Local Wavelet Pattern: A New Feature Descriptor for Image Retrieval in Medical CT Databases IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2015 Shiv Ram Dubey, Satish Kumar Singh and Rajat Kumar Singh Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad

ο‚ž The existing local descriptors used the relationship of center pixel with its neighboring pixels and missed to utilize the inter-neighbor relationship. ο‚ž Proposed local wavelet pattern (LWP) utilized the interneighbor relationship using 1-D haar wavelet decomposition. ο‚ž The dimension of other methods increases significantly, whereas, the dimension of LWP is same as of the state-of-theart local binary pattern (LBP) [1]. ο‚ž The performance of LWP is promising over medical CT databases in image retrieval framework.

𝑖,𝑗

𝐼𝑅,𝑁,2

+

Local Neighborhood Extraction

Center Pixel Transformation Local Wavelet Pattern

Query Image Image Retrieval

Similarity Measurement

β€² ℬ𝑁,1

𝑖,𝑗 ,1 π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁,1 𝑖,𝑗 ,1

π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁,2

𝑖,𝑗 ,2 π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁,1

β€² ℬ𝑁,2

𝑖,𝑗 ,2

π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁,2

…

…

…

𝑖,𝑗 𝐼𝑅,𝑁,𝑁

𝑖,𝑗 ,1 π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁,𝑁

𝑖,𝑗 ,2 π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁,𝑁

1𝑠𝑑 𝑙evel

𝑖,𝑗

2𝑛𝑑 𝑙evel

𝑖,𝑗 ,1

𝐼𝑅,𝑁

Feature Vector Computation

Fig.1. Proposed framework of medical CT image retrieval using LWP.

Experiments and Comparisons

ℬ𝑁,𝑙

𝑖,𝑗 ,𝑙

β€² ℬ𝑁,𝑙

β€² ℬ𝑁,3

π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁,1 𝑖,𝑗 ,𝑙

π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁,2 … 𝑖,𝑗 ,𝑙

π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁,𝑁 𝑙 π‘‘β„Ž 𝑙evel

3π‘Ÿπ‘‘ 𝑙evel

𝑖,𝑗 ,2

π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁

𝑖,𝑗 ,𝑙

π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁

π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁 𝑖,𝑗

Fig.3. The wavelet decomposition of a vector 𝐼𝑅,𝑁 into another vector 𝑖,𝑗 ,𝑙

where ℬ𝑁,𝑙 as follows,

𝑇

𝑖,𝑗

π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁 = ℬ𝑁,𝑙 Γ— (𝐼𝑅,𝑁 )𝑇 (1) π‘‘β„Ž is the basis function at 𝑙 level for 𝑁 values and given

ℬ′ Γ— ℬ𝑁,π‘™βˆ’1 𝐼𝑓 1 ≀ 𝑙 ≀ π‘™π‘šπ‘Žπ‘₯ ℬ𝑁,𝑙 = 𝑁,𝑙 (2) π‘ˆπ‘ 𝐼𝑓 𝑙 = 0 where π‘ˆπ‘ is the unit matrix of size 𝑁 Γ— 𝑁, ℬ𝑁,π‘™βˆ’1 is the basis β€² function at (𝑙 βˆ’ 1)π‘‘β„Ž level and ℬ𝑁,𝑙 is the 1-D Haar wavelet square π‘‘β„Ž basis matrix of size 𝑁 Γ— 𝑁 for 𝑙 level transformation. The values β€² of the elements of matrix ℬ𝑁,𝑙 depends upon the level of transformation (i.e. 𝑙) and defined as follows, 1 𝐼𝑓 𝐢1 π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ 𝐢2 π‘œπ‘Ÿ 𝐢3 π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ 𝐢4 2 1 β€² ℬ𝑁,𝑙 π“Š, 𝓋 = βˆ’ (3) 𝐼𝑓 𝐢3 π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ 𝐢5 2 1 𝐼𝑓 𝐢6 0 𝐸𝑙𝑠𝑒 β€² where π“Š and 𝓋 are the row and column number of the matrix ℬ𝑁,𝑙 (i.e. π“Š ∈ [1, 𝑁] and 𝓋 ∈ [1, 𝑁]) and 𝐢𝛾 are the different conditions 𝑁 2

𝑁

𝑁

𝑁

𝓋 = 2π“Š βˆ’ 1 π‘œπ‘Ÿ 𝓋 = 2π“Š , 𝐢3 β†’ 2𝑙 + 1 ≀ π“Š ≀ 2π‘™βˆ’1 , 𝐢4 β†’ 𝓋 = 2π“Š βˆ’ 2π‘™βˆ’1 βˆ’ 𝑁

𝑁

1, 𝐢5 β†’ 𝓋 = 2π“Š βˆ’ 2π‘™βˆ’1 , and 𝐢6 β†’ π“Š β‰₯ 2π‘™βˆ’1 + 1 π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ 𝓋 = π“Š .

𝑖,𝑗

ARP (%)

The 1-D Haar wavelet is used to decompose the local neighbors in order to encode the relationship among neighbors 𝑖,𝑗 ,𝑙 as shown in Fig.3. The π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁 is computed as follows,

for 𝛾 = 1,2, … ,6 and defined as follows , 𝐢1 β†’ 1 ≀ π“Š ≀ 𝑙 , 𝐢2 β†’

Fig.2. The local neighbors (i.e. 𝑃𝑅,𝑁,𝑑 for βˆ€ 𝑑 ∈ [1, 𝑁]) of a centre pixel (𝑃𝑖,𝑗 ).

The 8 local neighbors (N) at a radius (R) of 1 are used at 2nd level of wavelet decomposition to construct the LWP feature vector. The results of LWP are compared with the results of local binary pattern (LBP) [1], local ternary pattern (LTP) [2], local derivative pattern (LDP) [3], local mesh pattern (LMeP) [4], local ternary cooccurrence pattern (LTCoP) [5], local tetra pattern (LTrP) [6] and spherical-symmetric 3-D local ternary pattern (SS-3D-LTP) [7] feature vectors. The image retrieval results over three medical CT databases namely TCIA-CT [8] and EXACT09-CT [9] in terms of the average retrieval precision (ARP) are illustrated in Fig.4. Table 1 listed the ARP values for 10 retrieved images over TCIA-CT and EXACT09-CT databases. The LWP descriptor outperforms the state-of-the-art descriptors.

π‘Šπ‘…,𝑁 using 1-D Haar wavelet at 𝑙 π‘‘β„Ž level.

𝑖,𝑗 ,𝑙

Local Wavelet Decomposition

Image Database

…. ….

𝑖,𝑗 𝐼𝑅,𝑁,1

Medical CT Image Retrieval Framework using LWP The medical CT image retrieval using proposed local wavelet pattern (LWP) is shown in Fig.1. Local neighborhood extraction, local wavelet decomposition, centre pixel transformation, local wavelet pattern generation, feature vector generation, similarity measurement, and image retrieval are the main processing units of the proposed CT image retrieval. Fig.2. shows the local neighbors of any center pixel.

ℬ𝑁,2

ℬ𝑁,1

The value of center pixel is transformed into the range of decomposed neighboring values and compared similar to LBP and finally by taking the histogram over while image LWP feature vector is computed.

100

100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 1

90 LBP LTP LDP LMeP LTCoP LTrP SS-3D-LTP LWP

2

3

ARP (%)

Introduction

LBP LTP LDP LMeP LTCoP LTrP SS-3D-LTP LWP

80 70 60

4 5 6 7 8 Number of Top Matches

9

10

50 1

2

3

4 5 6 7 8 Number of Top Matches

9

10

(a) (b) Fig.4. The retrieval results over (a) TCIA-CT and (b) EXACT09-CT databases in terms of ARP vs Number of Top Matches. Table.1. Performance comparison of the descriptors using ARP values over different databases for 10 retrieved images. Database

Method LBP

LTP

LDP

LMeP LTCoP LTrP

SS-3D-LTP

LWP

TCIA-CT

66.91 71.83 69.06 74.69 74.40

73.71 80.54

88.42

EXACT09-CT

65.03 62.09 54.40 63.23 73.48

57.82 67.00

83.00

References [1]. [2]. [3]. [4]. [5]. [6]. [7]. [8]. [9].

Ojala et al., β€œMultiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE TPAMI, 24(7): 971-987, 2002. Tan and Triggs, β€œEnhanced local texture feature sets for face recognition under difficult lighting conditions,” IEEE TIP, 19(6): 1635-1650, 2010. Zhang et al., β€œLocal derivative pattern versus local binary pattern: face recognition with high-order local pattern descriptor”, IEEE TIP, 19(2): 533-544, 2010. Murala and Wu, β€œLocal Mesh Patterns Versus Local Binary Patterns: Biomedical Image Indexing and Retrieval,” IEEE JBHI, 18(3): 929-938, 2014. Murala and Wu, β€œLocal ternary co-occurrence patterns: A new feature descriptor for MRI and CT image retrieval,” Neurocomputing, 119: 399-412, 2013. Murala et al., β€œLocal tetra patterns: a new feature descriptor for content-based image retrieval”, IEEE TIP, 21(5): 2874-2886, 2012. Murala and Wu, β€œSpherical symmetric 3D local ternary patterns for natural, texture and biomedical image indexing and retrieval”, Neurocomputing, 149: 1502-1514, 2015. Clark et al., β€œThe Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA): Maintaining and Operating a Public Information Repository,” Journal of Digital Imaging, 26(6): 1045-1057, 2013. Lo et al., β€œExtraction of airways from CT (EXACT'09),” IEEE Tran. on Medical Imaging, 31(11): 2093-2107, 2012.

Local Wavelet Pattern: A New Feature Descriptor for ...

Local Wavelet Pattern: A New Feature Descriptor for Image Retrieval in Medical CT Databases. IEEE Transactions on Image ... Proposed local wavelet pattern (LWP) utilized the inter- neighbor relationship using .... Public Information Repository,Ҁ Journal of Digital Imaging, 26(6): 1045-1057, 2013. [9]. Lo et al., Γ’Β€ΒœExtraction ofΒ ...

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