IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2013, Pg. 188-195

International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT)

www.ijrit.com

ISSN 2001-5569

Load Balancing in Cloud Computing: A Survey 1

1

Naimesh D. Naik

M.Tech pursuing, Dept. of Info. Technology, Ganpat University, Kherva, Gujarat, India 1

[email protected]

Abstract Cloud computing is a term, which involves virtualization, distributed computing, networking, software and web services. A cloud consists of several elements such as clients, datacenter and distributed servers. It includes fault tolerance, high availability, scalability, flexibility, reduced overhead for users, reduced cost of ownership, on demand services etc. Load balancing is the process of distributing the load among various nodes of a distributed system to improve both resource utilization and job response time while also avoiding a situation where some of the nodes are heavily loaded while other nodes are idle or doing very little work. Our objective is to develop an effective load balancing algorithm using divisible load scheduling theorem, hash method, genetic algorithm to maximize or minimize different performance parameters Like Throughput, Latency value etc. So basically this paper include introduction of load balancing algorithms in cloud computing.

Keywords: Cloud computing, load balancing, datacenters, clients, distributed servers.

1. Introduction Cloud computing has become very popular in recent years as it offers greater flexibility and availability of computing resources at very low cost. The major concern for agencies and organizations considering moving the applications to public cloud computing environments is the emergence of cloud computing facilities to have farreaching effects on the systems and networks of the organizations. Many of the features that make cloud computing attractive, however, can also be at odds with traditional security models and controls. As with any emerging information technology area, cloud computing should be approached carefully with due consideration to the sensitivity of data. Load balancing in cloud computing systems is really a challenge now. Always a distributed solution is required. Because it is not always practically feasible or cost efficient to maintain one or more idle services just as to fulfill the required demands. Jobs can’t be assigned to appropriate servers and clients individually for efficient load balancing as cloud is a very complex structure and components are present throughout a wide spread area. Here some uncertainty is attached while jobs are assigned. This paper considers some of the methods of load balancing in large scale Cloud systems. Our aim is to provide an evaluation and comparative study of these approaches, demonstrating different distributed algorithms for load

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balancing and to improve the different performance parameters like throughput, latency etc. for the clouds of different sizes. As the whole Internet can be viewed as a cloud of many connection-less and connection oriented services, thus concept of load balancing in Wireless sensor networks (WSN) proposed can also be applied to cloud computing systems as WSN is analogous to a cloud having no. of master computers (Servers) and no. of slave computers (Clients) joined in a complex structure. A comparative study of different algorithms has been carried out using divisible load scheduling theory. 1.1

Cloud Components

A Cloud system consists of 3 major components such as clients, datacenter, and distributed servers. Each element has a definite purpose and plays a specific role.

Fig. 1: Three components make up a cloud computing solution (adopted from [1]).

1.1.1

Clients

End users interact with the clients to manage information related to the cloud. Clients generally fall into three categories as: • • •

1.1.2

Mobile: Windows Mobile Smartphone, smartphones, like a Blackberry, or an iPhone. Thin: They don’t do any computation work. They only display the information. Servers do all the works for them. Thin clients don’t have any internal memory. Thick: These use different browsers like IE or Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome to connect to the Internet cloud. Datacenter

Datacenter is nothing but a collection of servers hosting different applications. A end user connects to the datacenter to subscribe different applications. A datacenter may exist at a large distance from the clients. Now-a-days a concept called virtualization is used to install software that allows multiple instances of virtual server applications. 1.1.3

Distributed Servers

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Distributed servers are the parts of a cloud which are present throughout Internet hosting different applications. But while using the application from the cloud, the user feel that he is using this application from its own machine. 1.2

Cloud Types   

Public Cloud (Bing Map Services, ArcGIS Online services etc.) Private Cloud (Any Internal cloud structure ) Hybrid Cloud (Combination of Public & Private Cloud)

Fig. 2: Three types of Cloud with Example (Adopted from Web) 1.3

Virtualization

Virtualization means “something which isn’t real”, but gives all the facilities of a real. It is the software implementation of a computer which will execute different programs like a real machine. Virtualization is related to cloud, because using virtualization an end user can use different services of a cloud. Two types of virtualization are found in case of clouds: • Full virtualization • Para virtualization 1.3.1

Full Virtualization

Full virtualization is a virtualization technique used to provide a certain kind of virtual machine environment, namely, one that is a complete simulation of the underlying hardware. Full virtualization requires that every salient feature of the hardware be reflected into one of several virtual machines – including the full instruction set, input/output operations, interrupts, memory access, and whatever other elements are used by the software that runs on the bare machine , and that is intended to run in a virtual machine.

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Fig. 3: Full Virtualization 1.3.2

Para Virtualization

Para virtualization is a virtualization technique that presents a software interface to virtual machines that is similar but not identical to that of the underlying hardware. The intent of the modified interface is to reduce the portion of the guest's execution time spent performing operations which are substantially more difficult to run in a virtual environment compared to a non-virtualized environment.

Fig. 4: Para Virtualization

1.4

Cloud Services

• • •

Software as a Service (SaaS) Platform as a Service (PaaS) Hardware as a Service (HaaS) or Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

2. Load Balancing in Cloud Computing Load balancing is a relatively new technique that facilitates networks and resources by providing a maximum throughput with minimum response time [8]. Dividing the traffic between servers, data can be sent and received without major delay. Different kinds of algorithms are available that helps traffic loaded between available servers. A basic example of load balancing in our daily life can be related to websites. Without load balancing, users could experience delays, timeouts and possible long system responses. Load balancing solutions usually apply redundant

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servers which help a better distribution of the communication traffic so that the website availability is conclusively settled [8]. There are many different kinds of load balancing algorithms available, which can be categorized mainly into two groups. The following section will discuss these two main categories of load balancing algorithms.

2.1 Static Algorithm Static algorithms divide the traffic equivalently between servers. By this approach the traffic on the servers will be disdained easily and consequently it will make the situation more imperfectly. This algorithm, which divides the traffic equally, is announced as round robin algorithm.

2.2 Dynamic Algorithm Dynamic algorithms designated proper weights on servers and by searching in whole network a lightest server preferred to balance the traffic. However, selecting an appropriate server needed real time communication with the networks, which will lead to extra traffic added on system. Additionally, Cloud vendors are based on automatic load balancing services, which allowed entities to increase the number of CPUs or memories for their resources to scale with the increased demands [6]. This service is optional and depends on the entity's business needs. Therefore load balancers served two important needs, primarily to promote availability of cloud resources and secondarily to promote performance. There are 4 policies in Dynamic Load Balancing as follows:

2.2.1Transfer Policy: The part of the dynamic load balancing algorithm which selects a job for transferring from a local node to a remote node is referred to as Transfer policy or Transfer strategy. 2.2.2 Selection Policy: It specifies the processors involved in the load exchange (processor matching). 2.2.3 Location Policy: The part of the load balancing algorithm which selects a destination node for a transferred task is referred to as location policy or Location strategy. 2.24 Information Policy: The part of the dynamic load balancing algorithm responsible for collecting information about the nodes in the system is referred to as Information policy or Information strategy.

3. Proposed Solution

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In all existing algorithm there exists a communication between the Load Balancer and the Datacenter Controller for updating the index table leading to an overhead. Further, this overhead causes delay in providing response to the arrived requests. So, Here we are trying to solve the conflicts that other have faced during their simulation of algorithms & we have proposed an Algorithm that probably solve the problem with static algorithms which is as follows.

Fig 5: Proposed Architecture Our proposed algorithm considers the current VM resource utilization and burst workloads for distributing the load to each VM instances. We expect that using the proposed algorithm cloud service provider can meet the Service level agreements (SLA) without purchasing additional resources. Our proposed algorithm also ensures that none of VM resources is over utilized when another one is underutilized. This will increase the system performance and provide faster response time. This will also increase the economic profit of an organization as all the resources are better utilized so there is no need for extra resources for handling the request.

Serial No. 1 2 3 . . . . N

Naimesh D.Naik, IJRIT

Table 1: Cloud Data Structure J_ID VM_ID VM_Util(%) J1,J2 VM1 25 J2,J3,…,Jn VM2 100 J3 VM3 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . J3,J2,…,Jn

VMn-1

75

193

The Cloud Manager maintains a data structure containing the VM ID, Job ID of the jobs that has to be allocated to the corresponding VM and VM Status to keep track of the load distribution. The VM Status represents the percentage of utilization. The Cloud Manager allocates the resources and distributes the load as per the data structure. The Cloud Manager analyzes the VM status routinely to distribute the execution load evenly. In course of processing, if any VM is overloaded then the jobs are migrated to the VM which is underutilized by tracking the data structure. If there are more than one available VM then the assignment is based on the least hop time. On completion of the execution, the Cloud Manager automatically updates the data structure. Table 2: User Configuration J_ID Job Capacity J1 100 J2 1000 J3 10 J4 10000 Table 3: Datacenter Configuration VM_ID VM Capacity VM1 1000 VM2 10 VM3 100 VM4 10000

Fig 6: Comparison Of Existing & Proposed Algorithm.

4. Conclusion

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The enhanced load balancing approach using the efficient cloud management system is proposed to overcome the aforementioned limitations. The evaluation of the proposed approach will be done in terms of the response time and also by considering the hop time and wait time during the migration process of the load balancing approach to avoid deadlocks. Henceforth, the proposed work improves the business performance of the cloud service provider by achieving the aforementioned objectives.

5. References [1] Rashmi K. S., Suma V., Vaidehi M. “Enhanced Load Balancing Approach to Avoid Deadlocks in Cloud” in IJCA, vol. (June-2012), pp no:31-35. [2] Ram Prasad padhey & P. Goutam Prasad Rao “Load Balancing in Cloud“ in NIT Rourkela, vol. (May-2011), pp no:1-46. [3] Mishra Ratan & Jaiswal Anant, “Ant colony Optimization : A Solution of Load balancing in Cloud” in IJWest, vol. (April-2012), pp no:33–50. [4] Chaczko Zenon, Mahadevan Venkatesh, Aslanzadeh Shahzard, & Mcdermid Christopher “Availability and Load Balancing in Cloud Computing” in IPCSIT, vol. (2011) pp no:134-140. [5] Tai Jianzhe, Zhang Juemin, Li Jun, Meleis Waleed, Mi Ningfang, “ArA: Adaptive resource allocation for cloud computing environments under bursty workloads.” In 30th IEEE International Performance Computing and Communications Conference, pp no:1–8. [6] Hung Che-lun, Wang Hsiao-hsi, Hu Yu-chen, “Efficient Load Balancing Algorithm for Cloud Computing” in Network Case study, pp no:251-253 [7] Bakkali H. EL,A.Khiyaita, M. Zbakh,Dafir El Kettani, in (2012-IEEE), “Load Balancing Cloud Computing : State of Art”, pp no:106-109 [8] http://www.akashsharma.me/private-cloud-setup-usingeucalyptus-and-xen/ [9] http://cloudcomputing.sys-con.com/node/2261725

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Load Balancing in Cloud Computing: A Survey - IJRIT

Cloud computing is a term, which involves virtualization, distributed computing, ... attractive, however, can also be at odds with traditional security models and controls. ... Virtualization means “something which isn't real”, but gives all the facilities of a real. ... The following section will discuss these two main categories of load ...

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