identify processes for building public awareness; and, definition of supportive funding arrangements for implementing disaster management and disaster risk management. In addition, all municipalities (metropolitan, district and local) and each relevant organ of state must prepare a disaster management plan which is, in essence, an implementation strategy for disaster management that includes a Disaster Management Plan (“DMP”). The DMP is required to be updated and reviewed on a regular basis and must include (but not be limited to): an assessment of the types of disasters that are likely to occur in the municipal area, and their effects; a system of incentives that will promote disaster management in the municipality; an identification of the areas of weakness in capacity to deal with possible disasters; and, emergency procedures in the event of disaster. The DMA empowers municipalities to develop by-laws for disaster management which may be adopted in the event of the declaration of a local state of disaster and which may address the following: the release of municipal resources to assist in managing the disaster; the control of the occupancy of premises in the disaster-stricken or threatened area; the dissemination of information required for dealing with disaster; the facilitation of response and post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation; other steps that may be necessary to prevent an escalation of disaster or to alleviate, contain and minimise the effects of disaster; and, penalties for any contravention of the by-law.

1 LTAS - Policy Alignment Report – Disaster Risk Reduction and Management

DOES THE INSTRUMENT ADDRESS THE ADAPTATION OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE RESPONSE POLICY (NCCRP)?

DEVELOPMENT TRAJECTORY ITEM

INSTRUMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES



KEY INDICATORS

DISCUSSION POINTS (This column is a broader discussion of the issues raised under “Key Indicators)

HIGH LEVEL POINTS TO NOTE

The DMA encourages municipalities to assess existing by-laws, municipal land-use schemes and zoning regulations in order to ensure that risk-promoting behaviour is discouraged and that the potential for loss in the event of disaster is minimised. Municipalities may also introduce standards for ‘risk-proofing’ lifeline services and critical facilities from known priority disaster risks.

The Bill seeks inter alia to amend the DMA to take particular cognizance of climate change related issues by providing for measures to reduce the risk of disaster through adaptation to climate change developing early warning mechanisms. The Bill proposes the introduction of climate specific concepts for DRR, such as the concepts of “adaptation”, “climate change”, “mitigation” (which, for DRR purposes, includes mitigation of the impact of a disaster or a disaster risk and reduction of greenhouse gasses – the latter being the meaning usually ascribed to the term in the climate change arena) and “resilience”. Please also refer to the previous section on Urban Planning which mentions the cross-cutting nature of DRRM and the need to integrate disaster management issues into spatial planning considerations within the context of the national response to climate change. Given the suitability of the existing DRR legal regime as a mechanism to respond to climate change (see the Policy Assessment, below), the Bill, should it be promulgated as an amendment to the DMA will enhance this suitability due to the inclusion of climate change specific references and the deepening of the DRR measures, generally. A.

National Disaster Management Framework (2005; (“Disaster Framework”)

1. Goals 

Disaster Management Act 57 of 2002 (“DMA”) 

 

The DMA seeks to provide an integrated and co-ordinated disaster management policy that focuses on preventing or reducing the risks of disasters, mitigating their severity, emergency preparedness, rapid and effective response and post disaster recovery. It also seeks to establish national, provincial and municipal disaster management centres. Manage disaster management volunteers and other matters. The Disaster Framework seeks to give effect to the DMA. They mirror each other and are assessed jointly. It is the key planning instrument in respect of disaster management and is active to the extent it seeks to comprehensively influence the manner in which disasters are managed. It is not however expressly informed by climate change considerations or seek to address them.

2. Objectives 

To create integrated institutional arrangements in the national sphere for co-ordinated

1. Timeframe for implementation

1.

No timeframe is set.

2. Quantified Outcomes / Targets 

 

         

 

The following Key Performance Indicators have been extracted 2. from Schedule 2 of the Disaster Framework as indicative of key outcomes for this sector. In addition to the Key Performance Indicators respect of Integrated Institutional Capacity, the development of the following institutions to create capacity. Intergovernmental Committee on Disaster Management (“ICDM”) (includes representatives from all three spheres of government). National Disaster Management Centre (“NDMC”), including a central communications centre media and public information service and an education, training and research facility. It is a branch of the Department of Cooperative Governance. Focal/nodal points for disaster risk management in each organ of state. Provincial and Municipal Disaster Risk Management Centres. National Disaster Management Advisory Forum, where all relevant stakeholders participate (including at SADC level). Mechanisms have been identified and established to enable South Africa to participate internationally in disaster risk management. Disaster management centres have full participation in integrated development planning processes and structures. National Standards for conducting comprehensive disaster risk assessments by the NDMC; with relevant guidelines for disaster risk assessment methodology. Disaster risk assessments are conducted and progressively integrated into the development plans of organs of state and other role players. A National Indicative Disaster Risk profile is generated. There is monitoring, updating and dissemination of disaster risk information. Provincial and municipal disaster frameworks (in addition to the national Disaster Framework) are developed, as are management planning guides for national, provincial and municipal organs of state. Priority areas and disaster risks are mapped. Disaster risk reduction plans and projects arising from case

The Disaster Framework and DMA can be used to 1. enhance adaptation to climate change without creating new and additional activities that place 2. explicit emphasis on developmental risk reduction. Amendments to specifically underscore the need for climate change considerations to be taken into account in forward planning may be useful. The DMA and Disaster Framework adequately address adaptation requirements by focusing on the development or support of:  Early warning systems and technologies.  Encouraging inter-state collaboration through regional bodies such as the SADC.  Risk and Vulnerability support structures have been created throughout the NDMEC, 3. e.g., National Forecasting Centre and the Aviation Weather Centre.  Increased use of seasonal climate forecasts among key stakeholders is addressed by NDMC in its annual report 2011 however a section on Department of Water Affairs, and its relationship to the NDMC and disaster. management actions or use of climate data is notably absent.  Establishment of the National Disaster Management Advisory Forum is a key aspect for stakeholder participation. Similarly NDMEC has developed relationships with NGOs, e,g, World Vision. Improved relationships with social networks could however be better exploited.  SARVA has been rolled out and is an initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and GIS plays a central role in the development of the enhanced National Disaster Management Information System (NDMIS). The system relates to various aspects such as Hazard Analysis, Vulnerability Assessment, Contingency Planning, Reporting Systems as well as Early Warning Systems.  There is also a The NDMC Fire Danger Index providing near real-time live fire updates with continued improvements

See notes above regarding the proposed amendments. The Key Performance Indicators, from the Disaster Framework should be assessed and implemented in order to ensure the Disaster Framework is properly implemented. It is not anticipated that this Disaster Framework will require amendments in any way to better cater for adaptation requirements, rather implementation and proper co-ordination between sectors, e.g., agriculture and water, and spheres of government should be the focus.

4.

See notes above regarding the proposed amendments.

It may be advisable to incorporate the application and/or consideration of relevant geographically relevant Disaster Management Plans and Disaster Risk Assessments into other planned decision making instruments and procedures in other key stakeholders. Examples where considerations of such assessments are not mandatory or explicitly provided for in legal administrative processes include:  During the EIA process under the National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998.  The water use licencing process under section 21 of the National Water Act 36 of 1998.  The authorisation process for permits in terms of NEMICMA. These plans should also be taken into consideration for the consideration of Coastal Zones and the determination of protection zones (see for example section 28(d) of the NEMICMA which requires consideration for disasters as a result of climate change and set back lines and creation of a National, Provincial and Municipal coastal management programme. (Particularly regarding tidal surges

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INSTRUMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES implementation of disaster risk management policy and legislation.  Capacity for disaster risk management.  Conduct ongoing disaster risk assessments and monitoring to inform disaster risk management planning and priority setting, guide disaster risk reduction efforts and monitor the effectiveness of such efforts.  Preparation and alignment of disaster management frameworks and plans for all spheres of government. Such plans must be implemented in terms of the DMA by national, provincial and municipal organs of state.  Ensure effective and appropriate disaster response and recovery by: Implementing a uniform approach to the dissemination of early warning. Averting or reducing the potential impact in respect of personal injury, health, loss of life, property, infrastructure, environment and government services.  Implement immediate integrated and appropriate response and relief measures when significant events or disasters occur or are threatening to occur.  Implement all rehabilitation and reconstruction strategies flowing a disaster in an integrated and developmental manner. Whilst the above objectives are not in any way informed by adaptation considerations in the Disaster Framework or DMA,

KEY INDICATORS studies and lessons learnt are developed. Risk information is incorporated into spatial development frameworks. End monitoring is undertaken and measureable reduction in social relief in disaster prone economically vulnerable communities is recorded. Early warning strategies are developed. Guidelines and uniform methods for assessment, classification and declaration of a disaster are developed. There are integrated response and recovery efforts. Regulations for the management of relief operations have been developed and gazetted. Data needs are identified as are data sources; and an information management and communication system has been designed and implemented. A national disaster risk management education and training framework is developed and an education programme.

       

3. Location(s) and or scale (national/sub-national for implementation National, Provincial and local. 4. Budget 

There is no estimated budget for specific timeframes however the Nat Comm 2 suggests that the total costs of weather-related disasters between 2000 and 2009 were in the region of R9.2 billion (including indirect costs). In this regard the following budgetary objectives in the Disaster Framework are relevant: Conditional grants to fund the start-up costs of disaster management centres in provinces and municipalities need to be established and allocated. NDMC need to issue guidelines on the granting on funds for minimum infrastructural requirements for Disaster Management Centres. The NDMC budget should make provision for national priority risk reduction projects and it has access to emergency funds for assistance in regional disasters. Budgets for all spheres of government must include costs of routine disaster risk reduction measures and activities. Funds need to also be established for disaster response and recovery and there needs to be a mechanism for rapid access to national funds.

DOES THE INSTRUMENT ADDRESS THE ADAPTATION OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE RESPONSE POLICY (NCCRP)?





 

regarding performance and functionality. Early warning system development has thus been well implemented. DAFF have suggested that whilst the quality of disaster risk forecasts and warnings have improved in the recent past, its application on the ground level is relatively poor. Recovery and Rehabilitation are key aspects addressed in the framework. It is unknown whether they are sufficient in the circumstances and much will depend upon local implementation. Micro-insurance is not addressed. Ex post disaster analysis is provided for. In the Disaster Framework.

DISCUSSION POINTS (This column is a broader discussion of the issues raised under “Key Indicators)   



HIGH LEVEL POINTS TO NOTE

and floods). Mining and prospecting Rights (and approval of environmental management plans or programmes). Approval of nuclear authorisations in terms of the National Nuclear Regulator Act 1999. In this regard existing appraisal guidelines for assessing such applications must be revised where necessary to provide more explicit guidance on consideration and analysis of disaster risks and options for reducing vulnerability. According to the DAFF Agricultural Disaster Risk Management Plan, one of the identified problems with the DMA is that no provision was made for a funding model. In terms of Part A of Schedule 4 of the Constitution, disaster management is a functional area of concurrent national and provincial legislative competency. That in itself brought along many challenges in the sense that the function is not seen as a funded mandate by some of the provinces and the municipalities. This may explain challenges in roll-out in these spheres.

5. Institutional framework for implementation 

In addition to the National, Provincial and Municipal Disaster Management Centres and the ICDM, the following agencies are also relevant: National Forecasting Centre. The Aviation Weather Centre (Regional forecasting offices that liaise directly with Provincial and Municipal DMCs). Innovation and Research Divisions, which provides

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DEVELOPMENT TRAJECTORY ITEM

INSTRUMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES neither require reconsideration or amendment to adequately address these issues. Both the DMA and Disaster Framework seek comprehensively to regulate and inform the entirety of this particular sector, and play a singular role in this regard, i.e., they do not compete with other policies or legislation.

KEY INDICATORS -

DOES THE INSTRUMENT ADDRESS THE ADAPTATION OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE RESPONSE POLICY (NCCRP)?

DISCUSSION POINTS (This column is a broader discussion of the issues raised under “Key Indicators)

HIGH LEVEL POINTS TO NOTE

research and enhancement of early warning systems. Flood forecasting room of the Department of Water Affairs. A SADC forum for disaster management and protocols for co-operation between provinces and states (Mandate of the Department of Foreign Affairs and NDMC).

6. National Strategic Priority? Based the NDP, “Improved disaster preparedness for extreme climate events” is a priority. 7. Capacity building? As the objectives suggest, capacity building particularly regarding institutional arrangements is highly developed and nuanced. 8. Focus on women and youth? The DMA and Disaster Framework both seek to prioritize most vulnerable communities and individuals during for response and recovery efforts. 9. Milestones? No specific milestones are set. 10. Cross sectoral   

Disaster Framework places obligations upon all organs of state to evaluate their policies and frameworks and laws to harmonise with the DMA. Disaster Framework does not specifically refer to any policies or plans with which it needs to be aligned, apart from SDS and IDPs. Could potentially have greater cross sectoral impact through the ICDM, which is intended to consist of Cabinet members involved in the management of disaster risk or the administration of other national legislation aimed at dealing with an occurrence defined as a “disaster”. To this end DAFF has submitted a draft ADRMP (assessed below).

11. Monitoring & Evaluation National, provincial and municipal disaster management centres are to monitor and measure performance and evaluate the status of all disaster risk management activities in their respective areas of jurisdiction. It is envisaged that one integrated monitoring, reporting and evaluation system must be developed and implemented by the NDMC. All organs of state in all spheres of government must use the system to report on the status of their programmes, plans and operations. 12. Anticipated adaptation impacts The Disaster Framework and NDMA address all the issues which arise with respect to adaptation in relation to disaster management, although they do not directly address the issue of

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DEVELOPMENT TRAJECTORY ITEM

INSTRUMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

KEY INDICATORS

DOES THE INSTRUMENT ADDRESS THE ADAPTATION OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE RESPONSE POLICY (NCCRP)?

DISCUSSION POINTS (This column is a broader discussion of the issues raised under “Key Indicators)

HIGH LEVEL POINTS TO NOTE

adaptation and climate change in any respect.

B.

Agricultural Disaster Risk Management Plan, (“ADRMP”)

1.

Goal To fulfil the requirement of the DMA that DAFF prepare a disaster risk management plan. It seeks to provide a sectoral framework to address disaster risk management specifically in the sector of agriculture, forestry and fisheries. It seeks specifically to address the impacts of climate change.

(Draft September 2012 for Comment)

2.

Objective

a)

Prevention and reduction of disaster risks. Mitigation of impacts. Strengthening capacity. Preparedness for effective response to disasters. Disaster risk reduction that focuses on the economic loss and damage to property, especially to the population most vulnerable due to poverty. Protection of the environment. Shared stakeholder implementation.

b) c) d) e)

f) g)

The ADRMP is specifically informed by potential climate change considerations and seeks to change the management of disasters as a result thereof, it is thus active in the climate change adaptation.

1.

Timeframe It does not have a specific timeframe.

2.

Key Objectives/Targets 

There are no quantified targets or goals however the following are overarching goals and in the context of climate change are also key indicators to assess this development trajectory: The development of adequate, reliable and readily accessible early warning system to assist policy makers and other players to improve capacity response and information dissemination. The development of post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation programmes and stepping up institutional support and integration which constitute the core strategy. The mainstreaming of principles of prevention, mitigation, assessment, preparedness. Reduction, recovery and rehabilitation. Strengthen information management and dissemination, education and public awareness amongst farming communities.

The ADRMP takes climate change considerations into account, but does not have specific key objectives or outcomes in this regard. This may not be necessary given that its key objectives address the sectoral issues raised in the NCCRP. The ADRMP is confined to agriculturally related disasters and how each of these will be dealt with These include animal diseases, migratory pests, markets, drought, fires, floods and cold spells. It does not address other disaster related risks. Further information is required from technical experts to determine if the ADRMP should address other related impacts in the agricultural sector.



The NDMC Annual Review for 2011 notes that provincial departments of agriculture are generally not capacitated but are staffed by officials who also have other responsibilities. In many cases, the disaster risk management component does not exist in the provincial structure. This may prove challenging in implementing this plan.



One of the objectives of the Plan is to highlight the need for contingency plans under the DMA to be aligned with agriculturally specific legislation including: Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (Act No. 43 of 1983). The Agricultural Pests Act (Act No.36 of 1983). Animal Identification Act (Act No.6 of 2002. Animal Diseases Act (Act 35 of 1984). The Livestock Brands Act 1962). The Fencing Act (Act No.31 of 1963). The National Veld and Forest fire Act, 1998 (Act No. 101 of 1998). The National Environmental Management Act (Act No. 107 of 1998).



Such an independent review may still be required of each of these instruments and how they may affect climate change (the scope of review of this document falls outside such a detailed review).



It is unknown to what extent provincial disaster risk reduction plans for agriculture have been developed. Once developed these will need alignment with Disaster Risk Reduction Plan developed by Water, the Provincial Disaster Management Centres and other relevant sectors such as labour.

3. Institutional 

The ADRMP creates the following bodies to oversee its implementation: Sectoral disaster risk management Committee (to advise the Ministry on disaster risk management matters). Sectoral Disaster Management Forum (to advise and decide on disaster intervention strategies and procedures.) National Agro-Meteorological Committee (inform and advise on weather and climate forecasts for disaster risk reduction, avoidance and preparedness). (these are all established).

These bodies are to act with provincial Agricultural Departments and DAFF. The ADRMP seeks to carefully outline different responsibilities of each relevant institution. The Inter-Departmental Working Group on Climate Change also serves to integrate climate change considerations with the main aim of aligning, coordinating and incorporating climate change into relevant line function as well as participating in structures such as NCCC, and IPCC. 4. Implementation 

DAFF will ensure risk assessment by mapping natural hazards and conducting vulnerability assessments of the farming communities through the effective early warning system. Disaster risk assessment reports will guide disaster risk reduction initiatives through policy development and

The potential for policy duplication and mandate overlap is high in view of the sectoral plans overlapping potentially with the plans to be developed by the three spheres of government. The NDMC should play a co-ordinating and harmonising role in this regard with key assignment of functions. The lack of assigned roles and functions at provincial agricultural departments has already proven to be a challenge in disaster risk mitigation. A criticism by the NDMC in this regard has been a lack of guidelines and standard operational procedures for when disasters occur, which leads to unstructured and disintegrated Activities, e.g., disaster assessments conducted by a number of stakeholders at different periods, which create despondency within the communities. Similarly Disaster Risk Units are not yet functioning in most provinces, which make it difficult to pass on timely early warning information to those at risk. (NDMC Annual Report 2011)

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DEVELOPMENT TRAJECTORY ITEM

INSTRUMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

KEY INDICATORS



 

DOES THE INSTRUMENT ADDRESS THE ADAPTATION OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE RESPONSE POLICY (NCCRP)?

DISCUSSION POINTS (This column is a broader discussion of the issues raised under “Key Indicators)

HIGH LEVEL POINTS TO NOTE

implementation. Upon approval of this plan, contingency plans must be finalized within a period of twelve months. Disaster relief and recovery is to be implemented, however this is only in respect of farming communities. It includes assessment of damages; provision of relief/assistance; post disaster reports; restoration and rehabilitation programmes; and their implementation. Effective communication and information dissemination is also an objective, but only in respect of farming communities. Awareness programmes are to be developed which should target regions and communities at risk. Risk maps must be prepared, updated regularly and maintained to inform beneficiaries.

5. Monitoring: 



DAFF intends to set programmes in motion to evaluate and monitor hazards in the provinces all year round to obtain reports on the prevailing conditions. The ADRMP will be reviewed at least once a year. Reviews will focus on key performance indicators achieved at the end of a financial year in accordance with Disaster Framework. DAFF will monitor Key Performance Areas and ensure that actions Ensuring that actions/contingency plans of all hazards are in place and aligned with Disaster Framework and the national guidelines.

6. Budget None provided but the ADRMP notes that in terms of an agreement with Treasury, a standing authorization will be granted to DAFF to draw funds forward from the normal allocated amounts on the budget to deal speedily with addressing disasters. DAFF's fund requirements can then be augmented through the adjustment budget. Once a disaster has been defined or declared and details of the scheme have been finalized, the National Treasury's approval will be obtained to deal with that particular disaster in the manner described above. 7. Cross Sectoral DAFF assumes the primary and leading role in the management of disaster risks namely: animal and plant diseases and pests, drought, cold spell, veld fires and migratory pests. DAFF plays secondary roles in the management of other disaster risks, e.g., floods, where the Department of Water Affairs assumed the leading role. The Departments of Social Development and Labour together facilitate the process through mobilizing and assisting farm workers affected by natural disasters. Alignment of national, provincial and municipal disaster risk management plans in this regard is important because of the probability of overlapping and duplication which could have far reaching consequences to service delivery. 8. Adaptation Impacts

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DEVELOPMENT TRAJECTORY ITEM

INSTRUMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

KEY INDICATORS

DOES THE INSTRUMENT ADDRESS THE ADAPTATION OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE RESPONSE POLICY (NCCRP)?

DISCUSSION POINTS (This column is a broader discussion of the issues raised under “Key Indicators)

HIGH LEVEL POINTS TO NOTE

The ADRMP seeks to respond to climate change impacts specifically. It does so however in a relatively limited manner because it is focussed on farming communities. Drought Management Plan (2005; DAFF) (Note: Agricultural Flood Management Plan, was submitted to the NDMC during the 2011/2012 financial year. Consultations are still underway and it has not been reviewed. Agricultural Cold Spells Management Plan and Agricultural Veld Fire Management Plan are still being completed and/or in draft form. These have also not been reviewed for present purposes).

1.





2.



Goals To develop an effective, integrated risk and disaster management system for plant and animal husbandry and price and income systems so as to minimise the impact of droughts. Does not take climate change adaptation considerations into account. It is specifically focused on agriculture and does not address other sectoral impacts.

The Drought Management Plan creates a system for information management, monitoring and evaluation, specifically in respect of agriculture. Risk management, and therefore risk reduction, is the core principle of the Drought Management Plan which is aimed at reducing the vulnerability of farming communities Provincial Departments of Agriculture are lead agents and are to undertake drought assessments and develop priority risk and disaster management programmes. They encourage risk reduction methods in farming; measure vulnerabilities; compile drought indicator maps; and design models to identify drought, amongst other things. Local government has an advisory role, provides information and established disaster management centres. The NDMC will play general planning role through an interdepartmental working group with DAFF. Disaster risk assessment and disaster risk reduction planning is provided for as is Response and Recovery; Information and Communication, Education training and public awareness, as well as funding. In the context of the above, the following key indicators are proposed for assessing this development trajectory: Institutional arrangements and collaboration and capacity. Appropriate plans, programmes, assessments. Monitoring and evaluation. Early risk warning system development. Education and awareness raising. Drought relief including financial assistance. Recovery and rehabilitation, particularly to vulnerable communities.



  

Objectives 







 The Drought Management Plan seeks to set up and provide for a system of information management, and monitoring and evaluating drought situations to detect biophysical and social vulnerabilities and suggest counter action. Compile drought indicator maps so as to provide updated information on, for example, whether drought is emerging or subsiding. Compiling regular rangeland/vegetation indicator maps to enable those farming to make pro-active strategic decisions. Implementing and improving early warning systems establishing and implementing priority programmes for risk reduction, including preparedness,

9. Institutional Framework Provincial Agricultural Departments and the National Agricultural Department (now DAFF) and Municipalities. 10. Budgeting 





In 2005 it was estimated that the necessary funding for drought mitigating activities, would be R5 million (borne by public sector and farming communities) over a period of three years and excluding post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation. Intends that Department of Agriculture (DAFF) would carry costs of developing plans, dissemination, coordination and implementation of early warning systems. Awareness campaigns Research initiatives. The Plan provides that provincial departments of agriculture and municipalities must provide for disasters in annual budget or Medium Term Expenditure Framework Projections, assistance can be requested from the Department of Agriculture.







Due to its focus on agricultural impacts the Drought Management Plan omits to address drought impacts on a far wider range of vulnerable sectors. However to the extent that it provides for financial assistance, early warning mechanisms, appropriate entities to assist at national, provincial and municipal levels as well as awareness and education building, it does comprehensively address the vulnerabilities presented by drought to the agricultural sector. It should be updated to take advantage of latest developments underway at the NDMC including the exploitation of new early warning systems and how these may be effectively used by relevant role players.







It may be the case that the Drought Management Plan may be replaced by the “Water Sector Disaster Management Plan” within the Disaster Management Framework, (intimated in the NWRS2), although in the view of NDMC, agriculture appears to act as a lead agent in drought relief and these plans may act together. In this event roles and functions and other functioned will need to be carefully aligned and harmonised once such a water sector plan is devised. A national interdepartmental plan would however be more effective. The overlapping functions of the development of drought assessments and reports by the provincial agricultural departments and other general disaster risk assessments conducted by the relevant disaster management centres requires clarity. We have listed some of the more pertinent development assumptions which have informed the Drought Management Plan and which may require revision in the context of climate change: The plan is premised on the understanding that the government should only provide assistance where sustainable agricultural management is employed. It is suggested that the public sector and farming communities should budget for the costs of drought-mitigating activities, whereas national, provincial and municipal governments should contribute to response efforts and postrecovery and rehabilitation. The above assumptions may require review in the context that sustainable practices may not always be feasible, such properties would include insurance, drought tolerant crops and use of early warning systems, especially for small scale agricultural holding which may be particularly vulnerable

If DAFF is to be the lead agent in drought relief, consideration should be had of extending the scope of the Drought Management Plan to include other affected communities outside agriculture, ideally a national drought plan under the auspices of the DMA which is inter departmental would be more appropriate.

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INSTRUMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

KEY INDICATORS

DOES THE INSTRUMENT ADDRESS THE ADAPTATION OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE RESPONSE POLICY (NCCRP)?

DISCUSSION POINTS (This column is a broader discussion of the issues raised under “Key Indicators)

mitigation, response, recovery and rehabilitation.

-

The New Growth Path Framework (2nd ed), (2011; DED)

to drought. Similarly withholding support in instances of unsustainable farming practices with climate change impacts affecting potentially a far greater number of farmers may also affect national food security. It is premised on the understanding that “experience” shows that “the annual cost of drought reduction programmes is far less than the annualised cost of post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation.” This premise will require interrogation in the context of climate change impacts.

These Plans will need their development objectives interrogated to confirm whether the specific location of a planned project accords with the Disaster Management Plan and identified Disaster Risks (in terms of the DMA and Disaster Management Framework) to ensure that these risks are adequately taken into account. This is particularly the case in respect of new build infrastructure in the IRP where locating such infrastructure in either drought or flood prone areas will affect the security of the infrastructure. One way of integrating these concerns may be through the EIA process identified below under the NEMA which should be informed by these disaster risk assessment findings. This is in addition to ensuring these risks are identified into SDPs as required by the Disaster Management Framework and DMA.

National Development Plan 2030 (2011; NPC) Industrial Policy Action Plan 2012-13 to 2014-15 (2010; IPAP)

National Environmental Management Act (107 of 1998) (“NEMA”)

HIGH LEVEL POINTS TO NOTE

Section 24F(3) allows for activities which would otherwise have required authorisation in terms of section 24 of NEMA, to be undertaken without such authorisation if the activity is required in terms of an “emergency incident.” “Incident” means “an unexpected sudden occurrence, including a major emission, fire or explosion leading to serious danger to the public or potentially serious pollution of or detriment to the environment, whether immediate or delayed”.

The definition of incident may require review in the light of climate change impacts many of which may not amount to an unexpected disaster, particularly taking into account with forward planning and early warning systems. To the extent certain “disasters” may be anticipated far in advance as a result of this technology consideration should be had as to whether it would then still fall within the exemption provided for “emergency incidents” which are “unexpected” and “sudden”. Section 24O of NEMA and the EIA process in the EIA Regulations could better provide for climate change disasters to be a mandatory consideration to be taken into account.

An example of the challenges faced by the definition of emergency incident is evidenced by public opposition to proposed works by the TCTA and whether they require authorisation in terms of section 24, to implement infrastructure in respect of immanent rising Acid Mine Drainage which is threatening to decant onto the land surface, particularly in some areas of Gauteng. In the case of the latter such decant would neither be unexpected nor sudden but has over time escalated to a situation of extreme risk to persons and the environment should it not be managed.

8 LTAS - Policy Alignment Report – Disaster Risk Reduction and Management

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