Learn Pascal in Three Days aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa Third Edition aaaaaaaaaaaa

Sam A. Abolrous

Wordware Publishing, Inc.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Abolrous, Sam A. Learn Pascal in three days / by Sam A. Abolrous.--3rd ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 1-55622-805-8 (pbk.) 1. Pascal (Computer program language). I. Title. QA76.73.P2 A25 005.13'3--dc21

2001 2001026127 CIP

© 2002, Wordware Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved 2320 Los Rios Boulevard Plano, Texas 75074 No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from Wordware Publishing, Inc. Printed in the United States of America

ISBN 1-55622-805-8 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0108 Products mentioned are used for identification purposes only and may be trademarks of their respective companies.

All inquiries for volume purchases of this book should be addressed to Wordware Publishing, Inc., at the above address. Telephone inquiries may be made by calling: (972) 423-0090

Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Chapter 1: Hello Pascal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1-1 Your First Pascal Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Program Heading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Syntax and Conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1-2 Displaying Text: WRITELN, WRITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1-3 Crunching Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Integers and Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Evaluation of Arithmetic Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1-4 Using Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Variable Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The Assignment Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1-5 Named Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1-6 Type Conversion: ROUND, TRUNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1-7 Reading from the Keyboard: READLN, READ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1-8 Formatting Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Chapter 2: Language Elements . . . . . . . 2-1 Standard Data Types and Functions 2-2 Numeric Data Types . . . . . . . . Numeric Types in Turbo Pascal . . 2-3 Standard Arithmetic Functions . . . Example: The Power Function . . . Example: Grocery Store . . . . . . Turbo Pascal Additional Functions . 2-4 The Character Type: CHAR . . . . Standard Functions for Characters Strings in Standard Pascal . . . . . 2-5 The STRING Type . . . . . . . . .

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19 19 19 20 21 23 23 25 26 27 29 30

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Contents

Declaration of a String . . . . . . The Length of a String . . . . . . 2-6 The BOOLEAN Type . . . . . . . Simple Boolean Expressions. . . Compound Boolean Expressions Turbo Pascal Operators . . . . . Precedence of Operators . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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30 31 32 32 34 35 35 36 38 38

Chapter 3: Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Making Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 The Simple Decision: IF-THEN . . . . . . . Example: Pascal Credit Card . . . . . . . Using Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 The IF-THEN-ELSE Construct . . . . . . . 3-4 The ELSE-IF Ladders. . . . . . . . . . . . Example: A Character Tester. . . . . . . . 3-5 Nested Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example: Scores and Grades . . . . . . . Tips on the IF-ELSE Puzzles. . . . . . . . 3-6 The Multiple Choice: CASE. . . . . . . . . Example: A Vending Machine . . . . . . . Example: Number of Days in a Month . . . 3-7 Unconditional Branching: GOTO . . . . . . Repetition Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 Turbo Pascal Features: EXIT, CASE-ELSE Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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39 39 40 40 42 43 45 46 47 47 50 51 51 52 54 55 56 57 59 60

Chapter 4: Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Looping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 The FOR Loop . . . . . . . . . . Example: Powers of Two . . . . . Example: The Average . . . . . . 4-3 Stepping Up and Stepping Down . Example: The Factorial. . . . . . 4-4 Nested Loops . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 The WHILE Loop . . . . . . . . . 4-6 The REPEAT Loop . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Contents

Chapter 5: Data Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Ordinal Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enumerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 The TYPE Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renaming Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Naming User-Defined Types . . . . . . . . 5-3 Arrays as Data Structures . . . . . . . . . 5-4 One-Dimensional Arrays . . . . . . . . . . Example: Scores of One Student . . . . . Displaying Tabulated Results . . . . . . . Declaration of Arrays in the TYPE Section Example: Sorting an Array . . . . . . . . . 5-5 Two-Dimensional Arrays . . . . . . . . . . Example: Scores of Students . . . . . . . Array Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 6: Text Processing . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Manipulating Text Data . . . . . . . 6-2 Tips on OUTPUT Statements . . . . 6-3 Tips on INPUT Statements . . . . . Using READLN for Numeric Input . Using READ for Numeric Input . . . Using READ for Character Input . . Using READLN for Character Input. Input of Mixed Types . . . . . . . . Example: Scrambling Letters . . . . 6-4 Reading a Line of Text: EOLN . . . . Example: Character Counter . . . . 6-5 Reading a File of Text: EOF . . . . . Example: Frequency Counter . . . . 6-6 String Manipulation . . . . . . . . . Tips on String Input/Output . . . . . Example: Sorting Names . . . . . . 6-7 String Functions and Procedures . . LENGTH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONCAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DELETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSERT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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101 101 101 102 102 104 105 107 108 109 111 111 112 112 113 113 114 116 116 117 117 117 117 118 119

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Contents

Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

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Chapter 7: Program Architecture . . . . . . . . 7-1 Programs and Subprograms . . . . . . 7-2 Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure Definition . . . . . . . . . . Passing Values to Procedures . . . . . Passing Back Values from Procedures . 7-3 Global and Local Variables . . . . . . . Example: Sorting Procedure . . . . . . 7-4 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5 Tips on the Scope of Variables . . . . . 7-6 Recursion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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121 121 121 122 123 126 127 127 130 131 133 134 134 135

Chapter 8: Sets and Records . . . . . . 8-1 Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 Set Declaration and Assignment Rules and Restrictions . . . . . 8-3 Set Operators and Operations . Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intersection . . . . . . . . . . . Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . Tips on Using Set Operators . . Relational Operators . . . . . . Example: Text Analyzer . . . . . 8-4 Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . Record Declaration . . . . . . . Accessing Fields . . . . . . . . The WITH Statement . . . . . . 8-5 Nesting Records . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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137 137 138 139 140 140 140 140 140 141 142 144 144 145 146 149 151 152 153

Chapter 9: Files and Applications 9-1 Data Files . . . . . . . . 9-2 TEXT Files . . . . . . . . 9-3 Reading a TEXT File . .

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File Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . File Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening a File for Input: RESET . . . . . . Closing the File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . File Input Procedures: READ, READLN . . The EOF and EOLN Functions . . . . . . . Example: Disk-File Text Analyzer. . . . . . 9-4 Displaying a TEXT File . . . . . . . . . . . Reading a TEXT File as a Set of Strings . . Reading Multiple Strings . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 Creating a TEXT File: REWRITE . . . . . . File Output Procedures: WRITE, WRITELN Example: Employee File . . . . . . . . . . Example: Payroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6 Non-TEXT Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example: Payroll System . . . . . . . . . . Appending a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7 Using the File Buffer Variable . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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156 157 157 158 158 159 159 162 163 164 165 165 166 168 172 173 176 178 179 180 181

Chapter 10: Using Variant Records . . . . . . . 10-1 Variant Records . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 Example: Enhanced Payroll System. 10-3 Deleting Records from the File . . . 10-4 Updating Records . . . . . . . . . . 10-5 Enhance the Program Modularity . . Suggestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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183 183 185 192 201 204 214 214 215 215

Chapter 11: Pointers and Linked Lists . . 11-1 Dynamic Memory Allocation . . 11-2 Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pointer Operations . . . . . . . Pointers to Records . . . . . . . Passing Pointers as Parameters 11-3 Basics of Linked Lists . . . . .

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Contents

List Declaration . . . . . . . . Building a List . . . . . . . . . Reading a List. . . . . . . . . Example: A Linked List Demo Storing Lists in Files . . . . . Reading Lists from Files . . . Example: A List of Records . . 11-4 Searching Lists . . . . . . . . 11-5 Deleting Nodes from Lists . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Next Step. . . . . . . . .

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225 225 227 229 232 233 234 235 243 253 254 255 256

Appendix A: The ASCII Character Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Appendix B: Reserved Words and Standard Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Appendix C: Answers to Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

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Preface This book is designed to teach you Pascal in a very short period of time. The method used in the book is that of learning by example. You start with simple programs that crunch some numbers and print some strings, and you end up with useful applications using structured programs. Historically, Pascal was developed by Niklaus Wirth (a Swiss computer scientist) in the early 1970s and was named after the French mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623-1662). A standard for the language was formulated in 1983 and approved by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). With the growing use of microcomputers, extensions and variations have been added to the language, the most popular of which are UCSD Pascal (developed by University of California at San Diego) and Turbo Pascal (developed by Borland International). The goal of this book is to teach you how to write a portable program in Pascal regardless of the computer you use, so the standard IEEE/ANSI will mainly be used but the new features will be discussed and their origins referred to. The book is not intended to go into the details of the nonportable areas of the language (such as graphics), but rather to make use of the powerful features of the modern implementations that help in data processing. The programs included in this book were compiled using Turbo Pascal, but you can use any compiler to run them. In a very few places you may need to make minor modifications, which will be referenced.

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Acknowledgments I would like to thank my daughter Sally Abolrous for her help with editing this book.

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About the Author Sam Abolrous is a software engineer with an extensive background in software design and program development. He has a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Alexandria, Egypt. He has published articles for leading programming journals and has written over 50 books on computer science ranging from COBOL to C++ programming, including Learn C in Three Days and Learn Pascal from Wordware Publishing. Albolrous developed numerous programs for hearing research at Louisiana State University Medical Center (LSUMC). He is currently a programmer/writer at Microsoft Corporation.

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aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Chapter 1aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Hello Pascal 1-1 Your First Pascal Program The Pascal program may be as simple as the one in Example 1-1. It displays on your screen the phrase “Hi there.” { ----------------------------- Example 1-1 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM FirstProgram(OUTPUT); BEGIN WRITELN('Hi there') END.

Whether the Pascal program is small or large, it must have a specific structure. This program consists mainly of one statement (WRITELN) which does the actual work here, as it displays whatever comes between the parentheses. The statement is included inside a frame starting with the keyword BEGIN and ending with the keyword END. This is called the program main body (or the program block) and usually contains the main logic of data processing.

Comments Consider the first line in the program: { ----------------------------- Example 1-1 ------------------------------ }

This is a comment and is totally ignored by the compiler. Comments can appear anywhere in the Pascal program between two braces ({}) or between the two symbols (* and *) thus: (* This is a comment *)

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Program Heading The second line is called the program heading. It starts with the keyword PROGRAM followed by a space, followed by the program name (FirstProgram). The program name is a user-invented word. User-invented words are classified in Pascal as identifiers. An identifier must begin with a letter and may contain any number of letters or digits (in Turbo Pascal it may contain underscores as well). You are free to choose any meaningful name for your program, but do not expect a program name like “BEGIN” or “PROGRAM” to be accepted. These words are called reserved words, and they are only used in the proper place in the program. Pascal reserved words are summarized in Appendix B. The program name is followed by the word OUTPUT contained in parentheses and terminated with a semicolon: PROGRAM FirstProgram(OUTPUT);

The keyword OUTPUT tells the compiler that this program is going to produce output (such as writing to the screen), which is the counterpart of INPUT (such as reading from the keyboard). The words OUTPUT and INPUT are called file parameters. The program may perform both input and output, in which case the file parameters take the form: PROGRAM FirstProgram(INPUT,OUTPUT);

In Turbo Pascal the program heading is optional. You may skip the whole line and start your program with the word BEGIN, or you may use the program name without parameters, like this: PROGRAM FirstProgram;

Syntax and Conventions The most important syntax is the semicolon after the program heading (which is used as a separator) and the period after the word END (which terminates the program). A common convention is to write Pascal keywords in uppercase and the user-invented names (identifiers) in lowercase with the first letter capitalized. If the name consists of more than one word (which is the case in this program), the first letter in each word is capitalized. So, in Pascal programs you may see identifiers like: Wages PayRoll HoursWorkedPerWeek This is just a convention to make your program readable, but Pascal compilers are not case sensitive. This means that you can write the entire program in lowercase as in

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Example 1-2, or in uppercase as in Example 1-3. All three of the programs will compile and run. { ------------------------------ Example 1-2 ------------------------------ } program firstprogram(output); begin writeln('Hi there') end. { ------------------------------ Example 1-3 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM FIRSTPROGRAM(OUTPUT); BEGIN WRITELN('Hi there') END.

All blank lines, indentations, and spaces (except those following the Pascal keywords) are optional, but it is a good programming habit to use this method to make your program well-organized and readable.

1-2 Displaying Text: WRITELN, WRITE To display several lines of text you need a WRITELN statement for each line, as in the following program in Example 1-4. Be sure to put quotes around text strings.

aa aa NOTE

A companion CD-ROM comes with this book to help you save time and effort. This disc contains the source code of all examples, in addition to the solutions of the drills. Please read the Readme.txt or Readme.htm file on the distribution disc. It contains the instructions for installing the files on your hard drive. Notice that the Readme.htm file starts up automatically when you insert the CD into the drive. { ------------------------------ Example 1-4 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM LinesOfText(OUTPUT); BEGIN WRITELN('Hi there.'); WRITELN('How are you today?'); WRITELN('Are you ready for Pascal?') END.

Now the program contains more than one statement. Each statement must be separated from the next one with a semicolon. This is the only way the compiler can recognize the end of a statement, but for the last statement in the program block you may skip the semicolon. When you compile this program it will give the following output: Hi there. How are you today?

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Are you ready for Pascal?

The WRITELN statement displays a line of text followed by a new line (a linefeed and a carriage return). If you wish to display two strings on the same line, you need to use the WRITE statement as shown in the following program. { ------------------------------ Example 1-5 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM TwoLines(OUTPUT); BEGIN WRITE('Hi there. '); WRITELN('How are you today?'); WRITELN('Are you ready for Pascal?') END.

The output of this program is: Hi there. How are you today? Are you ready for Pascal?

As you can see in the program output, the second string is written on the same line as the first string as a result of using the WRITE statement to display the first string. This is the only difference between the two output statements WRITE and WRITELN. If you want to display a blank line, you only need the statement: WRITELN;

Drill 1-1 Write a Pascal program to display the following text on the screen: Wordware Publishing, Inc. ------------------------2320 Los Rios Boulevard Plano, Texas 75074

1-3 Crunching Numbers The easiest task for any program is to crunch numbers. The statement WRITELN (or WRITE) can be used both to display numbers and evaluate numerical expressions. You can build up arithmetic expressions using the following arithmetic operators: + – * /

addition subtraction multiplication division

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Take a look at these examples: WRITELN(123); WRITELN(1.23 * 4);

The first example displays the number between the parentheses (123). The second example performs multiplication of two numbers and displays the result. Notice that for numeric values, unlike text strings, you don’t use quotes. You may use WRITELN to display text and numbers in the same statement by using the comma as a separator like this: WRITELN('The result is=', 125 * 1.75);

The following program is used to evaluate two numeric expressions (multiplication and division) and display the results preceded by the proper text. { ------------------------------ Example 1-6 -------------------------------} PROGRAM CrunchNumbers(OUTPUT); BEGIN WRITELN('I can easily crunch numbers.'); WRITELN('Here is multiplication of 50x4:',50*4); WRITELN('..and here is division of 2400/8:',2400/8) END.

The output of this program is: I can easily crunch numbers. Here is multiplication of 50x4:200 ..and here is division of 2400/8: 3.0000000000E+02

The multiplication is done as expected. The two operands (50 and 4) were integers (whole numbers) and the result (200) was an integer too. The division result, however, came out in a format that needs some explanation.

Integers and Real Numbers The division performed with the operator / is called real division and always produces as its result a real number. Real numbers may be written in fixed-point notation (such as 300.0) or in scientific (exponential) notation (such as 3.0E+02), but in Pascal, real number output will always be represented in scientific notation by default. A number written in scientific notation is made up of two parts divided by the letter E (or e). The left part is called the mantissa and indicates the significant digits, while the right part is called the exponent. The exponent is a power of ten that determines the position of the decimal point. So, in this example the number: 3.0000000000E+02 is the same as the number: 3 x 102

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The same number, when expressed in fixed-point format, becomes: 300.0 If the exponent is preceded by a minus sign as in: 3.124E–02 then the decimal point is shifted two positions to the left. This number, then, is the same as: 0.03124 If the number is negative, the minus sign should precede the mantissa: –0.0124E–02 If the number is positive, you may omit the sign for either the mantissa or the exponent: 1.23E02 The division operator (/) is called the real division operator, because the result always appears as a real number regardless of the type of the operands. For integer division use the operator DIV as in the example: WRITELN(2400 DIV 8);

This will produce the output 300. With integer division, any fraction in the result will be truncated, as in this example: WRITELN(9 DIV 4);

produces the output 2

Another important operator, MOD, is used to get the remainder of integer division (modulo), as in these examples: WRITELN(9 MOD 4); WRITELN(3 MOD 4);

produces the output 1 produces the output 3

The operators DIV and MOD take only integer operands and produce integer output. For the other operators (+, –, and *), if either one of the operands is real, the result will be real.

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Drill 1-2 Evaluate the following expressions and write the result either as an integer (if integer) or as a fixed-point real number (if real): A. B. C. D. E. F.

144 / 12 144 DIV 12 17 MOD 5 3 MOD 5 3e+02 + 3 345E–01 – 1

Evaluation of Arithmetic Expressions When you build more complicated arithmetic expressions, you have to watch the priority of each operator involved in the expression. Take a look at these two expressions: 2 + 10 / 2 (2 + 10) / 2

Although the two expressions use the same numbers and operators, the first expression is evaluated as 7, while the second is evaluated as 6. This is because in the first expression the division is evaluated before the addition, while in the second expression the parentheses are used to change the order of evaluation, in which case the expression inside the parentheses is evaluated first. In general, the arithmetic operators in Pascal have two levels of precedence: high and low. The + and – have low precedence, while all other operators have high precedence. If an expression contains two operators of the same precedence level, they are evaluated from left to right. Consider this example: 5 + 3 * 2 – 6 DIV 2

The first operation to be performed is the multiplication: 5 + 6 – 6 DIV 2

The second operation, of next highest priority, is the division: 5 + 6 – 3

This leaves two operations of equal priority. They are evaluated from left to right giving: 8

When parentheses are used to alter the order of evaluation, they form subexpressions which are evaluated first. If parentheses are nested, the innermost subexpressions are evaluated first. Consider the same example with nested parentheses:

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((5 + 3) * 2 – 6) DIV 2

This expression is evaluated according to the following steps: (8 * 2 – 6) DIV 2 (16 – 6) DIV 2 10 DIV 2 5

Arithmetic operators are summarized in Table 1-1, along with their precedence and properties. The + and – signs are also used as unary operators (to signify positive and negative). The unary operators are of the same low priority as the binary operators + and –. If a binary operator precedes the unary operator such as 5 * – 4, you must enclose the unary operator and its number in parentheses: 5 * (–4). The first form may be accepted by some compilers, but do not try it. Table 1-1 Arithmetic operators Operator + – * / DIV

Arithmetic Operation Addition Subtraction Multiplication Real division Integer division

Operands REAL/INTEGER REAL/INTEGER REAL/INTEGER REAL/INTEGER INTEGER

Result REAL/INTEGER REAL/INTEGER REAL/INTEGER REAL INTEGER

Precedence Low Low High High High

Drill 1-3 Evaluate the following expressions and write the result either as an integer (if integer) or as a fixed-point real number (if real): A. 15 – 15 DIV 15 B. 22 + 10 / 2 C. (22 + 10) / 2 D. 50 * 10 – 4 MOD 3 * 5 + 80

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1-4 Using Variables Data are stored in the memory locations at specific addresses. Programmers, however, refer to these locations using variables. When variables are used in a program, they are associated with the specific memory locations. The value of a variable is actually the contents of its memory location. As data are processed by the program, the contents of any location may change, and so does the value of the associated variable. Variables are given names (identifiers) according to the rules mentioned before.

Variable Declaration Before using a variable in a Pascal program, its name and type must be declared in a special part of the program called the declaration. This starts with the keyword VAR, as in the following example: VAR a :INTEGER; x :REAL;

The variable a is of the type INTEGER, which means that it can hold only integer numbers such as 4, 556, and 32145. The variable x is declared as of the type REAL and can hold real numbers such as 3.14, 44.567, and 3.5E+02. If you want to declare more than one variable of the same type, you may declare each on a separate line: VAR a b c x y

:INTEGER; :INTEGER; :INTEGER; :REAL; :REAL;

You may also declare all variables of the same type as a list like this: VAR a, b, c x, y

:INTEGER; :REAL;

The keywords INTEGER and REAL are classified as standard identifiers, which are predefined in Pascal. The standard identifiers can be redefined by the programmer, but this is strongly recommended against. Standard identifiers are listed in Appendix B. In the following program three variables are declared: a and b are integers, while x is real. The contents of each one are displayed using the WRITELN statement. { ------------------------------ Example 1-7 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Variables(OUTPUT); { Variable Declarations } VAR

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a, b :INTEGER; x :REAL; { Program Block } BEGIN WRITELN('Contents of a=',a); WRITELN('Contents of b=',b); WRITELN('Contents of x=',x) END.

The output of the program is something like the following: Contents of a=0 Contents of b=631 Contents of x= 2.7216107254E-26

Note that the contents of a and b are displayed as integers while the contents of x are displayed in real format. However, the output numbers are just garbage because no values were actually stored in those variables. Unless you store data values in your variables, they will contain whatever was last left in those memory locations.

The Assignment Statement To store a value in a variable you can use the assignment operator (:=) as in the following examples: a := 55; x := 1.5; y := 2.3E+02;

aaa aaa CAUTION

Do not use a real number like this:

.1234 A legal real number in Pascal must have a digit to the left of the decimal point, like this: 0.1234 Also, the number: 123. may be rejected by some compilers. It would be better to use the legal form: 123.0

In the following program, two integers, a and b, are declared in the declaration part, then assigned integer values in the program block. The WRITELN statement is then used to evaluate and display the results of different arithmetic operations performed on those variables. { ------------------------------ Example 1-8 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Arithmetic(OUTPUT); { Variable Declarations } VAR

Hello Pascal

a, b :INTEGER; { Program Block } BEGIN a := 25; b := 2; WRITELN('a=',a); WRITELN('b=',b); WRITELN('a+b=',a+b); WRITELN('a-b=',a-b); WRITELN('a*b=',a*b); WRITELN('a/b=',a/b); WRITELN('a div b=',a DIV b); WRITELN('a mod b=',a MOD b) END.

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{ used with integers only } { used with integers only }

The output of the program is: a=25 b=2 a+b=27 a-b=23 a*b=50 a/b= 1.2500000000E+01 a div b=12 a mod b=1

----> Real division ----> Integer division ----> Remainder of integer division

You may assign one variable to another thus: x := y;

In this case, the contents of the variable y are copied to the variable x. You may also assign an arithmetic expression to a variable, like this: z := a + b – 2; GrossPay := PayRate * HoursWorked;

In these statements the value of the expression to the right of the assignment operator is calculated and stored in the variable to the left of the assignment operator (z or GrossPay).

Drill 1-4 Write a Pascal program to do the following: A. B.

Assign the value 2 to a variable a and the value 9 to a variable b. Display the values of the expressions: a+b DIV 2 (a+b) DIV 2

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1-5 Named Constants Data values (in many languages including Pascal) are called constants, as they never change during the program execution. In Pascal there are two types of constants: g

Literal constants

g

Named constants

Literal constants are data values such as explicit numbers and text strings, while a named constant is a “constant variable.” The difference between a named constant and a variable is that the value of the named constant does not change during the program. Like variables, a named constant is given a name and has to be declared in the declaration part. Actually, the declaration part is divided into two sections, CONST and VAR; the CONST section comes before the VAR section. Suppose that you would like to use the value 3.14159 (a numerical constant known as Pi) many times in your calculations. It would be more convenient to give it a name and use the name in your code. You can declare named constants as in the following example: CONST Pi = 3.14159; ThisYear = 1992; Department= 'OtoRhinoLaryngology';

Some constants are predefined in Pascal as standard identifiers. One useful predefined named constant is MAXINT, which gives the maximum value an integer can possess. The value depends on the computer used. If you want to know the value of MAXINT in your computer, use the statement: WRITELN(MAXINT);

A typical value is 32,767 (two bytes). In the following program, the perimeter of a circle is calculated using the named constant Pi. { ------------------------------- Example 1-9 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM Constants(OUTPUT); { Constant Declarations } CONST Pi = 3.14159; { Variable Declarations } VAR Radius, Perimeter :REAL; { Program Block } BEGIN Radius := 4.9; Perimeter := 2 * Pi * Radius; WRITELN('Perimeter=', Perimeter) END.

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The output of this program is:

aa aa

Perimeter= 3.0787582000E+01

NOTE

If you are using Delphi or Turbo Pascal, you do not need to redefine the constant Pi, as it is predefined as a standard identifier.

1-6 Type Conversion: ROUND, TRUNC You can assign an integer to a variable of the type REAL, but the opposite is not permitted. The reason for this is because the storage size allocated for an integer is smaller than that allocated for a real number. If this were permitted, data could be lost or corrupted when a large number was moved to a smaller location in which it did not fit. You can, however, perform the conversion with one of the following two functions: ROUND(n) TRUNC(n)

rounds n to the closest integer truncates the fraction part of n

where n is a real variable or expression. Consider these examples: ROUND(8.4) ROUND(8.5) TRUNC(8.4) TRUNC(8.5)

returns 8 returns 9 returns 8 returns 8

As you can see in the examples, the two functions may or may not return the same integer value for the same argument. In the following program the two functions are used to get the rounded and the truncated integer values of the real variable Perimeter. { ------------------------------ Example 1-10 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM Functions1(OUTPUT); { Constant Declarations } CONST Pi = 3.14159; { Variable Declarations } VAR Perimeter, Radius :REAL; RoundedPerimeter, TruncatedPerimeter :INTEGER; { Program Block } BEGIN Radius := 4.9; Perimeter := 2*Pi*Radius; RoundedPerimeter := ROUND(Perimeter); TruncatedPerimeter := TRUNC(Perimeter); WRITELN('Perimeter=', Perimeter);

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WRITELN('Perimeter (rounded)=', RoundedPerimeter); WRITELN('Perimeter (truncated)=', TruncatedPerimeter) END.

The output is: Perimeter= 3.0772000000E+01 Perimeter (rounded)=31 Perimeter (truncated)=30

----> The actual result ----> Rounded result ----> Truncated result

1-7 Reading from the Keyboard: READLN, READ The previous program is used to calculate the perimeter for a given radius that is hardcoded in the program. A more useful program would accept the radius from the user, do the calculations, then display the result. You can use either READLN or READ to make the program pause and wait for user input. The READLN statement is used to read the value of one or more variables. It takes the general form: READLN(variable-list); To read the value of a variable x from the keyboard, you can use the statement: READLN(x);

To read the values of three variables x, y, and z, use the statement: READLN(x, y, z);

When you enter the values of more than one variable (such as x, y, and z), they should be separated by one or more blanks or by pressing the Enter key. Replace the assignment statement in the previous program with a READLN statement as follows: READLN(Radius);

If you try the program now, it will pause until you type a number and press Enter; it then resumes execution and displays the results. Unfortunately, you cannot use the READLN statement to display a user prompt when the program is waiting for input. This must be done using a WRITE (or WRITELN) statement such as: WRITE('Please enter the radius:');

Here is the program in its new shape: { ------------------------------ Example 1-11 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM KeyboardInput(OUTPUT); { Constant Declarations } CONST Pi = 3.14159; { Variable Declarations }

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VAR Perimeter, Radius :REAL; RoundedPerimeter, TruncatedPerimeter :INTEGER; { Program Block } BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the radius:'); READLN(Radius); Perimeter := 2*Pi*Radius; RoundedPerimeter := ROUND(Perimeter); TruncatedPerimeter := TRUNC(Perimeter); WRITELN('Perimeter=', Perimeter); WRITELN('Perimeter (rounded)=', RoundedPerimeter); WRITELN('Perimeter (truncated)=', TruncatedPerimeter) END.

A sample run of the program gives the following output: Please enter the radius:4.9 Perimeter= 3.0787582000E+01 Perimeter (rounded)=31 Perimeter (truncated)=30

aa aa NOTE

----> Type the number and press Enter

At this stage you can use either READ or READLN for keyboard input as the difference between them is not noticeable in our applications so far.

1-8 Formatting Output You have probably thought that scientific notation is not the best format for output, especially with business and money figures. You’re right. Scientific notation is useful only with very large or very small numbers, where the power of ten represents an order of magnitude of the number. Whenever you want to see your results in fixed-point notation, use the format descriptors as in this example: WRITELN(Wages :6:2);

The format “:6:2” determines a field width of six positions, including two decimal places. So, if the value of the variable Wages is 45.5 it will be displayed as: B45.50

where the letter “B” refers to a blank space. If the output digits are less than the field width, which is the case in this example, the result will be right shifted. If the number is larger than the field width, then the field will be automatically enlarged and the entire number printed. You can add a character (such as the dollar sign) to the left of the number as follows: WRITELN('$',Wages :6:2);

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This will produce the output: $ 45.50

By using a smaller field width, you can have the number shifted to the left and the dollar sign attached to the first significant digit: WRITELN('$',Wages :0:2);

This will produce: $45.50

You can format any type of data using the same method. The only difference is that with integers or strings you specify the width field without decimal places. In the following program different types of data are formatted to fit into specific fields, as shown in the output. { ------------------------------ Example 1-12 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM Format(OUTPUT); { Variable Declarations } VAR a :INTEGER; b :REAL; { Program Block } BEGIN b := 1.2e+02; a := 320; WRITELN('I am a text string starting from position 1.'); WRITELN('I am now shifted to the right end of the field.':50); WRITELN('I am an unformatted integer:', a); WRITELN('I am an integer written in a field 6 characters wide:', a:6); WRITELN('I am a money amount written in 8 positions:$',b:8:2); WRITELN('I am a money amount shifted to the left:$',b:0:2) END.

The output is: I am a text string starting from position 1. I am now shifted to the right end of the field. I am an unformatted integer:320 I am an integer written in a field 6 characters wide: I am a money amount written in 8 positions:$ 120.00 I am a money amount shifted to the left:$120.00

320

If you display the numeric variables alone (without text), they will appear as follows: 320 320 $ 120.00 $120.00

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Drill 1-5 Write a program to calculate employee wages according to the formula: Wages := HoursWorked * PayRate;

Accept HoursWorked and PayRate from the keyboard and display Wages in fixed-point notation preceded by a dollar sign.

Summary In this chapter you were introduced to the most important tools in Pascal programming. 1. You are now familiar with the Pascal program structure: n The program heading n The declaration part n The CONST section n The VAR section n The program main body between BEGIN and END. 2. You know two important data types, INTEGER and REAL, and how to express and evaluate arithmetic expressions using both types. 3. You know the arithmetic operators in Pascal, their properties, and their precedence. + – * / DIV MOD 4. You know how to declare variables of both types, how to name them using identifiers, how to store values in them whether by assignment (:=) or by entering values from the keyboard, and how to display their values on the screen. 5. You learned how to use the following conversion functions to truncate and round real expressions: TRUNC(n) ROUND(n)

truncates the fraction part of n rounds n to the closest integer

6. You know how to declare named constants and use them in the program. 7. During you first tour of Pascal, you learned the following output statements to display both variables and numeric or string literal constants: WRITELN WRITE Also, you learned the following input statements to read variable values from the keyboard:

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READLN READ 8. Finally, you learned how to format your numeric or string output to have the results in the desired form.

Exercises 1. What is the difference between a literal constant and a named constant? 2. What is the difference between a named constant and a variable? 3. Write variable declarations, using the suitable data types, for the following items: a. The price of a car in dollars and cents. b. The surface area of a cylinder. c. The number of students in a class. 4. Write constant declarations for the following items: a. A company name (provide a name of your own). b. The conversion ratio from miles to kilometers. 5. Write expressions to calculate the following items: a. The area of a circle, given the radius. b. A student’s total grade in three classes. c. The price of an item including an 8% tax. 6. Evaluate the following expressions: a. 10 + 5 * 2 – 6 / 2 b. (10 + 5) * 2 – 6 / 2 c. (10 + 5 * 2 – 6) / 2 d. ((10 + 5) * 2 – 6) / 2 7. Write a Pascal program to print your name, home address, and e-mail, each on a separate line. 8. Evaluate the following expressions: a. 1.0/2.0 e. 1 MOD 2 b. 1.0/2 f. 10 / 3 c. 1/2 g. ROUND(10/3) d. 1 DIV 2

Answers 6.

a. 17.0

b. 27.0

c. 7.0

d. 12.0

8.

a. 0.50

b. 0.50

c. 0.50

d. 0

e. 1

f. 3.33

g. 3

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Chapter 2aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Language Elements 2-1 Standard Data Types and Functions The data processed by any program may consist of integers, real numbers, or strings of text, but each type is stored and manipulated differently. Pascal provides the following standard data types (also referred to as simple or scalar data types): INTEGER REAL CHAR BOOLEAN You have already used the INTEGER and REAL types as both numeric constants and variables. You have also already used arithmetic operators with variables and constants to build arithmetic expressions, and you were introduced to some functions such as ROUND and TRUNC. This chapter presents the whole picture of numeric data types and related functions and expressions. It also introduces the type CHAR, which is used to represent single characters, and the type BOOLEAN, which is used to represent logical values. The discussion of the single character type contains an overview of how strings were represented in standard Pascal and also how they are represented in the modern implementations such as Turbo Pascal and UCSD Pascal (using the type STRING).

2-2 Numeric Data Types The range of numbers that may be represented as integers (or as reals) depends on the implementation. For the type INTEGER it is determined by the following limits: MAXINT –(MAXINT+1)

the maximum positive integer the maximum negative integer

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Again, the value of MAXINT depends on the implementation. Real numbers are generally stored in a larger number of bytes than are integers, but they are of limited precision. Fractions such as 0.333333 and 0.666666 can never be as precise as the exact values 1/3 and 2/3, regardless of how many digits are used to represent the number. For this reason, it is not recommended to test two real numbers for equality. Instead, it would be better to test to see if the difference between the two numbers is less than some specific small amount. In Turbo Pascal, there are additional numeric types, which are introduced in the following section.

Numeric Types in Turbo Pascal There are additional integer types (including the type INTEGER) in Turbo Pascal. They are shown in Table 2-1 along with their storage sizes and the maximum range of values that can be represented in each. In one byte, you can store either a SHORTINT or a BYTE. The BYTE is actually an unsigned SHORTINT, which means that it can hold only positive numbers. As you can see in the table, the maximum range of values for a type is doubled when the sign is not used. The same applies to the types INTEGER and WORD, as the WORD is a positive integer of doubled maximum range. Table 2-1 Turbo Pascal integer types Data Type SHORTINT BYTE INTEGER WORD

Size (in bytes) 1 1 2 2

Range from –128 to +127 from 0 to 255 from –32768 to +32767 from 0 to 65535

The LONGINT is the largest integer that can be represented in Turbo Pascal. You can test its value by displaying the value of the predefined constant MAXLONGINT as follows: WRITELN(MAXLONGINT);

Notice that the negative range of any signed type exceeds the positive range by one (e.g., +127 and –128). This is because zero is counted with the positive numbers.

aaa aaa CAUTION

The commas used here to express large numbers are used only for readability. You will neither see them in the output of a program, nor are they accepted as a part of literal constants. So, the number 2,147,483,647 must be used as 2147483647.

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In Turbo Pascal, there are also additional real types (including the type REAL) as shown in Table 2-2. For real numbers, a new column is added to the table to describe the accuracy of a number as the maximum number of precise digits. Table 2-2 Turbo Pascal real types Data Type SINGLE REAL DOUBLE EXTENDED COMP

Size (in bytes) 4 6 8 10 8

Precision (up to) 7 digits 11 digits 15 digits 19 digits integers only

Range from 0.71E–45 to 3.4E+38 from 2.94E–39 to 1.7E+38 from 4.94E–324 to 1.79E+308 from 3.3E–4932 to 1.18E+4932 ±9.2E+18

If you examine the range of the type SINGLE, you will find that it is pretty close to that of the type REAL, especially in the area of the very large numbers. The main difference between the two lies in the economical storage of the SINGLE type (4 bytes compared to 6), which comes at the expense of precision (7 digits compared to 11). Real number types other than REAL are not available unless a math coprocessor is used. The type COMP actually belongs to the set of integers, as it does not accept fractions, but it is usually mentioned among reals as it requires the use of a math coprocessor.

2-3 Standard Arithmetic Functions Pascal includes a large number of predefined functions that may be used in expressions among constants and variables. Table 2-3 shows the standard arithmetic functions divided into three groups: g

Conversion functions

g

Trigonometric functions

g

Miscellaneous functions

Any function operates on a parameter that is inside its parentheses. The parameter is an expression of a specific type (notice that the expression may be a single variable or constant). Before using any of these functions, you must know the type of parameter the function uses and the type of the returned value (which is also the type of the function). The conversion functions, for instance, take real parameters and return integer results. Other functions use either integer or real parameters, and produce different types. The type of the returned value is important when you assign the function to a variable.

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Table 2-3 Standard arithmetic functions Function Format Returned Value Conversion Functions: ROUND(x) x rounded to the nearest integer TRUNC(x) x with the fraction part truncated *Trigonometric Functions: ARCTAN(x) The arctangent of x COS(x) Cosine of x SIN(x) Sine of x Miscellaneous Functions: ABS(x) The absolute value of x EXP(x) The exponential function of x (ex) LN(x) The natural logarithm of x SQR(x) The square of x (x²) SQRT(x) The square root of x (^x)

Parameter Type

Result Type

REAL REAL

INTEGER INTEGER

REAL/INTEGER REAL/INTEGER REAL/INTEGER

REAL REAL REAL

REAL/INTEGER REAL/INTEGER REAL/INTEGER REAL/INTEGER REAL/INTEGER

REAL/INTEGER REAL REAL REAL/INTEGER REAL

* All angles must be expressed in radians.

Take a look at these examples: SQR(3)=9 SQR(2.5)=6.25 SQRT(9)=3.00 ABS(–28.55)=28.55 LN(EXP(1))=1.00 ARCTAN(1)=45 degrees Note that the type of result returned by the function SQR is the same as the type of the parameter, but the function SQRT returns a real number regardless of the parameter type. Notice also that the parameter of any function may contain another function, such as LN(EXP(1)). The output returned from the last function (ARCTAN) is here converted to degrees but will be in radians if not converted. The program that produced these results is shown in Example 2-1. Pay attention to the format descriptors, which are used to produce the output in these formats. { ----------------------------- Example 2-1 ------------------------------- } { Arithmetic Standard Functions } PROGRAM FunctionDemo(OUTPUT); CONST Pi = 3.14159; { No need for this part in Turbo Pascal } BEGIN WRITELN('SQR(3)=',SQR(3)); WRITELN('SQR(2.5)=',SQR(2.5):0:2); { Notice the format } WRITELN('SQRT(9)=',SQRT(9):0:2); WRITELN('ABS(-28.55)=',ABS(-28.55):0:2);

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WRITELN('LN(EXP(1))=',LN(EXP(1)):0:2); WRITELN('ARCTAN(1)=',ARCTAN(1)* 180/Pi:0:0,' degrees') { Notice the conversion and the format } END.

Example: The Power Function The power operator does not exist in Pascal as it does in some other languages (such as FORTRAN and BASIC), but you can make one using arithmetic functions. You can, of course, use the function SQR to produce small powers, thus: SQR(x) SQR(x) * x SQR(SQR(x))

power 2 power 3 power 4

You can also make use of the following mathematical relationship to express any power: xy = EXP(LN(x) * y) In the following program this expression is used to raise a number to any power. The program asks you to enter both the base a and the exponent b, then displays the formatted result. { ------------------------------ Example 2-2 ------------------------------} { Arithmetic Standard Functions } PROGRAM PowerOperator(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR a, b :REAL; BEGIN WRITE('Enter the base and the exponent separated by a space:'); READLN(a,b); WRITELN('The value of ',a:0:2,' raised to the power ',b:0:2,' is ', EXP(LN(a)*b):0:2) END.

A sample run of the program gives the following: Enter the base and the exponent separated by a space:2 10 The value of 2.00 raised to the power 10.00 is 1024.00

Example: Grocery Store In a grocery store a fast calculation is needed to count the number and type of coins that make up the change remaining from a dollar, so it is a great help to have this logic programmed into the cash register. The following program accepts from the keyboard the price of the purchase (for the sake of simplicity, this is assumed to be less than one dollar) and produces as output the number of quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies

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remaining from a dollar bill. The program is an application of the integer operators DIV and MOD. { ------------------------------ Example 2-3 ------------------------------ } { Grocery Store } PROGRAM Grocery(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Change, TotalPrice, Dollars, Quarters, Dimes, Nickels, Cents :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Enter the total-price in cents: '); READLN(TotalPrice); Change := 100 – TotalPrice; { Quarters } Quarters := Change DIV 25; Change := Change MOD 25; { Dimes } Dimes := Change DIV 10; Change := Change MOD 10; { Nickels } Nickels := Change DIV 5; Change := Change MOD 5; { Cents } Cents := Change; WRITELN('The change is:'); WRITELN(Quarters,' Quarters'); WRITELN(Dimes,' Dimes'); WRITELN(Nickels, ' Nickels'); WRITELN(Cents, ' Cents') END.

A sample run of the program gives the following: Enter the total-price in cents: 22 The change is: 3 Quarters 0 Dimes 0 Nickels 3 Cents

----> Type 22 and press Enter

Drill 2-1 Modify the above program to accept any amount of money as TotalPrice (including fractions of a dollar) and any amount of cash as AmountPaid. The program should read the AmountPaid and the TotalPrice, and display the change in bills of different denominations, quarters, dimes, nickels, and cents.

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Turbo Pascal Additional Functions Turbo Pascal has a considerable number of additional arithmetic functions. Of these functions, you will especially need two of them: FRAC(n) returns the fractional portion of the real number n INT(n) returns the integer portion of the real number n For example: WRITELN(FRAC(8.22):2:2); WRITELN(INT(8.22)2:2);

produces 0.22 produces 8.00

Both functions return real numbers. You can make use of these functions in Drill 2-1. Another couple of functions are used to generate random numbers: RANDOM(n) RANDOM

returns a random integer between 0 and the integer n (the zero is included) returns a real random number between 0 and 1 (the zero is included)

Try these two statements: WRITELN(RANDOM:2:2); WRITELN(RANDOM(n));

where n is an integer variable readout from the keyboard. Use the two statements in a program and look at the results for several runs. They should be different in each run.

Drill 2-2 Write the Pascal expressions for the following: 1. The quadratic equation: Ax2 + Bx + C 2. The determinant: B2 – 4AC 3. The square root of the determinant 4. The absolute value of the determinant Then, write a program to produce the roots of the equation according to the input values of A, B, and C. Use test values for A, B, and C that give real roots. Typical values are: A=1, B=2, C=1, give the solution: X1= X2= –1.00 A=1, B=4, C=2, give the solution: X1= –0.59, X2= –3.41

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2-4 The Character Type: CHAR The CHAR type is used to store a single character in Pascal. You can declare a variable of the type CHAR as in the following example: VAR SingleLetter : CHAR;

In the main body of the program (between BEGIN and END.) you may assign a single character to the variable SingleLetter like this: SingleLetter := 'A';

As is clear from this example, a constant literal of the type CHAR must be exactly one character, enclosed in single quotes: 'A' '3' '*' '$' ' ' In order to represent a single quotation (or apostrophe) as a character constant, use two single quotes like this: '''' You can use the output statements WRITELN or WRITE to display a character constant or a character variable: WRITELN('A'); WRITELN(SingleLetter);

The character set is internally represented by a one-byte integer code. The universally used code for small computers is the ASCII code (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). The ASCII code includes 256 characters from 0 to 255 (see Appendix A). The first half of the ASCII code (from 0 to 127) is standard on all personal computers. It includes the following characters: g

The uppercase letters (A-Z): ASCII 65 to 90

g

The lowercase letters (a-z): ASCII 97 to 122

g

The digits (0-9): ASCII 48 to 57

The code also contains punctuation characters and control characters. The second half of the ASCII code is not standard and is implemented differently on different machines. The relative sequence of a character in the ASCII set is called the ordinal number.

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Standard Functions for Characters There are four standard functions that are dedicated to handling character operations: ORD(c) CHR(n) PRED(c) SUCC(c)

returns the ordinal number of the character c returns the character represented by the ordinal number n returns the character preceding c in the ordinal sequence returns the next character after c in the ordinal sequence

You can get the ordinal number of any character by using the function ORD, as in the following example: WRITELN(ORD('A'));

This statement displays the ordinal of the character “A,” which is 65. In the following program the user enters a character and the program displays the corresponding ordinal number. { ------------------------------ Example 2-4 ------------------------------ } { Displaying the Ordinal Number of a Character } PROGRAM OrdinalNumber(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR SingleChar :CHAR; BEGIN WRITE('Give me a character, please: '); READLN(SingleChar); WRITELN('The ordinal number of this character is ', ORD(SingleChar)); READLN { The program will pause until you press Enter } END.

A sample run of the program gives the following: Give me a character, please: A

aa aa

The ordinal number of this character is 65

----> Type A and press Enter ----> The program output

TIP

Notice the use of the last READLN statement. When READLN is used without parentheses, it holds the program until you press Enter. You cannot use READ for this purpose. This type of READLN statement is commonly preceded by a user prompt such as: WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue');

The counterpart of ORD is the function CHR, which takes an ordinal number as a parameter and returns the character that corresponds to this number. Look at this example: WRITELN(CHR(66));

This statement displays the letter “B.”

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In the following program, the user enters an ordinal number and the program displays the corresponding character. { ------------------------------ Example 2-5 ------------------------------ } { Displaying the Character, Knowing its Ordinal Number } PROGRAM CharDisplay(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR OrdinalNum :BYTE; BEGIN WRITE('Give me a number between 0 and 255: '); READLN(OrdinalNum); WRITELN('This corresponds to the character "', CHR(OrdinalNum),'"'); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue ...'); READLN { The program will pause until you press Enter } END.

A sample run of the program gives the following: Give me a number between 0 and 255: 66 This corresponds to the character "B" Press ENTER to continue ...

aa aa

----> Enter the number 66 ----> The program output

NOTE

Notice the use of the Turbo Pascal type BYTE to store an ordinal number, which is a positive integer between 0 and 255. If you don’t have this type in your compiler, you can use the INTEGER type.

The following program demonstrates the use of the functions PRED and SUCC. You enter a character and the program displays the previous and the next characters. { ------------------------------ Example 2-6 ------------------------------ } { The Predecessor and the Successor to a Character } PROGRAM CharPredAndSucc(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Letter: CHAR; BEGIN WRITE('Please Enter a character: '); READLN(Letter); WRITELN('The Predecessor to this character is "',PRED(Letter),'"'); WRITELN('The Successor to this character is "',SUCC(Letter),'"'); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue ...'); READLN END.

A sample run gives the following: Please Enter a character:K The Predecessor to this character is "J" The Successor to this character is "L" Press ENTER to continue ...

----> Enter the character K ----> The program response

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You can use numbers or any special symbols from your keyboard to test this program. Remember, though, that some machines (mainframes) use a different sequence known as EBCDIC code. You may also use the function ORD with the type INTEGER, in which case it returns the sequence of the integer in the set of integers (from –(MAXINT+1) to MAXINT). Thus: ORD(0)=0, ORD(1)=1, ORD(255)=255, and ORD(–22)=–22 The functions SUCC and PRED work with integers in the same way, which means: SUCC(1)=2, and PRED(1)=0 Some programmers increment their counters with a statement like this: Counter := SUCC(Counter);

If you replace the type CHAR with the type INTEGER in the last program (Example 2-6), you can test these relations.

Strings in Standard Pascal As mentioned earlier, you can represent a string constant using single quotes like this: 'This is a string enclosed in single quotes'

To include an apostrophe in the string constant, you need two of them: 'This is an apostrophe '' included in a string'

You can also assign a string to a named constant: CONST Name = 'Sally Shuttleworth';

After this declaration you can use the named constant Name instead of the string itself, but remember that in the program you cannot assign any value to a named constant. The string variable, however, is not defined in standard Pascal. A string in standard Pascal is stored in a PACKED ARRAY OF CHAR, which is declared like this: VAR Name : PACKED ARRAY[1..15] OF CHAR;

This declaration lets you store a string of exactly 15 characters in the variable Name—no more, no less. Look at the following example, where the variable Message is declared and assigned the string “Press any key . . . ”. Extra spaces are padded to the end of the string constant to make it fit into the variable Message, which was declared as a PACKED ARRAY OF CHAR 21 characters long.

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{ ------------------------------ Example 2-7 ------------------------------ } { Packed Array Of Characters } PROGRAM PackedArray(OUTPUT); VAR Message :PACKED ARRAY[1..21] OF CHAR; BEGIN Message := 'Press any key ... '; WRITELN(Message) END.

The output is: Press any key ...

2-5 The STRING Type Actually, you will never need to use the PACKED ARRAY OF CHAR unless you are using one of the old implementations of Pascal on a mainframe computer. In the modern implementations (such as Turbo and UCSD), the type STRING is defined.

Declaration of a String You can declare a variable of the type STRING, as in this example: VAR StudentName : STRING;

This declaration lets you store a string of up to a certain size in the variable StudentName. Although the maximum length of the string variable is 255 in Turbo (80 in UCSD), the actual length (also referred to as dynamic length) of the string is the number of stored characters. You can declare the string variable and its maximum length in the same statement: VAR StudentName : STRING[20];

In this case the maximum length of a string stored in the variable StudentName is 20 characters. Take a look at this program, which reads a name of a maximum length of 20 characters and displays it on the screen. { ------------------------------ Example 2-8 ------------------------------ } { String Type in Turbo Pascal } PROGRAM StringDemo(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Name :STRING[20];

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BEGIN WRITE('Please enter a name of 20 characters or less:'); READLN(Name); WRITELN('The name you entered is ',Name, '. Is that right?') END.

A sample run of the program gives the following: Please enter a name of 20 characters or less:Peter Rigby The name you entered is Peter Rigby. Is that right?

Note that if you assign a string constant of more than 20 characters to the variable Name, the extra characters will be truncated.

The Length of a String You can measure the dynamic length of a string using the function LENGTH. If you want, for instance, to measure the length of the string Name in the last program, you may use the expression: LENGTH(Name)

If you display the value of this expression, you get the exact number of characters contained in the string variable, including the spaces. If the string variable is empty, the dynamic length is zero. In the following program, you enter a name and the program displays the actual length both before and after the variable assignment. { ------------------------------ Example 2-9 ------------------------------ } { Dynamic Length of a String } PROGRAM StringLen(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Name :STRING[20]; BEGIN WRITELN('The dynamic length of the string is now ',LENGTH(Name), ' characters'); WRITE('Please enter a name of 20 characters or less:'); READLN(Name); WRITELN('The dynamic length of the string is now ',LENGTH(Name), ' characters') END.

The following is a sample run: The dynamic length of the string is now 0 characters Please enter a name of 20 characters or less:Dale Sanders The dynamic length of the string is now 12 characters

The introduction of the type STRING in Pascal filled a gap and added a powerful tool, especially in the field of text processing. More on string functions and operations later.

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2-6 The BOOLEAN Type The Boolean values (sometimes called logical values) are the two constants: TRUE

and

FALSE

They are named after the English mathematician George Boole (1815-1864). In Pascal you can declare a variable of the type BOOLEAN, which may only hold one of the two BOOLEAN constants TRUE or FALSE, as in the following example: VAR Result : BOOLEAN;

Simple Boolean Expressions You can assign a BOOLEAN constant to a BOOLEAN variable, such as: Result := TRUE;

You may also assign a Boolean expression to a variable such as: Result := A > B;

If A, for example, holds the value 22.5 and B holds the value 2.3, then the expression A > B (A is larger than B) is evaluated as TRUE. If A holds 1.8, then the condition is not satisfied and the expression is evaluated as FALSE. You can build Boolean expressions using the relational operators shown in Table 2-4. Table 2-4 Relational operators Operator > < >= <= = <>

Meaning Greater than Less than Greater than or equal Less than or equal Equal Not equal

Example A>B C < 54 x >= 16.8 A+B <= 255 SQR(B)=4*A*C CHR(a)<>'N'

Relational operators are used with any data type: numeric, character, or BOOLEAN. Here are some examples: Numeric:

y > 66.5 Y=A*x+B

Character:

FirstCharacter = 'B' CHR(x) > 'A'

Boolean:

TRUE > FALSE TRUE < FALSE

(always TRUE) (always FALSE)

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For characters, an expression such as: 'A' < 'B'

is always TRUE, because the letter A comes before B in the alphabet; in other words, it has a smaller ordinal number. Using the same logic, the following expressions are TRUE: '9' > '1' 'Y' < 'Z'

The following program reads from the keyboard the value of two integers A and B and displays the value of the Boolean expression A = B. { ------------------------------ Example 2-10 ----------------------------- } { Boolean Variables } PROGRAM Compare1(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR A, B :INTEGER; Result :BOOLEAN; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter two integers: '); READLN(A, B); Result := (A = B); { or, Result := A = B; The parentheses are not necessary. } WRITELN('The comparison is ', Result) END.

The following are two sample runs of the program: Please enter two integers: 5 5 The comparison is TRUE Please enter two integers: 50 55 The comparison is FALSE

As mentioned earlier, you may not compare two real values for equality because of their limited precision. In the following program, the difference between the two real variables x and y is tested to see whether it is less than a specific small value Difference, in which case they are considered to be equal. { ------------------------------ Example 2-11 ----------------------------- } { Comparing real values } PROGRAM Compare2(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST Difference = 0.0001; VAR x, y :REAL; Result :BOOLEAN; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter two real numbers: ');

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READLN(x, y); Result := ABS(x – y) < Difference; WRITELN('The difference is ', ABS(x-y):2:6); WRITELN('The comparison is ', Result) END.

The following is a sample run: Please enter two real numbers: 4.5 4.50001 The difference is 0.000010 The comparison is TRUE

Compound Boolean Expressions The Boolean expressions that use relational operators are called simple Boolean expressions (in other languages they are called relational expressions). The compound Boolean expressions are those which use Boolean operators (also called the logical operators): AND, OR, and NOT. To understand how a compound Boolean expression works, consider the example: (x = 4) AND (y < 50)

This expression is evaluated TRUE if both conditions x = 4 and y < 50 are TRUE. Now consider the same expression using the operator OR: (x = 4) OR (y < 50)

This expression is evaluated as TRUE if any one of the conditions is TRUE. For example, if x contains the value 4, the expression is TRUE regardless of the value of y. The logical operator NOT is used to reverse the value of a Boolean expression. Suppose that the BOOLEAN variable UnderAge means that the age is less than 18, as in the following statement: UnderAge := Age < 18;

The variable UnderAge will contain the value TRUE if Age is less than 18. Now the expression: NOT(UnderAge)

is evaluated TRUE if Age is 18 or above.

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Turbo Pascal Operators Turbo Pascal also contains the logical operator XOR, which is called the exclusive OR. It is used as in the following expression: (x = 4) XOR (x = 400)

The value of this expression is TRUE if either one of the two conditions (x = 4 or x = 400) is TRUE, but the expression is evaluated as FALSE if both conditions are either TRUE or FALSE. In any implementation of Pascal you can use the operator <> as the exclusive OR. You can write the previous expression as: (x = 4) <> (x = 400)

Precedence of Operators As with arithmetic expressions, the precedence of operators should be considered when building a Boolean expression (relational or logical). Table 2-5 summarizes the relative precedence of all operators you have used so far. Table 2-5 Precedence of Pascal operators Operator NOT * / DIV MOD AND + – OR (XOR in Turbo Pascal) = > < >= <= <>

Precedence Priority 1 (highest) Priority 2 Priority 3 Priority 4 (lowest)

To understand the effects of precedence, try the Boolean expression: x = 4 OR x = 400

Because the OR has a higher precedence level than the equality, this will not compile because it will be interpreted as: x = (4 OR x) = 400

which is not a valid expression.

Drill 2-3 Write Boolean expressions to express the following conditions: 1. A is less than 55.5 2. X is equal to Y, or X is greater than or equal to Z 3. Either X=40, or Y=80, or both 4. Either X=40, or Y=80, but not both

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Summary 1. In this chapter you learned the four standard data types: n INTEGER n REAL n CHAR n BOOLEAN 2. You also learned the additional numeric types of Turbo Pascal: I. Integers: n SHORTINT n BYTE n INTEGER n WORD n LONGINT II. Real numbers: n SINGLE n REAL n DOUBLE n EXTENDED n COMP 3. You learned the standard arithmetic functions, classified into three groups: Conversion: n ROUND n TRUNC Trigonometric: n ARCTAN n COS n SIN Miscellaneous: n ABS n EXP n LN n SQR n SQRT

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4. You also learned some additional arithmetic functions from Turbo Pascal, such as: n FRAC n INT n RANDOM 5. You can now write mathematical expressions using arithmetic operators and functions. 6. You are now familiar with four functions used to manipulate characters: n CHR n ORD n PRED n SUCC 7. You learned some of the features of text string variables in standard Pascal, and you know that such variables are defined as PACKED ARRAYS OF CHAR. In extensions such as Turbo Pascal and UCSD Pascal, the type STRING was added to the language along with other features and functions. You also learned the STRING function: LENGTH which is used to measure the dynamic length of a string. 8. Using the arithmetic, relational, and Boolean operators, you learned how to build simple and compound Boolean expressions and how to use the type BOOLEAN. You also know the Boolean operators: n NOT n AND n OR and you can express the exclusive OR in two ways: n using the relational operator <> n using the Turbo Pascal operator XOR 9. Finally, you had one last tour of Pascal operators and learned about their relative precedence.

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Exercises 1. Given the following assignments: A := 99 B := 98 X := A > B Y := A = B Z := A < B evaluate the following Boolean expressions: n a. X n b. Y n c. Z n d. X OR Y n e. X OR Z n f. X AND Y OR Z n g. (X AND Y) OR Z n h. X AND (Y OR Z) 2. Given the assignments of Exercise 1, evaluate the following expressions: n a. NOT X n b. NOT (X OR Y) n c. X AND NOT Y n d. (X AND NOT Y) OR Z 3. According to the Pythagorean theorem, the sum of the squares of the two legs of a right triangle is equal to the square of the hypotenuse, that is, leg2 + leg2 = hypotenuse2. Write a Pascal program to read the two legs of a right triangle and print the hypotenuse. 4. Write a Pascal program to read the first name, the middle initial, and the last name, and then print the full name.

Answers 1.

a. TRUE b. FALSE c. FALSE d. TRUE e. TRUE f. FALSE g. FALSE h. FALSE

2.

a. FALSE b. FALSE c. TRUE d. TRUE

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Chapter 3aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Decisions 3-1 Making Decisions So far, each of the programs in this book has been a series of instructions executed sequentially one after the other. In real-life applications, however, you will usually need to change the sequence of execution according to specified conditions. Sometimes you need to use a simple condition like: “If it is cold then put your coat on.” In this statement the resultant action is taken if the condition is evaluated as TRUE (the weather is cold). If, however, the weather is fine, the whole statement is skipped. Some conditions could be multiple, like those in the following conversation: “Okay then, if I come back early from work, I’ll see you tonight; else if it is too late I’ll make it tomorrow; else if my brother arrives tomorrow we can get together on Tuesday; else if Tuesday is a holiday then let it be Wednesday; else I’ll call you to arrange for the next meeting!” Actually, your program can easily handle such chained, or nested, conditions as long as you write the adequate code. In Pascal there are two control structures used to handle conditions and their resultant decisions: the binary choice construct IF-THEN-ELSE and the multiple choice construct CASE.

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3-2 The Simple Decision: IF-THEN To express a simple condition you can use the IF-THEN statement, as in the following example: IF Age < 18 THEN WRITELN('Sorry, this is underage.');

The statement starts with the keyword IF, followed by a Boolean expression (the condition to be tested), followed by the keyword THEN, followed by the result to be executed if the condition is TRUE (the WRITELN statement). As you can see, the IF construct is one statement ending with a semicolon. If the value of variable Age is less than 18, the part after the keyword THEN is executed; otherwise, the whole statement is skipped, and the program execution resumes its original flow at the next statement. This type of program control is called conditional branching. The IF-THEN statement takes the general form: IF condition THEN statement;

The construct is written in two lines just for readability, but it is one statement ending with a semicolon, and there is no obligation to leave extra spaces. You only need to separate the keywords (such as IF and THEN) from the rest of the statement by at least one space.

Example: Pascal Credit Card Take a look at the following program, where a credit card limit is tested for a certain purchase. The program starts with the declaration of the constant Limit, which represents the credit card limit ($1,000), and the variable Amount, whose value will be received from the keyboard. The program displays the message “Your charge is accepted” if Amount is less than or equal to Limit. If the condition is FALSE, the program will end without response. { ------------------------------ Example 3-1 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM SimpleDecision(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST Limit = 1000; VAR Amount :REAL; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the amount:'); READLN(Amount); IF Amount <= Limit THEN WRITELN('Your charge is accepted.'); {End of the IF statement}

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WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

A READLN statement is used to pause the screen while displaying the message “Press ENTER to continue.” Because this statement is outside the IF statement it will be executed whether the condition is TRUE or FALSE. Here are two sample runs: RUN 1: Please enter the amount:200 Your charge is accepted. Press ENTER to continue..

RUN 2: Please enter the amount:2000 Press ENTER to continue..

You can use two conditional statements to represent the two cases, the TRUE and the FALSE. In the following program another IF statement is added to deal with the other case (the amount is greater than 1,000). The message “The amount exceeds your credit limit” is displayed in this case. { ------------------------------ Example 3-2 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM TwoConditions(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST Limit = 1000; VAR Amount :REAL; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the amount:'); READLN(Amount); IF Amount <= Limit THEN WRITELN('Your charge is accepted.'); IF Amount > Limit THEN WRITELN('The amount exceeds your credit limit.'); WRITELN('Thank you for using Pascal credit card.'); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

The following are two sample runs of the program: RUN 1: Please enter the amount:150 Your charge is accepted. Thank you for using Pascal credit card. Press ENTER to continue..

RUN 2: Please enter the amount:1500 The amount exceeds your credit limit.

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Thank you for using Pascal credit card. Press ENTER to continue..

As before, note that the last two lines are displayed in each case, as they do not belong to the conditional statements.

Using Blocks If you want to use more than one statement as a result of one condition, you can use the BEGIN-END blocks. You can actually use any number of blocks inside the program main body, using BEGIN and END to mark the territories of each block. A block will be treated as one unit, no matter how many statements it includes. Look at the following example: { ------------------------------ Example 3-3 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM UsingBlocks(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST Limit = 1000; VAR Amount :REAL; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the amount:'); READLN(Amount); IF Amount <= Limit THEN BEGIN WRITELN('Your charge is accepted.'); WRITELN('Your price plus tax is $',1.05*Amount:0:2) { The semicolon is optional } END; IF Amount > Limit THEN BEGIN WRITELN('The amount exceeds your credit limit.') ; WRITELN('The maximum limit is $',Limit) { The semicolon is optional } END; WRITELN('Thank you for using Pascal credit card.'); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN { The semicolon is optional } END.

In this example, more than one statement is executed in either case (TRUE or FALSE). For this reason two blocks were used.

aa aa TIP

Notice that in three positions in this program, the statement is not terminated by a semicolon, as the semicolon is optional. The statement in each of these positions is the last one inside a block.

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Here are two sample runs: RUN 1: Please enter the amount:120 Your charge is accepted. Your price plus tax is $126.00 Thank you for using Pascal credit card. Press ENTER to continue..

RUN 2: Please enter the amount:2000 The amount exceeds your credit limit. The maximum limit is $1000 Thank you for using Pascal credit card. Press ENTER to continue..

If you try the program without the blocks, you will find that only the first statement that follows the keyword THEN belongs to the IF statement, but any other statement belongs to the main program and will be executed regardless of the condition.

Drill 3-1 Write a program to accept a character from the keyboard and test this character to see if it is one of the following: 1. A number 2. A lowercase letter 3. An uppercase letter Display a suitable message in each case.

3-3 The IF-THEN-ELSE Construct The form you have used so far for the IF statement is actually a simplified version of the complete construct. The complete IF statement includes the two cases that result from testing the condition. It takes the form: IF condition THEN statement ELSE statement;

Notice here that only one semicolon is used, because the whole construct is treated as one statement. Here is an example: IF AGE < 18 THEN WRITELN('Underage.') ELSE WRITELN('Age is OK.');

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This statement will display the message “Underage” if Age is less than 18. In the other case, the message “Age is OK” is displayed. If you add another statement to either of the two cases, you have to use the BEGIN-END blocks. The new construct will look like this: IF AGE < 18 THEN BEGIN WRITELN('Underage.'); WRITELN('Wait another couple of years.') END { No semicolon is used here } ELSE BEGIN WRITELN('Age is OK.'); WRITELN('You don't have to wait.') END; { A semicolon is mandatory here }

aaaa aaaa CAUTION

At this point the use of semicolons becomes critical and may lead to errors if not done properly. Notice here that the keyword END in the first block is not terminated by a semicolon (as it is not the end of the statement), while in the second block it is terminated by a semicolon, indicating the end of the conditional statement.

Now, back to the Pascal credit card program to enhance it with the complete IF-THEN-ELSE statement. { ------------------------------ Example 3-4 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM CreditCard(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST Limit = 1000; VAR Amount :REAL; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the amount:'); READLN(Amount); { Beginning of the IF construct } { ----------------------------- } IF Amount <= Limit THEN BEGIN WRITELN('Your charge is accepted.'); WRITELN('Your price plus tax is $',1.05*Amount:0:2) END ELSE BEGIN WRITELN('The amount exceeds your credit limit.'); WRITELN('The maximum limit is $',Limit) END; { End of the IF construct } { ----------------------- } WRITELN('Thank you for using Pascal credit card.');

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WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Sample runs of the program give the following results: RUN 1: Please enter the amount:1000 Your charge is accepted. Your price plus tax is $1050.00 Thank you for using Pascal credit card. Press ENTER to continue..

RUN 2: Please enter the amount:1001 The amount exceeds your credit limit. The maximum limit is $1000 Thank you for using Pascal credit card. Press ENTER to continue..

Drill 3-2 Modify the program you wrote in Drill 2-2 to solve a quadratic equation (Ax² + Bx + C) for both real and imaginary roots.

3-4 The ELSE-IF Ladders Although the IF-THEN-ELSE statement is intended for binary choice, it can be extended to handle more complicated choices. Look at this new arrangement of the construct, which is sometimes referred to as the ELSE-IF ladder: IF condition-1 THEN statement-1 ELSE IF condition-2 THEN statement-2 ELSE IF condition-3 THEN statement-3 ... ELSE statement-n;

The conditions in the ladder are evaluated from the top down, and whenever a condition is evaluated as TRUE, the corresponding statement is executed and the rest of the construct is skipped. If no condition has been satisfied, the last ELSE will be brought into action. Notice that the condition ladder is considered one statement ending with a semicolon, but no semicolons are used inside. If you want to use more than one result statement, you have to use the BEGIN-END blocks according to the rules mentioned earlier.

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Example: A Character Tester This program starts by asking you to enter a letter, then tests the input character to see if it is a lowercase or uppercase letter. The program can also recognize numbers and deliver an appropriate message, but otherwise it displays: “Sorry, this is not a letter.” The logic used in the program depends on testing the ASCII code of the input characters using the ORD function. The characters are classified as follows: g

The uppercase letters correspond to the codes from 65 to 90.

g

The lowercase letters correspond to the codes from 97 to 122.

g

The digits correspond to the codes from 48 to 57.

If you already wrote this program as a solution to Drill 3-1, you will find that the ELSE-IF ladder makes things easier. { ------------------------------ Example 3-5 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM CharsTester(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR InputChar :CHAR; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter an alphabetic character:'); READLN(InputChar); { Beginning of the IF construct } { ----------------------------- } IF (ORD(InputChar) > 64) AND (ORD(InputChar) < 91) THEN WRITELN('This is an upper-case letter.') ELSE IF (ORD(InputChar) > 96) AND (ORD(InputChar) < 123) THEN WRITELN('This is a lower-case letter.') ELSE IF (ORD(InputChar) > 47) AND (ORD(InputChar) < 58) THEN WRITELN('Hey, this is a number!') ELSE WRITELN('Sorry, this is not a letter.'); { End of the IF construct } { ----------------------- } WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

The following are four sample runs for four different inputs: RUN 1: Please enter an alphabetic character:a This is a lower-case letter. Press ENTER to continue..

----> Enter a

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RUN 2: Please enter an alphabetic character:B This is an upper-case letter. Press ENTER to continue..

----> Enter B

RUN 3: Please enter an alphabetic character:5 Hey, this is a number! Press ENTER to continue..

----> Enter 5

RUN 4: Please enter an alphabetic character:@ Sorry, this is not a letter. Press ENTER to continue..

----> Enter @

3-5 Nested Conditions The statement to be executed upon testing a condition can be of any kind. As a matter of fact, it can be another IF statement nested in the original IF statement. The IF-THEN-ELSE constructs can be nested inside each other, as in the following form: IF condition-1 THEN IF condition-2 THEN ... IF condition–n THEN statement–n1 ELSE statement–n2 ... ELSE statement–2 ELSE statement–1;

As you can see, this construct can handle any number of nested conditions, but you have to keep track of each IF and the corresponding ELSE. Let us put the construct into action.

Example: Scores and Grades This program receives the score of a student and displays the grade according to the following classification: 1.

Grade “A” corresponds to scores from 90% to 100%.

2.

Grade “B” corresponds to scores from 80% to 89%.

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3.

Grade “C” corresponds to scores from 70% to 79%.

4.

Grade “D” corresponds to scores from 60% to 69%.

5.

Grade “F” corresponds to scores less than 60%.

Here is the program: { ------------------------------ Example 3-6 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM ScoresAndGrades1(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Score :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the score:'); READLN(Score); WRITELN; { Beginning of the IF construct } { ----------------------------- } IF Score > 59 THEN IF Score > 69 THEN IF Score > 79 THEN IF Score > 89 THEN WRITELN('Excellent. Your grade is ''A''') ELSE WRITELN('Very good. Your grade is ''B''') ELSE WRITELN('Good. Your grade is ''C''') ELSE WRITELN('Passed. Your grade is ''D''') ELSE WRITELN('Better luck next time. Your grade is ''F'''); { End of the IF construct } { ----------------------- } WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

The following are sample runs of the program: RUN 1: Please enter the score:92 Excellent. Your grade is 'A' Press ENTER to continue..

RUN 2: Please enter the score:70 Good. Your grade is 'C' Press ENTER to continue..

----> Enter 92 ----> The program response

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RUN 3: Please enter the score:60 Passed. Your grade is 'D' Press ENTER to continue..

RUN 4: Please enter the score:59 Better luck next time. Your grade is 'F' Press ENTER to continue..

As usual, you may cause more than one result statement to be executed upon testing a condition by embedding the statements into a block. You can use any one of the available variations of the IF-THEN-ELSE construct in your applications. However, some forms are more reliable with one application than another. Look at this program, which processes the same problem of the “scores and grades” but uses the ELSE-IF ladder. Notice how the program is made easier and more comprehensible to the reader by using the Boolean variables A, B, C, D, and F. Note also that illegal numbers are filtered out by the last ELSE. { ------------------------------ Example 3-7 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM ScoresAndGrades2(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Score :INTEGER; A, B, C, D, F :BOOLEAN; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the score:'); READLN(Score); A := (Score >= 90) AND (Score <= 100); B := (Score >= 80) AND (Score < 90); C := (Score >= 70) AND (Score < 80); D := (Score >= 60) AND (Score < 70); F := (Score < 60) AND (Score >= 0); WRITELN; { Beginning of the IF construct } { ----------------------------- } IF A THEN WRITELN('Excellent. Your grade is ''A''') ELSE IF B THEN WRITELN('Very good. Your grade is ''B''') ELSE IF C THEN WRITELN('Good. Your grade is ''C''') ELSE IF D THEN WRITELN('Passed. Your grade is ''D''') ELSE IF F THEN WRITELN('Better luck next time. Your grade is ''F''') ELSE WRITELN('This number is out of range.'); { End of the IF construct }

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{ ----------------------- } WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Tips on the IF-ELSE Puzzles Nesting the IF constructs inside each other may become confusing (to the programmer), as one may not be able to tell which ELSE belongs to which IF. Look at this simple example: IF X >= 1 THEN IF y >= 18 THEN WRITELN('statement#1.') ELSE WRITELN('statement#2');

The rule is that each ELSE belongs to the last IF in the same block. This means that, in this example, the ELSE belongs to the second IF. Arranging the text with the proper indentation, according to this rule, makes it clearer: IF X >= 1 THEN IF y >= 18 THEN WRITELN('statement#1.') ELSE WRITELN('statement#2');

If, however, you want to associate ELSE with the first IF, you can use blocks as follows: IF X >= 1 THEN BEGIN IF Y >= 18 THEN WRITELN('statement#1.') END ELSE WRITELN('statement#2');

Drill 3-3 Write a program to describe the weather according to the following temperature classifications: Temperature Classification 75 and greater Hot 50 to 74 Cool 35 to 49 Cold less than 35 Freezing

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3-6 The Multiple Choice: CASE The CASE construct is used to deal with multiple alternatives, such as the user menu options. It takes the general form: CASE expression OF label-1 : statement-1; label-2 : statement-2; ... label-n : statement-n; END

The case expression, also called the selector, can be of INTEGER, CHAR, or BOOLEAN type (or any ordinal type, which will be explained in Chapter 5). According to the value of this expression the control of the program is transferred to one of the case labels and the corresponding statement is executed. The labels actually represent the different possible values of the expression. Take a look at the following example.

Example: A Vending Machine The coins in the vending machine are sorted according to the weight of each coin, which is assumed to be 35 grams for a quarter, 7 for a dime, and 15 for a nickel. This logic can be programmed as follows: CASE CoinWeight OF 35 : Amount := Quarter; 7 : Amount := Dime; 15 : Amount := Nickel; END;

The numbers 35, 7, and 15 represent CoinWeight and are used as labels. Therefore, when CoinWeight equals 7, for example, the statement: Amount := Dime;

is executed. Needless to say, Dime is a named constant whose value is 10, and Nickel and Quarter are named constants as well. Look at the complete program: { ------------------------------ Example 3-8 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM CaseOfWeights(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST Quarter = 25; Dime = 10; Nickel = 5; VAR CoinWeight, Amount :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the weight:'); READLN(CoinWeight);

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CASE CoinWeight OF 35 : Amount := Quarter; 7 : Amount := Dime; 15 : Amount := Nickel; END; WRITELN('The amount is ', Amount, ' cents.'); READLN END.

This is a sample run of the program: Please enter the weight:35 The amount is 25 cents.

----> Enter 35 ----> The program response

You can use more than one label for the same result statement, which will save a lot of writing as compared to the IF in the same situation. See the following example.

Example: Number of Days in a Month Consider, for instance, that you want to program a code that reads the number of the month and tells the number of days in that month. The CASE construct will look something like the following: CASE Month OF 1,3,5,7,8,10,12 4,6,9,11 2 END;

: Days := 31; : Days := 30; : Days := 28;

As you can see, the CASE construct here contains three cases, two of them with more than one label. All months that have 31 days belong to the first case, those that have 30 days belong to the second case, and February is a special case by itself. We assume here that February has 28 days for simplicity, but you can extend the logic to determine if the year is a leap year and assign February a value of 29 or 28 accordingly. You may use a block of statements for one case like this: CASE Month OF 1,3,5,7,8,10,12 : Days := 31; 4,6,9,11 : Days := 30; 2 : BEGIN WRITE('Enter the year:'); READLN(Year); IF YEAR MOD 4 = 0 THEN Days :=29 ELSE Days :=28 END;

Here the case label 2 leads to a block of statements. So, if you enter 2 as the number of the month, the program will ask you to enter the year. The year will be tested and

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you will get 29 if the year is a leap year and 28 otherwise. Here is the complete program: { ------------------------------ Example 3-9 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM DaysOfMonth1(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Days, Month, Year :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the number of the month:'); READLN(Month); CASE Month OF 1,3,5,7,8,10,12 : Days := 31; 4,6,9,11 : Days := 30; 2 : BEGIN WRITE('Enter the year:'); READLN(Year); IF YEAR MOD 4 = 0 THEN Days :=29 ELSE Days :=28 END; END; WRITELN('There are ',Days,' days in this month.'); READLN END.

The following are sample runs of the program: RUN 1: Please enter the number of the month:2 Enter the year:1987 There are 28 days in this month.

RUN 2: Please enter the number of the month:2 Enter the year:1984 There are 29 days in this month.

RUN 3: Please enter the number of the month:12 There are 31 days in this month.

aa aa NOTE

Notice that the leap year test in this program is a simplified logic, useful for the years within the century, for example, 1901 to 1999. The complete logic of the leap year definition is: n The year is divisible by 4 AND not divisible by 100 OR n The year is divisible by 400. For more details, see Exercise 3 at the end of the chapter.

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In cases like this, using the CASE construct is more efficient than using nested IF-THEN-ELSE constructs or ladders. However, you must have realized that you will sometimes need them both (as in the February case).

Drill 3-4 Write a program that reads the date from the keyboard in the form “mm dd yy” and displays the date as in the following examples: January 2nd, 1992 October 23rd, 1990 March 5th, 1985

3-7 Unconditional Branching: GOTO The GOTO statement is used to transfer control of the program from one point to another. It is classified as unconditional branching. Although the GOTO statement is very easy to use, you rarely see it in Pascal programs because it destroys the structure of the program. In some cases, however, it may be useful in escaping from many levels of nesting in one jump. The syntax of the GOTO statement is as follows: GOTO label;

The label is a positive integer of up to four digits preceding the required statement (in Turbo Pascal the label can be any valid identifier and may begin with a digit). GOTO 1000; ... 1000: WRITELN('I am a labeled statement.'); ...

When the GOTO is encountered, the program control is transferred to the labeled statement. The label must be declared in the label section of the declaration part of the program. The label section starts with the keyword LABEL and comes as the first section in the declaration part in standard Pascal (in Turbo Pascal there is no such obligation). Look at this example: PROGRAM GoToDemo(INPUT,OUTPUT); LABEL 1000; VAR InputChar :CHAR; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter a letter (or 0 to quit):'); READLN(InputChar); IF InputChar = '0' THEN GOTO 1000;

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{ Other statements may go here... } 1000: END.

In this example, the value of the input character is tested to see if it is zero, in which case control is transferred to the part following the label “1000,” which is the end of the program. If you are using Turbo Pascal, you can use meaningful labels such as “Wrapup” or “Start” instead of the numbers.

Repetition Loops You can use the GOTO statement to build a closed loop. For example, if you want to repeat the execution of the “character tester” program you may use the following logic, where the control is always transferred to the label “1000” at the beginning of the program. A condition is used to end the loop (and the program) by examining the input value. If a zero is entered, the control is transferred to the label “2000,” ending the program. If you remove this condition from the program, it will be repeated infinitely. The only way to exit the program in this case is to use the control keys Ctrl+Break. This kind of loop is called an infinite loop. { ------------------------------ Example 3-10 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM CharsTester2(INPUT,OUTPUT); LABEL 1000, 2000; { label declaration } VAR InputChar :CHAR; BEGIN 1000: WRITE('Please enter a letter (or 0 to quit): '); READLN(InputChar); { Beginning of the IF construct } { ----------------------------- } IF InputChar = '0' THEN { a condition to exit } GOTO 2000 ELSE IF (ORD(InputChar) > 64) AND (ORD(InputChar) < 91) THEN WRITELN('This is an upper-case letter.') ELSE IF (ORD(InputChar) > 96) AND (ORD(InputChar) < 123) THEN WRITELN('This is a lower-case letter.') ELSE IF (ORD(InputChar) > 47) AND (ORD(InputChar) < 58) THEN WRITELN('Hey, this is a number!') ELSE WRITELN('Sorry, this is not a letter.'); { End of the IF construct } { ----------------------- } GOTO 1000; { restart the program } 2000: { exit the program } END.

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The following is a sample run of the program: Please enter a letter (or 0 to quit):W This is an upper-case letter.

----> Enter W

Please enter a letter (or 0 to quit):e This is a lower-case letter.

----> Enter e

Please enter a letter (or 0 to quit):0

----> Enter 0

This method, as you can see, is not the best method with which to build loops or control program execution, as it consists of jumps from one point to another. In the next chapter you are introduced to Pascal structured loops.

3-8 Turbo Pascal Features: EXIT, CASE-ELSE If you entered an illegal value in Example 3-9, such as the number 13 (as the month number), you simply get the message: There are 0 days in this month.

In order to handle the invalid data you have to use a suitable IF statement. In Turbo Pascal you can add an ELSE part to the control structure CASE in order to handle data that do not belong to any of the case labels. The CASE structure will then take the form: CASE expression OF label-1 : statement-1; label-2 : statement-2; ... label-n : statement-n; ELSE statement END

Another feature of Turbo Pascal is the EXIT statement, which ends the execution of the program at any point. The EXIT statement is classified as an unconditional branching statement. In the following program these two features are illustrated. If you enter any number other than the numbers from 1 to 12, the ELSE part and the EXIT statement will end the program. { ------------------------------ Example 3-11 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM DaysOfMonth2(INPUT,OUTPUT); LABEL Start; VAR Days, Month, Year :INTEGER; BEGIN Start: WRITE('Please enter the number of the month: '); READLN(Month);

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CASE Month OF 1,3,5,7,8,10,12 : Days := 31; 4,6,9,11 : Days := 30; 2 : BEGIN WRITE('Enter the year:'); READLN(Year); IF YEAR MOD 4 = 0 THEN Days :=29 ELSE Days :=28 END; ELSE EXIT { all other cases } END; WRITELN('There are ',Days,' days in this month.'); GOTO Start END.

This is a sample run: Please enter There are 31 Please enter There are 30

the number of the month:1 days in this month. the number of the month:4 days in this month.

Please enter the number of the month:13

----> Exit the program

Summary In this chapter you learned the branching control structures that help you to handle decisions in your program. 1. You are now familiar with the simple IF-THEN statement used with simple decisions. It takes the form: IF condition THEN statement;

2. You also know the complete IF-THEN-ELSE construct that contains the result and the alternative result: IF condition THEN statement ELSE statement;

3. You know how to handle complicated conditions using the ELSE-IF ladder in the form: IF condition-1 THEN statement-1 ELSE IF condition-2 THEN statement-2

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ELSE IF condition-3 THEN statement-3 ... ELSE statement-n;

4. An alternative to the ladder is nesting the IF-THEN-ELSE constructs inside each other in the form: IF condition-1 THEN IF condition-2 THEN ... IF condition-n THEN statement-n1 ELSE statement-n2 ... ELSE statement-2 ELSE statement-1;

5. You learned how to use the multiple choice construct CASE, which is ready to handle many cases in the form: CASE expression OF label-1 : statement-1; label-2 : statement-2; ... label-n : statement-n; END

6. In Turbo Pascal the CASE construct has more features, as it may contain the ELSE part which handles all the other cases that do not correspond to a label. It takes the form: CASE expression OF label-1 : statement-1; label-2 : statement-2; ... label-n : statement-n; ELSE statement END

You also understand that in any of the above formulas you can replace one statement with a block of statements using the BEGIN-END blocks.

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7. You were introduced as well to the unconditional branching statement GOTO, which transfers the program control to a labeled statement. It takes the form: GOTO label;

The label in standard Pascal is a positive integer of up to four digits, while in Turbo Pascal it can be a valid identifier or may begin with a number. You also know how to declare a label at the beginning of the declaration part of the program. In Turbo Pascal the LABEL section does not need to be the first section. 8. Finally, you met the Turbo Pascal statement EXIT, which terminates the program at any point. In the next chapter, you continue the discussion on control structures and learn how to build structured loops.

Exercises 1. What is the output for each of the following WRITELN statements? a. WRITELN(5 > 4); b. WRITELN((5 < 4) OR (4 > 1)); c. WRITELN(TRUE OR FALSE); d. WRITELN(TRUE AND FALSE); e. WRITELN(TRUE OR FALSE AND TRUE); f. WRITELN(TRUE OR FALSE AND NOT FALSE); 2. Write a Pascal program to read three distinct numbers and print the value of the largest one. 3. In Examples 3-9 and 3-11, the leap year test is a simplified version of the actual logic. It is only useful for the years within the century. The complete logic of the leap year definition is: n The year is divisible by 4 AND not divisible by 100 OR n The year is divisible by 400. Use this logic to modify Example 3-9. You can make use of the following Boolean variables: R4 R100 R400

:= Year MOD 4 = 0; := Year MOD 100 = 0; := Year MOD 400 = 0;

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Answers 1.

a. True

b. True

c. True

d. False

e. True

f. True

2. The following is the program to compare three numbers A, B, and C: VAR A, B, C, MaximumNumber BEGIN READ (A, B, C); IF A > B THEN MaximumNumber ELSE MaximumNumber IF MaximumNumber < MaximumNumber

:INTEGER;

:= A := B; C THEN := C;

WRITELN('Maximum Number=',MaximumNumber); END.

3. The following is the CASE statement for the new version of the leap year program: CASE Month OF 1,3,5,7,8,10,12 : Days := 31; 4,6,9,11 : Days := 30; 2 : BEGIN WRITE('Enter the year:'); READLN(Year); R4 := Year MOD 4 = 0; R400 := Year MOD 400 = 0; R100 := Year MOD 100 = 0; Leap := (NOT R100 AND R4) OR (R400); IF (Leap) THEN Days := 29 ELSE Days := 28; END END;

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Chapter 4aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Loops 4-1 Looping You learned in the previous chapter how to build a repetition loop using the following tools: g

A branching statement such as GOTO to transfer the control of the program to the starting point repeatedly

g

A condition to terminate the loop as desired

The condition may be used to test the input value and to terminate the loop when a specific value is received. You may also wish to repeat the process in the loop a specific number of times, in which case you need a counter. The condition in this case is used to test the counter with each round of the loop. This type of loop is called a counted loop. In the following program these elementary tools are used to display the message “Sorry, say again..” five times. The algorithm used in the program is as follows: 1. Initialize the counter to zero. 2. Increment the counter by 1. 3. Test the counter to see if it is less than or equal to 5. 4. Display the statement. 5. Go to step 2. { ------------------------------ Example 4-1 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM GoToLoop(OUTPUT); LABEL 1000; { label declaration } VAR Kounter :INTEGER; BEGIN Kounter := 0; 1000:

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Kounter := Kounter + 1; IF Kounter <= 5 THEN BEGIN WRITELN('Sorry, say again..'); GOTO 1000 { restart } END; WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

In this program the counter is initialized to the value zero before entering the loop, which begins at the label 1000. Inside the loop, the counter is incremented, then tested to see if its value is less than or equal to 5. If so, the WRITELN statement is executed and the loop is repeated using the GOTO statement. If the condition fails (i.e., the counter exceeds 5), the program ends. The output of the program looks like this: Sorry, say again.. Sorry, say again.. Sorry, say again.. Sorry, say again.. Sorry, say again.. Press ENTER to continue..

Pascal provides you with ready-made control structures for looping, so you can avoid such messy code. A control structure contains both the branching statement and the condition in one construct. In this chapter you are introduced to the following constructs: g

The FOR loop

g

The WHILE loop

g

The REPEAT loop

Each of the three loops has different features that suit different applications.

4-2 The FOR Loop The FOR loop construct is a counted loop used to repeat a statement or a block of statements a specified number of times. It includes the initialization of the counter, the condition, and the increment. Look at this example: { ------------------------------ Example 4-2 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM ForLoop(OUTPUT); VAR Kounter :INTEGER;

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BEGIN FOR Kounter := 1 TO 5 DO WRITELN('Sorry, say again..'); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

This program gives the same results as the previous program does, but is simpler and better organized. The FOR loop does the same work done in the previous program. It assigns the control variable (Kounter) the initial value of 1, then executes the statement, increments the control variable by one, and repeats the process until the value of Kounter reaches the final value of 5. The general form of the FOR construct is as follows: FOR control-variable := expression-1 TO expression-2 DO statement;

where control-variable is the loop counter, expression-1 is the initial value, and expression-2 is the final value. The control-variable, expression-1, and expression-2 can be of any type except REAL. All three must be of the same type.

aa aa TIP

Remember that the FOR construct is one statement ending with a semicolon. If by mistake you add another semicolon, as in the following loop: FOR Kounter := 1 TO 1000 DO; WRITELN('Sorry, say again..');

do not be surprised if the loop is executed only once, regardless of the final value of the counter. The semicolon after the DO keyword ends the loop at this point.

The value of the control variable may not be modified inside the loop. Look at this assignment statement inside the loop: FOR K := 1 TO 10 DO K := 2 ...

Even if the compiler accepts this statement, it will repeal the effect of the loop counter as it sets it to the value 2 all the time. The same rule applies for the initial value and the final value of the control variable. As usual, you can include as many statements as you want inside the loop by using the BEGIN-END blocks.

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Example: Powers of Two The number 2 and its powers are very important numbers in the computer field. Some of the numbers, such as 1024 bytes (equivalent to 1 KB) and 65,536 bytes (64 KB) are commonly used. In the following program a FOR loop is used to display the powers of two, using the same logic that was used to calculate the power in Example 2-2. The program output gives the power and the number 2 raised to this power. The initial and final values of the counter are supplied by the user during the execution. Thus, you can determine the range of numbers you would like to examine. { ------------------------------ Example 4-3 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM ForLoop(INPUT, OUTPUT); VAR Base, Power, Start, Final :INTEGER; BEGIN Base := 2; WRITE('Enter starting exponent:'); READLN(Start); WRITE('Enter ending exponent:'); READLN(Final); WRITELN; WRITELN('Number Power of two'); FOR Power := Start TO Final DO BEGIN WRITE(Power:3); WRITELN(EXP(LN(Base)*Power):20:0) END; WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

The following is a sample run using exponent values from 1 to 20: Enter starting exponent:1 Enter ending exponent:20 Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Power of two 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 4096

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13 8192 14 16384 15 32768 16 65536 17 131072 18 262144 19 524288 20 1048576 Press ENTER to continue..

Drill 4-1 Write a program to test the leap years in the range from 1990 to 2000. Display on the screen each year and the test result as in the following output: The The The The The The The The The The The

year year year year year year year year year year year

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

is is is is is is is is is is is

not a leap year. not a leap year. a leap year. not a leap year. not a leap year. not a leap year. a leap year. not a leap year. not a leap year. not a leap year. a leap year.

Example: The Average The following program demonstrates data entry using a loop. It receives a series of numbers from the keyboard and calculates the sum and the average of the numbers. At the beginning of the program you are asked to enter the number of the elements N, which is used as the final value of the counter. Inside the loop the sum is accumulated in the variable Sum using the statement: Sum := Sum + Number;

When the loop exits, the average is calculated from the sum and the number of elements, using the statement: Average := Sum / N;

Here is the program. { ------------------------------ Example 4-4 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM AverageProg1(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Average, Sum, Number :REAL; N, Kounter :INTEGER; BEGIN Sum := 0;

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WRITE('Enter Number of Elements:'); READLN(N); FOR kounter := 1 TO N DO BEGIN WRITE('Enter Element #',kounter,': '); READLN(Number); Sum := Sum + Number { The semicolon is optional } END; Average := Sum / N; WRITELN; WRITELN('Sum of Numbers = ', Sum:0:2); WRITELN('Average of Numbers = ', Average:0:2); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

A sample run of the program gives the following: Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter

Number of Elements: 5 Element #1: 1 Element #2: 2 Element #3: 3 Element #4: 4 Element #5: 5

Sum of Numbers = 15.00 Average of Numbers = 3.00 Press ENTER to continue..

Notice how the element numbers were displayed inside the loop using the values of the control variable Kounter.

4-3 Stepping Up and Stepping Down In the previous examples, the FOR loop counter was always incremented. This means that the final value of the counter must be greater than the initial value, or else the loop will never be executed. You can decrement the counter using an alternative form of the FOR loop, by replacing the keyword TO with the keyword DOWNTO as in the following form: FOR control-variable := expression-1 DOWNTO expression-2 DO statement;

With this formula you can start the counter with the larger value and step down until the final value is reached.

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Example: The Factorial The factorial of a positive integer N is defined as: N! = N * (N-1) * (N-2) ... * 3 * 2 * 1

Thus, the factorial of 4 is 4 * 3 * 2 * 1, and the factorial of 3 is 3 * 2 * 1. You can then express the following relationships for the factorial: 4! 3! 2! 1!

= = = =

4 * 3! 3 * 2! 2 * 1! 1

In general, you can write the following Pascal statement to calculate the factorial using a counter: Factorial := Factorial * Kounter;

The variable Kounter can be incremented from 1 to N or decremented from N to 1. The following program uses this logic in a loop with a decremented step. { ----------------------------- Example 4-5 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM FactorialProg1(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Factorial :REAL; Kounter, Number :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Give me a number, and I will tell you the factorial: '); READLN(Number); Factorial := 1; FOR kounter := Number DOWNTO 1 DO Factorial := Factorial * Kounter; WRITELN('The factorial of ', Number,' is ', Factorial:0:0); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Notice that the variable Factorial must be initialized to the value 1 before starting the iterative process. A sample run of the program gives the following: Give me a number, and I will tell you the factorial: 8 The factorial of 8 is 40320

aa aa

Press ENTER to continue..

TIP

Although the factorial of a number is always an integer, using the type REAL (or the Turbo Pascal type LONGINT) for the variable Factorial gives you a large storage size with which to receive the quickly increasing results of factorial calculations. If you use the INTEGER type, the program will start giving you funny results after 7!.

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Drill 4-2 Modify the previous program to test the input value of the number. If the value is zero, the program should exit without going through the loop. You may use a GOTO statement or the Turbo Pascal function EXIT.

4-4 Nested Loops Like any other statement, the FOR loop statement can be used inside another loop. In this case it is said that the inner loop is nested inside the outer loop. You can nest as many loops as you wish inside one another, according to your application. The next program displays on your screen the following array of numbers: 1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

4 4 4

5 5 5

The array consists of three rows and five columns. You can control the number of rows and columns by using the counters of two nested loops. As you can see, for each round of the outer loop counter (Row), the inner loop counter (Column) loops five times. The values that appear in the output are the values of the counter Column. Notice that a blank line is displayed after a complete row is done, using the outer loop counter. {------------------------------- Example 4-6 -------------------------------} PROGRAM NestedLoops(OUTPUT); VAR Row, Column :INTEGER; BEGIN FOR Row := 1 TO 3 DO { Start of the outer loop } BEGIN FOR Column := 1 to 5 DO { Start of the inner loop } WRITE(Column, ' '); { End of the inner loop } WRITELN { This statement belongs to the outer loop } END { The end of the outer loop } END.

aa aa TIP

Notice the two END keywords in the previous program. The first one comes without a semicolon because it is the last statement in the main block (the program main body). Also, the keyword WRITELN, which comes before this END, was not terminated by a semicolon. This is because it is the last statement in the loop block. All of these are options, but you may use the semicolons if you wish. If you add another statement at the end of the program (to suspend the screen, for instance), the situation will change.

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Drill 4-3 Modify the last program to draw 50 stars in five rows as shown below: * * * * *

* * * * *

* * * * *

* * * * *

* * * * *

* * * * *

* * * * *

* * * * *

* * * * *

* * * * *

4-5 The WHILE Loop The WHILE loop construct contains the necessary condition to terminate the loop, but unlike the FOR loop, no counter is included. It takes the general form: WHILE condition DO statement;

This form simply says: “Execute the following statement as long as the condition is TRUE.” When the loop is entered, the condition (a Boolean expression) is evaluated. If it is TRUE, the statement that follows the keyword DO is executed. The loop will be repeated, and the statement will be re-executed until the condition becomes FALSE. In your program, you must include the necessary logic to make the condition FALSE at the right time. You may use a counter with this loop, but you need to increment or decrement the counter yourself. The following program demonstrates the same algorithm of calculating the average of a set of numbers entered from the keyboard but uses the WHILE loop. The condition is here used to test the value of a counter Kounter against the maximum number of elements N. When this maximum is reached, the loop exits. { ------------------------------ Example 4-7 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM AverageProg2(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Average, Sum, Number :REAL; Kounter, N :INTEGER; BEGIN Sum := 0; Kounter := 1; WRITE('Enter Number of Elements:'); READLN(N); WHILE Kounter <= N DO

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BEGIN WRITE('Enter Element #',Kounter,': '); READLN(Number); Sum := Sum + Number; Kounter := Kounter + 1 END; Average := Sum / N; WRITELN; WRITELN('Sum of Numbers = ', Sum:0:2); WRITELN('Average of Numbers = ', Average:0:2); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Notice that the counter is initialized at the beginning of the program and incremented inside the loop. The initial value is used for the first round in the loop (Kounter := 1) because the incrementing takes place after the process. This is one way to do it, but other arrangements are used in the next few programs. Notice also that when you want to include more than one statement in the WHILE loop, you must use the BEGIN-END blocks. The following is a sample run of the program: Enter Enter Enter Enter

Number of Elements: 3 Element #1: 1 Element #2: 2 Element #3: 3

Sum of Numbers = 6.00 Average of Numbers = 2.00 Press ENTER to continue..

If you do not want to enter the number of elements beforehand, you can count them inside the loop. In this case you need a clue to end the loop, like entering a negative number. Look at this modified version of the program, where the input number is tested with every round to see if it is –1. { ------------------------------ Example 4-8 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM AverageProg3(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Average, Sum, Number :REAL; Kounter :INTEGER; BEGIN Sum := 0; Average := 0;

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Number := 0; Kounter := 0; WHILE Number<>-1 DO BEGIN Kounter := Kounter + 1; Sum := Sum + Number; WRITE('Enter element #',Kounter,' (or –1 to end): '); READLN(Number) END; IF Kounter > 1 THEN Average := Sum / (Kounter - 1); WRITELN; WRITELN('Sum of Numbers = ', Sum:0:2); WRITELN('Average of Numbers = ', Average:0:2); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

The following is a sample run: Enter Enter Enter Enter

element element element element

#1 #2 #3 #4

(or (or (or (or

-1 -1 -1 -1

to to to to

end): end): end): end):

1 2 3 -1

Sum of Numbers = 6.00 Average of Numbers = 2.00 Press ENTER to continue..

Notice the following points in this program: g

The input statement comes at the end of the loop block so that the input value can be tested before any processing.

g

Average is calculated by dividing the sum by the value of the counter decremented by one. This is to counteract the extra round which took place when Number was –1.

g

Average is calculated only if the variable Kounter is not equal to 1. This is to avoid the “divide by zero” error, in case you want to exit the program without entering any data. In such a case you would get the following response:

Enter element #1 (or -1 to end): -1 Sum of Numbers = 0.00 Average of Numbers = 0.00 Press ENTER to continue..

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Drill 4-4 Use the WHILE loop construct to write a program to display a multiplication table as in the following example: 1*X=Y 2*X=Y 3*X=Y 4*X=Y 5*X=Y 6*X=Y 7*X=Y 8*X=Y 9*X=Y ... The value of X is received from the keyboard and the value Y is the multiplication result.

4-6 The REPEAT Loop This loop is used to execute a group of statements until a specified condition is met. It takes the form: REPEAT statement-1; statement-2; ... statement-n; UNTIL condition;

As you can see in the form, this loop is ready to execute more than one statement without using the BEGIN-END blocks. Another difference between the WHILE loop and the REPEAT loop is that the REPEAT loop is executed at least once, regardless of the condition, because it starts each round by executing the statements and ends by testing the condition. In some applications this feature is necessary. Look at the factorial algorithm using a REPEAT loop: ... Factorial := 1; Kounter := Number; REPEAT Factorial := Factorial * Kounter; Kounter := Kounter - 1; UNTIL Kounter = 0;

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When Kounter reaches zero (which means that the value 1 was already used up), no other rounds are needed, and the loop is terminated. You may also use the stepping-up algorithm, thus: ... Factorial := 1; Kounter := 1; REPEAT Factorial := Factorial * Kounter; Kounter := Kounter + 1; UNTIL Kounter = Number + 1;

In this case the loop is terminated when the value of Kounter reaches Number+1, which means that the value Number was already used up. In the following program this REPEAT loop is nested in a WHILE loop. The program will be repeatedly executed until you enter 0 to terminate it. { ------------------------------- Example 4-9 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM FactorialProg2(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Factorial :REAL; Kounter, Number :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Give me a number (or 0 to exit): '); READLN(Number); WHILE Number<>0 DO { Start of the WHILE loop } BEGIN Factorial := 1; Kounter := 1; REPEAT { Start of the REPEAT loop } Factorial := Factorial * Kounter; Kounter := Kounter + 1; UNTIL Kounter = Number + 1; { End of the REPEAT loop } WRITELN('The factorial of ', Number,' is ', Factorial:0:0); WRITE('Give me a number (or 0 to exit): '); READLN(Number) END; { End of the WHILE loop } WRITELN('I am out of here!') END.

Notice here that two similar input statements are used, one before the WHILE loop and one inside it. The first one is used to initialize the variable Kounter before entering the loop, in order to be ready for testing within the loop. A sample run of the program gives the following: Give me a number (or 0 to exit): 3 The factorial of 3 is 6

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Give me a number (or 0 to exit): 5 The factorial of 5 is 120 Give me a number (or 0 to exit): 0 I am out of here!

Drill 4-5 Rewrite the previous program using an inner FOR loop and an outer WHILE loop.

Summary In this chapter you were introduced to three control structures used to build loops. These structures are: g

The FOR loop

g

The WHILE loop

g

The REPEAT loop

1. The FOR loop is used to repeat a statement or a block of statements a specified number of times. The loop takes the general form: FOR control-variable := expression-1 TO expression-2 DO statement;

where control-variable is the loop counter, expression-1 is the initial value, and expression-2 is the final value. 2. An alternate form of the FOR loop is used to decrement the counter: FOR control-variable := expression-1 DOWNTO expression-2 DO statement;

3. The WHILE loop is used to execute a statement or a block of statements as long as a specified condition is TRUE. The construct takes the general form: WHILE condition DO statement;

4. With both the FOR and the WHILE loops you can use multiple statements by including them in a BEGIN-END block. 5. The REPEAT loop is used to execute a group of statements until the specified condition fails. It takes the general form: REPEAT statement-1; statement-2;

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... statement-n; UNTIL condition;

6. You understand now that the main difference between the REPEAT loop and the other two is that the statements inside the REPEAT loop are executed at least once regardless of the condition. 7. You also understand that the REPEAT loop can handle many statements without using BEGIN-END blocks. 8. Finally, you learned in this chapter that loop constructs may be nested inside other constructs (including other loops).

Exercises 1. Determine whether each of the following statements is true or false: a. The body of the WHILE loop is executed at least once. b. The body of the REPEAT loop is executed at least once. c. The body of the REPEAT loop, when it contains more than one statement, doesn’t have to be included between BEGIN and END. d. The body of the WHILE loop, when it contains more than one statement, doesn’t have to be included between BEGIN and END. 2. Write a program to print odd (or even) numbers between 1 and 20. 3. Write a program to read 100 integers from the keyboard and terminate if the input number is zero or after the 100th integer has been read, whichever comes first. 4. Write a program to calculate the population of a city at the end of each year from 1990 to 2000. Use the following assumptions: a. Initial population at the end of 1989 = 5 million b. Yearly death ratio = 3% c. Yearly birth ratio = 7% The program should display an output like this: Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Population 5349999.97 5724499.94 6125214.90 6553979.92 7012758.48 7503651.54 8028907.12 8590930.59 9192295.70 9835756.37 10524259.29

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Answers 1. a. False

b. True

c. True

d. False

2. The following code segment represents the algorithm to print odd numbers between 1 and 20: FOR I := 1 TO 20 DO IF (I MOD 2)<>0 THEN WRITELN(I);

To print the even numbers, replace the <>operator with =. 3. The following code segment represents the main algorithm of the program. Add the declarations and variable initialization. WHILE (K < 100) AND (DONE = FALSE) DO BEGIN READLN(n); K := K+1; IF N = 0 THEN DONE := TRUE END;

4. The following is the main algorithm for calculating the population. Add variable declarations and initialization. P := 5000000.0 ; FOR I := 1990 TO 2000 DO BEGIN B:= 0.07 * P; D:= 0.03; P:= P + B - D; WRITELN(I:10, P:20:2); END

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Chapter 5aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Data Architecture 5-1 Ordinal Data Types The data types explained so far are all predefined in the language and are called simple data types, as opposed to structured data types. Each datum of a simple data type is one single element, while in structured types (such as arrays) a datum may contain a collection of items. Simple types fall into two main categories: g

The ordinal type

g

The real type

The ordinal types include the INTEGER, CHAR, and BOOLEAN types. An ordinal type is distinguished by data values that form a series of discrete elements such that every element has a discrete predecessor (except the first element) and successor (except the last element). Integers are like that, as they form a set of distinct numbers ranging from –(MAXINT+1) to +MAXINT. The element 4, for example, is preceded by 3 and followed by 5. The type CHAR includes a set of characters ordered sequentially according to their ordinal numbers. The type BOOLEAN contains the set [TRUE, FALSE.] The value FALSE has the ordinal number 0 while TRUE has the ordinal number 1. Real numbers, on the other hand, are not discrete. For example, between the numbers 0 and 1 there exists an infinite number of fractions. Between any two real numbers, then, there is another real number.

Enumerations It is sometimes useful in a program to define days of the week as integers in order to make the program code more readable. In this case, you need to either assign each day a number or declare each a named constant as in:

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CONST Monday = 0; Tuesday = 1; Wednesday = 2; Thursday = 3; Friday = 4; Saturday = 5; Sunday = 6;

After these declarations you can refer to any of these days by its name: IF Today = Sunday THEN WRITELN('Sorry, we are closed on Sundays..');

In this statement an integer variable Today is tested to check if it is Sunday; in other words, if it contains the value 6. Using such declarations will take a lot of programming effort, though, especially when you have a large number of constants (such as the names of the months). The enumerated type gives you a shortcut to doing the same thing. Look at the following declaration: VAR Day :(Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday);

In this declaration, the identifiers representing the days of the week are listed in an ordered series and separated by commas. Thus, Monday is internally coded as 0 and Sunday is coded as 6. Other days are represented by numbers between 0 and 6 according to their sequence in the enumeration. It is, however, illegal to read or write these values directly as you do with simple types (using WRITELN and READLN statements). With enumerations you may use any of the following operations: g

You may assign any one of the enumeration elements to the variable Day like this: Day := Friday;

but it is illegal to assign an explicit number to the variable Day, such as Day := 1. This feature assures that the enumeration will only be assigned valid data. g

You can obtain and use the values associated with the enumeration elements using the ORD function. For example: WRITELN(ORD(Monday)); WRITELN(ORD(Tuesday));

g

gives the value 0 gives the value 1

You may also use the functions PRED and SUCC to obtain the predecessor and the successor of a specified element: WRITELN(PRED(Friday)); WRITELN(SUCC(Monday));

gives the value 3 gives the value 1

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You can compare values of the enumerated type using the Boolean operators (simple or compound), like this: IF (Day = Saturday) OR (Day = Sunday) THEN WRITELN('This is a weekend day.');

Again, you cannot use the explicit values in comparisons such as IF Day = 2. This results in an error. In the following program a FOR loop uses the enumeration Month to display the corresponding integer values from 0 to 11. { ------------------------------ Example 5-1 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Enumeration1(OUTPUT); VAR Month :(Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec); BEGIN WRITELN; FOR Month := Jan TO Dec DO WRITE(ORD(Month),' ') END.

The output of this program is: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

As you can see in the output, the values that correspond to the 12 months range from 0 to 11. If you would like to see the values range from 1 to 12 as the months in the calendar do, you can use the expression ORD(month)+1 instead of the expression ORD(month). The enumerated type is an ordinal data type and is classified as a user-defined type.

Subranges The subrange, another user-defined ordinal type, helps to eliminate out-of-range data. For example, instead of using the INTEGER type to represent the month numbers, you can declare the variable Month as a subrange like this: VAR Month : 1..12;

As such, any value outside the range 1 to 12 will be considered an error either in compilation or at run time. In other words, you cannot, after this declaration, write a statement like this in your program: Month := 13;

---> illegal statement

Also, if a user responds to an input statement by entering an out-of-range number, the program will issue the proper error message, though with some compilers you have to set a switch to make the compiler detect out-of-range errors.

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The type used to represent month values in this example is INTEGER. It is called the base type of the subrange. You may use any ordinal type as the base type. For example, you can declare the uppercase letters as a subrange using the base type CHAR as follows: VAR Uppercase : 'A'..'Z'

In this case, only the uppercase letters will be permitted as data for the subrange Uppercase. The following example demonstrates the use of a subrange to represent months, followed by a CASE statement to classify months as seasons. The program prompts you to enter the month number, and displays the season this month belongs to. { ------------------------------ Example 5-2 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Subrange1(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR MonthNumber :1..12; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the number of the month: '); READLN(MonthNumber); CASE MonthNumber OF 12, 1, 2 :WRITELN('This is wintertime.'); 3, 4, 5 :WRITELN('This is springtime.'); 6, 7, 8 :WRITELN('This is summertime.'); 9, 10, 11 :WRITELN('This is autumn.') END END.

The following are two sample runs. The second one gives a run-time error message because the number 14 was entered as a month number: RUN 1: Please enter the number of the month:2 This is wintertime.

RUN 2: Please enter the number of the month: 14 Runtime error 201 at 0000:00BE.

The subrange, in general, can be a subset of any previously defined sequence (of the ordinal type). So, if the enumeration Day has already been defined in your program, you may then define a subrange like this: VAR WorkingDay : Monday..Friday;

This is valid because the words “Monday” and “Friday” are already known to the compiler.

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There are some restrictions on using enumerations and subranges: g

The first element in a subrange must be less than the last one.

g

Though a subrange can be a subset of an enumeration, an enumeration cannot use elements from another enumeration.

g

The enumeration elements cannot be used as identifiers for other variables. It is the same as declaring the same variable identifier twice in one program.

Drill 5-1 Write a declaration to define the following subranges: A. B. C.

The uppercase letters The lowercase letters The decimal digits

Accept values that correspond to each subrange and display them preceded by the proper message. The output may look something like this: Lowercase letter Uppercase letter Digit

: r : T : 5

5-2 The TYPE Section The enumerations and subranges are usually associated with the TYPE statement, which is used to declare new user-defined types or to rename predefined types. The TYPE statement comes in the TYPE section of the declaration part. It takes the form: TYPE type-name = type-definition;

where type-name is the type identifier, and type-definition is a predefined type or new type definition.

Renaming Types It is possible to rename any data type, even the simple types such as INTEGER, as in this example: TYPE Day = INTEGER;

In this declaration the type INTEGER is given a new name (Day). Thus, in the VAR section, you can declare some other variables of the type Day like this: VAR Holiday, Yesterday, Tomorrow : Day;

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The type Day is actually the type INTEGER, but given another name (a synonym). In your program, you may use either one of the two names (INTEGER or Day) because the type INTEGER is still recognized by the compiler. This is not, however, the proper use of the TYPE statement. It is meant to be used for naming types such as enumerations and subranges.

Naming User-Defined Types Instead of declaring enumerations and subranges in the VAR section, it would be better to declare them as types. Look at these declarations: TYPE Day = (Monday,Tuesday,Wednesday,Thursday,Friday,Saturday,Sunday); WorkingDay = Monday..Friday;

Here, two new types are declared: the enumerated type Day and the subrange WorkingDay. Notice that the subrange is defined as a subset of the enumeration Day. Needless to say, the enumeration declaration must come first in this case. You can use these new types in the VAR section to declare variables in the same way you use the predefined types of the language. Thus: VAR Today, Yesterday, Tomorrow, Holiday :Day; DayOff :WorkingDay;

The use of the TYPE statement saves you the effort of writing long declarations for the enumeration variables Today, Yesterday, Tomorrow, and Holiday. They are all simply of the type Day. Now in your program you may write assignment statements like the following: Holiday := Friday; DayOff := Tuesday; Tomorrow := Sunday;

In order to see the values contained in your variables, use an output statement such as: WRITELN(ORD(Holiday), ', ',ORD(DayOff),', ', ORD(Tomorrow));

In this case, the statement will give you the values 4, 1, and 6 respectively. In standard Pascal the TYPE section should come in the following sequence relative to the other sections: LABEL section CONST section TYPE section VAR section

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In Turbo Pascal, as mentioned before, the order is not important, but the TYPE section should still precede the VAR section because it contains the definitions of the user-defined types.

Drill 5-2 Which of the following declarations are valid if they all come in one program? TYPE {1} {2} {3} {4} {5} VAR {6} {7} {8} {9} {10} {11} {12} {13}

Football Games Week Weekend Compiler

= = = = =

(Saints, Cowboys); (Football, Baseball, Basketball) (Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun); Sat..Sun; (C, Pascal, Fortran, Ada, Basic);

WholeWeek WorkingDay Weekday SW DpTools DpTool C Margin

:Week; :(Mon, Tue, Wed, Fri); :Mon..Fri; :(Compiler, OperatingSystem, ApplicationProgram); :(Hardware, Software, PeopleWare); :(HW, SW, PW); :(TurboC, QuickC); : –10..+10;

5-3 Arrays as Data Structures If you would like to represent the names of the players on a football team using only simple data types, you would need to use one variable for each player’s name. In such a case, you would need too many variables, such as: FirstPlayer SecondPlayer ThirdPlayer ...

This is not a good idea. Now imagine the case if you were dealing with a class of 100 students. It would be almost impossible to use 100 variables to store names. The practical way to store this kind of data is to use the array data structure, which is useful for storing a collection of related data items. In the case of the football team you would need to declare only one subscripted variable, and you would represent your data like this: Player[1] Player[2] Player[3] ...

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The name of the variable is Player, and the number between the brackets is called the subscript or index. Changing the index gives you a new memory location in which to store a new name. This type of data structure is called a one-dimensional array. It is useful to represent data such as names of a group of people, scores of one student in several classes, or any similar set of related items (see Table 5-1). Table 5-1 Example of a one-dimensional array Player[1] Able

Player[2] Baker

Player[3] Charlie

Player[4] John

Player[5] Sam



In Chapter 2 you saw a special type of one-dimensional array (the PACKED ARRAY OF CHAR), which is used to store a string of text in standard Pascal, and you already know that each element (character) in this array is referred to by a number (index). In other applications you may need a two-dimensional array, which is capable of handling more complicated structures. For example, suppose that you want to store the scores of a group of students in different classes, as represented in Table 5-2. Each element in this table is related to a row (the student number) and a column (the class number); these are the two dimensions of the array. The data item itself is a real number. Table 5-2 Example of a two-dimensional array

Student # (first index) 1 2 3 ... 100

1

2

Class # (second index) 3

55.5 89.1 40.5 ... 68.8

60.9 77.6 67.4 ... 87.2

66.5 99.9 90.5 ... 90.4

4

5

80.3 88.7 45.1 ... 60.1

70.5 50.3 66.9 ... 60.4

To represent the data in this table your variables will look something like this: StudentScore[3][4]

This variable represents the score of student #3 in class #4; in other words, the number at the intersection of row #3 and column #4. You may assign a numeric value which represents a score to this variable, thus: StudentScore[3][4] := 45.1; Compare now the following assignment statements to the values in the table: StudentScore[1][1] := 55.5; StudentScore[1][2] := 60.9;

{ the score of student #1 in class #1 } { the score of student #1 in class #2 }

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StudentScore[3][5] := 66.9; { the score of student #3 in class #5 } StudentScore[100][2] := 87.2; { the score of student #100 in class #2 }

Arrays are classified as structured data types (as opposed to the simple or unstructured types you have used thus far). There are many other structured data types in Pascal which are useful for different applications. As a matter of fact, the quality of a program is mainly measured by two criteria: 1. The structural efficiency of the program; that is, how readable, easy to debug, and prone to errors it is. 2. The use of the most efficient data structures applicable, to save time and enable the program to manipulate data in the most efficient way.

aaaaaa aaaaaa Note on Terminology

An array variable may be called either a subscripted variable or an indexed variable. The array elements referred to by the array variables are also called array components. In mathematics, a one-dimensional array is called a vector, while a two-dimensional array is called a matrix. You may come across these names in mathematical applications.

5-4 One-Dimensional Arrays A one-dimensional array is declared using the following form: VAR array-name : ARRAY[index-range] OF element-type;

If you want, for example, to declare an array to store test scores of 10 students as real numbers, you can declare your array like this: VAR Score : ARRAY[1..10] OF REAL;

This array (named Score) can hold up to 10 real numbers. The index range [1..10] indicates that the indexes of the array elements start at 1 and end at 10. The index range, which is a subrange (of integers in this example), can be of any ordinal type, but the array elements can be of any data type. The above declaration, then, reserves a sequence of 10 memory locations in which to store 10 REAL values of 10 array elements.

Example: Scores of One Student In the following program the array Score is used to store the scores of one student in six different classes. The scores are entered from the keyboard, then the sum and average of the scores are displayed.

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{ ------------------------------ Example 5-3 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Scores1(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST NumberOfClasses = 6; VAR Score :ARRAY[1..NumberOfClasses] OF REAL; Average, SumOfScores :REAL; Index :INTEGER; BEGIN { Read the scores array } { --------------------- } FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO BEGIN WRITE('Enter score for class #', Index,': '); READLN(Score[Index]) END; { Calculate the sum } { ----------------- } SumOfScores := 0; FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO SumOfScores := SumOfScores + Score[Index]; { Calculate the average } { --------------------- } Average := SumOfScores / NumberOfClasses; { Display Results } { --------------- } WRITELN; WRITELN('Sum of scores = ', SumOfScores:0:2); WRITELN('Average of scores = ', Average:0:2); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

A sample run of the program gives the following: Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter

score score score score score score

for for for for for for

class class class class class class

#1: #2: #3: #4: #5: #6:

Sum of scores = 510.00 Average of scores = 85.00 Press ENTER to continue..

90 80 85 75 89 91

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The following points in this program are worthy of your attention: g

The size of the array is declared as a constant (NumberOfClasses).

g

The index-range of the array is declared using the previously defined constant NumberOfClasses as follows: Score :ARRAY[1..NumberOfClasses] OF REAL;

This is the same as: Score :ARRAY[1..6] OF REAL;

The first declaration, however, is much better, because if you would like to process a different number of classes, you just change the value of the constant NumberOfClasses without modifying the program main body. g

Notice that after the program reads the scores, they are stored in the array elements and are available in memory. This means that the sum can be processed later in the program. When you calculated the sum and the average of some numbers before (Example 4-4), you had to accumulate the values during data entry in one variable Sum. Now, you have six variables.

g

The index of the array is used as a counter in the FOR loops, both for reading data and calculating the sum. Actually, the index of the array is very useful for displaying results, especially if you like to display the results in table form.

Displaying Tabulated Results The following program deals with the same problem but displays the results in a tabulated form. { ------------------------------ Example 5-4 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Scores2(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST NumberOfClasses = 6; Tab = ' '; { 9 spaces } VAR Score :ARRAY[1..NumberOfClasses] OF REAL; Average, SumOfScores :REAL; Index :INTEGER; BEGIN { Read the scores array } { --------------------- } FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO BEGIN WRITE('Enter score for class #', Index,': '); READLN(Score[Index]) END; { Calculate the sum } { ----------------- } SumOfScores := 0; FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO

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SumOfScores := SumOfScores + Score[Index]; { Calculate the average } { --------------------- } Average := SumOfScores / NumberOfClasses; { Display Results } { --------------- } WRITELN; WRITELN(Tab,'CLASS #'); WRITE(' '); { 6 spaces } FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO WRITE(Index:7); WRITELN; WRITE(Tab); FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO WRITE('-------'); WRITELN; WRITE('SCORES '); FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO WRITE(Score[Index]:7:2); WRITELN; WRITE(Tab); FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO WRITE('-------'); WRITELN; WRITELN(Tab,'Sum of scores = ', SumOfScores:0:2); WRITELN(Tab,'Average of scores = ', Average:0:2); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

This is a sample run: Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter

score score score score score score

for for for for for for

class class class class class class

#1: #2: #3: #4: #5: #6:

90.5 80.5 86.2 90.3 74.8 98.5

CLASS # 1 2 3 4 5 6 -----------------------------------------SCORES 90.50 80.50 86.20 90.30 74.80 98.50 -----------------------------------------Sum of scores = 520.80 Average of scores = 86.80 Press ENTER to continue..

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In this program extensive use of loops has been made to display the dashed lines, the class numbers, and the scores; this makes the program more generic. For example, the dashed line could be displayed using the statement: WRITELN('

------------------------------------------');

This is useful only for six classes, but the following statements: WRITE(Tab); FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO WRITE('-------');

are useful for any number of classes, because a seven-dash segment is displayed for each class. Thus, if you had only four classes, the output would look like this:

SCORES

CLASS # 1 2 3 4 ---------------------------80.00 90.00 85.00 75.00 ---------------------------Sum of scores = 330.00 Average of scores = 82.50

Notice that the number of dashes is equal to the field width specified in the output format of Score and Index: WRITE(Index:7); WRITE(Score[Index]:7:2);

Note also the use of the constant Tab (which contains nine spaces) for proper indentation of the output. A weak point of this program is that we have to repeat the same lines of code every time we want to draw a line. Such repetitive tasks can instead be programmed separately as procedures and called whenever wanted. This is discussed later in the book.

Drill 5-3 Write a Pascal program to read and store the test scores of five students, then display the output as shown below: Student # Score ----------------------1 90.00 2 88.00 3 91.00 4 78.00 5 75.00 ----------------------Average score = 84.40

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Declaration of Arrays in the TYPE Section It is preferable that array declarations be associated with the TYPE statement, as in this example: TYPE AnArray = ARRAY[1..6] OF INTEGER; VAR MyArray :AnArray;

In this case you can declare more than one array of the type AnArray in the VAR section: VAR YourArray, MyArray :AnArray;

It is also possible to use a previously declared subrange as an index range for an array, like this: TYPE MyRange = 1..6; AnArray = ARRAY[MyRange] OF INTEGER; VAR MyArray :AnArray;

Although we have started our arrays from the index 1, there is no obligation to do so. The index range can be any valid subrange, but you must always remember not to exceed the defined index range.

Example: Sorting an Array If you would like to sort some numbers (or names), the best way is to store them in an array, then use one of the sorting algorithms. A simple (but not the most efficient) way to sort numbers in an ascending order is known as the “bubble sort.” The algorithm is as follows: 1. Compare the first element to the second one. If the first element is greater, swap them. 2. Repeat the comparison between the first element and each of the rest of the array elements. If it is greater than any element, swap them. 3. By the end of these comparisons, the first element will be the smallest in the array. 4. Repeat the previous steps for the second element, the third, and so on until the next-to-last element.

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After this process is completed, the array will be sorted in an ascending order. This algorithm is demonstrated in the following program. The comparisons need two nested loops. The outer loop (index I) starts from the first element (I=1) and ends before the last element (I=ArraySize–1). The inner loop (index J) starts one step after the start of the outer loop (J=I+1) and goes all the way to the last element (J=ArraySize). { ------------------------------ Example 5-5 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Sorting(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST ArraySize = 6; TYPE Range = 1..ArraySize; NumbersArray = ARRAY[Range] OF INTEGER; VAR Numbers :NumbersArray; I, J , Pot :INTEGER; BEGIN { Read the array } { -------------- } FOR I := 1 TO ArraySize DO BEGIN WRITE('Enter element #', I,': '); READLN(Numbers[I]) END; { Sort the array } { -------------- } FOR I := 1 TO ArraySize-1 DO { outer loop } BEGIN { optional block } FOR J := I+1 TO ArraySize DO { inner loop } BEGIN IF Numbers[I] > Numbers[J] THEN BEGIN { swap contents } Pot := Numbers[J]; Numbers[J] := Numbers[I]; Numbers[I] := Pot END END { end of inner loop } END; { end of outer loop } { Display Results } { --------------- } WRITELN; WRITELN('The sorted array is:'); FOR I := 1 TO ArraySize DO WRITELN(Numbers[I]); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

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A sample run is as follows: Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter

element element element element element element

#1: #2: #3: #4: #5: #6:

6 33 4 2 55 9

The sorted array is: 2 4 6 9 33 55 Press ENTER to continue..

Swapping the contents of two elements is done by using a third variable (Pot) to hold the contents of one variable temporarily, thus: Pot := Numbers[J]; Numbers[J] := Numbers[I]; Numbers[I] := Pot

This process is similar to swapping the contents of two cups, one of which contains coffee and the other tea; all you need is an empty cup (Pot). To have the array sorted in a descending order, simply reverse the “greater than” process to “less than.” In order to sort arrays of different sizes, you can read the number of elements during the execution of the program. To do that, declare a maximum size for the array, for example 100, and the actual size, which must be less than the maximum size. You can then read the actual size by using either one of the following ways: g

Set a counter that is incremented each time you enter an element from the keyboard. When you finish entering all the array elements, this counter will contain the number of elements.

g

Read the number of elements from the keyboard and use it as a limit for the FOR loop that reads the array elements.

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Drill 5-4 Modify your program from Drill 5-3 to display the best score and the number of the highest scoring student in the class. The output should look like this: Student # Score ----------------------1 70.00 2 88.00 3 67.00 4 90.00 5 86.00 ----------------------Average score = 80.20 The best score = 90.00 The best of the class is student #4

You may use the following algorithm to obtain the highest number in the array of scores: 1. Store the score of the first student in a variable such as BestScore, and the index of that student in a variable BestOfClass. 2. Starting from the second element in the array of scores, and continuing all the way to the end, repeat the following comparison: If any number is greater than BestScore, store it in BestScore and store its index in BestOfClass. By the end of the loop, the variable BestScore will contain the highest score, and the corresponding student number will be stored in BestOfClass.

5-5 Two-Dimensional Arrays To declare a two-dimensional array, use the form: VAR array-name : ARRAY[index-range-1, index-range-2] OF element-type;

You may also declare it in the TYPE section as follows: TYPE type-name = ARRAY[index-range-1, index-range-2] OF element-type;

where index-range1 and index-range2 are the ranges of the first and second dimensions.

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Look at this declaration: TYPE Score = ARRAY[1..100, 1..6] OF INTEGER;

This statement declares an array Score, which can store the scores of 100 students in six different classes; generally speaking, it can store up to 600 integers. As you can see, each dimension is represented by a subrange. You can also declare a multidimensional array of any number of dimensions using the general form: TYPE type-name = ARRAY[index-range-1, index-range-2, ..., index-range-n] OF element-type;

In most applications, however, you will not need more than two dimensions.

Example: Scores of Students The following program is used to read the scores of a number of students in different classes as represented in Table 5-2. For simplicity of demonstration, only four students and three classes will be considered; you can, however, modify the number of students or classes by simply changing the values of the two constants NumberOfClasses and NumberOfStudents. { ------------------------------ Example 5-6 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Scores3(INPUT,OUTPUT); { using two-dimensional array } CONST NumberOfClasses = 3; { Change this number for more classes } NumberOfStudents = 4; { Change this number for more students } Tab = ' '; { 7 spaces } Dash = '-'; NumberOfDashes = 23; TYPE ScoreArray = ARRAY[1..NumberOfStudents, 1..NumberOfClasses] OF REAL; AverageArray = ARRAY[1..NumberOfStudents] OF REAL; VAR Score :ScoreArray; Average :AverageArray; SumOfScores :REAL; StudentCount, ScoreCount, DashCount :INTEGER; BEGIN { Read the scores array } { --------------------- } FOR StudentCount := 1 TO NumberOfStudents DO BEGIN WRITELN; WRITELN('Scores of student #', StudentCount,': '); FOR ScoreCount := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO

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BEGIN WRITE('Enter score for class #', ScoreCount,': '); READLN(Score[StudentCount, ScoreCount]) END; END; { Calculate the average for each student } { -------------------------------------- } FOR StudentCount := 1 TO NumberOfStudents DO BEGIN SumOfScores := 0; { Initialize for each student } FOR ScoreCount := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO SumOfScores := SumOfScores + Score[StudentCount, ScoreCount]; Average[StudentCount] := SumOfScores/NumberOfClasses END; { Display results } { --------------- } WRITELN; WRITELN(Tab, 'Student #', Tab, 'Average'); WRITE(Tab); FOR DashCount := 1 TO NumberOfDashes DO WRITE(Dash); WRITELN; FOR StudentCount := 1 TO NumberOfStudents DO WRITELN(Tab, StudentCount:3, Tab, Average[StudentCount]:12:2); WRITE(Tab); FOR DashCount := 1 TO NumberOfDashes DO WRITE(Dash); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

The following is a sample run: Scores of student #1: Enter score for class #1: 90 Enter score for class #2: 89 Enter score for class #3: 93 Scores of student #2: Enter score for class #1: 80 Enter score for class #2: 70 Enter score for class #3: 60 Scores of student #3: Enter score for class #1: 77 Enter score for class #2: 78 Enter score for class #3: 90

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Scores of student #4: Enter score for class #1: 91 Enter score for class #2: 94 Enter score for class #3: 95 Student # Average ----------------------1 90.67 2 70.00 3 81.67 4 93.33 ----------------------Press ENTER to continue..

Notice the following in this program: g

Two types of arrays were declared in the TYPE section, a two-dimensional array ScoreArray and a one-dimensional array AverageArray. These type identifiers are used in the VAR section to declare the two arrays Score and Average. The first array is used to store the scores of the four students in three classes, while the second is used to hold the averages of the four students (which are, of course, only four values).

g

Data are read through two loops, using the index StudentCount as a counter of students in the outer loop and ScoreCount as a counter of scores in the inner loop. Each value read from the keyboard is assigned to the general array variable: Score[StudentCount, ScoreCount]

The exact location of the array element is determined by the two indexes StudentCount and ScoreCount. g

The average of scores is calculated for each student and stored in the array variable: Average[StudentCount]

The index StudentCount indicates which student has each average. g

Notice the initialization of the variable SumOfScores before the average calculation. This is a very important step because if it is not done, the average of the previous student will remain in the variable and be added to the new average.

Array Initialization If you are assigning values to only some of the elements of an uninitialized array, do not expect that the rest of the elements will contain zeros. In such applications you have to initialize the whole array using a loop like this: FOR I := 1 TO N DO MyArray[I] := 0;

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You need another loop if the array is two-dimensional: FOR I := 1 TO N DO FOR J := 1 TO M DO MyArray[I,J] := 0;

In the last example, we assigned values to each element of the array, so there was no need for initialization.

Drill 5-5 Modify the previous program to display the students’ names in descending order according to their scores, as in this example: Student name Average ------------------------Porter, Thomas 84.00 Dalton, Jack 83.33 Dixon, Jane 83.33 Bobbin, Dale 66.67 -------------------------

Summary In this chapter you have had a review of simple and structured data types. 1. You now know that simple data types are classified as either real or ordinal types. Of the ordinal types, you learned how to use the user-defined types, enumerations and subranges. 2. You learned how to use the TYPE statement to declare a new type or rename a predefined type. It takes the general form: TYPE type-name = type-definition;

In standard Pascal the relative sequence of the TYPE section among the other sections in the declaration part is as follows: LABEL section CONST section TYPE section VAR section 3. You learned about the array as a predefined structured data type that may be declared either in the TYPE section or VAR section. You also learned how to declare and use both one- and two-dimensional arrays. The general form to declare an array of any number of dimensions (in the TYPE section) is:

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TYPE type-name = ARRAY[index-range-1, index-range-2, ..., index-range-n] OF element-type;

Exercises 1. Determine which of the following TYPE section declarations are invalid: TYPE {a} {b} {c} {d} {e} {f} {g} {h}

Range1 = 1..100 DIV 2; Range2 = 1..7; Range3 = 1.0..7.0; Range4 = 1..(100/2); TVSystem = (SECAM, PAL, NTSC); ProgrammingLanguage = (C, C++, CSharp, Pascal, Fortran, COBOL); int = INTEGER; float = REAL;

2. Given the following type declarations: TYPE Range = 1..7; Color = (Red, Green, Blue); int = INTEGER;

determine which of the following VAR section declarations are invalid: VAR {a} {b} {c} {d} {e} {f} {g} {h}

MyArray HisArray YourArray HerArray Score Colors ColorComp Subrange1

:ARRAY[Range]; :ARRAY[1..Range] OF INTEGER; :ARRAY[Color] OF INT; :ARRAY[1..Color] OF INTEGER; :ARRAY[1..5, Range] OF INTEGER; :(Red, Green, Blue); :(Cyan, Magenta, Yellow); :1..12 DIV 2;

3. Given the following declarations: TYPE ColorComp = (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow); VAR MyColor, YourColor :ColorComp;

determine which of the following instructions are invalid: {a} {b} {c} {d}

MyColor := Yellow; YourColor := Cyan + 1; WRITELN(ORD(Cyan), ' ', ORD(MyColor)); WRITELN(Magenta);

Data Architecture

4. What is the output of each WRITELN statement in the following code? TYPE FamilyMember = (Sam, Camelia, Hazem, Craig, Sally); BEGIN {a} WRITELN(Sam < Sally); {b} WRITELN(Sam > Sally); {c} WRITELN(Camelia > Craig); {d} WRITELN(ORD(Craig)-1 = ORD(Hazem)); {e} WRITELN(ORD(Sam)+4 = ORD(Sally)); END.

5. In the previous code, why is it an error to add the following type? Friend = (John, Craig);

Answers 1. The invalid declarations are c, d, and f. 2. The invalid declarations are a, b, d, and f. 3. The invalid instructions are b and d. 4. a. TRUE

b. FALSE

c. FALSE

d. TRUE

5. It is a re-declaration of the identifier Craig.

e. TRUE

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aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Chapter 6aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Text Processing 6-1 Manipulating Text Data Thus far you have dealt mainly with numeric data values. In this chapter, you learn to use characters and strings to manipulate text data, paying special attention to input and output of characters and strings using the keyboard and the screen. These devices are treated as files; they are referred to as the standard INPUT file (the keyboard) and the standard OUTPUT file (the screen).

6-2 Tips on OUTPUT Statements If you would like to display many lines of text or display numeric results on separate lines, you can use as many WRITELN statements as the number of required lines. Another way to do this (one requiring less effort) is to use the ASCII control codes 13 (carriage return) and 10 (linefeed) whenever a new line is required. You can then use one WRITE or WRITELN statement to print all of the results. With most microcomputer systems the carriage return/linefeed pair is interpreted as the end-of-line mark. In the following example the control character CHR(10) is declared as a named constant LF (a common abbreviation for linefeed), and the control character CHR(13) as CR (a common abbreviation for carriage return). The combination of the two characters CR and LF gives the same effect as pressing Enter. { ------------------------------ Example 6-1 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Display1(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST LF = CHR(10); CR = CHR(13); VAR X, Y, Z :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Enter three integers: ');

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READLN(X, Y, Z); WRITELN('X=', X, CR, LF, 'Y=', Y, CR, LF, 'Z=', Z) END.

Sample run: Enter three integers: 11 22 33 X=11 Y=22 Z=33

If you tried this program using the LF only, you would get the following output: X=11 Y=22 Z=33

Try it now using the CR only, and you will find that the last result overwrites the first two. The output will be only one line like this: Z=33

6-3 Tips on INPUT Statements When you use the input statements READ or READLN some pitfalls can occur during successive reads, especially with character input. For this reason it is important to understand how the input statements work with different types of data. When a READ or a READLN statement is executed, values are stored in the standard INPUT file (the keyboard). The stored values are then read from this file and assigned to the variables specified in the input list. Each time you press the Enter key, an end-of-line mark is written to the INPUT file.

Using READLN for Numeric Input Assume that your input contains the following numbers: 123 45 678



You may imagine that the numbers are stored in the INPUT file as in the following figure:

Figure 6-1

The end-of-line mark is shown at the last location and is indicated by the asterisk (*). At the first location, there is a little arrow (called the file pointer) pointing to the beginning of the file. Consider now that these values are read by the following statement:

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READLN(X, Y, Z);

After the first integer (123) is read and assigned to the variable X, the pointer moves to the space before the second numeric value (45). The second value is then read and assigned to the variable Y, and the pointer moves to the space before the third value. When the third value is read and assigned to Z, all of the variables will have been assigned values and the pointer moves past the end-of-line mark, where the work of the READLN statement ends. If you leave more than one space between numeric values, the extra spaces will be ignored and you will still get correct results. Suppose now that you entered a fourth value by mistake : 123 45 678 90



The last value (90) will be ignored by the program, as the pointer will move past the end-of-line mark after the three values are read, in order to be ready for a subsequent read.

Figure 6-2

aa aa NOTE

This feature of the READLN statement is inherited from the old days when data were read from punched cards (each card represents a line of data). The READLN was used to read only a specific number of items and eject to the next card.

You may also enter your numeric values separated by the Enter key, in which case each numeric value will be followed by the end-of-line mark like this:

Figure 6-3

As long as the three variables have not yet been assigned values, the end-of-line marks between the values are treated as spaces and are thus ignored. The pointer moves from one end-of-line mark to another until all of the values have been read, then the pointer moves past the end of the next end-of-line mark, ending the READLN statement. Try the following program (which contains two READLN statements) using the values shown in the sample runs. { ------------------------------ Example 6-2 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM ReadLnNumbers(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST CR = CHR(13); LF = CHR(10); VAR A, C , D, E :INTEGER; B :REAL;

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BEGIN WRITE('Enter A, B, C: '); { If you enter more than three values, only the first three will be read } READLN(A, B, C); { Now a subsequent READLN will start to read values after the End-Of-Line mark, ignoring any leftovers from the previous read } WRITE('Enter D, E: '); READLN(D, E); WRITELN('A=',A,', B=',B:0:2,', C=', C, CR, LF, 'D=', D,', E= ',E) END.

Sample run: Enter A, B, C: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Enter D, E: 7 8 A=1, B=2.00, C=3

----> Enter these values ----> Enter these values ----> The program response

D=7, E= 8

Notice that the extra values (4, 5, 6) in the first input line were ignored completely and the second read started from the value 7, which follows the end-of-line mark.

Drill 6-1 Try the above program using the following inputs and study the results: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8



Using READ for Numeric Input With the READ statement the reading procedure is different, because after the READ statement is done, the file pointer does not move past the end-of-line mark, and so any subsequent READ will start from where the previous READ left off. Replace the READLN statements in the previous program with READ statements and try the following input: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7



When you press Enter, the program will not pause at the second input statement because the INPUT file contains sufficient numeric values for five variables. In this case, the program displays the following results: A=1, B=2.00, C=3 D=4, E= 5

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Drill 6-2 Using the previous program with the READ statement, try the following inputs: 1.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7



Using READ for Character Input With character input, the input statements work in a different way. The READ statement reads successive characters from the keyboard file, including the end-of-line mark (which is actually two characters, CR and LF), and assigns each character to the next variable in the input list. Consider the following input statement: READ(C1, C2, C3, C4);

where C1, C2, C3, and C4 are variables of the type CHAR. If you enter the four characters that follow: ABCD

they will all be read and assigned to the variables, thus: C1 contains 'A' C2 contains 'B' C3 contains 'C' C4 contains 'D' Now consider the case of an input like this: A B C D

The first four characters (including blank spaces) in this input will be assigned to the four variables and the rest ignored, giving the following result: C1 contains 'A' C2 contains ' ' (blank space) C3 contains 'B' C4 contains ' ' (blank space) Run the following program and use the sample run values to see how things work. Notice that the output of the program gives you both the variables’ contents and the corresponding ASCII codes, which will help you to recognize any nonprintable character such as the space, the linefeed, or the carriage return.

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{ ------------------------------ Example 6-3 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM CharRead1(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST LF = CHR(10); CR = CHR(13); VAR C1, C2, C3, C4 :CHAR; BEGIN WRITE('Enter four characters: '); READ(C1, C2, C3, C4); WRITELN('Your inputs have been assigned to the variables as follows:', CR, LF, 'C1= ', C1, CR, LF, 'C2= ', C2, CR, LF, 'C3= ', C3, CR, LF, 'C4= ', C4); WRITELN('The corresponding ASCII codes are:', CR, LF, ORD(C1),' ', ORD(C2),' ', ORD(C3),' ',ORD(C4)) END.

The following are sample runs of the program. RUN 1: Enter four characters: A BCD Your inputs have been assigned to the variables as follows: C1= A C2= { blank space } C3= B C4= C The corresponding ASCII codes are: 65 32 66 67

The second variable was here assigned the ASCII code 32, which is the code for the blank space. RUN 2: Enter four characters: ABCDEFG Your inputs are assigned to the variables as follows: C1= A C2= B C3= C C4= D The corresponding ASCII codes are: 65 66 67 68

In the second case, the first four characters are read and the rest are ignored. If there were a subsequent READ statement in the program, it would start at the letter “E.” The end-of-line mark is treated like any other nonnumeric character. For example, if you test the program using these inputs:

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the program will terminate after entering the first two characters and you will get an output like this: RUN 3: C1= A C2= B C3= C4=

{ CR } { LF }

The corresponding ASCII codes are: 65 66 13 10

The third and the fourth characters contain CR and LF respectively, because when you press Enter, you send two characters to the INPUT file, CR and LF. Notice that the CR appears as a blank space (actually, it returns the cursor to the beginning of the line), while the LF advances to a new line. The same thing will happen if you use two separate READ statements. To see this, replace the READ statement in the program with two READ statements: READ(C1, C2); READ(C3, C4);

When you run the program now, you will notice that if you type the first two characters and press Enter, the program will be terminated and you get the same output as in Run 3. Also, if you enter more characters than are required, only the first four will be read.

Using READLN for Character Input If you would like to enter your characters like this: AB CD



you have to get rid of the extra characters remaining in the file (the CR and the LF) by using the READLN statement. In the following program two READLN statements are used, so you are able to enter two characters (or more) followed by Enter and start the next read with a clean buffer. { ------------------------------ Example 6-4 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM CharReadln3(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST LF = CHR(10); CR = CHR(13); VAR C1, C2, C3, C4 :CHAR;

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BEGIN WRITE('Enter two characters: '); READLN(C1, C2); WRITE('Enter two characters: '); READLN(C3, C4); WRITELN('Your inputs have been assigned to the variables as follows:', CR, LF, 'C1= ', C1, CR, LF, 'C2= ', C2, CR, LF, 'C3= ', C3, CR, LF, 'C4= ', C4); WRITELN('The corresponding ASCII codes are:', CR, LF, ORD(C1),' ', ORD(C2),' ', ORD(C3),' ',ORD(C4)) END.

Sample run: Enter two characters: abcd Enter two characters: efgh Your inputs have been assigned to the variables as follows: C1= a C2= b C3= e C4= f The corresponding ASCII codes are: 97 98 101 102

Input of Mixed Types It is legal to use one READ (or READLN) statement for mixed numeric and character data, but this requires extra attention. It is better to use a separate READLN statement for each type, as in the following program. This way is less prone to data entry errors. { ------------------------------ Example 6-5 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM CharNumRead(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST LF = CHR(10); CR = CHR(13); VAR A, B :CHAR; X, Y :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Enter two characters: '); READLN(A, B); WRITE('Enter two integers: '); READLN(X, Y); WRITELN('Your inputs have been assigned to the variables as follows:', CR, LF, 'A= ', A, CR, LF, 'B= ', B, CR, LF,

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'X= ', X, CR, LF, 'Y= ', Y) END.

RUN 1: Enter two characters: ABCD Enter two integers: 3 4 Your inputs have been assigned to the variables as follows: A= A B= B X= 3 Y= 4

As you can see in the output, the extra characters (C and D) were skipped after the first READLN. Remember, however, that the rules of character entry still apply; in other words, if you press Enter after the first letter, a CR will be assigned to the variable B. Here is the sample run: RUN 2: Enter two characters: A B Enter two integers: 5 6 Your inputs have been assigned to the variables as follows: A= A B= { B is assigned a CR } X= 5 Y= 6

Example: Scrambling Letters The following example is good practice both for handling characters and building loops. The program asks you to enter four characters, then it displays all of the possible combinations of those characters. If you are a BASIC programmer, you would have had to use a lot of GOTOs to achieve these results. In Pascal the program is better structured. { ------------------------------ Example 6-6 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Scrambling(INPUT,OUTPUT); TYPE ScrambleArray = Array[1..4] OF CHAR; VAR A :ScrambleArray; I1, I2, I3, I4 :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Enter four letters: '); READ(A[1], A[2], A[3], A[4]); FOR I1 := 1 TO 4 DO BEGIN FOR I2 := 1 TO 4 DO BEGIN

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END

IF I2 <> I1 THEN FOR I3 := 1 TO 4 DO BEGIN IF I3 <> I1 THEN IF I3 <> I2 THEN BEGIN I4 := 10 – (I1 + I2 + I3); WRITELN(A[I1],' ',A[I2],' ', A[I3],' ',A[I4]); END { End of IF } END { End of I3 loop } END { End of I2 loop } { End of I1 loop }

END.

Sample run: Enter A B C A B D A C B A C D A D B A D C B A C B A D B C A B C D B D A B D C C A B C A D C B A C B D C D A C D B D A B D A C D B A D B C D C A D C B

four letters: ABCD D C D B C B D C D A C A D B D A B A C B C A B A

An array A of four elements (of the type CHAR) is used to hold the four characters, and three nested loops are used to build the different combinations of the elements. The algorithm is based on choosing four different indexes corresponding to the four different array elements. Note that all of the BEGIN-END blocks (except the innermost one) are optional and are used only for clarity.

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6-4 Reading a Line of Text: EOLN The EOLN function is a Boolean function used to detect the end of the line during reading of the INPUT file. The function is FALSE until the end-of-line mark is detected, then it becomes TRUE. This function is useful when you do not know the number of characters to expect. In order to read a line of text up to (but not including) the end-of-line mark, you can use a loop like this: WHILE NOT EOLN DO BEGIN READ(Ch); ... END;

The READ statement will continue to read characters until the end-of-line mark is detected, thus terminating the WHILE loop. Notice, however, that the end-of-line mark is still in the buffer and could be read by any subsequent READ statement, so before any subsequent read you have to clean the buffer with a READLN.

Example: Character Counter The following program reads a line of text from the keyboard and displays the number of characters in the line. The program will continue to read the characters you type until you press Enter, at which time it displays the result. { ------------------------------ Example 6-7 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM CharCounter1(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Ch :CHAR; Counter :INTEGER; BEGIN Counter := 0; WHILE NOT EOLN DO BEGIN READ(Ch); Counter := Counter + 1 END; WRITELN; WRITELN('Number of characters= ', Counter) END.

Drill 6-3 Modify the above program to count only the alphabetic characters in the text.

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6-5 Reading a File of Text: EOF Another Boolean function, EOF, is used to detect the end-of-file mark. The function is FALSE until the end-of-file mark is reached, at which time it becomes TRUE. When using the keyboard for input, the end of file is reached if you press Ctrl+Z (ASCII 26). This function is useful for reading several lines of text (a file). You can use EOF along with EOLN to read and analyze several lines of text as follows: WHILE NOT EOF DO BEGIN WHILE NOT EOLN DO BEGIN READ(Ch); ... END; READLN END;

{ { { {

Processing data } End of line } Advance the pointer } End of file }

In this code, the file is read line by line. After a complete line has been read, the EOLN function becomes TRUE and no more characters are read from this line. The READLN statement is then used to advance the pointer to the beginning of the next line. The program ends when the end-of-file mark is detected and the outer loop is terminated. Let’s look at an example.

Example: Frequency Counter The following program asks you to enter a letter. Then it starts reading whatever you type from the keyboard. When you press Ctrl+Z the program ends and displays how many times the specified letter was repeated in the file. { ------------------------------ Example 6-8 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM FreqCounter1(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Ch, SpecificChar :CHAR; Counter, FreqCounter :INTEGER; BEGIN Counter := 0; FreqCounter := 0; WRITE('Enter the required letter: '); READLN(SpecificChar); WRITELN('Start typing. Press Ctrl-Z to finish.'); WHILE NOT EOF DO BEGIN WHILE NOT EOLN DO BEGIN READ(Ch); IF (Ch >= 'A') AND (Ch <= 'Z') OR (Ch >= 'a') AND (Ch <= 'z') THEN

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Counter := Counter + 1; IF Ch = SpecificChar THEN Freqcounter := FreqCounter + 1; END; READLN END; WRITELN('Total number of letters= ', Counter); WRITELN('The letter ''', SpecificChar, ''' was repeated ', FreqCounter, ' time(s)'); WRITELN('Frequency of repetition= ', freqCounter/Counter*100:2:2,'%') END.

The specific letter is assigned to the variable SpecificChar and compared to the input letters “Ch.” If the comparison is TRUE, the FreqCounter variable is incremented by one. The total number of letters is accumulated in the variable Counter. The frequency of repetition of the letter is calculated by dividing FreqCounter by Counter and multiplying the result by 100. Sample run: Enter the required letter: a Start typing. Press Ctrl-Z to finish. This is a test to count the repetition frequency of the letter "a" in a keyboard file ^Z Total number of letters= 67 The letter 'a' was repeated 4 time(s) Frequency of repetition= 5.97%

6-6 String Manipulation In Chapter 2 you learned how to declare, read, and write variables of the type STRING, which was introduced by the modern Pascal implementations (such as Turbo, UCSD, and Macintosh). You also learned how to use the function LENGTH to count the number of letters in a string. In this section you are introduced to more string features that help in manipulating text.

Tips on String Input/Output For both input and output, you may either treat a string variable as one unit, or you may treat it as an array whose elements are the characters that make up the string. Look at this simple program, which reads a string variable and displays it character by character, with each character on a separate line (using the LF character).

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{ ------------------------------ Example 6-9 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM String1(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST LF = CHR(10); VAR Name :STRING[30]; I :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter a name: '); READLN(Name); FOR I := 1 TO LENGTH(Name) DO WRITE(Name[I],LF) END.

Sample run: Please enter a name: PASCAL P A S C A L

Example: Sorting Names You may build an array of the type STRING to store related items such as names or addresses. In this way, you can sort names in alphabetical order using the same algorithm which you have used before to sort numbers. Each two strings are compared character by character. So, the following expressions are TRUE: 'Able' < 'Baker' 'Baker' < 'Charlie' 'Charley' < 'Charlie'

All uppercase letters are greater than lowercase letters. Also, the leading and trailing spaces are included in the comparison. The ASCII code of the blank space (32) is less than that of any letter or digit. In the following program an array of four names is read, sorted, and displayed. { ------------------------------ Example 6-10 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM SortStrings(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST Tab = ' '; NumOfElements = 4; TYPE StringArray = ARRAY[1..NumOfElements] OF STRING[30]; VAR Name :StringArray; I, J :INTEGER; Temp :STRING[30];

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BEGIN { Read the array elements } { ----------------------- } FOR I := 1 TO NumOfElements DO BEGIN WRITE('Please enter name #', I, ': '); READLN(Name[I]) END; { Sort names } { ---------- } FOR I := 1 TO NumOfElements-1 DO FOR J := I+1 TO NumOfElements DO IF Name[I] > Name[J] THEN BEGIN Temp := Name[I]; Name[I] := Name[J]; Name[J] := Temp END; { End of inner and outer loops } { Display sorted names } { -------------------- } WRITELN('Serial # Name'); WRITELN('-----------------------------'); FOR I := 1 TO NumOfElements DO WRITELN(I:2, Tab, Name[I]) END.

Sample run: Please Please Please Please

enter enter enter enter

name name name name

#1: #2: #3: #4:

Rigby, Peter Berlin, Amy Sanders, Dale Brady, Clark

Serial # Name ----------------------------1 Berlin, Amy 2 Brady, Clark 3 Rigby, Peter 4 Sanders, Dale

Drill 6-4 Write a program to scramble three strings. The following is an example of the output for the strings “WHO,” “ARE,” and “YOU”: WHO WHO ARE ARE YOU YOU

ARE YOU WHO YOU WHO ARE

YOU ARE YOU WHO ARE WHO

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6-7 String Functions and Procedures When working with text editors, you sometimes need to cut and paste, delete a part from here, and insert a part there. The tools that make these operations possible are included in the modern implementations of Pascal to help the programmer process strings. Some of them are called functions because they return a value which replaces the function call (e.g., LENGTH). Others are called procedures, as they perform specific operations that do not necessarily return a value (e.g., WRITELN). They are all shown in Table 6-1. In addition to these tools you may find more functions, procedures, or operators in a specific implementation, but here we are concerned only with the most common tools, which are almost standardized. Table 6-1 String functions and procedures Form Functions: LENGTH(str) CONCAT(str1, str2,...) COPY(str, pos, len) POS(str1, str2)

Procedures: INSERT(str1, str2, pos) DELETE(str, pos, len)

Use Returns the number of character in the string “str.” Returns the string formed by concatenating “str1,” “str2,”... Returns a substring from the string “str,” starting at the position “pos,” with length “len.” Returns the position of the first occurrence of the first character of “str1” within “str2.” If “str1” does not occur within “str2,” it returns zero. Inserts the string “str1” into the string “str2” at the position “pos.” Deletes a substring from a string “str,” starting from position “pos,” with length “len.”

LENGTH You can measure the dynamic length of a string using the function LENGTH. If you want, for instance, to measure the length of the string Name in the last program, you may use the expression: LENGTH(Name)

If you display the value of this expression, you get the exact number of characters contained in the string variable, including the spaces. If the string variable is empty, the dynamic length is zero. In Example 6-11, you enter a name and the program displays the actual length both before and after the variable assignment.

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CONCAT As an example of using the function CONCAT, you can concatenate the three strings ‘John’, ‘M.’, and ‘Smith’ and assign the result to a string variable Name, as follows: Name := CONCAT('John', 'M.', 'Smith');

Now the variable Name contains the complete name: “John M. Smith.” In Turbo Pascal the operator + may also be used to concatenate strings: Name := 'John' + 'M.' + 'Smith';

The variable Name has the same contents as before.

COPY Using the function COPY you can extract a substring from the string Name. The following statement extracts the first name from the string Name and assigns it to the variable FirstName: FirstName := COPY(Name, 1, 4);

As you can see, you have to include the starting position of the extracted substring (1 in this case) and the length of the substring (4 in this case).

POS The function POS returns an integer that indicates the position of the first occurrence of a substring in a string. For example, the statements: Str1 := 'This is a test'; WRITELN(POS('is', Str1));

result in displaying the number 3, which is the position of the letter “i” in “This.”

DELETE To delete the substring ‘Smith’ from a name string, use the DELETE procedure as follows: DELETE(Name, 9, 5);

Note that the substring ‘Smith’ starts at the ninth position and contains five characters. Using a procedure changes the value of the original variable Name, while using a function does not. If you checked the contents of the variable now, it would be ‘John M.’.

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INSERT Don’t worry, because you can insert the substring in the right place again. Use the INSERT procedure to put the last name ‘Smith’ back in the string: INSERT('Smith', Name, 9)

Now the variable Name contains ‘John M. Smith’. The following program demonstrates the use of string functions. It accepts from you the first, middle, and last name and produces the complete name, including the trailing spaces. Also, the middle name is converted to an initial. { ------------------------------ Example 6-11 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM StringFunctions1(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Name :STRING[30]; First, Middle, Last :STRING[10]; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter your first name: '); READLN(First); First := CONCAT(First, ' '); WRITE('Please enter your middle name: '); READLN(Middle); Middle := COPY(Middle, 1, 1); Middle := CONCAT(Middle, '. '); WRITE('Please enter your last name: '); READLN(Last); Name := CONCAT(First, Middle, Last); WRITELN; WRITELN('Your complete name is: ',Name) END.

Sample run: Please enter your first name: Sally Please enter your middle name: Ann Please enter your last name: Abolrous Your complete name is: Sally A. Abolrous

Drill 6-5 Modify the above program to make it capitalize the first letter of each name if entered lowercase.

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Summary In this chapter you learned how the input statements READ and READLN work with numeric values and characters. You also learned how to use the end-of-line function EOLN to read a line of text from the keyboard, and the end-of-file function EOF to read a file of text. You also learned some of the important string processing functions and procedures that are available in the modern implementations of Pascal: g

CONCAT

g

COPY

g

POS

g

INSERT

g

DELETE

Most importantly, through the examples and drills you gained experience in text processing with both strings and individual characters.

Exercises 1. Write a Pascal program to read a line of text from the keyboard and change all lowercase characters to uppercase. The following is a sample run of the program: Enter a line of text and press : Hi There! Long Time No See. HI THERE! LONG TIME NO SEE.

2. One of the interesting applications of text processing is encoding and decoding. A simple way of encoding a string is to write it backwards. Write a program to read a line of text from the keyboard and display it backwards. The following is a sample run of the required program: Enter a line of text and press : Learn Pascal in Three Days The reversed text is: syaD eerhT ni lacsaP nraeL

3. Write a program to read a line of text or a text file, and reverse the case of each letter. Thus, all the uppercase letters are changed to lowercase letters and vice versa. The following is a sample run of the required program: Please enter a name: Mr. John Martin Smith The reversed name is: mR. jOHN mARTIN sMITH

4. Write a program to encode a text string such that each character is replaced by its successor. Also write the decoding program that converts to the original text before encoding. The following is a sample run of the required program:

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Enter a line of text and press : This is a test The encoded text is: Uijt!jt!b!uftu

You can enhance the program by encoding the space and the letter “Z” separately in order to avoid using the non-alphabetic characters in the encoded string. For example, you can encode the letter “Z” as “A.” You can also keep the space character unchanged.

Answers 1. Write the variable declarations and then use the following code segment, which represents the main algorithm, in your program: FOR I := 1 TO LENGTH(Name) DO BEGIN LowerCase := (ORD(Name[I]) > 96) AND (ORD(Name[I]) < 123); IF LowerCase THEN Name[I] := CHR(ORD(Name[I])-32); WRITE(Name[I]) END;

2. Write the variable declarations and then use the following code segment, which represents the main algorithm, in your program: WRITE('Enter a line of text and press : '); READLN(Name); WRITELN('The reversed text is:'); FOR I := LENGTH(Name) DOWNTO 1 DO WRITE(Name[I]);

3. Modify the code of Exercise 1 by adding the UpperCase Boolean variable and converting the case using a similar algorithm. 4. In the following code segment, each character of the string Name is replaced by its successor. FOR I := 1 TO LENGTH(Name) DO BEGIN Name[I] := SUCC(Name[I]); WRITE(Name[I]) END;

The decoding program uses the PRED function to perform the opposite operation.

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Chapter 7aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Program Architecture 7-1 Programs and Subprograms When you deal with real applications the problems get more complex than those you have seen so far, so you usually have to break the main problem down into simpler subproblems and program each individually in a subprogram. The subprograms are then combined together to build up the complete program. If you can break your application down into the smallest possible modules, you will find that many of them are common problems such as sorting names or numbers. This means that you can write some generic subprograms and use them later in different applications. Another advantage of using subprograms is that you can avoid the repetition of several statements to print a header or display a menu; you can program such tasks as subprograms and call them whenever needed. In Pascal you can divide your program into smaller subprograms called procedures and functions. Actually, the Pascal language itself is made up of predefined procedures and functions. When the compiler encounters a WRITELN statement in a program, for example, the predefined procedure WRITELN is invoked to perform the required task.

7-2 Procedures If divided into procedures, the main body of the Scores program from Chapter 5 might look something like this: BEGIN ReadScores; GetAverage; DisplayResults END.

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The main program contains only three calls, each of them the name of a procedure that performs a specific task. The procedure ReadScores reads the array of the scores, GetAverage calculates the average score, and DisplayResults displays the results. As you can see, a user-defined procedure is called by its name just like any standard procedure.

Procedure Definition Before calling a procedure it must be defined in the subprogram section, which is the last section of the declaration part. The following is a complete list of all the sections of the declaration part: LABEL section CONST section TYPE section VAR section PROCEDUREs and FUNCTIONs section A procedure definition is very similar to a program definition in that it consists of a header, a declaration part, and statements. Let us begin with a simple procedure to draw a line 20 characters long. { ------------------------------ Example 7-1 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Procedures1(OUTPUT); { ------------ Beginning of Procedure ------------ } PROCEDURE DrawLine; CONST Dash = '-'; LineLength = 20; VAR Counter :INTEGER; BEGIN FOR Counter := 1 TO LineLength DO WRITE(Dash); WRITELN END; { --------------- End of Procedure --------------- } { ----------------- Main program ----------------- } BEGIN WRITELN; DrawLine; WRITELN('** THIS IS A TEST **'); Drawline END.

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The output is: -------------------** THIS IS A TEST ** --------------------

There are no variables or constants in the main program here, so the declaration part contains only the procedure definition. The definition starts with the procedure header: PROCEDURE Drawline;

The header includes the name of the procedure (DrawLine), which must be a valid identifier. Then we see the declaration part: CONST Dash = '-'; LineLength = 20; VAR Counter :INTEGER;

The declaration part of the procedure includes the same sections as that of the main program. In our example, two named constants and a variable were declared. Next we see the statements of the procedure which represent the task to be done (drawing a line), enclosed in a block. BEGIN FOR Counter := 1 TO LineLength DO WRITE(Dash); WRITELN END;

Notice that the END statement in a subprogram is terminated by a semicolon rather than a period. In the main program, the procedure is called twice to draw a line both before and after the displayed text.

Passing Values to Procedures The procedure DrawLine is used to draw a line of a specific length (20), which may not be useful for any other application. In the following program the procedure is modified to draw a line whose length varies according to the length of the displayed text. When you run the program it asks you to enter a sentence, then displays the sentence between two lines of the same length as that sentence. Try the program first and then read the discussion.

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{ ------------------------------ Example 7-2 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Procedures2(OUTPUT); VAR Len :INTEGER; TestSentence :STRING; { ------------ Beginning of Procedure ------------ } PROCEDURE DrawLine(LineLength :INTEGER); CONST Dash = '-'; VAR Counter :INTEGER; BEGIN FOR Counter := 1 TO LineLength DO WRITE(Dash); WRITELN END; { --------------- End of Procedure --------------- } { ----------------- Main program ----------------- } BEGIN WRITE('Please enter a sentence: '); READLN(TestSentence); Len := LENGTH(TestSentence); WRITELN; DrawLine(Len); WRITELN(TestSentence); Drawline(Len) END.

Sample run: Please enter a sentence: Learn Pascal in Three Days -------------------------Learn Pascal in Three Days --------------------------

Instead of defining the number of dashes as a constant, the length of the sentence is declared in the main program as the variable Len. After the sentence is entered, its length is calculated and passed to the procedure as a parameter. The procedure call in this case becomes: DrawLine(Len);

The procedure header must also include a receiver parameter: PROCEDURE DrawLine(LineLength :INTEGER);

Between the parentheses comes the parameter LineLength, followed by a colon, followed by the type of the parameter (INTEGER). When the procedure is invoked, the value of the variable Len (from the main program) is passed to the procedure and assigned to the variable LineLength, where it is used in processing. The variable Len is called the actual parameter, and the variable

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LineLength is called the formal parameter. After the procedure has been executed, the control is transferred back to the main program, and execution resumes at the next statement following the procedure call. Except during the procedure execution, the value of the formal parameter is undefined. You may use literal values as actual parameters to call the procedure, such as: DrawLine(30);

aa aa

This call results in the drawing of a line 30 characters long. NOTE

Functions and procedures can also be passed as parameters, but many implementations forbid this.

When a value is used as a parameter, it is said that the parameter is passed by value; if the parameter is a variable, it is said to be passed by reference. A procedure call may contain more than one parameter, like this: Process(A, B, C);

The number of actual parameters in the procedure call must be the same as the number of formal parameters, which means that the procedure header may look something like this: PROCEDURE Process(X, Y :INTEGER; Z :REAL);

The variables A and B in the calling program must be of the type INTEGER as they correspond to X and Y respectively, while the variable C must be of the type REAL as it corresponds to Z Note the semicolon that separates the declarations in the procedure header. In brief, the actual and formal parameters must match in number, type, and position.

Drill 7-1 Modify the previous program so that you can pass to the procedure the type of line character (- or *, etc.), and have the output displayed in the middle of the line (assume that the line is 80 characters wide). This is a sample run of the required program: Please enter a sentence: Learn C in Three Days Please enter the line character: * ********************* Learn C in Three Days *********************

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Passing Back Values from Procedures A procedure may be used to change the value of a variable and pass it back to the calling program. In such a case, the formal parameters must be preceded by the word VAR. Consider the case of a procedure that receives the value of two variables and returns the cube of each. The procedure header might look something like this: PROCEDURE CubeThem(VAR X, Y :REAL);

You can only pass parameters to this procedure by reference: CubeThem(A, B);

The values of A and B will be passed to the procedure, substituted for X and Y respectively, cubed, and sent back to the calling program. It is illegal in this case to use literal values or expressions as actual parameters. When formal parameters are preceded by the word VAR they are called variable parameters; otherwise, they are value parameters. The general form of the procedure header is: PROCEDURE name; or PROCEDURE procedure-name(formal-parameter-list); The general form of a procedure call is: procedure-name; or procedure-name(actual-parameter-list); The following program is an example of using both types of formal parameters. It demonstrates the same logic as the PowerOperator program (in Chapter 2) does but uses a procedure to receive the base and the power and send back the result. { ------------------------------ Example 7-3 -------------------------------} PROGRAM VarParms(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR a, b, c :REAL; { ------------ Procedure Definition -------------- } PROCEDURE PowerOperator(X, Y :REAL; VAR Z:REAL); BEGIN Z := EXP(LN(X)*Y) END; { ----------------- Main Program ----------------- } BEGIN WRITE('Enter the base and the exponent separated by a space:'); READLN(a,b); PowerOperator(a, b, c);

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WRITELN('The value of ',a:0:2,' raised to the power of ',b:0:2,' is ',c:0:2) END.

Sample run: Enter the base and the exponent separated by a space:2 5 The value of 2.00 raised to the power of 5.00 is 32.00

Notice in the procedure that X and Y were declared as value parameters because they only receive values from the calling program, while Z was declared as a variable parameter because it sends back the result.

7-3 Global and Local Variables Both the formal parameters and the variables declared in a procedure are called local variables because they are accessible only within their procedure; in other words, they are invisible to the main program or to any other subprogram. The variables declared in the main program, on the other hand, are called global variables because they are accessible from any program unit. In Example 7-2, for example, the variable TestSentence is a global variable and may be accessed from the procedure DrawLine without passing it as a parameter. Any assignment to this variable in the procedure will change its value in the main program. The local variable Counter, however, is not accessible from the main program. Consider now the case if you declared two variables with the same name (such as X), one in the main program and one in a procedure. The redeclaration of the global variable X in a procedure will create a local variable with the same name and hide the global variable from the procedure. This means you will have two different variables that correspond to two different locations in memory. When the procedure exits, there will be one global variable with the name X. These restrictions help the programmer to not modify the value of a global variable from a subprogram by accident. The variables in the main program can only be modified from other procedures if they are global (and not redeclared in the procedure) or are passed by reference as variable parameters to the procedure. Accessing global variables from a subprogram is not recommended, as it repeals the modularity of the program. Using parameters is safer, and it also keeps the subprogram independent and useful with different programs.

Example: Sorting Procedure We will now go back to Example 5-5, and split it into generic procedures. This program was used to read, sort, and display an array of six elements. What you need to do now is write three procedures that read, sort, and display an array of any size. By passing the array and the number of elements to the procedures, the same results will be achieved as before. The main body of the program will contain only three calls:

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ReadNumbers(ArraySize, Numbers); SortNumbers(ArraySize, Numbers); PrintNumbers(ArraySize, Numbers);

In this way, any one of the three procedures can be used in any program. One important point to mention here is that when you pass an array to a procedure or function, it must be declared in the TYPE section. The formal parameters in the procedure header will then look something like this: PROCEDURE ReadNumbers(L: INTEGER; VAR R :NumbersArray);

The parameter L corresponds to ArraySize, and the array R corresponds to the array Numbers. As you can see in the parameter declaration it is of the type NumbersArray, which is the same type as the array Numbers. Here is the complete program: { ------------------------------ Example 7-4 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Sorting(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST ArraySize = 6; TYPE Range = 1..ArraySize; NumbersArray = ARRAY[Range] OF INTEGER; VAR Numbers :NumbersArray; { ----------------- Read procedure --------------- } PROCEDURE ReadNumbers(L: INTEGER; VAR R :NumbersArray); VAR I :INTEGER; BEGIN FOR I := 1 TO L DO BEGIN WRITE('Enter element #', I,': '); READLN(R[I]) END END; { ----------------- Sort procedure --------------- } PROCEDURE SortNumbers(M: INTEGER; VAR S :NumbersArray); VAR I, J, Pot :INTEGER; BEGIN FOR I := 1 TO M-1 DO FOR J := I+1 TO M DO IF S[I] > S[J] THEN BEGIN { Swap contents } Pot := S[J]; S[J] := S[I]; S[I] := Pot END END; { ---------------- Print procedure --------------- } PROCEDURE PrintNumbers(N: INTEGER; T :NumbersArray);

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VAR I :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN; WRITE('The sorted array is: '); FOR I := 1 TO N DO WRITE(T[I],' '); WRITELN; END; { --------------- Main Program ------------------- } BEGIN ReadNumbers(ArraySize, Numbers); SortNumbers(ArraySize, Numbers); PrintNumbers(ArraySize, Numbers); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Sample run: Enter element #1: 44 Enter element #2: 22 Enter element #3: 8 Enter element #4: 1 Enter element #5: 667 Enter element #6: 3 The sorted array is: 1 3 Press ENTER to continue..

8

22

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667

Note that the array is passed as a variable parameter to the procedures which are expected to change the value of the array (e.g., ReadNumbers and SortNumbers), but there was no need to do that for the procedure PrintNumbers, which displays the array without returning any value to the main program. In the latter case the array was passed as a value parameter. Notice also the use of local variables in different procedures, which makes each an independent unit. If any of these procedures has to be used with a different type of array, you need only change the type NumbersArray or use the same type name for the new array in the main program. In this example it is possible to use procedures without any parameters at all and process the global variables directly, but in that case you would have to use the same variable names in all of the procedures and the main program, which is a lot of effort and also entails the risk of dealing with global variables.

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Like arrays, enumerated types and subranges must be declared in the TYPE section if they are to be used as formal parameters in a subprogram.

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7-4 Functions A function is a subprogram that returns a value, which is then assigned to the function name in the calling program. Like predefined functions, user-defined functions have one or more parameters. The function definition comes in the subprogram section of the declaration part and includes a header, a declaration part, and statements. Look at this header of a function that returns the average of three numbers: FUNCTION Avg(X, Y, Z :REAL) :REAL;

The header is similar to the procedure header except that the type of the return value follows the function header (:REAL). You can call this function using statements like these: D := Avg(A, B, C); WRITELN(Avg(F, G, H):2:2); WRITELN(Avg(94, 33.5, 45*1.2):2:2);

As you can see, the parameter may be a literal constant, an expression, or a variable. The function header takes the following form: FUNCTION function-name(formal-parameter-list) :return-type;

In this program the function Avg is demonstrated. { ------------------------------ Example 7-5 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM Functions1(INPUT, OUTPUT); VAR A, B, C :REAL; { ------------ Beginning of Function ------------- } FUNCTION Avg(X, Y, Z :REAL) :REAL; BEGIN AVG := (X + Y + Z) / 3 END; { --------------- End of Function ---------------- } { ----------------- Main program ----------------- } BEGIN WRITE('Enter three numbers: '); READLN(A, B, C); WRITELN('The average is= ', Avg(A, B, C):0:2) END.

Sample run: Enter three numbers: 2 3 8 The average is= 4.33

Like procedures, functions are independent subprograms. All parameters, variables, and constants declared within the function body are local to it and are invisible to other program units. In a function subprogram, the function must be assigned a value.

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In a function subprogram, the function name cannot be treated like a variable; i.e., it may not be involved in expressions. It may only be assigned a value.

Drill 7-2 Write a function to return the maximum number in a one-dimensional array and include the function in a program. You may use any procedures you wrote before to build the program.

7-5 Tips on the Scope of Variables The following program frame consists of three program units, procedure Kid1, procedure Kid2, and the main program Parent. According to the rules of variable scope, any variable declared in Parent (global variable) is accessible to both Kid1 and Kid2 unless it is redeclared locally in either of them. On the other hand, any local variable declared in Kid1 is hidden from both Parent and Kid2. The same thing applies for Kid2 variables. If you consider the main program as a parent and the subprograms as kids, it then follows that whatever belongs to the parent belongs to the kids, but the opposite is not valid. In other words, the kids inherit everything from the parent, but each one of them has its own property, which is not inherited by a parent or a sibling. { -------------------------------- Example 7-6 ---------------------------- } PROGRAM Parent; { --------------- PROCEDURE KID1 --------------- } PROCEDURE Kid1(...); ... BEGIN ... END; { --------- END OF PROCEDURE KID1 --------- } { ---------------- PROCEDURE KID2 -------------- } PROCEDURE Kid2(...); ... BEGIN ... END; { --------- END OF PROCEDURE KID2 --------- } { ------------------------------ MAIN PROGRAM ---------------------------- } BEGIN ... END.

Either of the two procedures may be called from the main program. The procedure Kid1 may also be called from Kid2 because it has already been defined, but the procedure Kid2 cannot be called from Kid1 because it has not yet been defined. There is a way to get around this restriction using a forward declaration by including the header of Kid2, followed by the keyword FORWARD, at the beginning of the program, like this:

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PROGRAM Parent; { Forward declaration of Kid2 } PROCEDURE Kid2(...); FORWARD; { Definition of Kid1 } PROCEDURE Kid1(...); ... { Definition of Kid2 } PROCEDURE Kid2(...); ... { Main program } ...

Now take a look at the new program structure in the following example. The procedure GrandKid is defined inside the procedure Kid, which means that Kid has become the parent of another subprogram. In such a case, any variable in Kid is global in GrandKid, and so are the variables of Parent (unless any of them is redeclared in GrandKid). The local variables in GrandKid, however, are not accessible by either Kid or Parent. { -------------------------------- Example 7-7 ---------------------------- } PROGRAM Parent; { ------------------- PROCEDURE KID -------------------- } PROCEDURE Kid(...); ... { ------------ PROCEDURE GRANDKID ----------- } PROCEDURE GrandKid(...); BEGIN ... END; { ----- END OF PROCEDURE GRANDKID ----- } BEGIN ... END; { ------------- END OF PROCEDURE KID -------------- } { ----------------------------- MAIN PROGRAM ---------------------------- } BEGIN ... END.

To summarize: g

The scope of a variable is the program unit in which it is declared.

g

A global variable is accessible in any program unit unless it is redeclared locally in that unit.

g

A local variable is not accessible outside the program unit in which it is declared. It is, however, accessible to any subprogram defined within this program unit unless redeclared inside that subprogram.

g

Any subprogram can be called from any program unit as long as its definition (or its forward declaration) preceded the call.

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7-6 Recursion A function or procedure may call itself; this is known as recursion. The factorial function is a good example of recursion. You know (from Chapter 4) that the factorial of a number X can be obtained from the relation: factorial(X) = X * factorial(X–1) In other words, to get the factorial of 4 you multiply 4 by the factorial of 3; to get the factorial of 3 you multiply 3 by the factorial of 2, etc. This continues until you reach the value 1. Here is the program that contains the factorial function. { ------------------------------ Example 7-8 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM FunctionRecursion(INPUT, OUTPUT); VAR A :INTEGER; { ------------- Function Definition -------------- } FUNCTION Factorial(X :INTEGER) :REAL; BEGIN IF X <= 1 THEN Factorial := 1 ELSE Factorial := X * Factorial(X-1); END; { --------------- End of Function ---------------- } { ----------------- Main program ----------------- } BEGIN WRITE('Enter a number: '); READLN(A); WRITELN('The Factorial of ', A,' = ', Factorial(A):0:0) END.

Sample run: Enter a number: 6 The Factorial of 6 = 720

Notice in the function program that in the statement: Factorial := X * Factorial(X-1);

the left side contains the name of the function, while on the right side there is a call of the function to calculate the factorial of X–1. This process will continue until the condition terminates the function.

Drill 7-3 Write the factorial subprogram as a procedure and compare it to the factorial function.

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Summary In this chapter you learned about the Pascal program structure. You know how to divide your program into subprograms, whether functions or procedures. These are important points to remember: 1. A subprogram is declared in the last section of the declaration part and consists of a header, a declaration part, and statements. The header of a procedure takes the form: PROCEDURE name; or PROCEDURE procedure-name(formal-parameter-list); The header of a function takes the form: FUNCTION function-name(formal-parameter-list) :return-type; 2. A procedure is called by its name exactly like a statement. When parameters are used in a procedure call, they must match the parameters in the procedure header. Procedure parameters are either value or variable parameters. A variable parameter is used when it is required to have the procedure change the value of the parameter. 3. A function is usually called as part of an expression; it returns a single value that replaces the name of the function in that expression. 4. You now know that each variable has a scope, and you learned the rules that control the scope and the relationship between global and local variables.

Exercises 1. True or false: a. The parameters used in the declaration of a procedure or a function are called formal parameters, while those used in the procedure or function call are called actual parameters. b. A variable parameter is preceded by the keyword VAR. c. A value parameter is preceded by the keyword VAR. d. The function name can be assigned a value. e. The function name can be involved in expressions. f. A function always returns a value. g. A procedure cannot return a value. h. Arrays, enumerations, and subranges must be declared in the TYPE section if they are to be used as formal parameters in a subprogram.

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2. True or false: a. The scope of a variable is the program unit in which it is declared. b. A global variable is accessible in any program unit unless it is redeclared locally in that unit. c. A local variable is not accessible outside the program unit in which it is declared. It is, however, accessible to any subprogram defined within this program unit unless redeclared inside that subprogram. d. Any subprogram can be called from any program unit as long as its definition, or its forward declaration, precedes the call. 3. Write a procedure definition that takes three integer parameters x, y, and z. The parameter x is changed by the procedure and returned back to the caller. Also write the procedure call. 4. A Fibonacci sequence (named after the Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci) is the sequence of numbers 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, . . . , in which each successive number, after the first two, is equal to the sum of the two preceding numbers. Write a function that takes the sequence of the number as a parameter and returns the corresponding Fibonacci number. For example, the call Fibonacci(5) returns 8 and Fibonacci(6) returns 13. 5. Write the main program that invokes the Fibonacci function (from Exercise 4) to print a specific number of elements of the Fibonacci sequence. The following is an example of the required output: Please enter the maximum number of elements: 9 Sequence Fibonacci number 0 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 8 6 13 7 21 8 34

Answers 1. c, e, and g are false. 2. All true. 3. The procedure declaration is: PROCEDURE MyProcedure(VAR X:REAL; Y, Z:REAL);

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An example of the procedure call is: MyProcedure(a, b, c) 4. The following is the Fibonacci function definition: FUNCTION Fibonacci(I: INTEGER): LONGINT; BEGIN IF I <= 1 THEN Fibonacci := 1 ELSE Fibonacci := Fibonacci(i-1) + Fibonacci(i-2) END;

5. The following is the program that invokes the Fibonacci function; add to it the variable declarations. WRITE('Please enter the maximum number of elements: '); READLN(N); WRITELN('Sequence', CHR(9), 'Fibonacci number'); I := 0; WHILE I < N DO BEGIN WRITELN(I, CHR(9), CHR(9), Fibonacci(i)); I := I + 1; END;

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Chapter 8aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Sets and Records 8-1 Sets If you would like to test a character to see if it is an uppercase letter, you may use the following condition: READ(Character); IF (Character >= 'A') AND (Character <= 'Z') THEN ...

There is a simpler way to express the same condition. Take a look at this statement: IF Character IN ['A'..'Z']

THEN ...

This expression speaks for itself; it is almost plain English. It says: “if the character is IN the set of uppercase letters ['A'..'Z'] then ...” In a similar way, you can express any set of items such as: ['a'..'z'] ['A'..'Z', 'a'..'z'] [0..9]

the set of lowercase letters the set of all letters the set of digits

The set is a structured data type that may include unordered elements (or members). You can express a set constant by listing its elements between brackets separated by commas. Unlike arrays, the order of elements in a set is not important. For example, the set [1,3,5,7], which represents the set of odd numbers between one and seven, is the same as the set [1,7,5,3]. This indicates another difference between sets and arrays. In arrays you can access any element by its position in the array, but with sets you cannot access individual elements. You can only test a data item to see if it is a member of the set using the IN operator. If the elements of a set form a continuous subrange, you may use the two periods (..); for example, the set [1,2,3,4,6,8] can be written as [1..4,6,8]. The elements of a set can be of any ordinal type, but all of the elements must be of the same type, which is called the base type.

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8-2 Set Declaration and Assignment You can declare a set variable using the keywords SET OF, as in this example where a set of the base type CHAR is declared: VAR LowerCase :SET OF CHAR;

After this declaration you can assign the variable LowerCase a set constant of the base type CHAR, for example: LowerCase := ['a'..'z'];

You may then test a variable of the type CHAR for membership in this set using an expression like: IF Character IN LowerCase THEN ...

Note that if you use the expression IN ['a'..'z'] there is no need for declarations. As with other structured types, it is preferable to declare sets in the TYPE section; you can then use this type in the VAR section to declare variables. The declaration takes the form: type-identifier = SET OF base-type;

Here is an example: TYPE Days = (Monday,Tuesday,Wednesday,Thursday,Friday,Saturday,Sunday); Languages = (C,CPP,Pascal,Fortran,Basic,Cobol,Assembly); Digits = SET OF 0..9; Lowercase = SET OF 'a'..'z'; Uppercase = SET OF 'A'..'Z'; DaySet = SET OF Days; LanguageSet = SET OF Languages; CharacterSet = SET OF CHAR; VAR WholeWeek, WorkingDays, WeekEnd :DaySet; OddNum, EvenNum, Numbers :Digits; Small :Lowercase; Capital :Uppercase; ProgCodes, HLL, LLL, MLL :LanguageSet; Alphabet :CharacterSet;

In these declarations, variables such as WeekEnd, WorkingDays, and WholeWeek are all sets of the base type Days. Any of these set variables may be assigned one or more elements of the enumeration Days, such as: WeekEnd := [Saturday,Sunday]; WorkingDays := [Monday..Friday]; WholeWeek := [Monday..Sunday];

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The last statement is equivalent to the statement: WholeWeek := [Monday,Tuesday,Wednesday,Thursday,Friday,Saturday,Sunday];

The value of a set variable is undefined until it is assigned a value. When you assign a set constant to a set variable, their base types must be compatible, i.e., they must be of the same type, subranges of the same type, or one of them must be a subrange of the other. Here are more assignments: OddNum := [1,3,5,7,9]; EvenNum := [2,4,6,8]; ProgCodes := [C..Assembly]; LLL := [Assembly];

The empty set is a set with no members and is denoted by the constant []. You may assign this constant to any set variable of any base type, for example: OddNum := [];

Rules and Restrictions The following are the main rules and restrictions that control the use of sets: g

There is usually a limit on the maximum number of elements of a set. This limit varies with different Pascal implementations; in Turbo Pascal, for example, it is 255. The declaration SET OF INTEGER is not allowed because the range of integers exceeds this maximum number, but you can get around that by using subranges such as SET OF 0..99. In some implementations, the declaration SET OF CHAR is not allowed either, in which case a subrange of the type CHAR might be used.

g

You may assign a set to another set: NewSet := OldSet;

In this case, NewSet is an exact copy of OldSet. g

You may declare an array of sets, as in: DaysArray = ARRAY[1..10] OF DaySet;

where DaySet is a previously declared set type. g

You cannot read or write a set using the input/output statements, but there are some programming techniques using set operations (explained in the next section) that may be used.

g

Sets can be passed as parameters of subprograms, in which case they must be declared as types.

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8-3 Set Operators and Operations In addition to the membership operator IN, you can use the following operations with sets of compatible types: Union (+) Intersection (*) Difference (–)

Union The union of two sets S1 and S2 is a set whose elements are in either S1 or S2, or in both. The operator + is used for this operation, for example (using the previous declarations): Alphabet := Small + Capital;

The set Alphabet will thus contain both the lowercase and the uppercase letters.

Intersection The intersection of two sets results in a set whose members are the elements common to both sets. For example, the statement: MLL := [C,CPP,Cobol] * [Basic,Fortran,C,CPP]

results in the set MLL, which contains C and CPP.

Difference The difference of two sets S1 and S2 is the set whose members are in S1 but not in S2. For example, the statement: HLL := ProgCodes – LLL;

results in the set HLL, which contains all the elements of the set ProgCodes except Assembly.

Tips on Using Set Operators You can make use of the union operation to construct a new set (read a set) by reading one element at a time and adding it to the set, for example: Read(NewElement); Set1 := Set1 + [NewElement];

You can also make use of the difference operation to display the elements of a set. This is done by testing the membership of a variable of the same base type as that of

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the set. If the element is a set member, it is displayed, subtracted from the set, and replaced by its successor. This continues until the set is empty.

Drill 8-1 Evaluate the following expressions: (See the answers in the file DRL8-1.TXT on the companion CD-ROM.) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

['A','B','C','D'] + ['E','F'] ['A','B','C','D'] + ['B','C','E','F'] [1,3,7] + [] ['A','D','F'] * ['O','F'] [1,2,3,4] * [5,6,7] [1,2,3,4] – [5,6,7] [5,6,7] – [] [Able, Baker, Charlie] – [Able, Charlie]

Relational Operators The relational operators =, >=, <=, and <> can be used with sets of compatible types. The meanings of the set relational operators are indicated in Table 8-1 by comparing two sets, S1 and S2. The table contains TRUE expressions as examples of each operation. The operators > and < are not mentioned in the table as they may not be used with sets. Table 8-1 Set relational operators Expression S1 = S2 S1 <> S2 S1 >= S2 S1 <= S2

Meaning Both S1 and S2 contain the same elements. S1 and S2 do not contain the same elements. All elements of S2 are in S1. All elements of S1 are in S2.

Example [1,0] = [1,0] [1,0] <> [1,4] [1,2,3,4] >= [1,2][1,2,3] >= [1,2,3] [] <= [1,2,3][1,2,3] <= [1,2,3]

The relative precedence of Pascal operators (including the new operator IN) is shown in Table 8-2. Notice that the set operators (+, –, *) use the same symbols as the arithmetic operators. Also, the relational operators are used with either simple data types or sets.

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Table 8-2 Precedence of Pascal operators Operator NOT * / DIV MOD AND + – OR (XOR in Turbo Pascal) = > < >= <= <> IN

Precedence Priority 1 (highest) Priority 2 Priority 3 Priority 4 (lowest)

You may combine relational expressions using the Boolean operators AND, OR, and NOT, but you must watch the precedence of operators, for example: IF (Ch IN Small) AND (Ch IN Capital) THEN ...

The parentheses are necessary in this expression because the IN operator has a lower precedence than the AND operator.

Drill 8-2 Write a program to test the expressions in Table 8-1.

Example: Text Analyzer In the following program, the printable characters are divided into the following sets: 1. Lowercase letters 2. Uppercase letters 3. Alphabetic characters (which is the union of 1 and 2) 4. Digits 5. Punctuation characters 6. Other characters The program reads a text file from the keyboard character by character and tests each character to see if it is a member of any one of these sets. The program is straightforward and contains four parts: declarations of sets, initialization of counters, testing memberships of characters, and displaying results. { ------------------------------ Example 8-1 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM TextAnalyzer(INPUT,OUTPUT); TYPE LowerCase = SET OF 'a'..'z'; UpperCase = SET OF 'A'..'Z'; Digits = SET OF '0'..'9'; Characters = SET OF CHAR; VAR Capital :UpperCase; Small :LowerCase; Numerals :Digits; Alphabet, Punctuation, Others :Characters;

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A, C, S, N, P, O, Counter :INTEGER; Ch :CHAR; BEGIN Counter := 0; { counter of all characters } A := 0; { counter of alphabetic characters } C := 0; { counter of capital letters } S := 0; { counter of small letters } N := 0; { counter of numeric characters } P := 0; { counter of punctuation characters } O := 0; { counter of other characters } Small := ['a'..'z']; Capital := ['A'..'Z']; Alphabet := Small + Capital; Numerals := ['0'..'9']; Punctuation := [',',';','-','''','.','!','?',')','(','"',':','_']; WRITELN('Start typing your text file. To terminate press Ctrl-Z:'); WHILE NOT EOF DO BEGIN WHILE NOT EOLN DO BEGIN READ(Ch); Counter := Counter + 1; IF Ch IN Alphabet THEN BEGIN A := A + 1; IF Ch IN Small THEN S := S + 1 ELSE IF Ch IN Capital THEN C := C + 1 END ELSE IF Ch IN Numerals THEN N := N + 1 ELSE IF Ch IN Punctuation THEN P := P + 1 ELSE O := O + 1 END; READLN END; WRITELN('Total number of characters = ', Counter); WRITELN('Number of alphabetic characters = ', A); WRITELN(' .Number of lowercase letters: ', S); WRITELN(' .Number of uppercase letters: ', C); WRITELN('Number of numeric characters = ', N); WRITELN('Number of punctuation characters = ', P); WRITELN('Number of other characters = ', O) END.

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Sample run: Start typing your text file. To terminate press Ctrl-Z: The standard set operators are: 1. Union (+). 2. Intersection (*). 3. Difference (-). ^Z Total number of characters Number of alphabetic characters .Number of lowercase letters: 49 .Number of uppercase letters: 4 Number of numeric characters Number of punctuation characters Number of other characters

----> Press Ctrl+Z to end the text = 85 = 53

= 3 = 14 = 15

Sets are useful for testing conditions. One common use of sets is to precede a CASE statement in order to filter out the unwanted data which do not belong to any case.

8-4 Records A record, another structured type in Pascal, is a collection of related data items which may be of different types. Each item in the record is called a field. Take a look at this record, which is used to store information about each employee in a company: Employee Record Field # Information Possible Data Type 1. Name STRING 2. Address STRING 3. Phone number STRING/INTEGER 4. Hourly rate REAL 5. Marital status CHAR/Enumeration Unlike arrays (which contain elements of the same type), records may contain fields of any data type, including the type RECORD itself.

Record Declaration The declaration of a record takes the form: type-identifier = RECORD field-list END; The field list contains the name and type of each field as in this declaration of the record EmployeeRecord:

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:STRING[25]; :STRING[40]; :STRING[12]; :REAL; :CHAR;

NOTE

If your Pascal implementation does not support the STRING type, you may replace the STRING variables by INTEGER or CHAR variables, in which case you need to replace the variable Name with another variable like ID, etc.)

A record declaration must be terminated by the keyword END. In the VAR section, the record is then declared as a variable of the type EmployeeRecord: VAR EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord;

As with other structured and user-defined data types, you can declare a record in the VAR section directly, but you now know the advantages of declaring data structures as types.

Accessing Fields Each field in a record can be accessed using both the record identifier and the field identifier separated by a period. For example, you can assign values to the fields with statements like: EmployeeRec.Name := 'Charles A. Dixon'; EmployeeRec.Rate := 22.5;

You can do the same thing with input and output operations: WRITELN('Employee Name: ', EmployeeRec.Name);

This type of compound variable is called a fielded variable. Actually, the scope of the field identifier (such as Name) is the record in which it was declared, and it may be used elsewhere in the program as the name of another variable if desired. In the following example, the record EmployeeRec is filled and then displayed. {------------------------------- Example 8-2 -------------------------------} PROGRAM RecordExample1(OUTPUT); TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD Name :STRING[25]; Address :STRING[40]; Phone :STRING[12];

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Rate MaritalStatus

:REAL; :CHAR;

END; VAR EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; BEGIN { Assign values to the fielded variables } EmployeeRec.Name := 'Diane J. Bedford'; EmployeeRec.Address := '20 Carmen Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112'; EmployeeRec.Phone := '504-666-5043'; EmployeeRec.Rate := 28.5; EmployeeRec.MaritalStatus := 'S'; { Display record information } WRITELN('Employee Name: ', EmployeeRec.Name); WRITELN('Address: ', EmployeeRec.Address); WRITELN('Telephone #: ', EmployeeRec.Phone); WRITELN('Hourly Rate: $', EmployeeRec.Rate:0:2); WRITELN('Marital Status: ', EmployeeRec.MaritalStatus) END.

The output is: Employee Name: Address: Telephone #: Hourly Rate: Marital Status:

Diane J. Bedford 20 Carmen Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 504-666-5043 $28.50 S

The WITH Statement There is, however, a shorter way to do this by using the WITH statement. When you use the WITH statement, you do not have to use fielded variables. Look at this block of assignments using the WITH statement: WITH EmployeeRec DO BEGIN Name := 'Charles A. Dixon'; Address := '202 Greenwood, Gretna, LA 70088'; Phone := '504-666-7574'; Rate := 22.5; MaritalStatus := 'M' END;

The effect of using the WITH statement is to attach each field name to the record name. If one of the variables inside the block is not a field identifier, it will not be modified by the WITH statement. If WITH is followed by only one statement, there is of course no need for the BEGIN-END block. You can use the WITH statement to call a procedure to process the fields of a record, for example:

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WITH EmployeeRec DO DisplayResults(Name, Rate);

This statement is equivalent to: DisplayResults(EmployeeRec.Name, EmployeeRec.Rate);

The WITH statement takes the general form: WITH record-identifier DO statement;

The following example demonstrates the same logic as that used in Example 8-2, but the program is divided into three subprograms: GetData, DisplayInfo, and DrawLine (which you wrote earlier). The output of this program is displayed in the proper format, using a header for the record. {------------------------------- Example 8-3 -------------------------------} PROGRAM RecordExample2(OUTPUT); TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD Name :STRING[25]; Address :STRING[40]; Phone :STRING[12]; Rate :REAL; MaritalStatus :CHAR; END; VAR EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; { ------------ Procedure DrawLine -------------- } PROCEDURE DrawLine(LineLength, TabLength :INTEGER); CONST Dash = '-'; VAR Counter :INTEGER; BEGIN FOR Counter := 1 TO TabLength DO WRITE(' '); FOR Counter := 1 TO LineLength DO WRITE(Dash); WRITELN END; { ------------- Procedure GetData -------------- } PROCEDURE GetData(VAR Employee :EmployeeRecord); {Name,Address,Phone,Rate,MaritalStatus);} { Assign values to fields } BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN Name := 'Diane J. Bedford'; Address := '20 Carmen Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112'; Phone := '504-666-5043';

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Rate := 28.5; MaritalStatus := 'S' END END; { ----------- Procedure DisplayInfo ------------ } PROCEDURE DisplayInfo(Employee :EmployeeRecord); { Display record information } CONST Header ='Record of '; VAR Len, Tab, Counter :INTEGER; HeaderText, Status :STRING; BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN HeaderText := CONCAT(Header,Name); Len := LENGTH(HeaderText); Tab := (80- Len) DIV 2; DrawLine(Len, Tab); FOR Counter := 1 TO Tab DO WRITE(' '); WRITELN(HeaderText); DrawLine(Len, Tab); WRITELN('Address: ', Address); WRITELN('Telephone #: ', Phone); WRITELN('Hourly Rate: $', Rate:0:2); IF MaritalStatus = 'M' THEN Status := 'Married' ELSE Status := 'Single'; WRITELN('Marital Status: ', Status) END END; { --------------- Main Program ----------------- } BEGIN GetData(EmployeeRec); DisplayInfo(EmployeeRec) END.

The output is:

Address: Telephone #: Hourly Rate: Marital Status:

--------------------------Record of Diane J. Bedford --------------------------20 Carmen Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 504-666-5043 $28.50 Single

The points which are worthy of your attention in the program are the use of the WITH statement and the passing of the record as a parameter to the subprograms. Notice

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also that the record is passed once as a variable parameter (using VAR), when it was to return values of the fields, and once as a value parameter, when it was only a receiver. The actual value of such a program comes when it reads the employee information from a data file, which will be discussed shortly.

8-5 Nesting Records In the EmployeeRecord example you may split the field address information into street address, city, state, and zip code. This means that the address field becomes a record nested in the EmployeeRecord. The new record will look as follows: TYPE AddressRecord = RECORD Street City State Zip END; EmployeeRecord = RECORD Name AddressRec Phone Rate MaritalStatus END; VAR EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord;

:STRING[18]; :STRING[15]; :STRING[2]; :String[5];

:STRING[25]; :AddressRecord; :STRING[12]; :REAL; :CHAR;

In this declaration, you have two record types: AddressRecord and EmployeeRecord. The field AddressRec in the employee record is of the type AddressRecord which was defined before. To deal with any fielded variables in AddressRec you have to attach both names of the two records EmployeeRec (which is the grandparent) and AddressRec (which is the parent). Here are some sample assignments: EmployeeRec.AddressRec.Street := '15 Darell Street'; EmployeeRec.AddressRec.Zip := '60108';

When you display any of these fields you use the same method: WRITELN(EmployeeRec.AddressRec.Street); WRITELN(EmployeeRec.AddressRec.City);

Here is the complete program: { ------------------------------ Example 8-4 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM NestedRecord(OUTPUT); TYPE AddressRecord = RECORD

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Street :STRING[18]; City :STRING[15]; State :STRING[2]; Zip :String[5]; END; EmployeeRecord = RECORD Name :STRING[25]; AddressRec :AddressRecord; Phone :STRING[12]; Rate :REAL; MaritalStatus :CHAR; END; VAR EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; BEGIN EmployeeRec.Name := 'Jean L. Krauss'; EmployeeRec.AddressRec.Street := '15 Darell Street'; EmployeeRec.AddressRec.City := 'Bloomingdale'; EmployeeRec.AddressRec.State := 'IL'; EmployeeRec.AddressRec.Zip := '60108'; EmployeeRec.Phone := '312-987-5432'; EmployeeRec.Rate := 27.5; EmployeeRec.MaritalStatus := 'M'; WRITELN('Employee Name: ', EmployeeRec.Name); WRITELN('Address: ', EmployeeRec.AddressRec.Street); WRITELN(' ', EmployeeRec.AddressRec.City); WRITE(' ', EmployeeRec.AddressRec.State); WRITELN(' ', EmployeeRec.AddressRec.Zip); WRITELN('Telephone #: ', EmployeeRec.Phone); WRITELN('Hourly Rate: $', EmployeeRec.Rate:0:2); WRITELN('Marital Status: ', EmployeeRec.MaritalStatus) END.

The output is: Employee Name: Address:

Telephone #: Hourly Rate: Marital Status:

Jean L. Krauss 15 Darell Street Bloomingdale IL 60108 312-987-5432 $27.50 M

If you would like to use the WITH statement with such a nested record you need two nested WITH blocks, thus: WITH EmployeeRec DO WITH AddressRec DO BEGIN

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Name := 'Tammy M. Ockman'; Street := '344 Temple Dr.'; ... END;

If any field identifier belongs to AddressRec, it will be modified by both AddressRec and EmployeeRec, but if it belongs to EmployeeRec directly, it will be modified by EmployeeRec only. If it is a regular variable, it will not be modified at all.

Drill 8-3 Write the complete program that initializes and displays the employee record using the WITH statement with the nested address record shown above.

Summary In this chapter you were introduced to two structured data types, the set and the record, and are now familiar with their features. 1. You now know how to declare a set of a specific base type using the form: type-identifier = SET OF base-type;

2. You also know the standard set operators (union (+), intersection (*), and difference (–)) and the set relational operators ( = >= <= <>), and learned how to use these operators to process sets. 3. You are familiar with restrictions on sets, as well as their main uses in programming. 4. You can declare record types using the form RECORD field-list END;

5. You can access fields using either fielded variables or the WITH statement, which takes the form: WITH record-identifier DO statement;

6. You also know how to declare and use nested records and how to process them as well.

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Exercises 1. True or false: a. For sets to be passed as parameters, they must be declared in the TYPE section. b. You can read and write sets by using input and output statements. c. You can declare an array whose elements are sets. d. The main difference between arrays and sets is that sets may contain unordered items (members). e. The main difference between arrays and records is that records may contain items (fields) of different data types. f. A record can contain fields of any data type except the type RECORD. g. Elements of sets and arrays can be accessed by their relative position in the set or the array. 2. Given the following declarations: VAR S1, S2 :SET OF CHAR; A, B, C, D, E, F :BOOLEAN;

evaluate the following expressions assuming that S1 and S2 are not empty: {a} {b} {c} {d} {e} {f}

A B C D E F

:= := := := := :=

S1*S2 S1*S2 S1+S2 S1+S2 S1-S2 S1-S2

<= <= >= >= <= >=

S1; S2; S1; S2; S1+S2; S1+S2;

3. In the following expressions, S1, S2, and S3 are integers and S4 is a character variable. {a} {b} {c} {d}

(S1 > 10) AND (S1 < (S2=3) OR (S2=5) OR (S3 >= 2) AND (S3 < (S4 >= 'a') AND (S4

100); (S2=7); 9) OR (S3 = 11); <= 'z');

Write the equivalent statements assuming that S1, S2, S3, and S4 are sets. 4. Given the following assignments: S1 := [1..9]; S2 := [1,3,5,7,9]; S3 := [2,4,6,8];

evaluate the following expressions: {a} {b} {c} {d}

S2 S1 S1 S2

+ – – *

S3; S2; S3; S3;

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{e} S3 * S1; {f} S2 * S1;

5. Given the following type enumeration: Days = (Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun);

write a Pascal program segment to do the following: a. Declare the set, DaySet, of the base type Days. b. Declare the three variables, WorkingDays, WeekEnd, and WeekDays, of the type DaySet. c. Assign all the weekdays to WeekDays. d. Assign Sat and Sun to WeekEnd. e. Assign the rest of the days to WorkingDays. f. Test the following expressions (The test result is indicated as a comment in front of each expression): WeekDays = WorkingDays + WeekEnd; WeekEnd = WeekDays – WorkingDays; WorkingDays = WeekDays – WeekEnd; WorkingDays * WeekEnd = []; Sat IN WorkingDays; Sun IN WeekEnd;

{TRUE} {TRUE} {TRUE} {TRUE} {FALSE} {TRUE}

6. Write a record declaration using the appropriate data types for each of the following items: a. Inventory item, which includes Name, Shelf #, Stock #, Available Amount, and Price. b. Employee, which includes Name, ID, Network Domain, E-mail Alias, and Office #. c. Employee, which contains the same fields as in the previous Employee record, in addition to the Address record. The Address record should contain: Street Address, City, State, and Zip Code. d. Newly born baby, which includes Name, Family Name, Father’s Name, Mother’s Name, Weight, Place of Birth, and Date of Birth. e. Flight, which contains Airline, Flight Number, Arrival, Arriving From, Departure, and Flying To. f. Text Book, which contains Book Title, Author, Publisher, and Publication Date.

Answers 1. a. True

b. False

c. True

d. True

e. True

f. False

2. a. True

b. True

c. True

d. True

e. True

f. False.

3. The following are the equivalent set expressions: {a} S1 := [11..99]; {b} S2 := [3,5,7];

g. False.

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{c} S3 := [2..8,11]; {d} S4 := ['a'..'z'];

4. a. S1

b. S3

c. S2

d. []

e. S3

f. S2

5. The following is the required Pascal code: TYPE Days = (Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun); DaySet = SET OF Days; VAR WorkingDays, WeekEnd, WeekDays A, B, C, D, E, F

:DaySet; :BOOLEAN;

BEGIN WorkingDays := [Mon..Fri]; WeekEnd := [Sat..Sun]; WeekDays := [Mon..Sun]; A B C D E F

:= := := := := :=

WeekDays = WorkingDays + WeekEnd; WeekEnd = WeekDays – WorkingDays; WorkingDays = WeekDays – WeekEnd; WorkingDays * WeekEnd = []; Sat IN WorkingDays; Sun IN WeekEnd;

WRITELN('A WRITELN('B WRITELN('C WRITELN('D WRITELN('E WRITELN('F END.

=',A); =',B); =',C); =',D); =',E); =',F);

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Chapter 9aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Files and Applications 9-1 Data Files In the previous chapters you have used different data structures in which to store data items and you know how to organize your data for optimum processing efficiency. If you do not store data to the disk, however, every data item you entered into a program will evaporate when the program exits. Using disks to store your data in files will enable you to save your data permanently and retrieve them later for either reviewing or further processing. A FILE (which is a structured type) is generally defined as a collection of related items stored on disk or any other external storage medium and arranged in sequence as shown below: Item-1

Item-2

Item-3

Item-4

...

EOF

A file item (also called a file component or file element) may be of any simple or structured type except the type FILE. Files may be accessed to perform either one of the following operations: g

Reading from a file (input)

g

Writing to a file (output)

Files can be organized as either sequential access files or random (direct) access files. In the first method an item in the file cannot be reached unless all the preceding items are read. One example of a sequential access file is a purchase list which has to be read from the top down to access a specific item. The random access file is organized like a set of post office boxes, which are identified by numbers and accessed directly without the need to go through them all. While standard Pascal allows only sequential access files, many implementations of Pascal (including Turbo and UCSD) provide random access files as well. The files discussed in this chapter are all sequential access files.

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9-2 TEXT Files Standard Pascal provides two types of files, TEXT files and non-TEXT files (also called binary or typed files). A TEXT file is the simpler file structure as its elements are all characters (of the type CHAR). You have already used the standard INPUT file (the keyboard) and the standard OUTPUT file (the screen), which are classified as TEXT files. A TEXT file consists of successive lines of characters separated by end-of-line marks and ends with the end-of-file mark, as in this example: This is a text file. (EOLN) Each line is composed of successive characters. (EOLN) Lines are separated by end-of-line marks. (EOLN) The file is terminated by an end-of-file mark. (EOLN) (EOF) The file on the disk looks exactly the same as the file you type onto the screen from the keyboard. The characters in a TEXT file are stored in the ASCII format (or EBCDIC in some systems), which means that if the file contains a number like “1234” it will be stored in four bytes, each byte representing the ASCII code of a digit. This is not the case if the number is treated as an INTEGER, in which case it is stored in the internal binary format (0000010011010010) in two bytes.

9-3 Reading a TEXT File In Chapter 8 you used Example 8-1 to read a TEXT file from the keyboard character by character and categorize each character in the file. In this section, the same logic will be used to read and analyze a previously stored text file on the disk. You need to make a few changes in Example 8-1 to make it read a disk file. As we discuss these changes, you will learn the protocols necessary to retrieve information from a TEXT file.

File Variables In order to use a disk TEXT file you have to declare a file variable of the type TEXT. If you choose a name like “DiskFile” for this purpose, the declaration will be: VAR DiskFile :TEXT;

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File Parameters To use a file in standard Pascal, you must include the file variable (DiskFile in our example) among the other file parameters in the program header (this is not necessary in other implementations). PROGRAM TextAnalyzer2(OUTPUT, DiskFile);

Here, the parameter INPUT is not needed as long as no data are to be read from the keyboard. The parameter OUTPUT, however, is necessary for displaying the output.

Opening a File for Input: RESET To read a TEXT file, it must be opened using the standard procedure RESET as follows: RESET(DiskFile);

The parameter of the procedure is the file variable. In Turbo Pascal another procedure, ASSIGN, must also be used to link the actual data file on the disk to the file variable. If the text file to be read is the file C:\CONFIG.SYS (which already exists in the root directory of the hard disk C:), then the following statement must be used before opening the file: ASSIGN(DiskFile, 'C:\CONFIG.SYS');

You may replace the file CONFIG.SYS with any other existing file, or you can write a new text file with any text editor (such as EDIT or EDLIN). In any case, if the file is not in the current directory or on the current disk, you have to include the complete pathname of the file as shown in the statement above (for more details on pathnames, refer to your DOS manual). Because Turbo Pascal was used to compile the programs in this book, the following two statements were used to open the file: ASSIGN(DiskFile, 'CONFIG.SYS'); RESET(DiskFile);

Now the file CONFIG.SYS is ready for input, and the file pointer is pointing to the first item (character) in the file. Some implementations (such as UCSD) link the file variable and the file name with the RESET procedure, thus making the ASSIGN procedure unnecessary: RESET(file-variable, file-name);

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Closing the File The last step after you are finished with reading or writing to a disk file is to close it using the CLOSE procedure, or else data will be lost. This procedure is neither available nor necessary in standard Pascal, where punched cards and magnetic tape files were used. To close a file, the procedure CLOSE is used as in: CLOSE(DiskFile);

Some versions use more parameters for the CLOSE procedure. For example, in UCSD the file must be closed after writing to it using the form: CLOSE(file-variable, action);

where action is replaced by either the keyword LOCK if the file will be retained or PURGE if the file will be deleted. To summarize, these are the general formulas for preparing a TEXT file for input: g

Program header: PROGRAM Program-name(file-list); (The file-list is optional in most versions.)

g

File variable declaration: file-variable :TEXT;

g

Linking file variable to file name (Turbo only): ASSIGN(file-variable, file-name);

g

Opening a file for input: RESET(file-variable);

g

Closing a file (for versions other than standard Pascal): CLOSE(file-variable); CLOSE(file-variable, action);

(UCSD)

File Input Procedures: READ, READLN The input/output statements you have used before are actually special cases of the general form. The complete form of the READLN (or READ) procedure is: READLN(file-variable, input-list); READ(file-variable, input-list); If no file-variable is used, the form is reduced to the one you have been using: READLN(input-list);

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This is the same as using the name of the standard INPUT file: READLN(INPUT, input-list); In our example we are going to use the file-variable DiskFile. The input statement will be: READ(DiskFile,Ch);

where Ch is the character variable to be read.

The EOF and EOLN Functions The general form of the EOLN function includes the file variable as follows: EOLN(file-variable) If the file-variable and parentheses are omitted, the standard INPUT file (the keyboard) is assumed. The same thing goes for the EOF function:

aa aa

EOF(file-variable)

NOTE

In this chapter, you will use a number of text files as you go through the examples and drills. Some examples create data files, while other examples read them. Therefore, it is best to go through the examples in sequence. However, if you would like to jump to any of the examples randomly, make sure the required text files exist in the current directory. For your convenience, we put all the data files in the example directories, in addition to a fresh copy of all the data files in the directory \TextFiles on the companion CD-ROM. In case you accidentally overwrite one of the files, you can copy it from this directory. When you run the examples, make sure the example and the data files it uses are all in the current directory.

Example: Disk-File Text Analyzer Now that you have all the tools for reading a file you can examine the following program, which will give you a complete report on the file CONFIG.SYS, provided on the companion disk in the same directory as the program. If you want to read the CONFIG.SYS file from the root directory of your hard disk, replace the statement: ASSIGN(DiskFile, 'CONFIG.SYS')

with the statement: ASSIGN(DiskFile, 'C:\CONFIG.SYS')

Do not expect to get the same result as the one obtained from this sample run, because different computers may have different configuration files.

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Following the program, the CONFIG.SYS file is listed to check the validity of the report. { ------------------------------ Example 9-1 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM TextAnalyzer2(OUTPUT,DiskFile); { Reading from a disk text file one character at a time } TYPE LowerCase = SET OF 'a'..'z'; UpperCase = SET OF 'A'..'Z'; Digits = SET OF '0'..'9'; Characters = SET OF CHAR; VAR DiskFile :TEXT; { declare a text file variable } Capital :UpperCase; Small :LowerCase; Numerals :Digits; Alphabet, Punctuation, Others :Characters; A, C, S, N, P, O, Counter :INTEGER; Ch :CHAR; BEGIN { Link the file variable to the file 'CONFIG.SYS' in the current directory } ASSIGN(DiskFile, 'CONFIG.SYS'); { Open the file for input } RESET(DiskFile); { The program logic } Counter := 0; { counter of all characters } A := 0; { counter of alphabetic characters } C := 0; { counter of capital letters } S := 0; { counter of small letters } N := 0; { counter of numeric characters } P := 0; { counter of punctuation characters } O := 0; { counter of other characters } Small := ['a'..'z']; Capital := ['A'..'Z']; Alphabet := Small + Capital; Numerals := ['0'..'9']; Punctuation := [',',';','-','''','.','!','?',')','(','"',':','_']; { Check for the end of the disk file } WHILE NOT EOF(DiskFile) DO BEGIN { Check for the end of line in the disk file } WHILE NOT EOLN(DiskFile) DO BEGIN { Read one character from the disk file } READ(DiskFile,Ch); Counter := Counter + 1; IF Ch IN Alphabet THEN BEGIN A := A + 1; IF Ch IN Small THEN S := S + 1

Files and Applications

ELSE IF Ch IN Capital THEN C := C + 1 END ELSE IF Ch IN Numerals THEN N := N + 1 ELSE IF Ch IN Punctuation THEN P := P + 1 ELSE O := O + 1 END; { Advance the pointer to the next line } READLN(DiskFile) END; { End of the file is reached } { Close the file } CLOSE(DiskFile); { Display the report } WRITELN; WRITELN('Total number of characters = ', WRITELN('Number of alphabetic characters = ', WRITELN(' .Number of lowercase letters: ', S); WRITELN(' .Number of uppercase letters: ', C); WRITELN('Number of numeric characters = ', WRITELN('Number of punctuation characters = ', WRITELN('Number of other characters = ', WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Listing of the file CONFIG.SYS: DEVICE=C:\SCSI\ASPI2DOS.SYS /D /Z /P140 DEVICE=C:\SCSI\ASPICD.SYS /D:ASPICD0 device=C:\WINDOWS\himem.sys [common] DEVICE=C:\CDROM\AOATAPI.SYS /D:IDECD000

The program output is: Total number of characters Number of alphabetic characters .Number of lowercase letters: 20 .Number of uppercase letters: 87 Number of numeric characters Number of punctuation characters Number of other characters Press ENTER to continue..

= 149 = 107

= 8 = 10 = 24

Counter); A);

N); P); O);

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9-4 Displaying a TEXT File You can display the contents of any TEXT file by using the same logic as in the previous program, but adding a WRITE statement after each read: READLN(DiskFile,Ch); WRITE(Ch);

You also need to advance one line on the screen using a WRITELN statement whenever the EOLN is detected, or else the separate lines will be joined together. Here is the program, which reads the same file (CONFIG.SYS). The name of the file is declared as a constant, and you may replace it with any file name. It is also possible to use the program source file itself (its name is 9-02.PAS on the companion CD-ROM), in which case the program reads itself. { ------------------------------ Example 9-2 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM ReadTextFile(INPUT,OUTPUT,DiskFile); { Reading a text file stored on the disk } CONST { You may replace the following constant by any existing file name } FileName = 'C:\CONFIG.SYS'; VAR DiskFile :TEXT; Ch :CHAR; BEGIN ASSIGN(DiskFile, FileName); RESET(DiskFile); WHILE NOT EOF(DiskFile) DO BEGIN WHILE NOT EOLN(DiskFile) DO BEGIN { Read and display one character from the text file } READ(DiskFile,Ch); WRITE(Ch) END; { Advance the pointer to the next line } READLN(DiskFile); { Advance one line on the screen } WRITELN END; CLOSE(DiskFile); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

The output may look something like this: DEVICE=C:\SCSI\ASPI2DOS.SYS /D /Z /P140 DEVICE=C:\SCSI\ASPICD.SYS /D:ASPICD0 device=C:\WINDOWS\himem.sys

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[common] DEVICE=C:\CDROM\AOATAPI.SYS /D:IDECD000 Press ENTER to continue..

Reading a TEXT File as a Set of Strings If your version of Pascal supports the STRING type, you may read a TEXT file one line at a time. The following program deals with the file as made of strings rather than characters. Each string has a maximum length of 80 characters, which is the expected line length. After each line is read the file pointer moves to the next line. If any line contains less than 80 characters, the dynamic length of the string will be set to the actual number of characters in the line. If, on the other hand, a line contains more than 80 characters, the rest are ignored. When you run the program it asks you to enter the name of the file to be displayed, so this program acts like the DOS command TYPE. { ------------------------------ Example 9-3 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM DisplayTextFile(OUTPUT,MyFile); { Reading a text file stored on the disk one line at a time } VAR MyFile :TEXT; OneLine, FileName :STRING[80]; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the file name to be displayed: '); READLN(FileName); WRITELN; WRITELN('The contents of the file ',FileName,' are: '); ASSIGN(MyFile, FileName); RESET(MyFile); { Check for the end of the text file } WHILE NOT EOF(MyFile) DO BEGIN { Read and display the text file one line at a time } READLN(MyFile,OneLine); WRITELN(OneLine); END; CLOSE(MyFile); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

If the file does not exist or its name is written incorrectly, the program gives an error message like this: Please enter the file name to be displayed: CNFIG.SYS The contents of the file CNFIG.SYS are: Runtime error 002 at 0000:00F2.

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Notice that a READLN statement was used to read each string. If you used a READ statement you would still have to use another READLN to skip over the end-of-line mark at the end of each line and move the file pointer to the beginning of the next line. This is because when you use the READ statement, it will read the string characters until the end-of-line mark (or a CR) is detected, then stop. It also does not move the pointer. In this program you may check the EOLN after each read as you did when you read characters, but you do not need to.

Reading Multiple Strings It is possible to read more than one string with only one READLN (or READ), but this is sometimes questionable. To understand the possible pitfalls, take a look at this example which reads three strings, each of them declared as STRING[5], from a text file named test.txt. This file contains the following line: This is a test text file. { ------------------------------ Example 9-4 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM ReadMultipleStrings1(OUTPUT,F); VAR F :TEXT; Str1,Str2,Str3 :STRING[5]; BEGIN ASSIGN(F,'test.txt'); RESET(F); READLN(F,Str1,Str2,Str3); WRITELN('Str1= ', Str1); WRITELN('Str2= ', Str2); WRITELN('Str3= ', Str3); CLOSE(F); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

The output is: Str1= This Str2= is a Str3= test

As you can see in the output, each string variable is assigned five characters (including the blank spaces). Now replace the declaration of the string variables with the following: Str1,Str2,Str3

:STRING;

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If you run the program using this declaration, the length of each string will default to the maximum length supported by the language, and you will get the result: Str1= This is a test text file. Str2= Str3=

The first variable was assigned the whole line (up to the end-of-line mark) and nothing was left for the other two. In short, you can only read multiple strings safely if you know the length of each one.

9-5 Creating a TEXT File: REWRITE To create a file, you have to open the file to receive output. The procedure REWRITE (which is the counterpart of RESET) is used for this purpose. It takes the form: REWRITE(file-variable); In Turbo Pascal you have to link the file variable to the actual file name on the disk using ASSIGN as you did with input. Some implementations (such as UCSD) instead use a modified formula of the procedure REWRITE, where both the file variable and the file name are used: REWRITE(file-variable, file-name);

{ UCSD }

The rules of inventing a file name (which is the actual name of the disk file) depend on the operating system. In DOS the name can have up to eight characters and an optional extension of up to three characters (such as EMPLOYEE.DAT). After this statement an empty file is open and ready for writing.

aa aa NOTE

If you open an existing file for output, the data in this file will be lost and overwritten by the new data.

File Output Procedures: WRITE, WRITELN To write one or more items to a file, use the general form of the WRITELN (or WRITE) procedure: WRITELN(file-variable, output-list); or WRITE(file-variable, output-list); If the file variable is omitted from these formulas, the standard OUTPUT file (the screen) is assumed and the form is reduced to the one you have been using: WRITELN(output-list);

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which is equivalent to: WRITELN(OUTPUT, output-list); After you are finished writing to a disk file you must close it with the CLOSE procedure as mentioned before. In the following example a file HELLO.TXT is created, then the constant Hello Pascal is written to this file. { ------------------------------- Example 9-5 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM CreateFile(F); CONST TestSentence = 'Hello Pascal'; VAR F :TEXT; BEGIN ASSIGN(F, 'HELLO.TXT'); { Turbo only } REWRITE(F); { open the file for output } WRITELN(F, TestSentence); CLOSE(F) END.

When this program is executed, a new file HELLO.TXT is added to your current directory. In order to be sure that the file was written properly, you can display it using either the DOS command TYPE or Example 9-3 (which replaces it). In either case you will see the two words “Hello Pascal” on the screen. As mentioned earlier, a text file can be created and written to with any text editor, but the importance of creating a file with a Pascal program comes when the information in the new file is based on data processed from other files.

Drill 9-1 Write a program to accept from the keyboard the name and/or ID number and the hours worked per month for each employee and write the data to a file called TIMSHEET.TXT. The program should process the data for any number of employees.

Example: Employee File In Chapter 8 you created an employee record to contain information about the name, address, wages, etc., of each employee. In the following program, you are going to write the employee record information to a disk file EMPFILE.TXT using the nested record structure. Take a look at the program first:

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{ ------------------------------- Example 9-6 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM CreateEmpFile(INPUT,OUTPUT,F); TYPE AddressRecord = RECORD Street :STRING[18]; City :STRING[15]; State :STRING[2]; Zip :String[5]; END; EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :INTEGER; Name :STRING[20]; AddressRec :AddressRecord; Phone :STRING[12]; Rate :REAL; MaritalStatus :CHAR; END; VAR F :TEXT; { The file variable } EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; BEGIN ASSIGN(F, 'EMPFILE.TXT'); REWRITE(F); WITH EmployeeRec DO WITH AddressRec DO BEGIN WRITE('Please enter Employee ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITE('Employee Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('Address: Street: '); READLN(Street); WRITE(' City: '); READLN(City); WRITE(' State: '); READLN(State); WRITE(' Zip code: '); READLN(Zip); WRITE('Phone Number: '); READLN(Phone); WRITE('Hourly Rate: '); READLN(Rate); WRITE('Marital Status (S/M): '); READLN(MaritalStatus); { Store the information to the file } WRITELN(F, ID); WRITELN(F, Name); WRITELN(F, Street); WRITELN(F, City); WRITELN(F, State); WRITELN(F, Zip); WRITELN(F, Phone); WRITELN(F, Rate:0:2); WRITELN(F, MaritalStatus) END; CLOSE(F) END.

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Sample run: Please enter Employee ID: 122 Employee Name: Tammy M. Ockman Address: Street: 322 Temple Dr. City: New Orleans State: LA Zip code: 70112 Phone Number: 504-285-3434 Hourly Rate: 22.45 Marital Status (S/M): S

The following is a display of the file contents: 122 Tammy M. Ockman 322 Temple Dr. New Orleans LA 70112 504-285-3434 22.45 S

Notice that a numeric field, ID, has been added to the record, which is otherwise as before (in Chapter 8). Again, if your compiler does not support the STRING type (which is not likely), you can use the numeric and character fields only. The resulting file contains as many lines as the number of fields in the record. Actually, you can write all of the fields on one line if you so wish by replacing the WRITELNs with WRITEs.

Drill 9-2 Modify the previous program so that it can store more than one employee record. You may wish to rebuild it as a procedure which can be called for each data entry of one employee.

Example: Payroll The file you have just created contains a good deal of information about employees and can be used for more than one purpose. You can use some or all of the information in this file to create different reports or other data files. In the following application, the file EMPFILE.TXT is read but only three fields from each record are used: ID, Name, and HourlyRate. The program first displays an employee’s information on the screen, then the user is prompted to enter HoursWorked for this employee. The Wages are then calculated by multiplying HourlyRate and HoursWorked. After processing each record the ID, Name, and Wages are stored in a new file PAYFILE.TXT. The new file is used to produce a payroll report for this pay period.

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{ ------------------------------- Example 9-7 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM PayRoll(INPUT,OUTPUT,MasterFile,PayFile); { This program reads the file EMPFILE.TXT, calculates the wages, and stores the information to the file PAYFILE.TXT } TYPE AddressRecord = RECORD Street :STRING[18]; City :STRING[15]; State :STRING[2]; Zip :STRING[5]; END; EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :INTEGER; Name :STRING[20]; AddressRec :AddressRecord; Phone :STRING[12]; Rate :REAL; MaritalStatus :CHAR; END; PayRecord = RECORD ID :INTEGER; Name :STRING[20]; Wages :REAL; END; VAR MasterFile, PayFile :TEXT; EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; PayRec :PayRecord; HoursWorked, Wages :REAL; { --------------- Procedure GetInfo ------------------ } { This procedure reads the employee file EMPFILE.TXT and displays the ID, Name, and Hourly Rate. } PROCEDURE GetInfo(VAR F:TEXT); BEGIN WITH EmployeeRec DO WITH AddressRec DO BEGIN READLN(F,ID); WRITELN('ID: ',ID); READLN(F,Name); WRITELN('Name: ',Name); READLN(F,Street); READLN(F,City); READLN(F,State); READLN(F,Zip); READLN(F,Phone); READLN(F,Rate); WRITELN('Hourly rate: $', Rate:0:2); READLN(F,MaritalStatus); END; END;

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{ --------------- Procedure CalcWages ---------------- } { This procedure is used to calculate wages. The result is returned to the main program } PROCEDURE CalcWages(HoursWorked:REAL; VAR Wages:REAL); BEGIN WITH EmployeeRec DO Wages := Hoursworked * Rate; Wages := ROUND(100 * Wages) / 100 { rounding cents } END; { -------------- Procedure FilePayRoll --------------- } { This procedure is used to write one record to the output file PAYFILE.TXT } PROCEDURE FilePayRoll(VAR P :TEXT; Wages :REAL); BEGIN WITH EmployeeRec DO BEGIN PayRec.ID := ID; PayRec.Name := Name; Payrec.Wages := Wages END; WITH PayRec DO WRITELN(P, ID:3, Name:20, Wages:10:2) END; { --------------- Main Program ------------------ } BEGIN ASSIGN(MasterFile, 'EMPFILE.TXT'); RESET(MasterFile); ASSIGN(Payfile, 'PAYFILE.TXT'); REWRITE(PayFile); WHILE NOT EOF(MasterFile) DO BEGIN GetInfo(MasterFile); WRITE('Please enter hours worked for this pay period: '); READLN(HoursWorked); CalcWages(HoursWorked, Wages); FilePayRoll(PayFile, Wages) END; CLOSE(MasterFile); CLOSE(PayFile) END.

Sample run: Assume that the file EMPFILE.TXT contains three records. The program will use these records as follows: ID: 122 Name: Tammy M. Ockman Hourly rate: $22.45 Please enter hours worked for this pay period: 160

----> Information from file ----> Information from file ----> Information from file ----> Entered by user

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ID: 123 Name: Tara S. Strahan Hourly rate: $15.24 Please enter hours worked for this pay period: 160 ID: 125 Name: John G. Trainer Hourly rate: $28.55 Please enter hours worked for this pay period: 140.5

The program creates the file PAYFILE.TXT containing the following records: 122 123 125

Tammy M. Ockman Tara S. Strahan John G. Trainer

3592.00 2438.40 4011.28

The program consists of three procedures: 1. GetInfo, which reads one record of the file EMPFILE.TXT and displays only the selected fields. Notice that you have to read all of the record fields even if you do not need them all. 2. CalcWages, which carries out the calculations. 3. FilePayRoll, which writes the record PayRec to the file PAYFILE.TXT. These are some important points of the program: g

When file variables (such as MasterFile and PayFile) are passed to subprograms, they must be passed as variable parameters (using VAR). The type TEXT is used with such parameters: PROCEDURE FilePayRoll(VAR P :TEXT; Wages :REAL);

g

Some identifiers (such as Name and ID) are used in both EmployeeRec and PayRec. This does not cause any problem because they are all fielded variables; remember that the scope of a fielded variable is limited to its own record. Also, the identifier Wages was declared both as a global variable and as a fielded variable (in the record PayRec) and was also used as a local variable in the procedure FilePayroll.

g

Take a look at these assignment statements in the procedure FilePayRoll: WITH EmployeeRec DO BEGIN PayRec.ID := ID; PayRec.Name := Name; PayRec.Wages := Wages

The first two statements copy the values of the fields ID and Name from EmployeeRec to the corresponding fields in PayRec. The WITH statement modifies only the variables which belong to the record EmployeeRec (ID and Name). A variable such as PayRec.ID is not affected by the WITH statement because it is explicitly modified by PayRec. In the last statement, no variables at all are affected by the WITH statement.

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Drill 9-3 Add a procedure to the last program to display a Payroll Summary report as shown: --------- PayRoll Summary ----------ID --------- Name -------- Salary 122 Tammy M. Ockman $3592.00 123 Tara S. Strahan $2438.40 125 John G. Trainer $4011.28 ------------------------------------

The program may also be modified in such a way as to read the HoursWorked from the file TIMSHEET.EMP which you created in Drill 9-1.

9-6 Non-TEXT Files The TEXT file is a special predefined type of file, but as mentioned earlier, the general definition of a file allows the file components to be of any type other than the type FILE. You can declare a file of any predefined or user-defined type using the form: type-identifier = FILE OF component-type; The component type can be a simple type (like INTEGER), a structured type (like an array), or a user-defined type (like a record). The following is an example of a file declaration whose components are records (a simplified form of EmployeeRecord is used to make the program shorter): TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :INTEGER; Name :STRING[20]; Rate :REAL; END; EmpFileRec = FILE OF EmployeeRecord; VAR F :EmpFileRec; { The file variable } EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; { The record variable }

The main properties of non-TEXT files are: g

Data are represented in the internal binary format, which means that you cannot display the contents of a file using the DOS command TYPE. This also speeds up the transfer of data to and from the file.

g

The main advantage of non-TEXT files comes when using structured types such as arrays or records, because then you do not need to read or write the record field by field. For example, after the previous declarations you may read or write the whole record using these statements:

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READ(F, EmployeeRec); WRITE(F, EmployeeRec); g

Because non-TEXT files are not made up of lines as TEXT files are, the procedures READLN and WRITELN may not be used with these files.

Example: Payroll System This is the same payroll program but in better shape. The program is divided into two separate modules (programs). The first module (Example 9-8) reads the employees’ records from the keyboard and stores them in a non-TEXT file, EMPFILE.BIN. In the second module (Example 9-9) the HoursWorked are entered from the keyboard and wages are calculated and written to the file PAYFILE.TXT, which is a TEXT file. The first program may be used only once to create the employee file, but the second program is used every pay period to create the PayFile. Here is the first program: { ------------------------------ Example 9-8 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM EmpPayInfo(INPUT,OUTPUT,F); { This program is used to create a user-defined file EMPFILE.BIN whose components are records. } TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :INTEGER; Name :STRING[20]; Rate :REAL; END; EmpFileRec = FILE OF EmployeeRecord; VAR F :EmpFileRec; { The file variable } EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; { ----------- Procedure WriteRecord ---------- } PROCEDURE WriteRecord; BEGIN { Store one record in the file } WRITE(F, EmployeeRec) END; { ----------- Procedure GetData ---------- } PROCEDURE getdata; VAR Counter :INTEGER; BEGIN Counter := 0; WITH EmployeeRec DO BEGIN WRITE('Please enter Employee ID (or 0 to end):'); READLN(ID); WHILE ID <> 0 DO BEGIN Counter := Counter + 1;

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WRITE('Employee Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('Hourly Rate: '); READLN(Rate); WriteRecord; WRITE('Please enter Employee ID (or 0 to end):'); READLN(ID) END END; WRITELN(Counter, ' Employee records have been filed.') END; { ---------------- Main Program -------------- } { Main Program } BEGIN ASSIGN(F, 'EMPFILE.BIN'); REWRITE(F); GetData; CLOSE(F); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

The second module (PayRoll2) is made up of four procedures: g

GetInfo, which reads a record from the file EMPFILE.BIN.

g

CalcWages, which carries out the calculations.

g

FilePayRoll, which writes a record to the file PAYFILE.TXT.

g

ReadPayRoll, which reads the file PAYFILE.TXT and displays the payroll at the end of the process.

{ ------------------------------ Example 9-9 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM PayRoll2(INPUT,OUTPUT,MasterFile,PayFile); { This program reads the file EMPFILE.BIN one record at a time, then calculates wages and stores the output in the text file PAYFILE.TXT } TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :INTEGER; Name :STRING[20]; Rate :REAL; END; PayRecord = RECORD ID :INTEGER; Name :STRING[20]; Wages :REAL; END; EmployeeFile = FILE OF EmployeeRecord; VAR MasterFile :EmployeeFile; PayFile :TEXT; EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; PayRec :PayRecord; HoursWorked, Wages :REAL;

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{ --------------- Procedure GetInfo ------------------ } { This Procedure reads and displays a record from the file EMPFILE.BIN } PROCEDURE GetInfo(VAR F :EmployeeFile); BEGIN READ(F,EmployeeRec); WITH EmployeeRec DO BEGIN WRITELN('ID: ',ID); WRITELN('Name: ',Name); WRITELN('Hourly rate: $', Rate:0:2); END; END; { --------------- Procedure CalcWages ---------------- } PROCEDURE CalcWages(HoursWorked :REAL; VAR Wages :REAL); BEGIN WITH EmployeeRec DO Wages := Hoursworked * Rate; Wages := ROUND(100 * Wages) / 100 { rounding cents } END; { -------------- Procedure FilePayRoll --------------- } { This procedure writes a record to PAYFILE.TXT } PROCEDURE FilePayRoll(VAR P :TEXT; Wages :REAL); BEGIN WITH EmployeeRec DO BEGIN PayRec.ID := ID; PayRec.Name := Name; Payrec.Wages := Wages END; WITH PayRec DO BEGIN WRITELN(P, ID); WRITELN(P, Name); WRITELN(P, Wages); end; END; { -------------- Procedure ReadPayRoll --------------- } { This procedure reads and displays PAYFILE.TXT } PROCEDURE ReadPayRoll(VAR P:TEXT); VAR I :INTEGER; BEGIN WITH PayRec DO BEGIN READLN(P, ID); READLN(P, Name); READLN(P, Wages); WRITE(ID:3,' '); WRITE(Name); { Fill the rest of the 20 places with blanks }

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FOR I := 1 TO 20-LENGTH(Name) DO WRITE(' '); WRITELN(' $',Wages:0:2) END; END; { --------------- Main Program ------------------ } BEGIN ASSIGN(MasterFile, 'EMPFILE.BIN'); RESET(MasterFile); ASSIGN(Payfile, 'PAYFILE.TXT'); REWRITE(PayFile); WHILE NOT EOF(MasterFile) DO BEGIN GetInfo(MasterFile); WRITE('Please enter hours worked for this pay period: '); READLN(HoursWorked); CalcWages(HoursWorked, Wages); FilePayRoll(PayFile, Wages) END; CLOSE(MasterFile); CLOSE(PayFile); RESET(PayFile); WRITELN('--------- PayRoll Summary --------- '); WRITELN('ID # ------- Name -------- Salary'); WHILE NOT EOF(PayFile) DO ReadPayroll(PayFile); WRITELN('----------------------------------- '); CLOSE(PayFile); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Appending a File If you would like to add the information for a new employee to the file EMPFILE.BIN, you cannot run Example 9-8 again because it will erase the whole file. There is another way to do this. Adding data to an existing file is called appending, as the new data are written to the end of a sequential file. In some implementations (including Turbo) the file can be opened for appending using the procedure APPEND, which takes the form: APPEND(file-variable); While the REWRITE procedure positions the file pointer at the beginning of the file, APPEND positions the file pointer at the end of the file, so any new data will be written there. If your implementation does not have the procedure APPEND you need to use the following technique to add new items to the file: g

Open the file EMPFILE.BIN for reading using RESET.

g

Open a scratch file (e.g., NEWFILE.TMP) for writing using REWRITE.

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g

Copy each item from EMPFILE.BIN to NEWFILE.TMP, then accept the new data from the keyboard and write them to NEWFILE.TMP.

g

Open NEWFILE.TMP for reading and EMPFILE.BIN for writing, then copy the contents of NEWFILE.TMP back to EMPFILE.BIN.

g

Erase the scratch file NEWFILE.TMP.

In standard Pascal, if the file variable is not included in the program header, the file is considered a temporary file and will be erased right after the program execution. You get the same result in UCSD if you close the file using the keyword PURGE. In Turbo you can erase a file after closing it by using the procedure ERASE, which takes the form: ERASE(file-variable); If the information in the file needs to be changed (as in the case of a salary increase for employees), you can use a similar algorithm to update a sequential file as demonstrated later in the following chapters.

Drill 9-4 Write a program that puts all the file tools you have learned together in one menu, using the payroll application. The menu should contain the following options: g

Display the Employee file.

g

Display an Employee record.

g

Add a new Employee.

The following Menu procedure may be used in this program: { --------------- Procedure Menu ------------------ } PROCEDURE Menu; VAR Option :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN(Header); WRITELN; WRITELN('1. Display employee file.'); WRITELN('2. Display an employee record.'); WRITELN('3. Add a new employee.'); WRITELN('4. Exit.'); WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Make a choice and press a number: '); READLN(Option); CASE Option OF 1 : Readit(DbFile); 2 : ReadRec(DbFile, EmployeeRec); 3 : AddRec(NewFile, DbFile, EmployeeRec); 4 : Exit END;

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Menu END;

As you can see in the Menu procedure, the options 1 to 3 correspond to the procedures you have to design. For the fourth option you may use the Turbo Pascal procedure (EXIT), a GOTO, or any suitable statement in your compiler that lets you exit from the repeated menu. Notice also that in this example a scratch file NewFile was used for adding a new employee to the file (option 3), but if you have the procedure APPEND in your compiler, you should use it instead, as it will save you a lot of effort. This program is the nucleus of a database and can be modified to include more features, such as updating employees’ information and removing unwanted records from the database.

9-7 Using the File Buffer Variable In standard Pascal, when you declare a file, a file window or a file buffer variable is created automatically. This buffer helps to compensate for the disk I/O transfers, which take a long time compared to memory transfers. The file window, a location in memory, is used to store the file items and transfer them to the external storage (the disk) while the other program statements are being executed. Today, however, with modern hardware, you may not encounter this problem. If, for example, you declare a file variable DiskFile, the following file buffer variable is created: DiskFile^

To use this buffer, you must use the predefined procedures GET for reading from the file, and PUT for writing to the file. These procedures are used instead of READ and WRITE. For example, consider the following declaration: VAR DiskFile: TEXT; Ch: CHAR;

The statement WRITE(DiskFile, Ch), which is used to write data to the file, is equivalent to the following statements: DiskFile^ := Ch; PUT(DiskFile)

The first statement copies the data stored in Ch to the buffer, and the second statement transfers data from the buffer to the file variable. Similarly, the statement READ(DiskFile, Ch), which is used to read from the file, is equivalent to the following statements: Ch := DiskFile^; GET(DiskFile)

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The first statement copies the value of the buffer (which always contains the next file component) to the variable Ch, while the second one reads the next file component into the file variable. You may try any of the previous examples using the PUT and GET procedures. However, keep in mind that some versions of Pascal, including Turbo Pascal, do not provide the file buffer variable and, consequently, do not support GET or PUT.

Summary In this chapter, you learned the main tools for handling data files: 1. You know that standard Pascal provides TEXT and non-TEXT sequential files, while modern versions also provide random/direct access files. 2. During your tour of sequential files, you learned how to declare, create, write to, and read from a file. 3. TEXT files are declared using the form: file-variable :TEXT; 4. Files of other types are declared using the forms: TYPE type-identifier = FILE OF component-type; VAR file-variable :type-identifier; In standard Pascal the file-variable must be included as one of the file parameters or the file will be considered temporary and will be automatically deleted after the execution. In UCSD you must use the PURGE keyword to delete such a temporary file, and in Turbo you must use the ERASE procedure. 5. The procedures used to open a file for either input or output are: RESET(file-variable); (for input) REWRITE(file-variable); (for output) With modern versions of Pascal (such as Turbo) you can also open a sequential file for appending with the procedure APPEND, which has a similar form to those above. 6. With versions other than standard Pascal, the file-variable must be linked to the actual file name on the disk. In Turbo, this is done by using the procedure ASSIGN; in UCSD the actual file name comes as a second parameter of the RESET or REWRITE procedures. In these implementations the file must be closed after processing using the CLOSE procedure. 7. You learned the general form of the following input/output statements:

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READLN(file-variable, input-list); READ(file-variable, input-list); WRITELN(file-variable, output-list); WRITE(file-variable, output-list); You also know that the READLN and WRITELN procedures may not be used with non-TEXT files. You also learned the standard Pascal procedures GET and PUT, which are used in conjunction with the file buffer variables to read from and write to data files. These procedures are not included in some versions of Pascal. 8. You also learned the general form of EOF and EOLN functions: EOF(file-variable) EOLN(file-variable) Finally, you have had enough practice to enable you to create and manipulate files for different applications.

Exercises 1. Given the following sets of CHAR: Small := ['a'..'z']; Capital := ['A'..'Z'];

write assignment statements to define the set of alphabetic characters, Alphabet, and the set of vowels, Vowels. Then write an IF statement to count each category and increment the appropriate counter: A for Alphabet, S for Small, C for Capital, and V for Vowels. 2. Write a program to open a text file and copy its contents into a new text file. Add line numbers to each line in the new file. The input file name is provided at run time. You may use any Pascal file from the book as input (or type the following file and save it in the current directory under the name Hello.PAS). { ------- Hello.PAS ------- } PROGRAM FirstProgram(OUTPUT); BEGIN WRITELN('Hello, World!') END.

When you run the program, it should prompt you to enter a file name: Please enter the source file name: Hello.PAS

-----> Enter this name

Then it should display the contents of the new file (NewFile.TXT): The contents of the file NewFile.TXT are: 1 : { ------- Hello.PAS ------- } 2 : PROGRAM FirstProgram(OUTPUT); 3 : BEGIN

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: WRITELN('Hello, World!') : END.

3. In Drill 9-3, you displayed the payroll summary report as in the following text: 122 123 125

Tammy M. Ockman Tara S. Strahan John G. Trainer

$898.00 $609.60 $1142.00

Modify the program to mark the records of the employees who received more than $1000.00 in this payroll period. Do this by adding an asterisk (*) to the end of the record. The following is an example of the required output file (PAYFILE.TXT): 122 123 125

Tammy M. Ockman Tara S. Strahan John G. Trainer

$898.00 $609.60 $1142.00*

Answers 1. Declare the sets Vowels and Alphabet to store the vowels and alpahabetic characters respectively. Also declare integer counters to count each type. Assign values to Alphabet and Vowels: Alphabet := Small + Capital; Vowels := ['a','e','i','o','u','A','E','I','O','U'];

Use the following IF statement to count each category: IF Ch IN Alphabet THEN BEGIN A := A + 1; IF Ch IN Vowels THEN V := V + 1; { Vowel counter } IF Ch IN Small THEN S := S + 1; { Small counter } IF Ch IN Capital THEN C := C + 1; { Capital counter } END

2. You can use the following code segment to copy MyFile to NewFile and add the line numbers to it. ASSIGN(MyFile, ReadFileName); RESET(MyFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, WriteFileName); REWRITE(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(MyFile) DO BEGIN READLN(MyFile,OneLine); Counter := Counter +1; WRITELN(NewFile, Counter:3,': ', OneLine);

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END; CLOSE(MyFile); CLOSE(NewFile);

Notice that ReadFileName and WriteFileName are the string variables that store the actual file names.You may also accept the file names as user input. 3. The following is the required modification in the program Drill 9-3: WITH PayRec DO IF Wages >= 1000.0 THEN WRITELN(P, ID:3, Name:20, Wages:10:2, '*') ELSE WRITELN(P, ID:3, Name:20, Wages:10:2);

You will also need to make some changes in the output format in order to display the file correctly.

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Chapter 10 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Using Variant Records In this chapter, you are going to design a payroll system step by step. With each step, you learn more about variant records, an enhanced type of record which gives you more control over your program. By the end of this chapter, your payroll system will be complete.

10-1 Variant Records In real-life applications, employees in the same company may fall into different categories. Some employees are salaried, some are paid on an hourly basis, and others are paid by commission. The payroll for each of these categories uses different calculations. This is an example of a record for a salaried employee: SalariedEmployee = RECORD ID Name Position SSN MonthlySalary END;

:STRING[5]; :STRING[20]; :STRING[20]; :STRING[11]; :REAL

while the following is an example of the record of an employee paid weekly: HourlyEmployee = RECORD ID Name Position SSN HourlyRate END;

:STRING[5]; :STRING[20]; :STRING[20]; :STRING[11]; :REAL

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and this is an example of the record of a salesperson paid by commission: CommissionEmployee = RECORD ID Name Position SSN Commission BasicSalary Area END;

:STRING[5]; :STRING[20]; :STRING[20] :STRING[11]; :REAL; :REAL; :STRING[20]

It is not a good idea to use three different records in the same program to represent the employee record. In Pascal the variant record allows the programmer to store different types of data in the same memory location. The variant record, in this example, will have a fixed part which contains the fields that do not change from one employee to the other (such as ID, Name, and SSN), and a variant part which differs from one category to another (such as the payroll details). In order to differentiate between different types of records, the variant record must be declared using a CASE structure with one of the fields as the case expression. This field is called the tag field. An example of the tag field that you can add to the record is a character variable that may contain the values 1, 2, or 3 to represent the following categories: 1 = salaried employees 2 = hourly paid employees 3 = employees paid by commission Here is the employee variant record: SalariedEmployee = RECORD ID :STRING[5]; Name, Position :STRING[20]; SSN :STRING[11]; CASE Category: CHAR OF '1':(MonthlySalary :REAL); '2':(HourlyRate :REAL); '3':(Commission, BasicSalary :REAL; Area :STRING[20]) END;

The tag field here is Category. If the value of the tag field is 1, it will transfer the control to the salaried employee and the variable MonthlySalary becomes in effect. If it is 2, the control is transferred to the hourly paid employee and the variable HourlyRate is in effect. If it is 3, the three variables Commission, BasicSalary, and Area are all brought into action. The variant record may contain a fixed part followed by a variant part, or may contain a variant part only. The declaration takes the following general form:

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type-name = RECORD fixed field-list variant field-list END;

The variant field list takes the following form: CASE tag-field: type-definition OF label-1: (field-list: type-definition); label-2: (field-list: type-definition); ... label-n: (field-list: type-definition);

Notice that the field list for each case is enclosed in parentheses, and the CASE structure does not contain an END statement.

10-2 Example: Enhanced Payroll System In this program, you are going to read the records of different employees from a payroll file. The required record is retrieved using the social security number which you enter from the keyboard. Before using this program, you have to create the text file payroll.txt which contains the employee records. You may use any text editor to create this file. The records in the file must be written sequentially without any gaps, and must be consistent with the record description. After the file is created (even with one record), you can use the program to append new records to it. For the purpose of testing the program, you may use the payroll.txt file on the companion CD. These are the contents of the file: 1MGT5 Tammy M. Ockman Business Manager 232-65-1567 1 -----------------> 3333.33 2STF1 Tara S. Strahan Secretary II 404-38-1132

The tag field

2 -----------------> 8.24 3SAL4 John G. Trainer Sales Representative 334-88-1234

The tag field

3 -----------------> 0.25 500.0 Baton Rouge, LA

The tag field (Notice additional fields in category 3)

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1MGT4 Sally A. Abolrous Technical Editor 434-65-6052 4343.88 1MGT1 James A. Abolrous President 434-55-6666 1 4343.88

-----------------> The tag field

Before we move to the discussion, let us take a look at the following program: { ------------------------- Example 10-1 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM EmployeeDataBase2(INPUT, OUTPUT, PayrollFile, NewFile); CONST FileName = 'payroll.txt'; TempFile = 'temp.txt'; Header = '------------- Main Menu --------------'; Header1 = '--------- Employee DataBase ----------'; Header2 = '---------- Employee Record -----------'; Separator = '--------------------------------------'; TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :STRING[5]; Name, Position :STRING[20]; SSN :STRING[11]; CASE Category :CHAR OF '1': (MonthlySalary :REAL); '2': (HourlyRate :REAL); '3': (Commission, BasicSalary :REAL; Area :STRING[20]) END; VAR NewFile, PayrollFile EmployeeRec Title OneLine

:TEXT; :EmployeeRecord; :ARRAY [1..9] OF STRING[20]; :STRING[80];

{ ------------------------- Procedure ReadRec ------------------------ } PROCEDURE ReadRec(VAR PayrollFile: TEXT; Employee: EmployeeRecord); VAR SSNumber :STRING[11]; Found :INTEGER; BEGIN Found := 0; {Reset the flag} ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile);

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WRITELN; WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee: '); READLN(SSNumber); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2': READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3': BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber = SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(Header2); WRITELN(Title[1], ID); WRITELN(Title[2], Name); WRITELN(Title[3], Position); WRITELN(Title[4], SSN); CASE Category OF '1': WRITELN(Title[5], MonthlySalary:0:2); '2': WRITELN(Title[6], HourlyRate:0:2); '3': BEGIN WRITELN(Title[7], Commission:0:2); WRITELN(Title[8], BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(Title[9], Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } Found := 1 END END { End of WITH block } END; CLOSE(PayrollFile); IF Found <> 1 THEN BEGIN WRITELN('SSN not found in file.'); WRITELN('Please try again.'); WRITELN END END; { ------------------------- Procedure AddRec ------------------------- }

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PROCEDURE AddRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile: TEXT; Employee: EmployeeRecord); BEGIN ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); { Check for the end of the text file } WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN { Copy each record from PayrollFile to the NewFile } READLN(PayrollFile, OneLine); WRITELN(NewFile, OneLine) END; { Accept a new record from the keyboard } WITH Employee DO BEGIN WRITE('Please enter Employee ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITE('SSN (xxx-xx-xxxx): '); READLN(SSN); WRITE('Payroll category: '); READLN(Category); CASE Category OF '1': BEGIN WRITE('Monthly Salary: '); READLN(MonthlySalary); END; '2': BEGIN WRITE('Rate: '); READLN(HourlyRate); END; '3': BEGIN WRITE('Commission: '); READLN(Commission); WRITE('Basic salary: '); READLN(BasicSalary); WRITE('Area: '); READLN(Area) END END; { Store the information in NewFile } WRITELN(NewFile, ID); WRITELN(NewFile, Name); WRITELN(NewFile, Position); WRITELN(NewFile, SSN); WRITELN(NewFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': WRITELN(NewFile, MonthlySalary:0:2); '2': WRITELN(NewFile, HourlyRate:0:2); '3': BEGIN

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WRITELN(NewFile, Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, Area) END END END; CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile, OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile, OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile) END; { ------------------------- Procedure Menu --------------------------- } PROCEDURE Menu; VAR Option: INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN(Header); WRITELN; WRITELN('1. Display an employee record.'); WRITELN('2. Add a new employee.'); WRITELN('3. Exit.'); WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Make a choice and press a number: '); READLN(Option); CASE Option OF 1: ReadRec(PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 2: AddRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 3: Exit END; Menu END; { --------------------------- Main Program --------------------------- } BEGIN { Assign titles } Title[1] := 'ID: '; Title[2] := 'Name: '; Title[3] := 'Position: '; Title[4] := 'SSN: ';

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Title[5] Title[6] Title[7] Title[8] Title[9] Menu END.

:= := := := :=

'Salary: '; 'Rate: '; 'Commission: '; 'Basic Salary: '; 'Area: ';

Sample runs: (A) Reading records from the file: In this sample run, three records for three different categories of employees are read from the file. In the fourth attempt to read a record, we entered a social security number which is not in the file, and the message “SSN not found in file” was received. Notice that the data entered from the keyboard are italicized and bolded for clarity. ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Display an employee record. 2. Add a new employee. 3. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 1 Please enter the SSN of the employee: 434-55-6666 ---------- Employee Record ----------ID: 1MGT1 Name: James A. Abolrous Position: President SSN: 434-55-6666 Salary: 4343.88 ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Display an employee record. 2. Add a new employee. 3. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 1 Please enter the SSN of the employee: 404-38-1132 ---------- Employee Record ----------ID: 2STF1 Name: Tara S. Strahan Position: Secretary II SSN: 404-38-1132 Rate: 8.24 ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Display an employee record. 2. Add a new employee. 3. Exit. --------------------------------------

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Make a choice and press a number: 1 Please enter the SSN of the employee: 334-88-1234 ---------- Employee Record ----------ID: 3SAL4 Name: John G. Trainer Position: Sales Representative SSN: 334-88-1234 Commission: 0.25 Basic Salary: 500.00 Area: Baton Rouge, LA ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Display an employee record. 2. Add a new employee. 3. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 1 Please enter the SSN of the employee: 555-55-5555 SSN not found in file. Please try again. ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Display an employee record. 2. Add a new employee. 3. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 3

(B) Appending records to the file: In the following run, a new record is appended to the payroll file: ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Display an employee record. 2. Add a new employee. 3. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 2 Please enter Employee ID: 3SAL6 Name: Barbara Ortiz Position: Sales Representative SSN (xxx-xx-xxxx): 347-12-3456 Payroll category: 3 Commission: .15 Basic salary: 450.0 Area: New Orleans, LA ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Display an employee record. 2. Add a new employee. 3. Exit.

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-------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 3

At this point, the new record of Barbara Ortiz has been appended to the payroll file and may be displayed using option 2. Needless to say, you can also add a record at the end of the file using any text editor. There are some important points in the program: g

This program is divided into three procedures: g

Menu: to display and accept the menu options.

g

ReadRec: to read the file.

g

AddRec: to append records to the file.

g

When dealing with a variant record, either by reading or writing, you must use the CASE structure.

g

The flag Found is used in the ReadRec procedure to check the existence of the required record in the file, and to issue the proper message in each case. Notice that the flag is reset at the beginning of the procedure (Found := 0). When the required record is found, the flag is assigned the value 1; otherwise, it retains the value 0 and the message “SSN not found..” is issued after the end-of-file has been reached.

Drill 10-1 Write a program to create the payroll file used in the previous example. This program may be used only once because each time you run it a new file is created. You may refer to the program on the companion CD under the name DRL10-1.PAS. The program is designed to create a file with the name pr.txt in order to avoid rewriting the file payroll.txt.

10-3 Deleting Records from the File The algorithm to delete an employee record from the payroll file is as follows: 1. Enter the social security number of the employee to be removed. 2. Open the payroll file for reading, and a temporary file for writing. 3. Read the payroll file up to the end-of-file. For each record, check the SSN field against the social security number. 4. Copy each record, except the one that matches, to the temporary file. 5. Copy the temporary file into the original payroll file. 6. Delete the temporary file.

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To delete the temporary file you need to add the following procedure to the previous program. (The source code of this procedure is on the companion CD under the name Del-Proc.PAS). { ------------------------- Procedure DelRec ------------------------- } PROCEDURE DelRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile: TEXT; Employee: EmployeeRecord); VAR SSNumber: STRING[11]; BEGIN ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee to be deleted: '); READLN(SSNumber); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2': READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3': BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber <> SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile, ID); WRITELN(NewFile, Name); WRITELN(NewFile, Position); WRITELN(NewFile, SSN); WRITELN(NewFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': WRITELN(NewFile, MonthlySalary:0:2); '2': WRITELN(NewFile, HourlyRate:0:2); '3': BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile, Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, Area) END

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END; { End of CASE structure } END { End of WITH block }

END END; CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile, OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile, OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile); WRITELN('The employee ', SSNumber, ' is removed from file.') END;

In order to have the Delete Record option as one of the menu items, you need to modify the Menu procedure. It may look similar to the procedure below (this procedure is on the companion CD under the name Mnu-Proc.PAS). { ------------------------- Procedure Menu --------------------------- } PROCEDURE Menu; VAR Option: INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN(Header); WRITELN; WRITELN('1. Display an employee record.'); WRITELN('2. Add a new employee.'); WRITELN('3. Delete an employee.'); WRITELN('4. Exit.'); WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Make a choice and press a number: '); READLN(Option); CASE Option OF 1: ReadRec(PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 2: AddRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 3: DelRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 4: Exit END; Menu END;

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Here are all the modules of the program brought together: { ------------------------- Example 10-2 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM EmployeeDataBase2(INPUT, OUTPUT, PayrollFile, NewFile); CONST FileName = 'payroll.txt'; TempFile = 'temp.txt'; Header = '------------- Main Menu --------------'; Header1 = '--------- Employee DataBase ----------'; Header2 = '---------- Employee Record -----------'; Separator = '--------------------------------------'; TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :STRING[5]; Name, Position :STRING[20]; SSN :STRING[11]; CASE Category :CHAR OF '1': (MonthlySalary :REAL); '2': (HourlyRate :REAL); '3': (Commission, BasicSalary :REAL; Area :STRING[20]) END; VAR NewFile, PayrollFile EmployeeRec Title OneLine

:TEXT; :EmployeeRecord; :ARRAY [1..9] OF STRING[20]; :STRING[80];

{ ------------------------- Procedure ReadRec ------------------------ } PROCEDURE ReadRec(VAR PayrollFile: TEXT; Employee: EmployeeRecord); VAR SSNumber :STRING[11]; Found :INTEGER; BEGIN Found := 0; {Reset the flag} ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); WRITELN; WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee: '); READLN(SSNumber); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category);

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CASE Category OF '1': READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2': READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3': BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber = SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(Header2); WRITELN(Title[1], ID); WRITELN(Title[2], Name); WRITELN(Title[3], Position); WRITELN(Title[4], SSN); CASE Category OF '1': WRITELN(Title[5], MonthlySalary:0:2); '2': WRITELN(Title[6], HourlyRate:0:2); '3': BEGIN WRITELN(Title[7], Commission:0:2); WRITELN(Title[8], BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(Title[9], Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } Found := 1 END END { End of WITH block } END; CLOSE(PayrollFile); IF Found <> 1 THEN BEGIN WRITELN('SSN not found in file.'); WRITELN('Please try again.'); WRITELN END END; { ------------------------- Procedure AddRec ------------------------- } PROCEDURE AddRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile: TEXT; Employee: EmployeeRecord); BEGIN ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); { Check for the end of the text file } WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN { Copy each record from PayrollFile to the NewFile } READLN(PayrollFile, OneLine);

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WRITELN(NewFile, OneLine) END; { Accept a new record from the keyboard } WITH Employee DO BEGIN WRITE('Please enter Employee ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITE('SSN (xxx-xx-xxxx): '); READLN(SSN); WRITE('Payroll category: '); READLN(Category); CASE Category OF '1': BEGIN WRITE('Monthly Salary: '); READLN(MonthlySalary); END; '2': BEGIN WRITE('Rate: '); READLN(HourlyRate); END; '3': BEGIN WRITE('Commission: '); READLN(Commission); WRITE('Basic salary: '); READLN(BasicSalary); WRITE('Area: '); READLN(Area) END END; { Store the information in NewFile } WRITELN(NewFile, ID); WRITELN(NewFile, Name); WRITELN(NewFile, Position); WRITELN(NewFile, SSN); WRITELN(NewFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': WRITELN(NewFile, MonthlySalary:0:2); '2': WRITELN(NewFile, HourlyRate:0:2); '3': BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile, Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, Area) END END END; CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile);

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RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile, OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile, OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile) END; { ------------------ Procedure DelRec --------------------- } PROCEDURE DelRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile: TEXT; Employee: EmployeeRecord); VAR SSNumber: STRING[11]; BEGIN ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee to be deleted: '); READLN(SSNumber); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2': READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3': BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber <> SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile,ID); WRITELN(NewFile,Name); WRITELN(NewFile,Position); WRITELN(NewFile,SSN); WRITELN(NewFile,Category);

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CASE Category OF '1': WRITELN(NewFile,MonthlySalary:0:2); '2': WRITELN(NewFile,HourlyRate:0:2); '3': BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile,Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile,BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile,Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } END END { End of WITH block } END; CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile,OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile,OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile); WRITELN('The employee ', SSNumber, ' is removed from file.') END; { ------------------------- Procedure Menu --------------------------- } PROCEDURE Menu; VAR Option: INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN(Header); WRITELN; WRITELN('1. Display an employee record.'); WRITELN('2. Add a new employee.'); WRITELN('3. Delete an employee.'); WRITELN('4. Exit.'); WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Make a choice and press a number: '); READLN(Option); CASE Option OF 1: ReadRec(PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 2: AddRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 3: DelRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 4: Exit END; Menu

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END; { --------------------------- Main Program --------------------------- } BEGIN { Assign titles } Title[1] := 'ID: '; Title[2] := 'Name: '; Title[3] := 'Position: '; Title[4] := 'SSN: '; Title[5] := 'Salary: '; Title[6] := 'Rate: '; Title[7] := 'Commission: '; Title[8] := 'Basic Salary: '; Title[9] := 'Area: '; Menu END.

Sample run: The following is a sample run to delete the record of the employee whose SSN is 347-12-3456. The user input is italicized and bolded for clarity. ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Display an employee record. 2. Add a new employee. 3. Delete an employee. 4. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 3 Please enter the SSN of the employee to be deleted: 347-12-3456 The employee 347-12-3456 is removed from file. ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Display an employee record. 2. Add a new employee. 3. Delete an employee. 4. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 4

Drill 10-2 The previous program will send the message “The employee ... is removed from file,” whether or not the SSN is in the file. Add the necessary code to make the program send the proper message in each case.

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10-4 Updating Records The algorithm to update records in the file is as follows: 1. Enter the social security number of the employee whose record is to be updated. 2. Open the payroll file for reading, and a temporary file for writing. 3. Read the payroll file up to the end-of-file. For each record, check the SSN field against the social security number. 4. Copy each record to the temporary file until you reach the record to be updated. 5. For the record to be updated, read the new data from the keyboard and write them to the temporary file. 6. Copy the rest of the records into the temporary file. 7. Copy the temporary file into the original payroll file. 8. Delete the temporary file. You may add the following procedure to the program. (This procedure is on the companion CD-ROM under the name Upd-Proc.PAS.) { ---------------------- Procedure UpdateRec ------------------------- } PROCEDURE UpdateRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile: TEXT; Employee: EmployeeRecord); VAR SSNumber :STRING[11]; Found :INTEGER; BEGIN Found := 0; ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee to be updated: '); READLN(SSNumber); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2': READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3': BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary);

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READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber <> SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile, ID); WRITELN(NewFile, Name); WRITELN(NewFile, Position); WRITELN(NewFile, SSN); WRITELN(NewFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': WRITELN(NewFile, MonthlySalary:0:2); '2': WRITELN(NewFile, HourlyRate:0:2); '3': BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile, Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, Area); END END; { End of CASE structure } END ELSE BEGIN Found := 1; WRITELN('Please enter the updated information:'); WRITE('ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITELN(NewFile, ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITELN(NewFile, Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITELN(NewFile, Position); WRITELN(NewFile, SSN); WRITE('Category: '); READLN(Category); WRITELN(NewFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': BEGIN WRITE('Salary: '); READLN(MonthlySalary); WRITELN(NewFile, MonthlySalary:0:2) END; '2': BEGIN WRITE('Hourly Rate: '); READLN(HourlyRate); WRITELN(NewFile, HourlyRate:0:2) END; '3': BEGIN WRITE('Commission: '); READLN(Commission); WRITELN(NewFile, Commission:0:2); WRITE('Basic Salary: '); READLN(BasicSalary); WRITELN(NewFile, BasicSalary:0:2);

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WRITE('Area: '); READLN(Area); WRITELN(NewFile, Area) END { End of CASE structure }

END; END END { End of WITH block } END; CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile, OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile, OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile); { User Messages } IF Found =1 THEN WRITELN('The employee ', SSNumber, ' is updated.') ELSE BEGIN WRITELN('The SSN ', SSNumber, ' is not found.'); WRITELN('Check the number and try again.'); WRITELN END END;

The Found flag is of the INTEGER type. However, you may use any other type such as BOOLEAN which makes your program more readable. With a BOOLEAN flag, you may use statements like IF Found and IF NOT Found. You also need to modify the menu procedure in order to incorporate the update option, as follows. (This procedure is on the companion CD under the name Mnu-Pro2.PAS.) { ------------------------- Procedure Menu --------------------------- } PROCEDURE Menu; VAR Option: INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN(Header); WRITELN; WRITELN('1. Display an employee record.'); WRITELN('2. Add a new employee.'); WRITELN('3. Delete an employee.');

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WRITELN('4. Update an employee record.'); WRITELN('5. Exit.'); WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Make a choice and press a number: '); READLN(Option); CASE Option OF 1: ReadRec(PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 2: AddRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 3: DelRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 4: UpdateRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 5: Exit END; Menu END;

Drill 10-3 Bring procedures together in order to build a complete program containing the capabilities to display, add, delete, and update an employee record.

10-5 Enhance the Program Modularity Now that you have added more procedures to your program, you may need to take a second look at the modularity of the program. One disadvantage of the program is that the Found flag is used in three procedures to check the existence of the required record. Another disadvantage is that the payroll.txt file is being copied into the temporary file whether or not the required record exists. This redundancy could be avoided by building a new procedure to search the file and set (or reset) the Found flag. Thus, when any of the other procedures is entered, the procedure “knows” in advance whether or not the record exists. Therefore, all the steps can be included inside an IF block as shown below: READLN(SSNumber); SearchRec(PayrollFile, EmployeeRec, SSNumber, Found); IF Found =1 THEN BEGIN ... { open files and carry out the required chores } ... END ELSE { send the proper message } END;

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The new procedure SearchRec is invoked after the value of SSNumber is entered from the keyboard. The procedure opens the file, searches for the required employee, and returns the proper value of the flag Found. If the record is found, the regular chores (updating, deleting, or reading) are carried out by the other procedures; otherwise, the proper message is sent and no files have to be reopened. The following are some important points of the SearchRec procedure: g

The SSNumber and the flag are both passed as parameters to the procedure.

g

Because the value of the flag is expected to be modified by the procedure, it has to be passed using the VAR keyword.

g

In order to pass the string variable (SSNumber), the parameter has to be TYPEd; for this reason, a new type is declared in the TYPE section as follows: SSNstring = STRING[11];

This is the program in its final shape: { -------------------------- Example 10-3 ----------------------------- } PROGRAM EmployeeDataBase2(INPUT, OUTPUT, PayrollFile, NewFile); CONST FileName = 'payroll.txt'; TempFile = 'temp.txt'; Header = '------------- Main Menu --------------'; Header1 = '--------- Employee DataBase ----------'; Header2 = '---------- Employee Record -----------'; Separator = '--------------------------------------'; TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :STRING[5]; Name, Position :STRING[20]; SSN :STRING[11]; CASE Category :CHAR OF '1': (MonthlySalary :REAL); '2': (HourlyRate :REAL); '3': (Commission, BasicSalary :REAL; Area :STRING[20]) END; SSNstring = STRING[11]; VAR NewFile, PayrollFile :TEXT; EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; Title :ARRAY [1..9] OF STRING[20]; OneLine :STRING[80]; { ------------------------- Procedure SearchRec --------------------- } PROCEDURE SearchRec(VAR PayrollFile: TEXT; Employee: EmployeeRecord; SSNumber: SSNstring;

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VAR Found: INTEGER); BEGIN Found := 0; ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2': READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3': BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber = SSN THEN Found := 1; END { End of WITH block } END; CLOSE(PayrollFile); END; { ------------------------- Procedure ReadRec ------------------------ } PROCEDURE ReadRec(VAR PayrollFile: TEXT; Employee: EmployeeRecord); VAR SSNumber :STRING[11]; Found :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN; WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee: '); READLN(SSNumber); SearchRec(PayrollFile, EmployeeRec, SSNumber, Found); IF Found =1 THEN BEGIN ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name);

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READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2': READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3': BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber = SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(Header2); WRITELN(Title[1],ID); WRITELN(Title[2],Name); WRITELN(Title[3],Position); WRITELN(Title[4], SSN); CASE Category OF '1': WRITELN(Title[5], MonthlySalary:0:2); '2': WRITELN(Title[6], HourlyRate:0:2); '3': BEGIN WRITELN(Title[7], Commission:0:2); WRITELN(Title[8], BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(Title[9], Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } END END { End of WITH block } END; CLOSE(PayrollFile) END ELSE { If not found } BEGIN WRITELN('SSN not found in file.'); WRITELN('Please try again.'); WRITELN END END; { ------------------------- Procedure DelRec ------------------------- } PROCEDURE DelRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile: TEXT; Employee: EmployeeRecord); VAR SSNumber: STRING[11]; Found :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee to be deleted: '); READLN(SSNumber); SearchRec(PayrollFile, EmployeeRec, SSNumber, Found);

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IF Found =1 THEN BEGIN ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2': READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3': BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber <> SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile, ID); WRITELN(NewFile, Name); WRITELN(NewFile, Position); WRITELN(NewFile, SSN); WRITELN(NewFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': WRITELN(NewFile, MonthlySalary:0:2); '2': WRITELN(NewFile, HourlyRate:0:2); '3': BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile, Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } END; END { End of WITH block } END; {End of DO } CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO

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BEGIN READLN(NewFile, OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile, OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile); { User Messages } WRITELN('The employee ', SSNumber, ' is removed from file.') END { End of the "IF Found.." block } ELSE { IF not found } BEGIN WRITELN('The SSN ', SSNumber, ' is not found.'); WRITELN('Check the number and try again.'); WRITELN END END; { -------------------------- Procedure AddRec ------------------------ } PROCEDURE AddRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile: TEXT; Employee: EmployeeRecord); BEGIN ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN { Copy each record from PayrollFile to the NewFile } READLN(PayrollFile, OneLine); WRITELN(NewFile, OneLine) END; { Accept a new record from the keyboard } WITH Employee DO BEGIN WRITE('Please enter Employee ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITE('SSN (xxx-xx-xxxx): '); READLN(SSN); WRITE('Payroll category: '); READLN(Category); CASE Category OF '1': BEGIN WRITE('Monthly Salary: '); READLN(MonthlySalary) END; '2': BEGIN WRITE('Rate: '); READLN(HourlyRate) END;

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'3': BEGIN WRITE('Commission: '); READLN(Commission); WRITE('Basic salary: '); READLN(BasicSalary); WRITE('Area: '); READLN(Area) END END; { Store the information in NewFile } WRITELN(NewFile, ID); WRITELN(NewFile, Name); WRITELN(NewFile, Position); WRITELN(NewFile, SSN); WRITELN(NewFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': WRITELN(NewFile, MonthlySalary:0:2); '2': WRITELN(NewFile, HourlyRate:0:2); '3': BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile, Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, Area) END END END; CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile, OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile, OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile) END; { ---------------------- Procedure UpdateRec ------------------------- } PROCEDURE UpdateRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile: TEXT; Employee: EmployeeRecord); VAR SSNumber :STRING[11]; Found :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee to be updated: '); READLN(SSNumber);

Using Variant Records

SearchRec(PayrollFile, EmployeeRec, SSNumber, Found); IF Found =1 THEN BEGIN ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2': READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3': BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber <> SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile, ID); WRITELN(NewFile, Name); WRITELN(NewFile, Position); WRITELN(NewFile, SSN); WRITELN(NewFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': WRITELN(NewFile, MonthlySalary:0:2); '2': WRITELN(NewFile, HourlyRate:0:2); '3': BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile, Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, Area) END END { End of CASE structure } END { End of IF block } ELSE BEGIN WRITELN('Please enter the updated information:'); WRITE('ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITELN(NewFile, ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITELN(NewFile, Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITELN(NewFile, Position);

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WRITELN(NewFile, SSN); WRITE('Category: '); READLN(Category); WRITELN(NewFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1': BEGIN WRITE('Salary: '); READLN(MonthlySalary); WRITELN(NewFile, MonthlySalary:0:2) END; '2': BEGIN WRITE('Hourly Rate: '); READLN(HourlyRate); WRITELN(NewFile, HourlyRate:0:2) END; '3': BEGIN WRITE('Commission: '); READLN(Commission); WRITELN(NewFile, Commission:0:2); WRITE('Basic Salary: '); READLN(BasicSalary); WRITELN(NewFile, BasicSalary:0:2); WRITE('Area: '); READLN(Area); WRITELN(NewFile, Area) END END { End of CASE structure } END { End of ELSE block } END { End of WITH block } END; { End of DO } CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile, OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile, OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile); { User Messages } WRITELN('The employee ', SSNumber, ' is updated.') END { End of IF block } ELSE BEGIN

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WRITELN('The SSN ', SSNumber, ' is not found.'); WRITELN('Check the number and try again.'); WRITELN END END; { -------------------------- Procedure Menu -------------------------- } PROCEDURE Menu; VAR Option: INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN(Header); WRITELN; WRITELN('1. Display an employee record.'); WRITELN('2. Add a new employee.'); WRITELN('3. Delete an employee.'); WRITELN('4. Update an employee record.'); WRITELN('5. Exit.'); WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Make a choice and press a number: '); READLN(Option); CASE Option OF 1: ReadRec(PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 2: AddRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 3: DelRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 4: UpdateRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 5: Exit END; Menu END; { --------------------------- Main Program --------------------------- } BEGIN { Assign titles } Title[1] := 'ID: '; Title[2] := 'Name: '; Title[3] := 'Position: '; Title[4] := 'SSN: '; Title[5] := 'Salary: '; Title[6] := 'Rate: '; Title[7] := 'Commission: '; Title[8] := 'Basic Salary: '; Title[9] := 'Area: '; Menu END.

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Suggestions In order to make the program more reliable, you may add the following features: g

When you enter the SSN for a new employee, the program does not check the data format; thus, a wrong number such as “12345-678” will be accepted. You can add the necessary statements to check for the exact number of digits as well as the hyphens.

g

If you enter a value other than 1, 2, or 3, it will be accepted as a Category. Consequently, the salary will not be processed by the CASE structure. You can add the necessary steps to check the valid values of the Category variable.

g

If you added the same employee to the file twice, this program would not know that the record already exists. Therefore, you need to check the SSN before you add a new record.

g

If you are using Turbo Pascal, it would be better to use units. You can put each procedure in a separate file called a unit. The units you build could be usable by more than one program.

These enhancements are left for you as a drill.

Summary 1. In this chapter you learned how to use variant records to store your data into an efficient data structure. 2. You can declare a variant record type using the following format: type-name = RECORD fixed field-list variant field-list END;

The variant field list takes the following form: CASE tag-field: type-definition OF label-1: (field-list: type-definition); label-2: (field-list: type-definition); ... label-n: (field-list: type-definition);

3. The variant record may contain a fixed part followed by a variant part, or a variant part only. 4. You learned how to read, write, update, and delete variant records stored in files, using the CASE structure.

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Exercises 1. Write a variant record declaration for a patient that includes the following information: n Patient ID n Patient name n SSN n Smoking status, which includes three cases: n Smoker (Y): Required information is type (cigarette, cigar, pipe, etc.) and number of years of smoking. n Nonsmoker (N): No additional information is required. n Quit smoking (Q): The required information is the total number of years of smoking and number of years since quitting. 2. Write a variant record declaration for a geometric shape that can be used to calculate the area and/or the volume of the following shapes: Shape Required Information Circle The radius Cylinder The radius and the height Sphere The radius Cube The side

Answers 1.

2.

PatientRecord = RECORD PatientID Name SSN CASE Smoking 'Y': (TypeOfSmoke HowLong 'N': (); 'Q': (YearsQuitting YearsSmoking END;

:STRING[5]; :STRING[20]; :STRING[11]; : CHAR OF : STRING[10]; : INTEGER); : INTEGER; : INTEGER)

FigureName = (Circle, Cylinder, Sphere, Cube); ShapeInformation = RECORD CASE Figure : FigureName OF Circle :(Radius : REAL); Cylinder :(CylRadius: REAL; Height: REAL ); Sphere :(SphRadius: REAL); Cube :(Side: REAL) END;

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Chapter 11 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Pointers and Linked Lists 11-1 Dynamic Memory Allocation The variables used so far are called static variables. The relationship between the static variable and the memory location it refers to is established at compilation time and does not change during program execution. A dynamic variable, on the other hand, is created or disposed of during execution. In other words, the necessary memory location for a dynamic variable is allocated while the program is running, and may be released and allocated to another variable. In Pascal, you may create a simple dynamic variable or a complex dynamic data structure such as a linked list. A linked list may be needed in some situations when you cannot predict your memory requirements. As opposed to the linked list, the array is an example of a static data structure. The memory locations associated with the array elements are allocated at the time of compilation. The disadvantage of using arrays in such situations is the need to allocate enough space for the maximum possible number of elements. Defining a huge array which may exceed your needs is a waste of memory, while using a small array will limit your program to a specific number of elements. The problem occurs when you need to insert a new element into the array. Dynamic data structures may expand or shrink during the program execution, and so does the associated memory. Dynamic memory allocation is accomplished by using pointers. In the following sections you learn how to declare and use pointers.

11-2 Pointers A pointer is a special type of variable that does not hold data; instead, it holds the address of a data location. Therefore, it is said that it “points” to a data location. In your program, it is possible to redirect the pointer to make it point to another memory location, or to no memory location. It is also possible to release the memory associated with a specific pointer and make it available to other variables. Pointers can point

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to any type of data, from CHARs and INTEGERs to complex data structures such as records and linked lists. A pointer to an integer is declared as follows: VAR PtrVariable

: ^INTEGER;

In order to use the pointer, you must allocate memory using the procedure NEW: NEW(PtrVariable);

This assigns a memory address to the pointer variable PtrVariable (e.g., 709Ch). The value stored in this address is the actual data. To refer to the location pointed to by the pointer PtrVariable, use the variable name: PtrVariable^

which is treated like a regular variable. For example, you may assign it a numeric value: PtrVariable^ := 500;

or assign it to another static variable: AnotherVariable := PtrVariable^ ;

This is demonstrated in the following diagram:

Figure 11-1

The memory allocated to the pointer may be released using the procedure DISPOSE: DISPOSE(PtrVariable);

Once a pointer is disposed of, it becomes undefined. These features are demonstrated in the following program. An integer variable (MyInteger) and an integer pointer (MyIntegerPointer) are declared. The contents of the allocated location MyIntegerPointer^ are assigned to the variable MyInteger. Both, when printed, should give the same value (500).

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{ ---------------------------- Example 11-1 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM PointerExample(OUTPUT); VAR MyIntegerPointer MyInteger

:^INTEGER; :INTEGER;

BEGIN MyInteger := 50; NEW(MyIntegerPointer); MyIntegerPointer^ := 500; MyInteger := MyIntegerPointer^; WRITELN('The value of MyInteger is: ', MyInteger); WRITELN('The value pointed to by MyIntegerPointer is: ' , MyIntegerPointer^); DISPOSE(MyIntegerPointer); WRITELN('Press any key to continue...'); READLN END.

Notice that the procedure DISPOSE is not necessary in this program, because the memory is deallocated automatically when the program ends. It is used only for demonstration. In the same way, you can declare pointers to other types, for example: VAR MyCharPointer :^CHAR; MyStringPointer :^STRING; MyRealPointer :^REAL;

Before you try to use any of these pointers, remember to use the procedure NEW to allocate memory for each one: NEW(MyCharPointer); NEW(MyStringPointer); NEW(MyRealPointer);

When you are finished, you may use DISPOSE to deallocate memory associated with each of them: DISPOSE(MyCharPointer); DISPOSE(MyStringPointer); DISPOSE(MyRealPointer);

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Pointer Operations The operations performed on pointers are limited to assignment and comparison.

Assignment If two pointers ptr1 and ptr2 are of the same type, then the following statement is valid: ptr1 :=

ptr2;

The effect of this statement is to redirect the pointer ptr1 to make it point to the same location pointed to by ptr2. The location that was pointed to by ptr1, before the assignment, is now inaccessible (unless it was pointed to by another pointer). When you dispose of these pointers, you need to dispose of only one of them, because they point to the same location. A second DISPOSE statement will result in an error message. Obviously, the previous assignment is totally different from the following assignment: ptr1^ := ptr2^;

which means copying the contents of the location pointed to by ptr2 into the location pointed to by ptr1. The two pointers, however, may still be pointing to the same original locations.

Comparison You may use the Boolean operators = or <> to compare two pointers, for example: IF ptr1 = ptr2 THEN ..

The Boolean expression ptr1 = ptr2 is TRUE if the two pointers are pointing to the same memory location. These features are demonstrated in the following program. { -------------------- Example 11-2 ------------------------ } PROGRAM PointerExample2(OUTPUT); TYPE intptr = ^INTEGER; realptr = ^REAL; VAR MyIntegerPointer, AnotherIntPointer :intptr; MyRealPointer :realptr; BEGIN NEW(MyIntegerPointer); NEW(MyRealPointer);

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NEW(AnotherIntPointer); MyRealPointer^ := 2.25; MyIntegerPointer^ := 500; AnotherIntPointer^ := 400; { Copy contents of locations:} MyRealPointer^ := MyIntegerPointer^; { Redirect MyIntegerPointer:} MyIntegerPointer := AnotherIntPointer; WRITELN('MyRealPointer is pointing to: ', MyRealPointer^:2:2); WRITELN; {Check if the two pointers point to the same location:} IF (MyIntegerPointer = AnotherIntPointer) THEN WRITELN('Yes, The two integer pointers are pointing to the same location.'); WRITELN('MyIntegerPointer is pointing to: ', MyIntegerPointer^); WRITELN('AnotherIntPointer is pointing to: ', AnotherIntPointer^); WRITELN; { Note: The DISPOSE procedure is not necessary, for any one of the pointers, in this program. } DISPOSE(MyIntegerPointer); DISPOSE(MyRealPointer); {DISPOSE(AnotherIntPointer);} {illegal now..} WRITELN('Press any key to continue...'); READLN END.

When you run this program, it will display the following messages: MyRealPointer is pointing to: 500.00 Yes, The two integer pointers are pointing to the same location. MyIntegerPointer is pointing to: 400 AnotherIntPointer is pointing to: 400 Press any key to continue...

The following are the operations that took place in the program (also refer to Figure 11-2): 1. The variable MyRealPointer^ is assigned the value 2.25. 2. The variable MyIntegerPointer^ is assigned the value 500. 3. The variable AnotherIntPointer^ is assigned the value 400.

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4. The contents of MyIntegerPointer^ are copied into MyRealPointer^; therefore, its stored value becomes 500.00. 5. The pointer MyIntegerPointer is redirected to point to the same location pointed to by AnotherIntPointer, which contains the value 400.

Figure 11-2

aa aa NOTE

You cannot read a pointer value. You can only read the contents pointed to by the pointer.

Pointers to Records You can declare a pointer to a record in the same way you do with other types of data. It is preferred to define the pointer type in the TYPE section: TYPE emprec = RECORD ID :INTEGER; Wage : REAL; END; empptr = ^emprec;

then declare the pointer variables in the VAR section: VAR ptr1, ptr2 :empptr;

With records, you may use all pointer operations in the same way you do with other pointer types. But there are some restrictions: g

When you create a pointer to a record, the pointer is bound to this specific record type and may not be used with another record type.

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The relational expression: ptr1^

=

ptr2^

is invalid, as records cannot be compared using relational expressions. You may, however, compare the two pointers to check if they are pointing to the same record. ptr1 = ptr2

or ptr1 <> ptr2 g

The field contents are accessed using fielded variables: ptr1^.ID ptr1^.Wage ptr2^.ID ptr2^.Wage

or using a WITH statement: WITH ptr1^ DO ID := 123; Wage := 22.5; ...

In the following program, the two record pointers, ptr1 and ptr2, are used to access the record fields; then, one of the pointers is redirected to point to the same record as the other one does. { -------------------- Example 11-3 ------------------------ } PROGRAM PointersToRecords(OUTPUT); TYPE emprec = RECORD ID:INTEGER; Wage: REAL; END; empptr = ^emprec; VAR ptr1, ptr2 : empptr; BEGIN NEW(ptr1); NEW(ptr2); { Assign values to the fields } ptr1^.ID := 123; ptr1^.Wage := 25.5; ptr2^.ID := 456; ptr2^.Wage := 33.25; {Print contents:} WRITELN('Before redirection of ptr1:');

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WRITELN('Ptr1 points ', WRITELN('Ptr2 points ',

to ID:', ptr1^.ID, and Wage: $', ptr1^.Wage:2:2); to ID:', ptr2^.ID, and Wage: $', ptr2^.Wage:2:2);

{Redirect ptr1:} ptr1 := ptr2; {Print contents:} WRITELN; WRITELN('After redirection of ptr1:'); WRITELN('Ptr1 points to ID:', ptr1^.ID, ', and Wage: $', ptr1^.Wage:2:2); WRITELN('Ptr2 points to ID:', ptr2^.ID, ', and Wage: $', ptr2^.Wage:2:2); WRITELN('Press any key to continue...'); READLN END.

When you run this program, the following results are displayed on the screen: Before redirection of ptr1: Ptr1 points to ID: 123, and Wage: $25.50 Ptr2 points to ID: 456, and Wage: $33.25 After redirection of ptr1: Ptr1 points to ID: 456, and Wage: $33.25 Ptr2 points to ID: 456, and Wage: $33.25 Press any key to continue...

Drill 11-1 Write a program to create the payroll file used in Chapter 10, using a pointer to the employee record. You may modify the file Drl10-1.pas on the companion CD.

Passing Pointers as Parameters You may pass pointers as parameters to functions and procedures, in the same way you do with static variables. You can pass pointers either as value or variable parameters. Remember that both actual and formal parameters must be of the same type; in the case of record pointers, they must point to the same record type.

Drill 11-2 Make the necessary modifications to the program 10-02.pas on the CD-ROM in order to apply pointer parameters to the procedures.

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11-3 Basics of Linked Lists A linked list is a collection of data items called nodes. Each node contains a pointer to the next one. The linked list may be used to store any data type, but is usually used to hold records. In the following diagram a linked list is demonstrated.

Figure 11-3

As you can see in the diagram, each node in the linked list contains two items, the data and a pointer to the next node. The pointer in the last node points to the constant NIL, which indicates the end of the list.

List Declaration The following is a declaration of a linked list that contains an integer data field: TYPE ListPointer = ^ListRecord; ListRecord = RECORD DataField :INTEGER; NextField :ListPointer; END;

Each node in the linked list (ListRecord) has the structure of a record. It contains a data field (DataField), which holds the actual data, and a pointer field (NextField), also referred to as a link field, which keeps track of the order of the list. Notice that the pointer definition (ListPointer) precedes the record definition (ListRecord). This is actually the only situation in which you can use an identifier before it is defined. You can declare a linked list in which to store records in the same way; however, it is best to start with simple ones.

Building a List To build a linked list, you need to declare two pointers, one to point to the first node (e.g., FirstPointer) and another to use temporarily in the construction process (e.g., ToolPointer). Both pointers are obviously of the type ListPointer. VAR FirstPointer, ToolPointer

:ListPointer;

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These are the steps to build the list: 1. Initialize an empty list by assigning the FirstPointer the NIL value: FirstPointer := NIL;

2. Create a node using the temporary pointer: NEW(ToolPointer);

3. Read the integer from the keyboard (or any other medium) and store it into the data field of this node: READLN(ToolPointer^.DataField);

Figure 11-4

4. Add the node to list by setting the pointer field so that it points to the same location as FirstPointer: ToolPointer^.NextField := FirstPointer;

Figure 11-5

5. Redirect the FirstPointer to the new node (which is the beginning of the list): FirstPointer

Figure 11-6

:= ToolPointer;

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Repeat the preceding steps until all the data are read. The last data item you read will be in the first node of the linked list. The same procedure, except for the first step, is used to add new nodes to an existing list (as you do not need to create an empty list). The following is the procedure segment that creates the list: FirstPointer := NIL; WHILE { Boolean Expression } DO BEGIN NEW(ToolPointer); READLN(ToolPointer^.DataField); ToolPointer^.NextField := FirstPointer; FirstPointer := ToolPointer; END;

Reading a List To read a linked list, you need two pointers, the FirstPointer which points to the first node on the list and the CurrentPointer which moves from one node to the other across the entire list. The following are the steps to read and display the contents of a list. 1. Make the CurrentPointer point to the first node by assigning it the same direction as the FirstPointer: CurrentPointer := FirstPointer;

Figure 11-7

2. Use the CurrentPointer to access and display the contents of the data field: WRITELN(CurrentPointer^.DataField);

3. Move the CurrentPointer to the next node, by assigning it the direction of the pointer field (NextField) of the same node: CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField;

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Figure 11-8

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until you get to the last node. This occurs when the following condition is TRUE: CurrentPointer = NIL

Figure 11-9

The following is a program segment to read a list: VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; BEGIN CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE CurrentPointer <> NIL DO BEGIN WRITELN(CurrentPointer^.DataField); CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField END; WRITELN END

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Example: A Linked List Demo In the following program, you are going to build a linked list that stores names of people, then read it and display its contents. The program contains the following procedures: g

Menu:

to display and accept user options

g

GetData:

to accept data from the keyboard

g

BuildList:

to create and add nodes to the list

g

ReadList:

to read the contents of the list

g

DisplayInfo:

to display the list on the screen

{ ---------------------------- Example 11-4 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM LinkedListDemo(INPUT, OUTPUT); CONST Header = '------------- Main Menu --------------'; Separator = '--------------------------------------'; TYPE DataString = STRING[30]; ListPointer = ^ListRecord; ListRecord = RECORD DataField :DataString; NextField :ListPointer END; VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer; { --------------------------- Procedure BuildList -------------------------- } PROCEDURE BuildList(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer; DataItem :DataString); {Note: FirstPointer is passed using the VAR keyword because it will be updated by this procedure.} VAR ToolPointer :ListPointer; BEGIN NEW(ToolPointer); ToolPointer^.DataField := DataItem; ToolPointer^.NextField := FirstPointer; FirstPointer := ToolPointer END;

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{ -------------------------- Procedure ReadList ---------------------------- } PROCEDURE ReadList(FirstPointer :ListPointer); VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; BEGIN CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE CurrentPointer <> NIL DO BEGIN WRITELN(CurrentPointer^.DataField); CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField END; WRITELN END; { -------------------------- Procedure GetData------------------------------ } PROCEDURE GetData(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer); {Note: FirstPointer is passed using the VAR keyword because it will be updated when passed to BuildList procedure.} VAR Name :DataString; BEGIN WRITELN('Enter the names to be added to the list,', ' when finished hit ENTER.'); { Read the first data item } READLN(Name); { Check for end-of-data } WHILE LENGTH(Name) <> 0 DO BEGIN BuildList(FirstPointer, Name); READLN(Name) END END; { ------------------------- Procedure DisplayInfo -------------------------- } PROCEDURE DisplayInfo(FirstPointer :ListPointer); BEGIN WRITELN(Separator); WRITELN('The contents of the list: '); ReadList(FirstPointer); WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END; { --------------------------- Procedure Menu ------------------------------- } PROCEDURE Menu; VAR Option :INTEGER;

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BEGIN WRITELN(Header); WRITELN('1. Store data in a list.'); WRITELN('2. Display the list.'); WRITELN('3. Exit.'); WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Make a choice and press a number: '); READLN(Option); CASE Option OF 1 : GetData(FirstPointer); 2 : DisplayInfo(FirstPointer); 3 : Exit END; Menu END; { ----------------------------- Main Program ------------------------------- } BEGIN { Initialize an empty list } FirstPointer := NIL; menu END.

When you run this program and choose to store data in a list (Option 1), you will be asked to enter some names; when you are finished just hit Enter (without writing any text). At this point, the name list is built into memory and may be displayed. Notice that the last name you entered from the keyboard will appear first on the screen, because you always insert nodes at the beginning of the list. In this sample run, the data entered by the user are italicized and bolded for clarity. Sample run: ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Store data in a list. 2. Display the list. 3. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 1 Enter the names to be added to the list, when finished hit ENTER. John Smith -----> Names entered from the keyboard Jean Murdock Sally Bedford Deanna Loerwold ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Store data in a list. 2. Display the list. 3. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 2 --------------------------------------

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The contents of the list: Deanna Loerwold -----> Sally Bedford Jean Murdock John Smith

Notice the sequence of names

Hit any key to continue... ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Store data in a list. 2. Display the list. 3. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 3

Notice the following in the program: g

The VAR keyword is used in the procedure BuildList, as it updates the direction of the FirstPointer with the statement: FirstPointer := ToolPointer;

The procedure GetData does not update FirstPointer explicitly, but passes it to the procedure BuildList; therefore, the VAR keyword still has to be used. g

Note that the empty list is initialized only once in the main program: FirstPointer := NIL;

This means that you can keep adding items to the same list if you choose the option 1 more than once. The list is reinitialized only if you exit and start over. If you like to initialize an empty list each time you choose option 1, then move the statement FirstPointer := NIL to the GetData procedure. g

Although three pointers were used in the program, the procedure NEW is used only with the ToolPointer. This procedure is only needed to allocate memory when nodes are created.

Storing Lists in Files To store a linked list in a file, follow these steps: 1. Open the file for writing. 2. Make CurrentPointer point to the first node: CurrentPointer := FirstPointer;

3. Read the data field (CurrentPointer^.DataField) and write it to the file: WRITE(MyListFile, CurrentPointer^.DataField);

4. Move CurrentPointer to the next node by updating its direction to point to the pointer field (NextField): CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField;

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5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you reach the end of the list. At this point, CurrentPointer will be NIL. 6. Close the file. The following program segment summarizes the preceding steps: VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; BEGIN ASSIGN(MyListFile, FileName); REWRITE(MyListFile); CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE CurrentPointer <> NIL DO BEGIN WRITE(MyListFile, CurrentPointer^.DataField); CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField END; CLOSE(MyListFile) END;

Reading Lists from Files When you store a linked list in a file, you only store the data. The list pointers are only used in memory to control the list. Therefore, when the file is written to the disk, it becomes a regular data file, and may be read using the regular procedures. After reading the file, you should build the data as a linked list. To add the data read from a file to a linked list, do the following: 1. Open the file for reading. 2. Read a data item from the file. 3. Add the item to the list using the procedure BuildList explained earlier. In the following segment, the data item Name is read from the file MyListFile and added to the list: WHILE NOT EOF (MyListFile) DO BEGIN READ(MyListFile, Name); BuildList(FirstPointer, Name); END;

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until you reach end-of-file.

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Drill 11-3 Modify Example 11-4 to add the following two options: g

Save the list to a file.

g

Add data from file.

For the type of data you are currently using, you may use either a TEXT or a non-TEXT file.

Example: A List of Records In this section, you are going to work with a more practical linked list, a list of employee records. Take a look at these types: TYPE {Declaration of data type } SSNstring = STRING[11]; DataRecord = RECORD ID :STRING[5]; Name, Position :STRING[20]; SSN :SSNstring; Rate :REAL END; {Declaration of the list } ListPointer = ^ListRecord; ListRecord = RECORD DataField :DataRecord; NextField :ListPointer END; EmpFile = FILE OF DataRecord;

These declarations are divided into two main parts: 1. The definition of the data type (the record), which is used as a data field in the linked list. 2. The linked list definition. Note in these declarations that the SSNstring type comes first, because it is used in the definition of the employee record (DataRecord). Note also that the data field (DataField) in the linked list is of the type DataRecord. A file of DataRecords, in which you are going to store the list, is also defined. Using a file of records makes the file handling much easier. The global variables you are going to use are a list pointer, a file variable, and a record variable:

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VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer; MyListFile :EmpFile; EmpRecord :DataRecord;

When you deal with a list of records, use the same procedures as with simple lists since you are still dealing with nodes. Remember to use fielded variables to read the fields. For example, in a list of strings, refer to each string using the variable: CurrentPointer^.DataField

In a list of records, refer to the SSN field (as an example) using the variable: CurrentPointer^.DataField.SSN

or you may use a WITH statement to do the same thing: WITH CurrentPointer^.DataField DO BEGIN WRITE(ID :7); WRITE(Name :22); ...

11-4 Searching Lists In real applications, displaying the whole list on the screen is not useful because the list may be too long. Instead, to display a specific record you have to search in the list for a unique field such as the social security number SSN. To search a list, do the following: 1. Start from the first node by setting up CurrentPointer so that it points to the first node: CurrentPointer := FirstPointer;

2. Match the social security number entered from the keyboard (SSNumber) with the SSN field in the node. If they match, set a flag such as Found: IF CurrentPointer^.DataField.SSN = SSNumber THEN Found := TRUE

The CurrentPointer in this case is just pointing to the required node, and may be used to read the information. 3. If the required record is not found, move the CurrentPointer to the next node. CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField;

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until you either find the matching record (Found = TRUE) or you reach the end of the list (CurrentPointer = NIL). Thus, your WHILE loop will be using these two conditions: WHILE (CurrentPointer <> NIL) AND (NOT Found) DO ....

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The following is a program segment that includes the preceding steps: CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE (CurrentPointer <> NIL) AND (NOT Found) DO IF CurrentPointer^.DataField.SSN = SSNumber THEN Found := TRUE ELSE CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField;

To display the information in the required node, you may use the following segment: WITH CurrentPointer^.DataField DO BEGIN WRITELN('ID: ',ID); WRITELN('Name: ',Name); WRITELN('Position: ', Position); WRITELN('Social Security Number: ',SSN); WRITELN('Hourly Rate: ',Rate :2:2) END;

The following program is the linked list version of the employee database. It includes the options to search for and display a specific record, in addition to better file processing. The program includes the following procedures: g

SearchList:

to search for a specific record

g

BuildList:

to add records to the list

g

ReadList:

to display the whole list

g

GetData:

to accept data from the keyboard

g

DisplayRec:

to display a specific record

g

DisplayItAll:

to display the headers of the fields and invoke ReadList

g

ReadFile:

to read records from the data file and invoke BuildList

g

SaveList:

to save the list to a file

g

Menu:

to display the user menu

{ ----------------------------- Example 11-5 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM LinkedListDB(INPUT, OUTPUT, MyListFile); { This program processes an employee database as list of records. } CONST FileName = 'emplist.bin'; Header = '------------- Main Menu --------------'; Separator = '--------------------------------------'; TYPE {Declaration of data type } SSNstring = STRING[11]; DataRecord = RECORD ID Name, Position

:STRING[5]; :STRING[20];

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SSN :SSNstring; Rate :REAL END; {Declaration of the list } ListPointer = ^ListRecord; ListRecord = RECORD DataField :DataRecord; NextField :ListPointer END; EmpFile = FILE OF DataRecord; VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer; MyListFile :EmpFile; EmpRecord :DataRecord; { -------------------------- Procedure SearchList -------------------------- } PROCEDURE SearchList(FirstPointer :ListPointer; VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; SSNumber :SSNstring; VAR Found :BOOLEAN); { This procedure searches the linked list for an employee's SSN. If found, the value of the boolean flag Found becomes TRUE, and the CurrentPointer points to the required node. } BEGIN CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE (CurrentPointer <> NIL) AND (NOT Found) DO IF CurrentPointer^.DataField.SSN = SSNumber THEN Found := TRUE ELSE CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField; END; { -------------------------- Procedure BuildList --------------------------- } PROCEDURE BuildList(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer; DataItem :DataRecord); { This procedure builds the linked list, or adds nodes to it.} {Note: The FirstPointer is passed using the VAR keyword as it will be updated by this procedure. } VAR ToolPointer :ListPointer; BEGIN NEW(ToolPointer); ToolPointer^.DataField := DataItem; ToolPointer^.NextField := FirstPointer; FirstPointer := ToolPointer END;

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{ -------------------------- Procedure ReadList ---------------------------- } PROCEDURE ReadList(FirstPointer :ListPointer); { This procedure reads and displays the contents of the list. } VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; BEGIN CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE CurrentPointer <> NIL DO BEGIN WITH CurrentPointer^.DataField DO BEGIN WRITE(ID :7); WRITE(Name :22); WRITE(Position :22); WRITE(SSN :13); WRITELN(' $' ,Rate :0:2) END; CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField END; WRITELN END; { -------------------------- Procedure GetData ----------------------------- } PROCEDURE GetData(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer); { This procedure receives the employee data from the keyboard, and passes the record information to the procedure BuildList to be added to the linked list. } VAR Item :DataRecord; BEGIN WRITELN('Please enter the record information,', ' when finished hit ENTER.'); { Read the first data item } WITH Item DO BEGIN WRITE('ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITE('SSN: '); READLN(SSN); WRITE('Rate: '); READLN(Rate); WRITE(Separator) END; BuildList(FirstPointer, Item); END; { ------------------------ Procedure DisplayItAll -------------------------- } PROCEDURE DisplayItAll(FirstPointer :ListPointer); { This procedures displays the headers of the fields in the proper format and calls the procedure ReadList to display the contents of the list. }

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BEGIN WRITELN(Separator); WRITELN('The contents of the list: '); WRITELN('ID' :7, 'Name' :22, 'Position' :22, 'SSN' :13, 'Rate' :7); WRITELN; ReadList(FirstPointer); WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END; { -------------------------- Procedure DisplayRec -------------------------- } PROCEDURE DisplayRec(FirstPointer :ListPointer); { This procedure displays the information for a specific employee. It calls the procedure SearchList to search the list using the social security number of the employee. If found, the information is displayed, otherwise a message "not found" is issued. } VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; SSNumber :SSNstring; Found :BOOLEAN; BEGIN Found := FALSE; WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Enter the SSN for the employee:'); READLN(SSNumber); SearchList(FirstPointer, CurrentPointer, SSNumber, Found); IF NOT Found THEN WRITELN('SSN: ', SSNumber, ' Not Found') ELSE WITH CurrentPointer^.DataField DO BEGIN WRITELN('ID: ',ID); WRITELN('Name: ',Name); WRITELN('Position: ', Position); WRITELN('Social Security Number: ',SSN); WRITELN('Hourly Rate: ',Rate :2:2) END; WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END; { --------------------------- Procedure SaveList --------------------------- } PROCEDURE SaveList(FirstPointer :ListPointer; VAR MyListFile: EmpFile); {This procedure saves the data fields in the linked list to a file of the type RECORD. } VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer;

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BEGIN ASSIGN(MyListFile, FileName); REWRITE(MyListFile); CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE CurrentPointer <> NIL DO BEGIN WRITE(MyListFile, CurrentPointer^.DataField); CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField END; CLOSE(MyListFile) END; { --------------------------- Procedure ReadFile -------------------------- } PROCEDURE ReadFile(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer; VAR MyListFile: EmpFile); {This procedure reads data from the file emplist.bin and adds the data to the linked list. } VAR Item

:DataRecord;

BEGIN ASSIGN(MyListFile, FileName); RESET(MyListFile); WHILE NOT EOF (MyListFile) DO BEGIN READ(MyListFile, Item); BuildList(FirstPointer, Item); END; CLOSE(MyListFile) END; { ---------------------------- Procedure Menu ------------------------------ } PROCEDURE Menu; VAR Option :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN(Header); WRITELN('1. Add records to the list.'); WRITELN('2. Display the whole list.'); WRITELN('3. Display an employee record.'); WRITELN('4. Add records from file.'); WRITELN('5. Save the list to a file.'); WRITELN('6. Exit.'); WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Make a choice and press a number: '); READLN(Option); CASE Option OF

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1 2 3 4 5 6 END; Menu END;

: : : : : :

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GetData(FirstPointer); DisplayItAll(FirstPointer); DisplayRec(FirstPointer); ReadFile(FirstPointer, MyListFile); SaveList(FirstPointer, MyListFile); Exit

{ ------------------------------ Main Program ------------------------------ } BEGIN { Initialize an empty list. } FirstPointer := NIL; menu END.

A sample of the file emplist.bin is included on the companion CD. When you run the program, you may start with loading records from the file by choosing option 4, then display the list using option 2. In the following sample run, the user input is italicized and bolded for clarity. Sample run: ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Add records to the list. 2. Display the whole list. 3. Display an employee record. 4. Add records from file. 5. Save the list to a file. 6. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 4 -----> ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Add records to the list. 2. Display the whole list. 3. Display an employee record. 4. Add records from file. 5. Save the list to a file. 6. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 2 -------------------------------------The contents of the list: ID Name 456 345 123

Mark Poche Deanna Bedford John Martin Smith

At this point, the list is loaded into memory.

Position

Staff Assistant Secretary I Sales Manager

SSN

Rate

999-99-9999 $23.00 444-44-4444 $12.55 111-11-1111 $22.50

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234 987

James Strahan Charles Berlin

Sales Representative President

222-22-2222 $11.50 333-33-3333 $60.50

Hit any key to continue...

For your convenience, the social security numbers in the file are made easy to remember when you search for a certain employee. Here is an example: ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Add records to the list. 2. Display the whole list. 3. Display an employee record. 4. Add records from file. 5. Save the list to a file. 6. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 3 -------------------------------------Enter the SSN for the employee: 111-11-1111 ID: 123 Name: John Martin Smith Position: Sales Manager Social Security Number: 111-11-1111 Hourly Rate: 22.50 Hit any key to continue... ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Add records to the list. 2. Display the whole list. 3. Display an employee record. 4. Add records from file. 5. Save the list to a file. 6. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 6

Notice the following points in the search procedure: g

The call to the search procedure takes the form: SearchList(FirstPointer, CurrentPointer, SSNumber, Found);

where SSNumber is the Social Security Number to be matched with the field SSN. g

Both CurrentPointer and the flag Found are passed using the keyword VAR, because their values are expected to change after the search process. PROCEDURE SearchList(FirstPointer :ListPointer; VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; SSNumber :SSNstring; VAR Found :BOOLEAN);

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Drill 11-4 Add a procedure to the previous program that incorporates the Update record option in your menu. To update a record, search for it, accept the new information from the keyboard, and write the record to the data field in the current node. Remember to update the menu options as well, by adding the option Update record.

11-5 Deleting Nodes from Lists To delete a node from a linked list, you need to declare three pointers: g

FirstPointer:

which points to the first node

g

CurrentPointer:

which points to the current node

g

PreviousPointer:

which points to the previous node

The algorithm to delete a node depends on its relative position in the link. There are two cases to consider: (A) If the node is the first node in the list: The procedure to delete the node in this case is simple, and requires only two pointers, FirstPointer and CurrentPointer: 1. Set CurrentPointer to point to the node to be deleted (the first node). 2. Set FirstPointer to point to the second node in the list FirstPointer := FirstPointer^.NextField;

3. Dispose of the CurrentPointer. DISPOSE(CurrentPointer);

Figure 11-10

(B) If the node has a predecessor: This is the case in which you need the third pointer that points to the previous node. The following is the algorithm to delete the node: 1. Set CurrentPointer to point to the node to be deleted. 2. Set PreviousPointer to point to the successor of the current node: PreviousPointer^.NextField := CurrentPointer^.NextField;

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3. Dispose of the CurrentPointer: DISPOSE(CurrentPointer);

Figure 11-11

The previous steps imply that the algorithm of the search procedure must be changed so that PreviousPointer follows CurrentPointer step by step through the list. This is the new version of the procedure SearchList: { -------------------------- Procedure SearchList -------------------------- } PROCEDURE SearchList(FirstPointer :ListPointer; VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; VAR PreviousPointer :ListPointer; SSNumber :SSNstring; VAR Found :BOOLEAN); BEGIN PreviousPointer := NIL; CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE (CurrentPointer <> NIL) AND (NOT Found) DO IF CurrentPointer^.DataField.SSN = SSNumber THEN Found := TRUE ELSE BEGIN PreviousPointer := CurrentPointer; CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField END END;

The procedure header is changed to: PROCEDURE SearchList(FirstPointer :ListPointer; VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; VAR PreviousPointer :ListPointer; SSNumber :SSNstring; VAR Found :BOOLEAN);

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Because PreviousPointer follows CurrentPointer and its value is expected to change, it has to be preceded by the keyword VAR. The following is the DelRecord procedure: { -------------------------- Procedure DelRecord --------------------------- } PROCEDURE DelRecord(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer); VAR CurrentPointer, PreviousPointer :ListPointer; Found :BOOLEAN; SSNumber: SSNstring; BEGIN Found := FALSE; WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Enter the SSN of the employee to be removed:'); READLN(SSNumber); SearchList(FirstPointer, CurrentPointer, PreviousPointer, SSNumber, Found); IF NOT Found THEN WRITELN('SSN: ', SSNumber, ' Not Found') ELSE BEGIN IF PreviousPointer = NIL THEN { The node to be deleted is the first node. } FirstPointer := FirstPointer^.NextField ELSE { The node to be deleted has a predecessor. } PreviousPointer^.NextField := CurrentPointer^.NextField; DISPOSE(CurrentPointer); WRITELN('The record has been deleted from the list.') END; WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END;

The changes made to the SearchList procedure will affect other procedures. Any call to SearchList must include the new pointer parameter PreviousPointer as shown in the call below: SearchList(FirstPointer, CurrentPointer, PreviousPointer, SSNumber, Found);

In Example 11-5, the DisplayRec procedure calls SearchList using two pointer parameters only. This is obvious because PreviousPointer is not used in the DisplayRec procedure. In order to incorporate the new SearchList procedure into the program, the calls to SearchList must be modified. In the procedure DisplayRec, you may declare a dummy pointer which has no work to do except being passed as a parameter to the search procedure. This is an example of the new call:

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SearchList(FirstPointer, CurrentPointer, DummyPointer, SSNumber, Found);

In the following program, the employee database is almost completed. These are the main features of the program: g

A call to the SearchList procedure is made before entering the data of a new employee. The Social Security Number is checked to see if it already exists. If it does, no data are entered, and the proper message is issued.

g

The DelRecord procedure is added.

g

The UpdateRec procedure is added.

g

The SearchList procedure is used to reject any operation (e.g., delete, update, or display) if the SSN is not found.

{ ----------------------------- Example 11-6 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM LinkedListDB(INPUT, OUTPUT, MyListFile); CONST FileName = 'emplist.bin'; Header = '------------- Main Menu --------------'; Separator = '--------------------------------------'; TYPE {Declaration of data type } SSNstring = STRING[11]; DataRecord = RECORD ID :STRING[5]; Name, Position :STRING[20]; SSN :SSNstring; Rate :REAL END; {Declaration of the list } ListPointer = ^ListRecord; ListRecord = RECORD DataField :DataRecord; NextField :ListPointer END; EmpFile = FILE OF DataRecord; VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer; MyListFile :EmpFile; EmpRecord :DataRecord; { -------------------------- Procedure SearchList -------------------------- } PROCEDURE SearchList(FirstPointer :ListPointer; VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; VAR PreviousPointer :ListPointer; SSNumber :SSNstring; VAR Found :BOOLEAN);

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{ This procedure searches the linked list for an employee's SSN. If found, the value of the boolean flag Found becomes TRUE. } BEGIN PreviousPointer := NIL; CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE (CurrentPointer <> NIL) AND (NOT Found) DO IF CurrentPointer^.DataField.SSN = SSNumber THEN Found := TRUE ELSE BEGIN PreviousPointer := CurrentPointer; CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField END END; { -------------------------- Procedure BuildList --------------------------- } PROCEDURE BuildList(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer; DataItem :DataRecord); { This procedure builds the linked list, or adds nodes to it.} {Note: The FirstPointer is passed using the VAR keyword because it will be updated by this procedure.} VAR ToolPointer :ListPointer; BEGIN NEW(ToolPointer); ToolPointer^.DataField := DataItem; ToolPointer^.NextField := FirstPointer; FirstPointer := ToolPointer END; { -------------------------- Procedure ReadList ---------------------------- } PROCEDURE ReadList(FirstPointer :ListPointer); { This procedure reads and displays the contents of the list } VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; BEGIN CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE CurrentPointer <> NIL DO BEGIN WITH CurrentPointer^.DataField DO BEGIN WRITE(ID :7); WRITE(Name :22); WRITE(Position :22); WRITE(SSN :13); WRITELN(' $' ,Rate :0:2) END; CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField

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END; WRITELN END; { ------------------------- Procedure DelRecord ---------------------------- } PROCEDURE DelRecord(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer); { This procedure deletes a node from the list. If the node to be deleted is the first node, FirstPointer is moved to the next node; otherwise, the pointer field of the previous node is updated to point to the next node. In both cases the CurrentPointer is disposed. } VAR CurrentPointer, PreviousPointer :ListPointer; Found :BOOLEAN; SSNumber: SSNstring; BEGIN Found := FALSE; WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Enter the SSN of the employee to be removed:'); READLN(SSNumber); SearchList(FirstPointer, CurrentPointer, PreviousPointer, SSNumber, Found); IF NOT Found THEN WRITELN('SSN: ', SSNumber, ' Not Found') ELSE BEGIN IF PreviousPointer = NIL THEN { The node to be deleted is the first node. } FirstPointer := FirstPointer^.NextField ELSE { The node to be deleted has a predecessor. } PreviousPointer^.NextField := CurrentPointer^.NextField; DISPOSE(CurrentPointer); WRITELN('The record has been deleted from the list.') END; WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END; { --------------------------- Procedure GetData ---------------------------- } PROCEDURE GetData(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer); { This procedure receives the employee data from the keyboard, and passes the record information to the procedure BuildList to be added to the linked list. } VAR CurrentPointer, DummyPointer :ListPointer; Item :DataRecord; SSNumber: SSNstring; Found :BOOLEAN; BEGIN Found := FALSE;

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WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee: '); READLN(SSNumber); SearchList(FirstPointer, CurrentPointer, DummyPointer, SSNumber, Found); IF NOT Found THEN BEGIN WRITELN('Please enter the employee information:'); WITH Item DO BEGIN SSN := SSNumber; WRITE('ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITE('Rate: '); READLN(Rate); WRITELN(Separator) END; BuildList(FirstPointer, Item); WRITELN('The employee has been added to the list.') END ELSE WRITELN('The SSN: ', SSNumber, ' is already in the list.'); WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END; { -------------------------- Procedure DisplayItAll ------------------------ } PROCEDURE DisplayItAll(FirstPointer :ListPointer); { This procedure displays the headers of the fields in the proper format and calls the procedure ReadList to display the contents of the list. } BEGIN WRITELN(Separator); WRITELN('The contents of the list: '); WRITELN('ID' :7, 'Name' :22, 'Position' :22, 'SSN' :13, 'Rate' :7); WRITELN; ReadList(FirstPointer); WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END; { -------------------------- Procedure DisplayRec -------------------------- } PROCEDURE DisplayRec(FirstPointer :ListPointer); { This procedure displays the information for a specific employee. It calls the procedure SearchList to search the list using the social security number of the employee.} VAR CurrentPointer, DummyPointer :ListPointer; SSNumber :SSNstring; Found :BOOLEAN;

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{ Note: DummyPointer is used to call the SearchList procedure (which takes three pointers as parameters), but this pointer is not required in this procedure. } BEGIN Found := FALSE; WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Enter the SSN of the employee:'); READLN(SSNumber); SearchList(FirstPointer, CurrentPointer, DummyPointer, SSNumber, Found); IF NOT Found THEN WRITELN('SSN: ', SSNumber, ' Not Found') ELSE WITH CurrentPointer^.DataField DO BEGIN WRITELN('ID: ',ID); WRITELN('Name: ',Name); WRITELN('Position: ', Position); WRITELN('Social Security Number: ', SSN); WRITELN('Hourly Rate: $', Rate :2:2) END; WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END; { -------------------------- Procedure UpdateRec --------------------------- } PROCEDURE UpdateRec(FirstPointer :ListPointer); { This procedure updates record information for a specific employee. It calls the procedure SearchList to search the list using the social security number of the employee. The new information is accepted from the user, otherwise a message "not found" is issued. } VAR CurrentPointer, DummyPointer :ListPointer; SSNumber :SSNstring; Found :BOOLEAN; { Note: DummyPointer is used to call the SearchList procedure (which takes three pointers as parameters), but this pointer is not required in this procedure. } BEGIN Found := FALSE; WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Enter the SSN of the employee:'); READLN(SSNumber); SearchList(FirstPointer, CurrentPointer, DummyPointer, SSNumber, Found); IF NOT Found THEN WRITELN('SSN: ', SSNumber, ' Not Found') ELSE WITH CurrentPointer^.DataField DO BEGIN

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WRITELN('Please enter the now information for', ' the employee (SSN: ', SSNumber,'):'); WRITE('ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITE('Hourly Rate: '); READLN(Rate); WRITELN('Record updated.') END; WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END; { -------------------------- Procedure SaveList ---------------------------- } PROCEDURE SaveList(FirstPointer :ListPointer; VAR MyListFile: EmpFile); {This procedure saves the data fields in the linked list to a file of the type RECORD. } VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; BEGIN ASSIGN(MyListFile, FileName); REWRITE(MyListFile); CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE CurrentPointer <> NIL DO BEGIN WRITE(MyListFile, CurrentPointer^.DataField); CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField END; CLOSE(MyListFile); WRITELN('The list has been saved to the file.'); WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END; { -------------------------- Procedure ReadFile ---------------------------- } PROCEDURE ReadFile(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer; VAR MyListFile: EmpFile); {This procedure reads data from the file emplist.bin and adds the data to the linked list. } VAR Item

:DataRecord;

BEGIN ASSIGN(MyListFile, FileName); RESET(MyListFile); WHILE NOT EOF (MyListFile) DO BEGIN READ(MyListFile, Item); BuildList(FirstPointer, Item);

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END; CLOSE(MyListFile); WRITELN('The employee list is ready in memory.'); WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END; { ---------------------------- Procedure Menu ------------------------------ } PROCEDURE Menu; VAR Option :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN(Header); WRITELN('1. Add records to the list.'); WRITELN('2. Display the whole list.'); WRITELN('3. Display an employee record.'); WRITELN('4. Add records from file.'); WRITELN('5. Save the list to a file.'); WRITELN('6. Delete a record.'); WRITELN('7. Update a record.'); WRITELN('8. Exit.'); WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Make a choice and press a number: '); READLN(Option); CASE Option OF 1 : GetData(FirstPointer); 2 : DisplayItAll(FirstPointer); 3 : DisplayRec(FirstPointer); 4 : ReadFile(FirstPointer, MyListFile); 5 : SaveList(FirstPointer, MyListFile); 6 : DelRecord(FirstPointer); 7 : UpdateRec(FirstPointer); 8 : Exit END; Menu END; { ------------------------------ Main Program ------------------------------ } BEGIN { Initialize an empty List } FirstPointer := NIL; menu END.

In the following sample run, option 1 was chosen in order to add a new employee (SSN: 222-22-2222). However, the program refused to add it because the SearchList procedure found this SSN in the list.

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Sample run: ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Add records to the list. 2. Display the whole list. 3. Display an employee record. 4. Add records from file. 5. Save the list to a file. 6. Delete a record. 7. Update a record. 8. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 4 The employee list is ready in memory. Hit any key to continue... ------------- Main Menu -------------1. Add records to the list. 2. Display the whole list. 3. Display an employee record. 4. Add records from file. 5. Save the list to a file. 6. Delete a record. 7. Update a record. 8. Exit. -------------------------------------Make a choice and press a number: 1 Please enter the SSN of the employee: 222-22-2222 The SSN: 222-22-2222 is already in the list. Hit any key to continue...

Summary In this chapter you learned the following features of pointers: 1. A pointer may be used to point to any data type. 2. A pointer to a specific data type is bound to this type. 3. You cannot read or display the value of a pointer. You can only read or display the value pointed to by the pointer. 4. The operations you may apply to pointers are assignment and comparison (= or <>). The only values you may assign to a pointer are the constant NIL or the value of another pointer bound to the same type. 5. To declare a pointer type use the general form: TYPE Pointer-Type = ^ type-definition; where type-definition is a standard or user-defined type.

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6. The procedure NEW is used to allocate memory for a pointer, while the procedure DISPOSE is used to release the allocated memory. The two procedures use the pointer as a parameter: NEW(PtrVariable); DISPOSE(PtrVariable); 7. You also learned how to use linked lists as advanced data structures that expand or shrink dynamically during the execution of the program. The following are the most important features of linked lists: g

In a linked list, data are stored in nodes. Each node contains a data-field and a pointer-field. The pointer-field points to the second node.

g

The nodes in a linked list may store any type of data, however, they are used most often to store records.

g

To declare a linked list use the general form: TYPE Data-Type = type-definition; ListPointer = ^ListRecord; ListRecord = RECORD DataField : Data-Type; NextField :ListPointer END;

g

Linked lists are constructed and manipulated using pointers.

g

You may add or delete nodes to or from a linked list. Nodes can only be added at the beginning of the list.

Exercises 1. True or false: a. Pointers cannot be printed using WRITE/WRITELN statements. b. Pointers can be read using READ/READLN statements. c. In order to use a pointer, you must first allocate memory for it. d. The memory allocated to a pointer can be released using the DISPOSE procedure. e. It is possible to assign a pointer value (the data pointed to by a pointer) to a static variable. f. Once a pointer is disposed, it becomes undefined. g. You can declare a pointer of any data type. h. You can assign a pointer to another pointer of the same type. i. You cannot compare two pointers by using Boolean operators. j. You can add and subtract pointers.

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2. Given the following declarations: TYPE Employee = RECORD ID:INTEGER; Wage: REAL; END; Empptr = ^Employee; Person = RECORD Name :STRING[25]; SSN :STRING[11]; END; Personptr = ^Person; VAR Ptr1, Ptr2 : Empptr; Ptr3 : Personptr;

determine which of these operations are valid and which are invalid: a. Ptr1 := Ptr2; b. WRITELN(Ptr1=Ptr2); c. Ptr1 := Ptr3; d. WRITELN(Ptr1=Ptr3); 3. Write a type declaration for a linked list of inventory items to store the following fields: n Item Number: May contain letters and numbers. n Item Name: May contain letters and numbers. n Quantity: Integer number. n Invoice Price: A real number. Also declare the necessary variables to process the list and store it into a file.

Answers 1. b, i, and j are False. 2. a and b are valid. c and d are invalid (Type mismatch). 3. The following are the record and list declarations: TYPE InventoryItem = RECORD ItemNo :STRING[10]; ItemName :STRING[20]; Quantity :INTEGER; InvoicePrice :REAL END; {Declaration of the list: } ListPointer = ^ListRecord; ListRecord = RECORD

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DataField :InventoryItem; NextField :ListPointer END; {Declare a file of records: } InventoryFile = FILE OF InventoryItem; VAR FirstPointer MyFile MyRecord

:ListPointer; :InventoryFile; :InventoryItem;

The Next Step You have now acquired enough tools to practice programming in Pascal and create good application programs. However, you may want to read about some topics that are not covered in this book: g

Ordered linked lists

g

Binary search trees

g

Direct/random access files

g

Graphics

The last two topics are not included in standard Pascal, so you will have to refer to books on your specific compiler. Although this book does not cover Windows programming, mastering the standard Pascal language is necessary before you step into Windows programming. Other books on Turbo Pascal by Wordware Publishing, Inc. include Learn Pascal.

Appendix A

The ASCII Character Set Printable Characters Decimal 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

Octal 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 60 61 62 63 64 65 66

Hexadecimal 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Character space ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

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Decimal 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93

Octal 67 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 130 131 132 133 134 135

Hexadecimal 37 38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d

Character 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ]

The ASCII Character Set

Decimal 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126

Octal 136 137 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 170 171 172 173 174 175 176

Hexadecimal 5e 5f 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e

Character ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~

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Control Characters Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127

Octal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 177

Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 7f

Key ^@ ^A ^B ^C ^D ^E ^F ^G ^H ^I ^J ^K ^L ^M ^N ^O ^P ^Q ^R ^S ^T ^U ^V ^W ^X ^Y ^Z ESC

DEL

Mnemonic Code NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US DEL

Appendix B

Reserved Words and Standard Identifiers Reserved Words AND

FORWARD

PROCEDURE

ARRAY

FUNCTION

PROGRAM

BEGIN

GOTO

RECORD

CASE

IF

REPEAT

CONST

IN

SET

DIV

LABEL

THEN

DO

MOD

TO

DOWNTO

NIL

TYPE

ELSE

NOT

UNTIL

END

OF

VAR

FILE

OR

WHILE

FOR

PACKED

WITH

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Appendix B

Additional words reserved in Turbo Pascal: INTERFACE INTERRUPT SHL SHR

STRING UNIT USES XOR

CONSTANTS FALSE

MAXINT

TRUE

TYPES BOOLEAN CHAR

INTEGER REAL

TEXT

FILES INPUT

OUTPUT

FUNCTIONS ABS ARCTAN CHR COS EOF EOLN

EXP LN ODD ORD PRED ROUND

SIN SQR SQRT SUCC TRUNC

PROCEDURES DISPOSE GET NEW PACK PAGE

PUT READ READLN RESET REWRITE

UNPACK WRITE WRITELN

ABSOLUTE EXTERNAL IMPLEMENTATION INLINE

Standard Identifiers

Additional identifiers predefined in Turbo Pascal: CONSTANTS MAXLONGINT

PI

TYPES BYTE COMP DOUBLE

EXTENDED LONGINT SHORTINT

SINGLE WORD

Reserved Words and Standard Identifiers

FUNCTIONS (discussed in this book) CONCAT LENGTH COPY PI

POS RANDOM

PROCEDURES (discussed in this book) APPEND CLOSE ASSIGN DELETE

EXIT INSERT

aa aa NOTE

n

The standard procedures GET, PUT, PACK, UNPACK, and PAGE are not defined in Turbo Pascal.

263

Appendix C

Answers to Drills Chapter 1 Drill 1-1 { ------------------------------ DRILL 1-1 --------------------------------- } PROGRAM DisplayText(OUTPUT); BEGIN WRITELN('wordware Publishing, Inc.'); WRITELN('-------------------------'); WRITELN('2320 Los Rios Boulevard'); WRITELN('Plano, Texas 75074') END.

Drill 1-2 { -------------------------------- DRILL 1-2 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM Expressions(OUTPUT); BEGIN WRITELN; WRITELN('A. 144/12 = ',144 / 12:0:2); WRITELN('B. 144 DIV 12 = ', 144 DIV 12); WRITELN('C. 17 MOD 5 = ', 17 MOD 5); WRITELN('D. 3 MOD 5 = ', 3 MOD 5); WRITELN('E. 3e+02 + 3 = ',3E+02+3:0:2); WRITELN('F. 345E-01 -1 = ',345E-01-1:0:2); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

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Drill 1-3 { ------------------------------- DRILL 1-3 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM Expressions1(OUTPUT); BEGIN WRITELN; WRITELN('A. 15 - 15 DIV 15 = ',15-15 DIV 15); WRITELN('B. 22 + 10 / 2 = ', 22+10/2:0:2); WRITELN('B. (22 + 10) / 2 = ', (22+10)/2:0:2); WRITELN('C. 50 * 10 - 4 MOD 3 * 5 + 80 = ',50*10-4 MOD 3*5+80); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Drill 1-4 { ------------------------------- DRILL 1-4 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM Expressions2(OUTPUT); { Variable Declarations } VAR a, b :INTEGER; { Program Block } BEGIN a := 2; b := 9; WRITELN; WRITELN('a=',a); WRITELN('b=',b); WRITELN('a+b DIV 2 = ',a+b DIV 2); WRITELN('(a+b) DIV 2 = ',(a+b) DIV 2) END.

Drill 1-5 { ------------------------------- DRILL 1-5 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM Payroll(INPUT,OUTPUT); { Variable Declarations } VAR HoursWorked, PayRate, Wages :REAL; { Program Block } BEGIN WRITE('Please enter hours worked: '); READLN(HoursWorked); WRITE('Please enter pay rate: '); READLN(PayRate); Wages := HoursWorked * PayRate; WRITELN; WRITELN('Wages = $', Wages:0:2) END.

Answers to Drills

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Chapter 2 Drill 2-1 { -------------------------------- DRILL 2-1 ------------------------------- } { Grocery Store } PROGRAM Grocery(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Change, AmountPaid, TotalPrice :REAL; IntChange, Dollars, Quarters, Dimes, Nickels, Cents :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Enter the total-price in dollars:'); READLN(TotalPrice); WRITE('Enter the amount-paid in dollars:'); READLN(AmountPaid); { dollars } Change := AmountPaid - TotalPrice; Dollars := TRUNC(Change); Change := (Change - Dollars)*100; IntChange := ROUND(Change); { Quarters } Quarters := IntChange DIV 25; IntChange := IntChange MOD 25; { Dimes } Dimes := IntChange DIV 10; IntChange := IntChange MOD 10; { Nickels } Nickels := IntChange DIV 5; IntChange := IntChange MOD 5; { Cents } Cents := IntChange; WRITELN('The change is:'); WRITELN(Dollars,' Dollars'); WRITELN(Quarters,' Quarters'); WRITELN(Dimes,' Dimes'); WRITELN(Nickels, ' Nickels'); WRITELN(Cents, ' Cents'); READLN END.

Drill 2-2 {--------------------------------- DRILL 2-2 ------------------------------- } { Solution of a Quadratic Equation } PROGRAM Quadratic(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR A, B, C, D, X1, X2 :REAL; BEGIN WRITE('Enter the values of A,B and C for the quadratic equation:');

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READLN(a,b,c); { Determinant} D:=SQR(B)-4.0*A*C; { Roots } X1:=(-B+SQRT(D))/(2*A); X2:=(-B-SQRT(D))/(2*A); WRITELN('X1=',X1:2:2,' X2=',X2:2:2); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN END. { Sample runs: A=2, B=4, C=1 X1=0.29 X2=1.70 A=1, B=2, C=1 X1=-1 X2=-1 }

Drill 2-3 { ------------------------------- DRILL 2-3 -------------------------------- } { Boolean Expressions } PROGRAM CompoundBoolean(OUTPUT); VAR A, X, Y, Z :INTEGER; One, Two, Three, Four :BOOLEAN; BEGIN { Run the program for different values of A, X, Y, Z, and see the results } WRITE('Enter values of A, X, Y, Z:'); READLN(A,X,Y,Z); One := A < 55.5; Two := (X=Y) OR (X>=Z); Three := (X=40) OR (Y=80); Four := (X=40)<>(Y=80); { Four := (X=40) XOR (Y=80); } { Turbo Pascal version } WRITELN('Expression #1= ', One); WRITELN('Expression #2= ', Two); WRITELN('Expression #3= ', Three); WRITELN('Expression #4= ', Four) END.

Answers to Drills

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Chapter 3 Drill 3-1 { ------------------------------- DRILL 3-1 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM CharsTester(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR InputChar :CHAR; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter an alphabetic character:'); READLN(InputChar); IF (ORD(InputChar) > 64) AND (ORD(InputChar) < 91) THEN WRITELN('This is an upper-case letter.'); IF (ORD(InputChar) > 96) AND (ORD(InputChar) < 123) THEN WRITELN('This is a lower-case letter.'); IF (ORD(InputChar) > 47) AND (ORD(InputChar) < 58) THEN WRITELN('This is a number.'); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Drill 3-2 {--------------------------------- DRILL 3-2 ------------------------------- } { Complete Solution of a Quadratic Equation } PROGRAM Quadratic2(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR A, B, C, D, X1, X2 :REAL; BEGIN WRITE('Enter the values of A,B,C separated by spaces:'); READLN(a,b,c); { Determinant} D:=SQR(B)-4.0*A*C; IF D < 0 THEN BEGIN WRITELN('Roots are imaginary.'); WRITELN('X1=',-B/(2*A):0:2,'+j',SQRT(ABS(D))/(2*A):0:2); WRITELN('X2=',-B/(2*A):0:2,'-j',SQRT(ABS(D))/(2*A):0:2) END ELSE BEGIN WRITELN('Roots are real.'); WRITELN('X1=',(-B+SQRT(D))/(2*A):0:2); WRITELN('X2=',(-B-SQRT(D))/(2*A):0:2) END; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue ...'); READLN END.

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{ Sample runs: Real roots: A=2, B=4, C=1 X1=0.29 X2=1.70 Equal real roots: A=1, B=2, C=1 X1=-1 X2=-1 Imaginary roots: A=1, B=1,C=1 X1=-0.5+j0.87 X2=-0.5-j0.87 }

Drill 3-3 { ------------------------------- DRILL 3-3 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM WeatherTester(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Temperature :INTEGER; Hot, Cool, Cold, Freezing :BOOLEAN; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the temperature:'); READLN(Temperature); Hot := (Temperature >= 75) AND (Temperature < 140); Cool := (Temperature >= 50) AND (Temperature < 75); Cold := (Temperature >= 35) AND (Temperature < 50); Freezing := (Temperature < 35) AND (Temperature > -80); WRITELN; { Beginning of the IF construct } { ----------------------------- } IF Hot THEN WRITELN('It is hot out there!') ELSE IF Cool THEN WRITELN('Wow, the weather is cool.') ELSE IF Cold THEN WRITELN('Oh, it is cold. ') ELSE IF Freezing THEN WRITELN('Uh-oh, It is freezing.') ELSE WRITELN('Hey, I have never heard of this temperature!'); { End of the IF construct } { ----------------------- } WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

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Drill 3-4 { ------------------------------- DRILL 3-4 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM DateConverter(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Day, Month, Year :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter date in the format mm dd yy:'); READLN(Month, Day, Year); CASE Month OF 1: WRITE('January '); 2: WRITE('February '); 3: WRITE('March '); 4: WRITE('April '); 5: WRITE('May '); 6: WRITE('June '); 7: WRITE('July '); 8: WRITE('August '); 9: WRITE('September '); 10: WRITE('October '); 11: WRITE('November '); 12: WRITE('December ') END; IF (Day=1) OR (Day=21) OR (Day=31) THEN WRITE(Day,'st') ELSE IF (Day=2) OR (Day=22) THEN WRITE(Day,'nd') ELSE IF (Day=3) OR (Day=23) THEN WRITE(Day,'rd') ELSE WRITE(Day,'th'); WRITELN(', 19', Year); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Chapter 4 Drill 4-1 { ------------------------------- DRILL 4-1 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM LeapYears(OUTPUT); VAR Year :INTEGER; BEGIN FOR Year := 1990 TO 2000 DO BEGIN IF (Year MOD 4 = 0) AND

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(Year MOD 100<>0) OR (Year MOD 400 = 0) THEN WRITELN('The year ', Year, ' is a leap year.') ELSE WRITELN('The year ', Year, ' is not a leap year.') END; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN END.

Drill 4-2 { -------------------------------- DRILL 4-2 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM FactorialProg3(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Factorial :REAL; Kounter, Number :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Give me a number (or 0 to exit): '); READLN(Number); IF Number = 0 THEN EXIT; Factorial := 1; FOR kounter := Number DOWNTO 1 DO Factorial := Factorial * Kounter; WRITELN('The factorial of ', Number,' is ', Factorial:0:0); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Drill 4-3 { ------------------------------- DRILL 4-3 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM FlagLoop(OUTPUT); VAR Row, Column : INTEGER; BEGIN FOR Row := 1 TO 5 DO BEGIN FOR Column := 1 to 10 DO WRITE('* '); WRITELN END; WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN END.

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Drill 4-4 { -------------------------------- DRILL 4-4 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM Multiplication(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Result, Kounter, Number :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Give me a number: '); READLN(Number); Kounter := 1; WHILE Kounter <= 9 DO BEGIN Result := Kounter * Number; WRITELN(Kounter,' * ',Number, ' = ', Result); Kounter := Kounter +1 END; WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN END.

Drill 4-5 { -------------------------------- DRILL 4-5 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM FactorialProg3(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Factorial :REAL; Kounter, Number :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Give me a number (or 0 to exit): '); READLN(Number); WHILE Number<>0 DO BEGIN Factorial := 1; FOR kounter := Number DOWNTO 1 DO Factorial := Factorial * Kounter; WRITELN('The factorial of ', Number,' is ', Factorial:0:0); WRITE('Give me a number (or 0 to exit): '); READLN(Number) END END.

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Appendix C

Chapter 5 Drill 5-1 { -------------------------------- DRILL 5-1 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM Subrange2(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR UpperCase :'A'..'Z'; LowerCase :'a'..'z'; Digit :'0'..'9'; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter a lowercase letter: '); READLN(LowerCase); WRITE('Please enter an uppercase letter: '); READLN(UpperCase); WRITE('Please enter a digit: '); READLN(Digit); WRITELN('-----------------------------------------------'); WRITELN('Your inputs are:'); WRITELN('Lowercase letter : ', LowerCase); WRITELN('Uppercase letter : ', UpperCase); WRITELN('Digit : ', Digit); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN END.

Drill 5-2 { -------------------------------- DRILL 5-2 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM SubrangesAndEnum(INPUT,OUTPUT); { **************************************************** *** Remove the comment markers to see the error messages *** **************************************************** } TYPE Football = (Saints, Cowboys); { Games = (Football, Baseball, Basketball) } { Duplicate identifier: Football } Week = (Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun); Weekend = Sat..Sun; Compiler = (C, Pascal, Fortran, Ada, Basic); VAR WholeWeek :Week; { WorkingDay :(Mon, Tue, Wed, Fri);} { Duplicate identifier: Mon,..} Weekday :Mon..Fri; { SW :(Compiler, OperatingSystem, ApplicationProgram); } { Duplicate identifier: Compiler}

Answers to Drills

{

DpTools DpTool C

Margin BEGIN END.

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275

:(Hardware, Software, PeopleWare); :(HW, SW, PW); :(TurboC, QuickC); } { Duplicate identifier: C} : -10..+10;

Drill 5-3 { -------------------------------- DRILL 5-3 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM Scores4(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST NumberOfStudents = 5; Tab = ' '; { 9 spaces } Dash = '-'; NumberOfDashes = 23; VAR Score :ARRAY[1..NumberOfStudents] OF REAL; Average, SumOfScores :REAL; Index :INTEGER; BEGIN { Read the scores array } { --------------------- } FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfStudents DO BEGIN WRITE('Enter Score of Student #', Index,': '); READLN(Score[Index]) END; { Calculate the average score } { --------------------------- } SumOfScores := 0; FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfStudents DO SumOfScores := SumOfScores + Score[Index]; Average := SumOfScores / NumberOfStudents; { Display Results } { --------------- } WRITELN; WRITE(Tab, 'Student #'); WRITE(Tab, 'Score'); WRITELN; WRITE(Tab); FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfDashes DO WRITE(Dash); WRITELN; FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfStudents DO WRITELN(Tab,Index:3,tab,Score[Index]:10:2); WRITE(Tab); FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfDashes DO WRITE(Dash);

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Appendix C

WRITELN; WRITELN(Tab,'Average score = ', Average:0:2); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Drill 5-4 { -------------------------------- DRILL 5-4 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM Scores5(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST NumberOfStudents = 5; Tab = ' '; Dash = '-'; NumberOfDashes = 23; VAR Score :ARRAY[1..NumberOfStudents] OF REAL; Average, SumOfScores, BestScore :REAL; Index, BestOfClass :INTEGER; BEGIN { Read the scores array } { --------------------- } FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfStudents DO BEGIN WRITE('Enter score of student #', Index,': '); READLN(Score[Index]) END; { Calculate the average score } { --------------------------- } SumOfScores := 0; FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfStudents DO SumOfScores := SumOfScores + Score[Index]; Average := SumOfScores / NumberOfStudents; { Get the best score } { ------------------ } BestScore := Score[1]; { initial value } BestOfClass := 1; { initial value } FOR Index := 2 TO NumberOfStudents DO BEGIN IF Score[Index] > BestScore THEN BEGIN BestScore := Score[Index]; BestOfClass := Index; END END; { Display Results } { --------------- } WRITELN; WRITE(Tab, 'Student #', Tab, 'Score');

Answers to Drills

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WRITELN; WRITE(Tab); FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfDashes DO WRITE(Dash); WRITELN; FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfStudents DO WRITELN(Tab, Index:3, Tab, Score[Index]:10:2); WRITE(Tab); FOR Index := 1 TO NumberOfDashes DO WRITE(Dash); WRITELN; WRITELN(Tab,'Average score = ', Average:0:2); WRITELN(Tab,'The best score = ', BestScore:0:2); WRITELN(Tab,'The best of the class is student #',BestOfClass); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Drill 5-5 { ------------------------------- DRILL 5-5 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM Scores6(INPUT,OUTPUT); { using two-dimensional array } CONST NumberOfClasses = 3; { Change this number for more classes } NumberOfStudents = 4; { Change this number for more students } Tab = ' '; { 5 spaces } Dash = '-'; NumberOfDashes = 23; TYPE ScoreArray = ARRAY[1..NumberOfStudents, 1..NumberOfClasses] OF REAL; AverageArray = ARRAY[1..NumberOfStudents] OF REAL; NameArray = ARRAY[1..NumberOfStudents] OF STRING; VAR Score :ScoreArray; Average :AverageArray; Name :NameArray; SumOfScores, AveragePot :REAL; StudentCount, ScoreCount, DashCount :INTEGER; I, J :INTEGER; NamePot :STRING; BEGIN { Read the scores array } { --------------------- } FOR StudentCount := 1 TO NumberOfStudents DO BEGIN WRITELN; WRITE('Name of student #', StudentCount ,': '); READLN(Name[StudentCount]);

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Appendix C

WRITELN('Scores of ', Name[StudentCount], ': '); FOR ScoreCount := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO BEGIN WRITE('Enter score of class #', ScoreCount,': '); READLN(Score[StudentCount, ScoreCount]) END; END; { Calculate the average for each student } { -------------------------------------- } FOR StudentCount := 1 TO NumberOfStudents DO BEGIN SumOfScores := 0; { Initialize for each student } FOR ScoreCount := 1 TO NumberOfClasses DO

{ {

{ {

SumOfScores := SumOfScores + Score[StudentCount, ScoreCount]; Average[StudentCount] := SumOfScores/NumberOfClasses END; Sort averages in a descending order } ------------------------------------ } FOR I := 1 TO NumberOfStudents-1 DO BEGIN FOR J := I+1 TO NumberOfStudents DO IF Average[J] > Average[I] THEN BEGIN { swap the averages } AveragePot := Average[I]; Average[I] := Average[J]; Average[J] := AveragePot; { swap the corresponding student number } NamePot := Name[I]; Name[I] := Name[J]; Name[J] := NamePot END { End of IF and inner loop } END; { End of outer loop } Display results } --------------- } WRITELN; WRITELN(Tab, 'Student name', Tab, 'Average'); WRITE(Tab); FOR DashCount := 1 TO NumberOfDashes DO WRITE(Dash); WRITELN; FOR StudentCount := 1 TO NumberOfStudents DO BEGIN WRITE(Tab, Name[StudentCount]); FOR I := 1 TO 15 - LENGTH(Name[StudentCount]) DO WRITE(' '); WRITELN(Average[StudentCount]:8:2) END; WRITE(Tab); FOR DashCount := 1 TO NumberOfDashes DO

Answers to Drills

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WRITE(Dash); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Chapter 6 Drill 6-3 { ------------------------------- DRILL 6-3 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM AlphaCounter(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Ch :CHAR; Counter :INTEGER; BEGIN Counter := 0; WHILE NOT EOLN DO BEGIN READ(Ch); IF (Ch >= 'a') AND (Ch <= 'z') OR (Ch >= 'A') AND (Ch <= 'Z') THEN Counter := Counter + 1 END; WRITELN('Number of letters= ', Counter); READLN; { To advance the pointer past to End-Of-Line mark } WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN END.

Drill 6-4 { ------------------------------- DRILL 6-4 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM ScramblingStrings(INPUT,OUTPUT); CONST NumberOfElements = 3; TYPE ScrambleArray = Array[1..NumberOfElements] OF STRING[10]; VAR A :ScrambleArray; I1, I2, I3 :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Enter a word: '); READLN(A[1]); WRITE('Enter a word: '); READLN(A[2]); WRITE('Enter a word: '); READLN(A[3]);

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Appendix C

FOR I1 := 1 TO 3 DO FOR I2 := 1 TO 3 DO IF I2<>I1 THEN BEGIN I3 := 6- (I1 + I2); WRITELN(A[I1],' ',A[I2],' ',A[I3]); END; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN END.

Drill 6-5 { ------------------------------- DRILL 6-5 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM StringFunctions2(INPUT,OUTPUT); VAR Name :STRING[30]; First, Middle, Last :STRING[10]; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter your first name: '); READLN(First); { Capitalize the first letter if it is lowercase } IF ORD(First[1]) > 90 THEN First[1] := CHR(ORD(First[1]) - 32); First := CONCAT(First, ' '); WRITE('Please enter your middle name: '); READLN(Middle); { Capitalize the first letter if it is lowercase } IF ORD(Middle[1]) > 90 THEN Middle[1] := CHR(ORD(Middle[1]) - 32); { Get the middle initial from the middle name } Middle := COPY(Middle, 1, 1); Middle := CONCAT(Middle, '. '); WRITE('Please enter your last name: '); READLN(Last); { Capitalize the first letter if it is lowercase } IF ORD(Last[1]) > 90 THEN Last[1] := CHR(ORD(Last[1]) - 32); Name := CONCAT(First, Middle, Last); WRITELN; WRITELN('Your complete name is: ',Name); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN END.

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Chapter 7 Drill 7-1 { ------------------------------- DRILL 7-1 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM Header(OUTPUT); VAR Len, Tab, Kounter :INTEGER; TestSentence :STRING; LineChar :CHAR; { ----------------------- Beginning of Procedure --------------------- } PROCEDURE DrawLine(LineLength, TabLength :INTEGER; LineCh: CHAR); VAR Counter :INTEGER; BEGIN FOR Counter := 1 TO TabLength DO WRITE(' '); FOR Counter := 1 TO LineLength DO WRITE(LineCh); WRITELN END; { ------------------------- End of Procedure ------------------------- } { --------------------------- Main program --------------------------- } BEGIN WRITE('Please enter a sentence: '); READLN(TestSentence); Len := LENGTH(TestSentence); Tab := (80 - Len) DIV 2; WRITE('Please enter the line character: '); READLN(LineChar); WRITELN; Drawline(Len, Tab, LineChar); FOR Kounter := 1 TO Tab DO WRITE(' '); WRITELN(TestSentence); Drawline(Len, Tab, LineChar); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN END.

Drill 7-2 { ------------------------------- DRILL 7-2 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM FunctionMax(INPUT, OUTPUT); CONST ArraySize = 6; TYPE Range = 1..ArraySize;

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NumbersArray = ARRAY[Range] OF INTEGER; VAR Numbers :NumbersArray; { --------------------------- Read procedure ------------------------PROCEDURE ReadNumbers(L: INTEGER; VAR R :NumbersArray); VAR I :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN('Give me an array of numbers of six elements.'); FOR I := 1 TO L DO BEGIN WRITE('Enter element #', I,': '); READLN(R[I]) END END; { ----------------------- Function MaxNumber ------------------------FUNCTION MaxNumber(S :INTEGER; N: NumbersArray) :INTEGER; VAR K, Maximum :INTEGER; BEGIN Maximum := N[1]; FOR K := 1 TO S DO IF N[K] > Maximum THEN Maximum := N[K]; MaxNumber := Maximum { Assign the max value to the function END; { ------------------------- End of Function -------------------------{ --------------------------- Main program --------------------------BEGIN ReadNumbers(ArraySize, Numbers); WRITELN('The maximum number is: ', MaxNumber(ArraySize, Numbers)); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN

}

}

} } }

END.

Drill 7-3 { -------------------------------- DRILL 7-3 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM ProcedureRecursion(INPUT, OUTPUT); VAR A :INTEGER; Fact :REAL; { ------------- Procedure Definition -------------- } PROCEDURE Factorial(X :INTEGER; VAR Fac :REAL); BEGIN IF X > 1 THEN BEGIN Factorial(X-1, Fac);

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Fac := Fac * X END ELSE Fac := 1; END; { -------------- End of Procedure ---------------- } { ----------------- Main program ----------------- } BEGIN WRITE('Enter a number: '); READLN(A); Factorial(A, Fact); WRITELN('The Factorial of ', A,' = ', Fact:0:0); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN END.

Chapter 8 Drill 8-1 { ------------------------------- DRILL 8-1 -------------------------------- } Expression Value 1. ['A','B','C','D'] + ['E','F'] ['A','B','C','D','E','F'] 2. ['A','B','C','D'] + ['B','C','E','F'] ['A','B','C','D','E','F'] 3. [1,3,7] + [] [1,3,7] 4. ['A','D','F'] * ['O','F'] ['F'] 5. [1,2,3,4] * [5,6,7] [] 6. [1,2,3,4] - [5,6,7] [1,2,3,4] 7. [5,6,7] - [] [5,6,7] 8. [Able, Baker, Charlie] - [Able, Charlie] [Baker]

Drill 8-2 { ------------------------------- DRILL 8-2 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM TestExpressions(OUTPUT); CONST CR = CHR(13); LF = CHR(10); T = ' '; A1= '[1,0] = [1,0]'; B1= '[1,0]<>[1,4]'; C1= '[1,2,3] >= [1,2]'; D1= '[1,2,3] >= [1,2,3]'; E1= '[] <= [1,2,3]'; F1= '[1,2,3] <= [1,2,3]'; VAR A, B, C, D, E, F :BOOLEAN; BEGIN

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A:= [1,0] = [1,0]; B:= [1,0]<>[1,4]; C:= [1,2,3] >= [1,2]; D:= [1,2,3] >= [1,2,3]; E:= [] <= [1,2,3]; F:= [1,2,3] <= [1,2,3]; WRITELN(A1:30, T, A, CR, LF, B1:30, T, B, CR, LF, C1:30, T, C, CR, LF, D1:30, T, D, CR, LF, E1:30, T, E, CR, LF, F1:30, T, F); WRITELN; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN END.

Drill 8-3 {-------------------------------- DRILL 8-3 ---------------------------------} PROGRAM NestedRecord2(OUTPUT); TYPE AddressRecord = RECORD Street :STRING[18]; City :STRING[15]; State :STRING[2]; Zip :String[5]; END; EmployeeRecord = RECORD Name :STRING[25]; AddressRec :AddressRecord; Phone :STRING[12]; Rate :REAL; MaritalStatus :CHAR; END; VAR EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; BEGIN { Assign values to the fields } WITH EmployeeRec DO WITH AddressRec DO BEGIN Name := 'Sally A. Abolrous'; Street := '5 Belle Chasse Dr.'; City := 'LaPlace'; State := 'LA'; Zip := '70068'; Phone := '504-285-3434'; Rate := 22.5; MaritalStatus := 'S'; { Display record information } WRITELN('Employee name: ', Name); WRITELN('Address: ', Street);

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WRITELN(' ', City); WRITE(' ', State); WRITELN(' ', Zip); WRITELN('Telephone #: ', Phone); WRITELN('Hourly rate: $', Rate:0:2); WRITELN('Marital status: ', MaritalStatus) END; WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue...'); READLN END.

Chapter 9 Drill 9-1 { -------------------------------- DRILL 9-1 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM EmployeeInfoFile(INPUT,OUTPUT,TimeFile); { This program is used to create a time sheet file for one month period } TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :INTEGER; Name :STRING[25]; HoursWorked :INTEGER; END; VAR TimeFile :TEXT; EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; { ----------- Procedure FileInfo ------------ } PROCEDURE FileInFo(VAR F:TEXT; Employee :EmployeeRecord); { A procedure to file one record at a time } BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN WRITELN(F, ID); WRITELN(F, Name); WRITELN(F, HoursWorked) END END; { ------------- Procedure GetData -------------- } { A procedure to accept data from the keyboard, and pass them to the "FileInfo" procedure } PROCEDURE GetData(VAR F:TEXT; VAR Employee :EmployeeRecord); VAR Counter :INTEGER; BEGIN Counter := 0; WITH Employee DO

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BEGIN WRITE('Employee ID (or 0 to exit): '); READLN(ID); WHILE ID<>0 DO BEGIN Counter := Counter + 1; WRITE('Employee Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('HoursWorked : '); READLN(HoursWorked); FILEINFO(F, Employee); WRITE('Employee ID (or 0 to exit): '); READLN(ID); END END; WRITELN(Counter,' Employee records have been filed.') END; { --------------- Main Program ----------------- } BEGIN ASSIGN(TimeFile, 'TIMSHEET.TXT'); REWRITE(TimeFile); GetData(TimeFile, EmployeeRec); CLOSE(TimeFile) END.

Drill 9-2 { -------------------------------- DRILL 9-2 ------------------------------- } PROGRAM CreateEmpFile(INPUT,OUTPUT,F); TYPE AddressRecord = RECORD Street :STRING[18]; City :STRING[15]; State :STRING[2]; Zip :String[5]; END; EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :INTEGER; Name :STRING[25]; AddressRec :AddressRecord; Phone :STRING[12]; Rate :REAL; MaritalStatus :CHAR; END; VAR F :TEXT; { The file variable } EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; { ----------- Procedure WriteRecord ---------- } PROCEDURE WriteRecord; BEGIN { Store one record to the file } WITH EmployeeRec DO WITH AddressRec DO

Answers to Drills

BEGIN WRITELN(F, WRITELN(F, WRITELN(F, WRITELN(F, WRITELN(F, WRITELN(F, WRITELN(F, WRITELN(F, WRITELN(F, END

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ID); Name); Street); City); State); Zip); Phone); Rate:0:2); MaritalStatus)

END; { ----------- Procedure GetData ---------- } PROCEDURE getdata; VAR Counter :INTEGER; BEGIN Counter := 0; WITH EmployeeRec DO WITH AddressRec DO BEGIN WRITE('Please enter Employee ID (or 0 to exit): '); READLN(ID); WHILE ID<>0 DO BEGIN Counter := counter + 1; WRITE('Employee Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('Address: Street: '); READLN(Street); WRITE(' City: '); READLN(City); WRITE(' State: '); READLN(State); WRITE(' Zip code: '); READLN(Zip); WRITE('Phone Number: '); READLN(Phone); WRITE('Hourly Rate: '); READLN(Rate); WRITE('Marital Status (S/M): '); READLN(MaritalStatus); WriteRecord; WRITE('Please enter Employee ID (or 0 to exit): '); READLN(ID); END END; WRITELN(Counter, ' Employee records have been filed.') END; { ---------------- Main Program -------------- } { Main Program } BEGIN ASSIGN(F, 'EMPFILE.TXT'); REWRITE(F); GetData; CLOSE(F) END.

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Drill 9-3 { ---------------------------------- DRILL 9-3 ------------------------------ } PROGRAM PayRoll2(INPUT,OUTPUT,MasterFile,PayFile); TYPE AddressRecord = RECORD Street :STRING[18]; City :STRING[15]; State :STRING[2]; Zip :String[5]; END; EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :INTEGER; Name :STRING[20]; AddressRec :AddressRecord; Phone :STRING[12]; Rate :REAL; MaritalStatus :CHAR; END; PayRecord = RECORD ID :INTEGER; Name :STRING[20]; Wages :REAL; END; VAR MasterFile, PayFile :TEXT; EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; PayRec :PayRecord; HoursWorked, Wages :REAL; { --------------- Procedure Getinfo ------------------ } { This procedure reads the employee file EMPFILE.TXT and displays the ID, Name, and Hourly Rate. Then it accepts the Hours Worked during this pay period from the keyboard } PROCEDURE Getinfo(VAR F:TEXT); BEGIN WITH EmployeeRec DO WITH AddressRec DO BEGIN READLN(F,ID); WRITELN('ID: ',ID); READLN(F,Name); WRITELN('Name: ',Name); READLN(F,Street); READLN(F,City); READLN(F,State); READLN(F,Zip); READLN(F,Phone); READLN(F,Rate); WRITELN('Hourly rate: $', Rate:0:2); READLN(F,MaritalStatus); END; END;

Answers to Drills

{ --------------- Procedure CalcWages ---------------- } { This procedure is used to calculate Wages and round the cents in the resulting number. The result is returned to the main program } PROCEDURE CalcWages(HoursWorked:REAL; VAR Wages:REAL); BEGIN WITH EmployeeRec DO WITH AddressRec DO Wages := Hoursworked * Rate; Wages := ROUND(100 * Wages) / 100; END; { -------------- Procedure FilePayRoll --------------- } { This procedure is used to write one record in the output file PAYFILE.TXT } PROCEDURE FilePayRoll(VAR P :TEXT; Wages :REAL); BEGIN WITH EmployeeRec DO WITH AddressRec DO BEGIN PayRec.ID := ID; PayRec.Name := Name; Payrec.Wages := Wages END; WITH PayRec DO WRITELN(P, ID:3, Name:20, Wages:10:2) END; { -------------- Procedure ReadPayRoll --------------- } { This procedure is used to read the file PAYFILE.TXT and display the records at the end of the program } PROCEDURE ReadPayRoll(VAR P :TEXT); BEGIN WITH PayRec DO BEGIN READLN(P, ID, Name, Wages); WRITELN(ID:3, Name:20, ' $',Wages:0:2) END; END; { --------------- Main Program ------------------ } BEGIN ASSIGN(MasterFile, 'EMPFILE.TXT'); ASSIGN(Payfile, 'PAYFILE.TXT'); REWRITE(PayFile); RESET(MasterFile); WHILE NOT EOF(MasterFile) DO BEGIN Getinfo(MasterFile); WRITE('Please enter hours worked for this pay period: '); READLN(HoursWorked); CalcWages(HoursWorked, Wages);

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FilePayRoll(PayFile, Wages) END; CLOSE(MasterFile); CLOSE(PayFile); RESET(PayFile); WRITELN('--------- PayRoll Summary --------- '); WRITELN('ID --------- Name -------- Salary'); WHILE NOT EOF(PayFile) DO ReadPayroll(PayFile); CLOSE(PayFile); WRITELN('----------------------------------- '); WRITELN('Press ENTER to continue..'); READLN END.

Chapter 10 Drill 10-1 { ------------------------------ DRILL 10-1 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM CreateEmployeeDataBase2(INPUT, OUTPUT, PayrollFile, NewFile); { This program is to create the TEXT file PR.TXT which stores employee records. } CONST FileName = 'PR.TXT'; Header = '---------- Creating Payroll File ----------'; Separator = '--------------------------------------'; TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :STRING[5]; Name, Position :STRING[20]; SSN :STRING[11]; CASE Category :CHAR OF '1' :(MonthlySalary :REAL); '2' :(HourlyRate :REAL); '3' :(Commission, BasicSalary :REAL; Area :STRING[20]) END; VAR PF :TEXT; EmployeeRec Title

:EmployeeRecord; :ARRAY [1..9] OF STRING[20];

Answers to Drills

BEGIN { Assign titles } Title[1] := 'ID: '; Title[2] := 'Name: '; Title[3] := 'Position: '; Title[4] := 'SSN: '; Title[5] := 'Salary: '; Title[6] := 'Rate: '; Title[7] := 'Commission: '; Title[8] := 'Basic Salary: '; Title[9] := 'Area: '; ASSIGN(PF, FileName); REWRITE(PF); WRITELN(Header); WITH EmployeeRec DO BEGIN WRITE('Please enter Employee ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITELN(PF,ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITELN(PF,Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITELN(PF,Position); WRITE('SSN (xxx-xx-xxxx): '); READLN(SSN); WRITELN(PF,SSN); WRITE('Payroll category: '); READLN(Category); CASE Category OF '1' : BEGIN WRITE('Monthly Salary: '); READLN(MonthlySalary); WRITELN(PF,MonthlySalary) END; '2' : BEGIN WRITE('Hourly Rate: '); READLN(HourlyRate); WRITELN(PF,HourlyRate) END; '3' : BEGIN WRITE('Commission Rate: '); READLN(Commission); WRITELN(PF,Commission); WRITE('Basic Salary: '); READLN(BasicSalary); WRITELN(PF,BasicSalary); WRITE('Area: '); READLN(Area); WRITELN(PF,Area) END END END;

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CLOSE(PF); WRITELN(Separator); WRITELN('Payroll file has been created. Press any key'); READLN END.

Drill 10-2 { ----------------------------- DRILL 10-2 --------------------------------- } PROCEDURE DelRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile :TEXT; Employee :EmployeeRecord); VAR SSNumber :STRING[11]; Found :INTEGER; BEGIN Found := 0; ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee to be deleted: '); READLN(SSNumber); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1' : READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2' : READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3' : BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber<>SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile,ID); WRITELN(NewFile,Name); WRITELN(NewFile,Position); WRITELN(NewFile,SSN); WRITELN(NewFile,Category); CASE Category OF '1' : WRITELN(NewFile,MonthlySalary:0:2);

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'2' : WRITELN(NewFile,HourlyRate:0:2); '3' : BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile,Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile,BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile,Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } END ELSE Found := 1; END { End of WITH block } END; CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile,OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile,OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile); { User Messages } IF Found =1 THEN WRITELN('The employee ', SSNumber, ' is removed from file.') ELSE BEGIN WRITELN('The SSN ', SSNumber, ' is not found.'); WRITELN('Check the number and try again.'); WRITELN END END;

Drill 10-3 { ----------------------------- DRILL 10-3 --------------------------------- } PROGRAM EmployeeDataBase2(INPUT, OUTPUT, PayrollFile, NewFile); CONST FileName = 'Payroll.TXT'; TempFile = 'TEMP.TXT'; Header = '------------- Main Menu --------------'; Header1 = '--------- Employee DataBase ----------'; Header2 = '---------- Employee Record -----------'; Separator = '--------------------------------------';

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TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :STRING[5]; Name, Position :STRING[20]; SSN :STRING[11]; CASE Category :CHAR OF '1' :(MonthlySalary :REAL); '2' :(HourlyRate :REAL); '3' :(Commission, BasicSalary :REAL; Area :STRING[20]) END; VAR NewFile, PayrollFile :TEXT; EmployeeRec :EmployeeRecord; Title :ARRAY [1..9] OF STRING[20]; OneLine :STRING[80]; { ------------------ Procedure ReadRec -------------------- } PROCEDURE ReadRec(VAR PayrollFile :TEXT; Employee :EmployeeRecord); VAR SSNumber Found

:STRING[11]; :INTEGER;

BEGIN Found := 0; {Reset the flag} ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); WRITELN; WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee: '); READLN(SSNumber); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1' : READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2' : READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3' : BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END

Answers to Drills

END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber = SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(Header2); WRITELN(Title[1],ID); WRITELN(Title[2],Name); WRITELN(Title[3],Position); WRITELN(Title[4], SSN); CASE Category OF '1' : WRITELN(Title[5], MonthlySalary:0:2); '2' : WRITELN(Title[6], HourlyRate:0:2); '3' : BEGIN WRITELN(Title[7], Commission:0:2); WRITELN(Title[8], BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(Title[9], Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } Found := 1 END END { End of WITH block } END; CLOSE(PayrollFile); IF Found<>1 THEN BEGIN WRITELN('SSN not found in file.'); WRITELN('Please try again.'); WRITELN END END; { ------------------ Procedure DelRec --------------------- } PROCEDURE DelRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile :TEXT; Employee :EmployeeRecord); VAR SSNumber :STRING[11]; BEGIN ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee to be deleted: '); READLN(SSNumber); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name);

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READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1' : READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2' : READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3' : BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber<>SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile,ID); WRITELN(NewFile,Name); WRITELN(NewFile,Position); WRITELN(NewFile,SSN); WRITELN(NewFile,Category); CASE Category OF '1' : WRITELN(NewFile,MonthlySalary:0:2); '2' : WRITELN(NewFile,HourlyRate:0:2); '3' : BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile,Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile,BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile,Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } END END { End of WITH block } END; CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile,OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile,OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile); WRITELN('The employee ', SSNumber, ' is removed from file.') END; { ------------------ Procedure AddRec --------------------- } PROCEDURE AddRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile :TEXT;

Answers to Drills

Employee: EmployeeRecord); BEGIN ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); { Check for the end of the text file } WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN { Copy each record from PayrollFile to the NewFile } READLN(PayrollFile,OneLine); WRITELN(NewFile,OneLine) END; { Accept a new record from the keyboard } WITH Employee DO BEGIN WRITE('Please enter Employee ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITE('SSN (xxx-xx-xxxx): '); READLN(SSN); WRITE('Payroll category: '); READLN(Category); CASE Category OF '1' : BEGIN WRITE('Monthly Salary: '); READLN(MonthlySalary); END; '2' : BEGIN WRITE('Rate: '); READLN(HourlyRate); END; '3' : BEGIN WRITE('Commission: '); READLN(Commission); WRITE('Basic salary: '); READLN(BasicSalary); WRITE('Area: '); READLN(Area) END END; { Store the information in NewFile } WRITELN(NewFile, ID); WRITELN(NewFile, Name); WRITELN(NewFile, Position); WRITELN(NewFile, SSN); WRITELN(NewFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1' : WRITELN(NewFile, MonthlySalary:0:2); '2' : WRITELN(NewFile, HourlyRate:0:2); '3' : BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile, Commission:0:2);

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WRITELN(NewFile, BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, Area) END END END; CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile,OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile,OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile) END; { ----------------- Procedure UpdateRec ------------------- } PROCEDURE UpdateRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile :TEXT; Employee :EmployeeRecord); VAR SSNumber :STRING[11]; Found :INTEGER; BEGIN Found := 0; ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee to be updated: '); READLN(SSNumber); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1' : READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2' : READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3' : BEGIN

Answers to Drills

READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber<>SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile,ID); WRITELN(NewFile,Name); WRITELN(NewFile,Position); WRITELN(NewFile,SSN); WRITELN(NewFile,Category); CASE Category OF '1' : WRITELN(NewFile,MonthlySalary:0:2); '2' : WRITELN(NewFile,HourlyRate:0:2); '3' : BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile,Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile,BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile,Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } END ELSE BEGIN Found := 1; WRITELN('Please enter the updated information:'); WRITE('ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITELN(NewFile,ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITELN(NewFile,Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITELN(NewFile,Position); WRITELN(NewFile,SSN); WRITE('Category: '); READLN(Category); WRITELN(NewFile,Category); CASE Category OF '1' : BEGIN WRITE('Salary: '); READLN(MonthlySalary); WRITELN(NewFile,MonthlySalary:0:2) END; '2' : BEGIN WRITE('Hourly Rate: '); READLN(HourlyRate); WRITELN(NewFile,HourlyRate:0:2) END; '3' : BEGIN WRITE('Commission: '); READLN(Commission); WRITELN(NewFile,Commission:0:2); WRITE('Basic Salary: ');

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READLN(BAsicSalary); WRITELN(NewFile,BasicSalary:0:2); WRITE('Area: '); READLN(Area); WRITELN(NewFile,Area) END { End of CASE structure }

END; END END { End of WITH block } END; CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile,OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile,OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile); { User Messages } IF Found =1 THEN WRITELN('The employee ', SSNumber, ' is updated.') ELSE BEGIN WRITELN('The SSN ', SSNumber, ' is not found.'); WRITELN('Check the number and try again.'); WRITELN END END; { -------------------- Procedure Menu --------------------- } PROCEDURE Menu; VAR Option :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN(Header); WRITELN; WRITELN('1. Display an employee record.'); WRITELN('2. Add a new employee.'); WRITELN('3. Delete an employee.'); WRITELN('4. Update an employee record.'); WRITELN('5. Exit.'); WRITELN(Separator);

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WRITE('Make a choice and press a number: '); READLN(Option); CASE Option OF 1 : ReadRec(PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 2 : AddRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 3 : DelRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 4 : UpdateRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 5 : Exit END; Menu END; { --------------------- Main Program ---------------------- } BEGIN { Assign titles } Title[1] := 'ID: '; Title[2] := 'Name: '; Title[3] := 'Position: '; Title[4] := 'SSN: '; Title[5] := 'Salary: '; Title[6] := 'Rate: '; Title[7] := 'Commission: '; Title[8] := 'Basic Salary: '; Title[9] := 'Area: '; Menu END.

Chapter 11 Drill 11-1 { ------------------------------ DRILL 11-1 -------------------------------- } PROGRAM CreateEmployeeDataBase3(INPUT, OUTPUT, PayrollFile, NewFile); { This program is used to create a payroll TEXT file PR.TXT } CONST FileName = 'PR.TXT'; Header = '---------- Creating Payroll File ----------'; Separator = '--------------------------------------'; TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :STRING[5]; Name, Position :STRING[20]; SSN :STRING[11]; CASE Category :CHAR OF '1' :(MonthlySalary :REAL); '2' :(HourlyRate :REAL);

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'3'

:(Commission, BasicSalary Area

:REAL; :STRING[20])

END; EmployeePointer = ^EmployeeRecord; VAR PF :TEXT; RecPointer Title

:EmployeePointer; :ARRAY [1..9] OF STRING[20];

BEGIN { Assign titles } Title[1] := 'ID: '; Title[2] := 'Name: '; Title[3] := 'Position: '; Title[4] := 'SSN: '; Title[5] := 'Salary: '; Title[6] := 'Rate: '; Title[7] := 'Commission: '; Title[8] := 'Basic Salary: '; Title[9] := 'Area: '; ASSIGN(PF, FileName); REWRITE(PF); WRITELN(Header); WITH RecPointer^ DO BEGIN WRITE('Please enter Employee ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITELN(PF,ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITELN(PF,Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITELN(PF,Position); WRITE('SSN (xxx-xx-xxxx): '); READLN(SSN); WRITELN(PF,SSN); WRITE('Payroll category: '); READLN(Category); CASE Category OF '1' : BEGIN WRITE('Monthly Salary: '); READLN(MonthlySalary); WRITELN(PF,MonthlySalary) END; '2' : BEGIN WRITE('Hourly Rate: '); READLN(HourlyRate); WRITELN(PF,HourlyRate) END; '3' : BEGIN WRITE('Commission Rate: ');

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READLN(Commission); WRITELN(PF,Commission); WRITE('Basic Salary: '); READLN(BasicSalary); WRITELN(PF,BasicSalary); WRITE('Area: '); READLN(Area); WRITELN(PF,Area) END END END; CLOSE(PF); WRITELN(Separator); WRITELN('Payroll file has been created. Press any key'); READLN END.

Drill 11-2 { ----------------------------- DRILL 11-2 --------------------------------- } PROGRAM EmployeeDataBase2(INPUT, OUTPUT, PayrollFile, NewFile); { This program uses the employee data base file payroll.txt to process records using pointers. } CONST FileName = 'payroll.txt'; TempFile = 'temp.txt'; Header = '------------- Main Menu --------------'; Header1 = '--------- Employee DataBase ----------'; Header2 = '---------- Employee Record -----------'; Separator = '--------------------------------------'; TYPE EmployeeRecord = RECORD ID :STRING[5]; Name, Position :STRING[20]; SSN :STRING[11]; CASE Category :CHAR OF '1' :(MonthlySalary :REAL); '2' :(HourlyRate :REAL); '3' :(Commission, BasicSalary :REAL; Area :STRING[20]) END; SSNstring = STRING[11]; EmployeePointer = ^EmployeeRecord;

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VAR NewFile, PayrollFile EmployeeRec Title OneLine

:TEXT; :EmployeePointer; :ARRAY [1..9] OF STRING[20]; :STRING[80];

{ ----------------- Procedure SearchRec ------------------- } PROCEDURE SearchRec(VAR PayrollFile :TEXT; Employee :EmployeePointer; SSNumber :SSNstring; VAR Found :INTEGER); BEGIN Found := 0; ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee^ DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1' : READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2' : READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3' : BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber = SSN THEN Found := 1; END { End of WITH block } END; CLOSE(PayrollFile); END; { ------------------ Procedure ReadRec -------------------- } PROCEDURE ReadRec(VAR PayrollFile :TEXT; Employee :EmployeePointer); VAR SSNumber :STRING[11]; Found :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN; WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee: ');

Answers to Drills

READLN(SSNumber); SearchRec(PayrollFile, Employee, SSNumber, Found); IF Found =1 THEN BEGIN ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee^ DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1' : READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2' : READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3' : BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber = SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(Header2); WRITELN(Title[1],ID); WRITELN(Title[2],Name); WRITELN(Title[3],Position); WRITELN(Title[4], SSN); CASE Category OF '1' : WRITELN(Title[5], MonthlySalary:0:2); '2' : WRITELN(Title[6], HourlyRate:0:2); '3' : BEGIN WRITELN(Title[7], Commission:0:2); WRITELN(Title[8], BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(Title[9], Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } END END { End of WITH block } END; CLOSE(PayrollFile) END ELSE { If not found } BEGIN WRITELN('SSN not found in file.'); WRITELN('Please try again.'); WRITELN END

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END; { ------------------ Procedure DelRec --------------------- } PROCEDURE DelRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile :TEXT; Employee :EmployeePointer); VAR SSNumber :STRING[11]; Found :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee to be deleted: '); READLN(SSNumber); SearchRec(PayrollFile, Employee, SSNumber, Found); IF Found =1 THEN BEGIN ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee^ DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1' : READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2' : READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3' : BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber<>SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile,ID); WRITELN(NewFile,Name); WRITELN(NewFile,Position); WRITELN(NewFile,SSN); WRITELN(NewFile,Category); CASE Category OF '1' : WRITELN(NewFile,MonthlySalary:0:2); '2' : WRITELN(NewFile,HourlyRate:0:2); '3' : BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile,Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile,BasicSalary:0:2);

Answers to Drills

WRITELN(NewFile,Area) END { End of CASE structure }

END; END; END { End of WITH block } END; {End of DO } CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile,OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile,OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile); { User Messages } WRITELN('The employee ', SSNumber, ' is removed from file.') END { End of the "IF Found.." block } ELSE { IF not found } BEGIN WRITELN('The SSN ', SSNumber, ' is not found.'); WRITELN('Check the number and try again.'); WRITELN END END; { ------------------ Procedure AddRec --------------------- } PROCEDURE AddRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile :TEXT; Employee: EmployeePointer); BEGIN ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN { Copy each record from PayrollFile to the NewFile } READLN(PayrollFile,OneLine); WRITELN(NewFile,OneLine) END; { Accept a new record from the keyboard } WITH Employee^ DO BEGIN

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WRITE('Please enter Employee ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITE('SSN (xxx-xx-xxxx): '); READLN(SSN); WRITE('Payroll category: '); READLN(Category); CASE Category OF '1' : BEGIN WRITE('Monthly Salary: '); READLN(MonthlySalary) END; '2' : BEGIN WRITE('Rate: '); READLN(HourlyRate) END; '3' : BEGIN WRITE('Commission: '); READLN(Commission); WRITE('Basic salary: '); READLN(BasicSalary); WRITE('Area: '); READLN(Area) END END; { Store the information in NewFile } WRITELN(NewFile, ID); WRITELN(NewFile, Name); WRITELN(NewFile, Position); WRITELN(NewFile, SSN); WRITELN(NewFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1' : WRITELN(NewFile, MonthlySalary:0:2); '2' : WRITELN(NewFile, HourlyRate:0:2); '3' : BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile, Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile, Area) END END END; CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile,OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile,OneLine)

Answers to Drills

END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile) END; { ---------------- Procedure UpdateRec -------------------- } PROCEDURE UpdateRec(VAR NewFile, PayrollFile :TEXT; Employee :EmployeePointer); VAR SSNumber :STRING[11]; Found :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITE('Please enter the SSN of the employee to be updated: '); READLN(SSNumber); SearchRec(PayrollFile, Employee, SSNumber, Found); IF Found = 1 THEN BEGIN ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); RESET(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile); REWRITE(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(PayrollFile) DO BEGIN WITH Employee^ DO BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, ID); READLN(PayrollFile, Name); READLN(PayrollFile, Position); READLN(PayrollFile, SSN); READLN(PayrollFile, Category); CASE Category OF '1' : READLN(PayrollFile, MonthlySalary); '2' : READLN(PayrollFile, HourlyRate); '3' : BEGIN READLN(PayrollFile, Commission); READLN(PayrollFile, BasicSalary); READLN(PayrollFile, Area) END END; { End of CASE structure } IF SSNumber<>SSN THEN BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile,ID); WRITELN(NewFile,Name); WRITELN(NewFile,Position); WRITELN(NewFile,SSN); WRITELN(NewFile,Category); CASE Category OF '1' : WRITELN(NewFile,MonthlySalary:0:2); '2' : WRITELN(NewFile,HourlyRate:0:2);

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'3' : BEGIN WRITELN(NewFile,Commission:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile,BasicSalary:0:2); WRITELN(NewFile,Area) END END { End of CASE structure } END { End of IF block } ELSE BEGIN WRITELN('Please enter the updated information:'); WRITE('ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITELN(NewFile,ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITELN(NewFile,Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITELN(NewFile,Position); WRITELN(NewFile,SSN); WRITE('Category: '); READLN(Category); WRITELN(NewFile,Category); CASE Category OF '1' : BEGIN WRITE('Salary: '); READLN(MonthlySalary); WRITELN(NewFile,MonthlySalary:0:2) END; '2' : BEGIN WRITE('Hourly Rate: '); READLN(HourlyRate); WRITELN(NewFile,HourlyRate:0:2) END; '3' : BEGIN WRITE('Commission: '); READLN(Commission); WRITELN(NewFile,Commission:0:2); WRITE('Basic Salary: '); READLN(BAsicSalary); WRITELN(NewFile,BasicSalary:0:2); WRITE('Area: '); READLN(Area); WRITELN(NewFile,Area) END END { End of CASE structure } END { End of ELSE block } END { End of WITH block } END; { End of DO } CLOSE(NewFile); CLOSE(PayrollFile); { Copy NewFile back to Payroll File } ASSIGN(PayrollFile, FileName); REWRITE(PayrollFile); ASSIGN(NewFile, TempFile);

Answers to Drills

RESET(NewFile); WHILE NOT EOF(NewFile) DO BEGIN READLN(NewFile,OneLine); WRITELN(PayrollFile,OneLine) END; CLOSE(NewFile); ERASE(NewFile); { Erase the temporary file } CLOSE(PayrollFile); { User Messages } WRITELN('The employee ', SSNumber, ' is updated.') END { End of IF block } ELSE BEGIN WRITELN('The SSN ', SSNumber, ' is not found.'); WRITELN('Check the number and try again.'); WRITELN END END; { -------------------- Procedure Menu --------------------- } PROCEDURE Menu; VAR Option :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN(Header); WRITELN; WRITELN('1. Display an employee record.'); WRITELN('2. Add a new employee.'); WRITELN('3. Delete an employee.'); WRITELN('4. Update an employee record.'); WRITELN('5. Exit.'); WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Make a choice and press a number: '); READLN(Option); CASE Option OF 1 : ReadRec(PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 2 : AddRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 3 : DelRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 4 : UpdateRec(NewFile, PayrollFile, EmployeeRec); 5 : Exit END; Menu END; { --------------------- Main Program ---------------------- } BEGIN { Assign titles }

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Title[1] Title[2] Title[3] Title[4] Title[5] Title[6] Title[7] Title[8] Title[9] Menu END.

:= := := := := := := := :=

'ID: '; 'Name: '; 'Position: '; 'SSN: '; 'Salary: '; 'Rate: '; 'Commission: '; 'Basic Salary: '; 'Area: ';

Drill 11-3 { ----------------------------- DRILL 11-3 --------------------------------- } PROGRAM LinkedListDemo(INPUT, OUTPUT, NamesFile); { This program initializes a linked list that stores strings. It adds data to the list, displays its contents, and stores it in the file namelist.bin. It also reads the file and adds its contents to the list } CONST FileName = 'namelist.bin'; Header = '------------- Main Menu --------------'; Separator = '--------------------------------------'; TYPE DataString = STRING[30]; ListPointer = ^ListRecord; ListRecord = RECORD DataField :DataString; NextField :ListPointer END; NamesFile = FILE OF DataString; VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer; MyListFile :NamesFile; { ---------------- Procedure BuildList -------------------- } PROCEDURE BuildList(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer; DataItem :DataString); {Note: The FirstPointer is passed using the VAR keyword as it will be updated by this procedure. } VAR ToolPointer :ListPointer; BEGIN NEW(ToolPointer);

Answers to Drills

ToolPointer^.DataField := DataItem; ToolPointer^.NextField := FirstPointer; FirstPointer := ToolPointer END; { ----------------- Procedure ReadList -------------------- } PROCEDURE ReadList(FirstPointer :ListPointer); VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; BEGIN CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE CurrentPointer<>NIL DO BEGIN WRITELN(CurrentPointer^.DataField); CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField END; WRITELN END; { ----------------- Procedure GetData --------------------- } PROCEDURE GetData(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer); VAR Name :DataString; BEGIN WRITELN('Enter the names to add to the list,', ' when finished hit ENTER.'); { Read the first data item } READLN(Name); { Check for end-of-data } WHILE LENGTH(Name)<>0 DO BEGIN BuildList(FirstPointer, Name); READLN(Name) END END; { ----------------- Procedure DisplayInfo ----------------- } PROCEDURE DisplayInfo(FirstPointer :ListPointer); BEGIN WRITELN(Separator); WRITELN('The contents of the list: '); ReadList(FirstPointer); WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END;

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{ ---------------- Procedure SaveList --------------------- } PROCEDURE SaveList(FirstPointer :ListPointer; VAR MyListFile: NamesFile); VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; BEGIN ASSIGN(MyListFile, FileName); REWRITE(MyListFile); CurrentPointer := FirstPointer; WHILE CurrentPointer<>NIL DO BEGIN WRITE(MyListFile, CurrentPointer^.DataField); CurrentPointer := CurrentPointer^.NextField END; CLOSE(MyListFile) END; { ----------------- Procedure ReadFile -------------------- } PROCEDURE ReadFile(VAR FirstPointer :ListPointer; VAR MyListFile: NamesFile); VAR Name :DataString; BEGIN ASSIGN(MyListFile, FileName); RESET(MyListFile); WHILE NOT EOF (MyListFile) DO BEGIN READ(MyListFile, Name); BuildList(FirstPointer, Name); END; CLOSE(MyListFile) END; { ------------------ Procedure Menu ----------------------- } PROCEDURE Menu; VAR Option :INTEGER; BEGIN WRITELN(Header); WRITELN('1. Add data from the keyboard.'); WRITELN('2. Display the list.'); WRITELN('3. Add data from file.'); WRITELN('4. Save the list to a file.'); WRITELN('5. Exit.'); WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Make a choice and press a number: '); READLN(Option); CASE Option OF

Answers to Drills

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1 : GetData(FirstPointer); 2 : DisplayInfo(FirstPointer); 3 : ReadFile(FirstPointer, MyListFile); 4 : SaveList(FirstPointer, MyListFile); 5 : Exit END; Menu END; { --------------------- Main Program ---------------------- } BEGIN { Initialize an empty List } FirstPointer := NIL; menu END.

Drill 11-4 { ------------------------ Procedure UpdateRec ----------------------------- } PROCEDURE UpdateRec(FirstPointer :ListPointer); { This procedure updates record information for a specific employee. It calls the procedure SearchList to search the list using the Social Security Number of the employee. The new information is accepted from the user, otherwise a message "not found" is issued.} VAR CurrentPointer :ListPointer; SSNumber :SSNstring; Found :BOOLEAN; BEGIN Found := FALSE; WRITELN(Separator); WRITE('Enter the SSN of the employee:'); READLN(SSNumber); SearchList(FirstPointer, CurrentPointer, SSNumber, Found); IF NOT Found THEN WRITELN('SSN: ', SSNumber, ' Not Found') ELSE WITH CurrentPointer^.DataField DO BEGIN WRITELN('Please enter the now information of', ' the employee (SSN: ', SSNumber,'):'); WRITE('ID: '); READLN(ID); WRITE('Name: '); READLN(Name); WRITE('Position: '); READLN(Position); WRITE('Hourly Rate: '); READLN(Rate); WRITELN('Record updated.') END; WRITE('Hit any key to continue...'); READLN END;

Index

Index A ABS, 22 actual parameters, 124 AND, 34 APPEND, 176-177 ARCTAN, 22 arithmetic expressions, evaluating, 7-8 arithmetic operators, 4, 8 precedence of, 7-8 arrays, 83-85 declaring in TYPE section, 90 initialization of, 96-97 ASCII code, 26 ASSIGN, 157 assignment operation, 220 assignment operator, 10-11

B base type, 137 BEGIN, 1 BEGIN-END blocks, 42 binary files, 156 binary operators, 8 blocks, 42 BOOLEAN, 19 Boolean expressions, 32-34 Boolean operators, 34 BOOLEAN type, 32 BYTE, 20, 28

C CASE, 51 case labels, 51 CASE-ELSE, 56 CHAR, 19 CHAR type, 26 character functions, 27 character input, 105, 107 character set, 26 character type, 26 CHR, 27

CLOSE, 158 comments, 1 COMP, 21 comparison operation, 220-222 CONCAT, 117 conditions, nesting, 47 CONST, 12 constants, literal, 12 named, 12 control structures, 39 COPY, 117 COS, 22 counted loop, 61

D data field, 225 data structures, 217 data types, numeric, 19-20 ordinal, 77 real, 77 standard, 19 decisions, making, 39 declaration, 9 DELETE, 117 Difference operator, 140 direct access files, 155 DISPOSE, 218 DIV, 6, 8 DOUBLE, 21 DOWNTO, 66 dynamic memory allocation, 217 dynamic variables, 217

E ELSE-IF, 45 empty set, 139 END, 1 end-of-file, 112 end-of-line, 101, 102-103

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318

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Index

enumerated type, 77-79 enumerations, 77-79 restrictions on using, 81 EOF, 112, 159 EOLN, 111, 159 ERASE, 177 examples analyzing text, 142-144 averaging, 65-66, 69-70, 70-71 change counter (grocery store), 23-24 character counter, 111 character reader, 106-107, 107-108, 108-109 character tester, 46-47, 55-56 days in a month, 52-54, 56-57 displaying characters, 28 displaying ordinal numbers, 27 displaying previous and next characters, 28 displaying TEXT file, 162-163 employee database, 236-242, 246-253 employee records, 145-146, 147-148, 149-151, 166-168 factorial, 67, 73-74, 133 frequency counter, 112-113 grade reports, 47-50, 85-87, 87-89, 94-96 linked lists, 229-232 Pascal credit card, 40-42, 42-43, 44-45 payroll system, 168-171, 173-176, 185-192, 195-200, 205-213 power function, 23 powers of two, 64-65 reading TEXT file, 163-164 scrambling letters, 109-110 sorting, 127-129 sorting arrays, 90-92 sorting strings, 114-115 text analyzer, 159-161 vending machine change, 51-52 exclusive OR, 35 EXIT, 56 EXP, 22 EXTENDED, 21

F fielded variables, 145 fields, 144 accessing, 145 file buffer variable, 178-179 file parameters, 2, 157

FILE type, 155 file variable, 156 files, appending, 176-177 closing, 158 opening, 157 reading linked lists in, 233 storing linked lists in, 232-233 FOR loop, 62-63 formal parameters, 125 format descriptors, 15-16 FORWARD, 131-132 forward declaration, 131-132 FRAC, 25 functions, 130-131 arithmetic, 21-22 character, 27 conversion, 22 trigonometric, 22 Turbo Pascal, 25

G global variables, 127 GOTO, 54-55

I identifiers, 2 IF-ELSE, nesting, 50 IF-THEN, 40 IF-THEN-ELSE, 43-45 IN, 141-142 infinite loop, 55 INPUT, 2 INPUT file, 101 INPUT statements, 102 INSERT, 117 INT, 25 INTEGER, 19, 20 integer division, 6 integer types in Turbo Pascal, 20 Intersection operator, 140

L label, declaring, 54 LENGTH, 31, 116 link field, 225 linked lists, 225 building, 225-227 declaring, 225

Index

deleting nodes from, 243-246 reading, 227-228 reading from file, 233 searching, 235-236 storing in file, 232-233 lists, see linked lists literal constant, 12 LN, 22 local variables, 127 logical operators, 34 LONGINT, 20 loop, counted, 61 infinite, 55 nested, 68 repetition, 55 looping, 61-62

M MAXINT, 19-20 MOD, 6 modulo, 6

N named constant, 12 nested conditions, 47 nested loop, 68 nesting records, 149 nesting statements, 50 NEW, 218 nodes, 225 deleting from linked lists, 243-246 non-TEXT files, 172-173 NOT, 34 numeric data types, 19-20 in Turbo Pascal, 20-21 numeric input, 102-103, 104

O one-dimensional arrays, 84, 85 operators, *, 4, 8, 140 –, 4, 8, 140 /, 4, 6, 8 :=, 10 +, 4, 8, 140 <, 32 <=, 32 <>, 32, 35

=, 32 >, 32 >=, 32 AND, 34 DIV, 6, 8 MOD, 6 NOT, 34 OR, 34 XOR, 35 operators, precedence of, 7-8, 35, 142 operators (types of), arithmetic, 4, 8 assignment, 10-11 binary, 8 Boolean, 34 logical, 34 relational, 32, 141 set, 140-141 unary, 8 OR, 34 ORD, 27 ordinal data types, 77 user-defined, 77-81 ordinal number, 26 OUTPUT, 2 OUTPUT file, 101 output, formatting ,15-16 OUTPUT statements, 101-102

P PACKED ARRAY OF CHAR, 29 parameters, 124 actual, 124 formal, 125 passing by reference, 125 passing by value, 125 passing pointers as, 224 value, 126 variable, 126 Pascal conventions, 2-3 pointer field, 25 pointer operations, 220-222 pointers, 217-218 declaring, 218 passing as parameters, 224 restrictions on using, 222-223 to records, 222-223 POS, 117

n

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Index

power function, 23 PRED, 27 procedures, 121-122 defining, 122-123 passing values from, 126 passing values to, 123-125 PROGRAM, 1, 2 program quality, 85 structure, 1-3

R RANDOM, 25 random access files, 155 READ, 14, 104, 105, 158-159 READLN, 14, 102-103, 107, 108, 158-159 REAL, 19, 21 real data types, 77 real division, 5-6 real numbers, 5-6 real types in Turbo Pascal, 21 records, 144 declaring, 144-145 deleting, 192-193 nesting, 149 pointers to, 222-223 updating, 201 variant, 183-185 recursion, 133 relational operators, 32, 141 REPEAT loop, 72-73 repetition loop, 55 reserved words, 2 RESET, 157 REWRITE, 165 ROUND, 13, 22

S scalar data types, see standard data types scope of variables, 131-132 sequential access files, 155 set operators, 140-141 using, 140-141 sets, 137 assigning members to, 138-139 declaring, 138-139 restrictions on using, 139 SHORTINT, 20 simple data types, see standard data types

SIN, 22 SINGLE, 21 SQR, 22 SQRT, 22 standard data types, 19 standard identifiers, 9 static variables, 217 string functions, 116 string length, 31 string procedures, 116 STRING type, 30, 114 strings, 29, 113 declaring, 30 reading, 163-165 subprogram, 121 subrange, 79-80 restrictions on using, 81 SUCC, 27 syntax, 2-3

T tag field, 184 text, displaying, 3-4 TEXT file, 156 creating, 165 displaying, 162 reading, 156, 163 using, 158 TRUNC, 13, 22 Turbo Pascal, 2, 28, 54, 83, 157, 177 functions, 25 numeric data types in, 20-21 operators, 35 statements, 56 two-dimensional arrays, 84, 93-94 TYPE, 81 type conversion, 13-14 TYPE section, declaring arrays in, 90 typed files, 156 types, renaming, 81-82 user-defined, 82-83

U unary operators, 8 unconditional branching, 54 Union operator, 140 user input, reading, 14-15

Index

V value parameters, 126 VAR, 9, 12 variable parameters, 126 variables, declaring, 9-10 dynamic, 217 fielded, 145 global, 127 local, 127 scope of, 131-132 static, 217

variant records, 183-185 declaring, 184-185 field list, 185

W WHILE loop, 69-71 WITH, 146-147 WORD, 20 WRITE, 3-4, 165-166 WRITELN, 3-4, 165-166

X XOR, 35

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About the CD The companion CD contains the examples and drills referenced throughout the text, along with other files needed to complete those exercises. The root directory of the CD includes 12 folders, one for each of the 11 chapters and one labeled TextFiles. Examples are named in the form 1-01.pas. The solutions to the drills are named in the form Drl1-1.pas. You can use the files on the CD directly, but you will have to change the ReadOnly attribute on some of the files. Instead, you may use the Setup.exe program on the root to copy the files to your hard drive. For more information, see the Readme files on the CD. Note that Readme.htm will autorun when you insert the CD into your drive.

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CD/Source Code Usage License Agreement Please read the following CD/Source Code usage license agreement before opening the CD and using the contents therein: 1. 2.

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By opening the accompanying software package, you are indicating that you have read and agree to be bound by all terms and conditions of this CD/Source Code usage license agreement. The compilation of code and utilities contained on the CD and in the book are copyrighted and protected by both U.S. copyright law and international copyright treaties, and is owned by Wordware Publishing, Inc. Individual source code, example programs, help files, freeware, shareware, utilities, and evaluation packages, including their copyrights, are owned by the respective authors. No part of the enclosed CD or this book, including all source code, help files, shareware, freeware, utilities, example programs, or evaluation programs, may be made available on a public forum (such as a World Wide Web page, FTP site, bulletin board, or Internet news group) without the express written permission of Wordware Publishing, Inc. or the author of the respective source code, help files, shareware, freeware, utilities, example programs, or evaluation programs. You may not decompile, reverse engineer, disassemble, create a derivative work, or otherwise use the enclosed programs, help files, freeware, shareware, utilities, or evaluation programs except as stated in this agreement. The software, contained on the CD and/or as source code in this book, is sold without warranty of any kind. Wordware Publishing, Inc. and the authors specifically disclaim all other warranties, express or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose with respect to defects in the disk, the program, source code, sample files, help files, freeware, shareware, utilities, and evaluation programs contained therein, and/or the techniques described in the book and implemented in the example programs. In no event shall Wordware Publishing, Inc., its dealers, its distributors, or the authors be liable or held responsible for any loss of profit or any other alleged or actual private or commercial damage, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. One (1) copy of the CD or any source code therein may be created for backup purposes. The CD and all accompanying source code, sample files, help files, freeware, shareware, utilities, and evaluation programs may be copied to your hard drive. With the exception of freeware and shareware programs, at no time can any part of the contents of this CD reside on more than one computer at one time. The contents of the CD can be copied to another computer, as long as the contents of the CD contained on the original computer are deleted. You may not include any part of the CD contents, including all source code, example programs, shareware, freeware, help files, utilities, or evaluation programs in any compilation of source code, utilities, help files, example programs, freeware, shareware, or evaluation programs on any media, including but not limited to CD, disk, or Internet distribution, without the express written permission of Wordware Publishing, Inc. or the owner of the individual source code, utilities, help files, example programs, freeware, shareware, or evaluation programs. You may use the source code, techniques, and example programs in your own commercial or private applications unless otherwise noted by additional usage agreements as found on the CD.

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