Language of trends Similarities and differences (IELTS Academic Writing Part One/ Business English) Similarities What is the similarity between all the words and expressions in each section? (It could be in meaning when used to talk about trends, original sources or meanings, or anything else) A soar dive take off soft landing crash rocket turbulence plummet B grow expand shrink C plunge dive buoyant D turbulent unstable fluctuate volatile E flatten out bottom out level off stable/ stabilize steady F peak/ reach a peak bottom out a new high/ low an all time high/ low Written by Alex Case for UsingEnglish.com © 2010

G recover bounce back V-shaped recession U-shaped recession pick up H halved doubled tripled dropped by a third I escalate deteriorate slump J improve recover ameliorate augment buoyant K bounce back rebound L boom explode M raise cut slash

Written by Alex Case for UsingEnglish.com © 2010

Differences What are the differences between the following pairs of words and expressions? grow/ grow up fall slightly/ fall sharply rise/ raise remain steady/ rise steadily significant decline/ steady decline escalate/ improve rise/ rise up decrease dramatically/ decrease rapidly fall/ fall down rose by a third/ tripled just over a third/ almost a third just under a third/ around (= approximately/ about) a third rose to 20%/ rose by 20% an increase/ to increase (pronunciation) fall from 2000/ fall to 2000 fall/ fall back Why? “Shoot up”, but not “rocket up”? “Go up”, but not “rise up”? Useful links for extra practice http://www.taipeitimes.com/images/2008/06/28/TT-970628-P14-IB.pdf http://www.britishcouncil.org/professionals-exams-ielts_lesson_download_4.pdf http://www.eslhandouts.com/materials/describing_trends.pdf http://www.eslflow.com/describinggraphstables.html

Written by Alex Case for UsingEnglish.com © 2010

Language of trends Similarities and differences Answer Key Similarities A – All connected to flying B – All connected to getting bigger or smaller C – All connected to water D – All mean go up and down E – All mean become flat F – All mean reach a limit G – All mean reach a limit and then go the other way H – All connected to numbers I – All have negative meanings J – All have positive meanings K – All connected to balls L – All connected to explosions M – All used with a subject who is doing the action rather than changing Differences grow/ grow up – grow up means become an adult fall slightly/ fall sharply – the second one is a faster fall rise/ raise – the first is a change, the second is used about the person causing that change remain steady/ rise steadily – the first means flat significant decline/ steady decline – the first is an amount, the second describes a straight line escalate/ improve – the first in negative rise/ rise up – the second means a (literal) revolution decrease dramatically/ decrease rapidly – the second is more extreme fall/ fall down – the second is a physical thing, so not used for trends rose by a third/ tripled – the second is greater, the first just means 33.3% just over a third/ almost a third – almost a third means just under just under a third/ around (= approximately/ about) a third – the second could be over rose to 20%/ rose by 20% - the first means the new value is 20%, the second is the change is 20% an increase/ to increase (pronunciation) – the first is stressed on the first syllable fall from 2000/ fall to 2000 – the second is the new position fall/ fall back – the second shows that it was rising before Why? “Shoot up”, but not “rocket up”? – rockets always go up “Go up”, but not “rise up”? – rise is always up Written by Alex Case for UsingEnglish.com © 2010

Langugae of Trends- Similarities and Differences - Using English

Language of trends Similarities and differences. (IELTS Academic Writing Part One/ Business English) ... soft landing crash rocket turbulence plummet. B grow.

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