Journal of the Institution of Public Health Engineers, India CK-58, Salt Lake City, (Near Tank No.9) Kolkata-700 091, India e-mail : [email protected] • website : Phone : (033) 2337-8678; Fax : (033) 2358-8058



Prof. K. J. Nath, President, IPHE, India Mr. S. K. Neogi, Secretary-General, IPHE, India, Ex-Chief Engineer, Municipal Engineering Directorate Govt. of West Bengal Mr. Nilangshu Bhusan Basu, ExPrincipal Chief Engineer, Kolkata Municipal Corporation, Kolkata Mr. Prabir Dutta, Ex-Engineer in Chief & Secretary, PHED, Govt. of W.B., Kolkata.

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Failures due to Corrosion in Concrete Structures — Dr. K. Asha & Chethan Kumar S


Dr. Y. R. M. Rao Principal, Dr. Paul’s Engineering College, Villurpuram, Tamil Nadu Mr. A. K. Sen Gupta Director General, International Academy of Environmental Sanitation and Public Health, Sulabh International. Editor : Mr. S.C. Dutta Gupta, Ex-Chief Engineer, PHE Department, Govt. of West Bengal. Joint Editor: Mr. R. K. Dasgupta, Ex-Chief Engineer (Civil), Birla Corp. Ltd., Birlapur. Price* Rs. 18.00 per issue (copy) * Members only

Removal of Colloidal Suspension from Surface Water by Natural Coagulant — Alok Suman, Sreevidya, S. & Kafeel Ahmad


Bio Medical Solid Waste Management Practices in Mahatma Gandhi Hospital of Jodhpur City, Rajasthan, India — Prof. (Dr.) A. N. Modi & Naveen Kumar Swami


Kinetics and sorption equilibrium studies of Trivalent Chromium removal from aqueous solution using Calcite —Prof. Shashikant R. Mise & Dr. T. Appareddy


Pollution free rivers and Organic-Manure rich irrigation waters also during draught periods can go together —Prof. (Er.) Dr. Devendra Swaroop Bhargava


Treatment of fishery wastewater using aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor—Mohamed Usman T.M., Thirumal. J & Venkatesan. G


Uncertainty Characterization in the Stability Analysis of an Earthen Dam—Sriram. A. V.


Sustainability Framework Design—Dr. N.S. Raman & Dr. Y.R.M. Rao


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Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


EDITORIAL At the outset, we wish all our readers, contributors, advertisers, printers and other who were associated with the publication of this journal during the last year a very happy and prosperous next year.

Arsenic and Fluoride Contamination in ground water cause serious water quality problems in West Bengal. 16 million rural and 12 million urban population are at risk in West Bengal due to arsenic Contamination. The present crisis is due to geogenic reasons. 65 million people including 6 million children are affected due to fluorisis which is endemic in 22 states of our Country. Against this backdrop, on January 3, 2018, Institution of Public Heath Engineers organized in Kolkata a One day Consultation on “Dwindling fresh Water Resources and Challenges of fluoride and arsenic mitigation of ground Water — Role of innovative technology” in collaboration with Leigh University, USA and Arsenic Task Force of West Bengal. Technological options available for mitigation of Arsenic and Fluoride were thoroughly reviewed and scientifically evaluated. Application of various kinds of nano-material for arsenic removal was found to be most promising. Capacity building in rural population in technical and financial management along with expansion and modernization of institutional set up were also recommended for decentralized and village based community water supply projects. This issue of the journal contains eight assorted articles. Other usual features like “Note and News”, “Our Members” have also been incorporated. We would once again request our learned readers to offer their valuable suggestion for improving various features of the journal.

Editor, JIPHE, India

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTION OF PUBLIC HEALTH ENGINEERS, INDIA Guidelines For Authors Authors are requested to go through the following Bibliography is the title under which publications requirements and ensure adherence to these before generally used in preparing the paper as help or mailing the technical papers for publishing in JIPHE. source — but without any specific citation in the Possibility of delayed publication or non-publication can text — shall be listed. thus be avoided to a great extent. It is to be noted that Bibliography shall come after References if both acceptance of a paper for publication in JIPHE depends are provided in the paper. finally on the decision of the advisory council. (i) Photographs, Illustrations, Graphs, Bar charts, (A) Contribution : Papers based on practical experience, Pie charts etc.These we are not in a position case studies and popular issues related to Public to print in colour and hence : these, in Health Engineering/Environmental Engineering are Original Photograps & Tracings and/or in particularly welcome. Soft Copy must be of such quality that clear, Research findings related to above may also be sent. sharp and legible Black & White (B) Length : Not more than 3000 words all inclusive reproduction is ensured. Photocopies or (i.e. space for tables, figures etc duly considered as clippings of printed matters shall not be included) - preferably within 2500 words. accepted unless very essential. (C) Manuscript : (j) Tables : Each must be numbered and be cited in (a) Mode of presentation: Third Person. the text. (b) Quality of presentation : Brief, to the point, lucid and without repetition. (k) Unit : Shall be SI Units along with other units (c) Error-Freeness : Free from errors and omissions in parenthesis if necessary. - typographical, grammatical, syntactical, punctuationwise and in spelling. Spelling should (D) Special Information : be British English as per concise Oxford (a) Paper-sheets used in the manuscript shall be in Dictionary. A4 size. Typing shall be on one side in double (d) Page Number : All pages must be numbered space leaving ample margin at the left side. indicating serial number of each page and total number of pages contained in the paper, e.g. 3 of (b) Hard copies of manuscripts, securedly stitched, 5 indicating third page of a five paged paper. must be sent in Duplicate along with a soft copy (e) Identification : Each page must bear an secured enough against damage or breakage identification of Article and name(s) of Author(s) during transit. in short at the top of each page. (c) A paper is to be sent under coverage of a (f) Choice of Types : Must be neat and sharp and forwarding letter signed by the author(s). The should be such that differentiation of similar forwarding letter shall contain a declaration characters (e.g. 1, I&l) is possible such as Times ensuring : New Roman, for example. (i) that the paper submitted is original (g) Order of contents : (ii) that the article has not already been sent for (i) Brief Title. publication/published in JIPHE or any where else. (ii) Name(s) of Author(s) with designation (d) Papers shall be submitted to : Editor, JIPHE, (IPHE Membership grade and number is to be Institution of Public Health Engineers, mentioned for a member author for our record.) India, CK-58, Salt Lake City (Near Tank No. (iii) Abstract. 9), Kolkata - 700 091. (iv) List of Notation. (v) Body of Paper - with preferably not more than List for Last Minute Checks before sending a paper two (2) grades of subheadings. Clause B : Length /Word limit. (vi) Acknowledgement. Clause C (c) : Error-freeness. (vii) References and/or Bibliography Clause C (d) : Page numbers. (viii) Full contact address(es) with postal PIN Codes, e-mail, Fax and Telephone Nos. of the Clause C (e) : Identification. : Choice of types. Author(s) – Corresponding Author being Clause C (f) Clause C (g-ii) : Name(s) of Author(s)/IPHE Membership specially marked. Clause C (g-viii) : Contact address(es)/corresponding author. (h) References and/or Bibliography : References shall Clause C (h) : References and/or Bibliography. be sequentially numbered (denoted by bracketed Clause C (i) : Photographs Illustrations, Graphs, Bar superscript numeral) in order of citation in the Charts, Pie Charts etc. text. A list provided at the end under the title Clause D(b) : No. of hard copies/soft copy/securedness. References shall have the details in the same Clause D(c) : Forwarding Letter/Declaration. numerical order of citation in the text. Whichever : Correctness of postal address/addresses. has been listed in the Reference List must be cited Clause D(d) in the text and whichever has been cited in the text must be listed in the Reference List. Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Failures due to Corrosion in Concrete Structures

and the various reasons involved in failures of concrete structures.

Dr. K. Asha

Key words: Corrosion, Electrochemical, Steel reinforcement.

Associate Professor, Dept of Civil Engineering, DSCE

1.0 Introduction: Studies related to corrosion of steel in concrete structures are gaining popularity in recent years in India and abroad due to various types of detrimental effects of steel on concrete leading to ultimate failure of structures. Durability of concrete depends on options of transport of aggressive substances after concrete hardening- especially penetrations of liquids (water), gases (carbon dioxide, oxygen) or ions (chlorides, sulfates). Penetration is enabled by presence of pores, by their amount, type and size. Transport processes of concrete involves Absorption- sucking of substances in to capillary pores of material, Diffusionexpanding of particles by difference of concentration and Penetration- substances enter into concrete and permeate concrete by difference of pressure on surface of materials (water and concrete).

Chethan Kumar S Assistant Professor, Dept of Civil Engineering, DSCE

Abstract: Corrosion is natural process which involves electrochemical oxidation of metal in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen or sulphur. Rusting, the formation of iron oxides is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion. Corrosion of steel in concrete reduces the life and durability of concrete structures. It is a worldwide problem, which causes heavy losses to the economy and industry. The corrosion of steel is inevitable. The durability of concrete structures primarily depends on the condition of the embedded steel in concrete, apart from any deterioration that the concrete may undergo. The expansion of the corrosion products (iron oxides) of carbon steel reinforcement structures may induce mechanical stress that can cause the formation of cracks and disrupt the concrete structure. If the rebars have been poorly installed and are located too close to the concrete surface in contact with the air, spalling can easily occur: flat fragments of concrete are detached from the concrete mass by the rebars corrosion and may fall down. The present paper deals on highlighting the basic issues of corrosion of steel in concrete structures

1.1 Basic principle of corrosion Corrosion of steel reinforcement is electromechanical process as shown in figure (1). Corrosion may start when cover layer is destroyed. During corrosion steel undergoes two reactions on the surface of reinforcement. One of them is oxidation also referred to as partial anodic reaction (dissolution of iron) and second is reduction reaction which is also referred to as partial cathodic reaction

The hydroxide quickly oxidizes to form rust

Iron hydroxide forms and precipitates

Electrochemical cell action driven by the energy of odixation continues the corrosion process.

Cathode action reduces oxygen from air, forming hydroxide irons.

Anode action causes pitting of the iron.

Figure 1.0: Process of corrosion of steel. Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Dr. K. Asha & Chethan Kumar S (reduction of oxygen). The products of electromechanical reaction can react with each other and form rust on iron bar surface. This process can be described as follows 2 Fe + 2 H2O + O2 → 2 Fe (OH)2 (1) This reaction includes the dissolution of iron, the reduction of oxygen and formation of rust: Fe → Fe2++ 2 e anodic (2) 2 H 2O + O2 + 4 e- → 4 OH cathodic (3) 2 Fe2++ 4 OH- → 2 Fe(OH)2 chemical

to the creation of small holes (pin holes) in the material. Pitting is considered to be more dangerous than uniform corrosion damage because it is more difficult to predict and design against. Corrosion products often cover the pits making the detection often very difficult. 2.3 Hydrogen embrittlement Hydrogen embrittlement is the process by which various metals, most importantly highstrength steel, become brittle and fracture following exposure to hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is often the result of unintentional introduction of hydrogen into susceptible metals during forming or finishing operations and increases cracking in the material. Hydrogen embrittlement is also used to describe the formation of zirconium hydride and delayed hydride cracking.

2.0 Types of corrosion 2.1 Uniform corrosion The most widespread form of corrosion that is observed is uniform corrosion characterized by corrosive attack proceeding evenly over the entire surface area, or a large fraction of the area of the metal under attack.

3.0 Causes of corrosion steel in concrete 3.1 Carbonation of Embedded Steel It is recognized that steel embedded in a heavily alkaline medium with pH values from 9 upwards will not rust. During the setting of concrete, cement begins to hydrate, this chemical reaction between cement and water in the concrete causes calcium hydroxide to be formed from the cement clinker. This ensures the concrete’s alkalinity, producing a pH value of more than 12.6 which renders the steel surface passive. Protection of the reinforcement from corrosion is thus provided by the alkalinity of the concrete, which leads to passivation of the steel. The reserve of calcium hydroxide is very high, so there is no need to expect steel corrosion even when water penetrates to the reinforcement of the concrete. Because of this, even the occurrence of small cracks (up to 0.1 mm in width) or blemishes in the concrete need not necessarily lead to damage.

Figure 2.0 : Uniform corrosion 2.2 Pitting corrosion Pitting corrosion is caused by depassivation of a small area, localized form of corrosion that leads

Corrosion products


Passive film

Cathodic e


Fe2+ Cl—

o An

Figure 3.0: Pitting Corrosion Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018



H+ c

Dr. K. Asha & Chethan Kumar S Exposed surface

Carbonation zone

Early stages

Exposed surface

Carbonation progression

Figure 4.0: Carbonation leads to the general corrosion along the full length of the bar. Environmental influences and carbon dioxide in particular, reduces the concrete’s pH value (carbonation) and thus removes the passivating effect, in conjunction with existing humidity; the result is corrosion of the reinforcement. Carbonation is the effect of CO 2 from the atmosphere reacting with alkaline component in concrete Ca(OH) 2 in the presence of moisture thereby converting the calcium hydroxide to CaCO3. The calcium carbonate is slightly soluble in water. The pH value of the pore water is generally between 12.5 to 13.5 but due to carbonation the pH is reduced to less than 9. The reinforcement therefore is no longer in the passivating range and corrosion occurs. The corrosion is accelerated in the presence of further moisture and oxygen. Ca(OH)2 + CO2 + H2O = CaCO3 + 2 H2O 3.1 Factors influencing the depth of carbonation: Figure 5.0 : First outward signs of general corrosion taking place is surface cracking of the concrete along the line of the steel.

The factors influencing the depth of carbonation are: ● Depth of cover ● Permeability of concrete ● Grade of concrete ● Time ● Whether the concrete is protected or unprotected ● The environmental influences. The ultimate result is cracking, spalling and corrosion. 4.0 Factors Influencing Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement in concrete The factors which generally influence corrosion of reinforcement in RC structures are: ● pH value, ● Moisture, ● Oxygen, ● Chlorides, ● Ambient temperature and relative humidity, ● Severity of exposure,

Figure 6.0: Figure shows as corrosion proceeds, the concrete will spall away completely to expose the steel. Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Dr. K. Asha & Chethan Kumar S





The corrosion cycle of steel begins with the rust expanding on the surface of the bar and causing cracking near the steel/concrete interface. As time marches on, the corrosion products build up and cause more extensive cracking until the concrete breaks away from the bar, eventually causing spalling. Figure 7.0 : Process of corrosion ● ● ● ● ●

The hair line crack in the concrete surface lying directly above the reinforcement and running parallel to it is the positive visible indication that reinforcement is corroding. These cracks indicate that the expanding rust has grown enough to split the concrete. Even at this stage the reinforcement looks as though it is rust free if the concrete is chipped off.

Quality of construction materials, Quality of concrete, Cover to the reinforcement, Initial curing conditions, and Formation of cracks.

5.0 Damages to Concrete Due to Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement The process of corrosion, once set off, results in deterioration and distress of the RC member. The various stages of destruction are as follows:

Stage 4 : Formation of multiple cracks As corrosion progresses, there will be formation of multiple layers of ferric oxide on the reinforcement which in turn exert considerable pressure on the surrounding concrete resulting in widening of hair cracks. In addition, several new hair cracks are also formed. The bond between concrete and the reinforcement is considerably reduced. There will be a hollow sound when the concrete is tapped at the surface with a light hammer.

Stage 1: Formation of white patches If the reinforcement is embedded in a concrete which is pervious enough to allow the passage of water and carbon dioxide then carbonation advances from surface to interior concrete. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium hydroxide in the cement paste to form calcium carbonate. The free movement of water carries the unstable calcium carbonates towards the surface and forms white patches. The white patches at the concrete surface indicate the occurrence of carbonation.

Stage 5 : Spalling of cover concrete Due to loss in bond between steel and concrete and formation of multiple layers of scales, the cover concrete starts peeling off. At this stage, there is considerable reduction of the size of the bar.

Stage 2 : Brown patches along reinforcement When reinforcement starts corroding, a layer of ferric oxide is formed on the reinforcement surface. This brown product resulting from corrosion may permeate along with moisture to the concrete surface without cracking of the concrete. Usually it accompanies cracking or cracking of the concrete occurs shortly thereafter.

Stage 6 : Snapping of bars The continued reduction in the size of bars, results in snapping of the bars. Usually snapping occurs in ties / stirrups first. At this stage, there will also be a considerable reduction in the size of the main bars.

Stage 3 : Occurrence of cracks The products of corrosion normally occupy a much greater volume about 6 to 10 times than the parent metal. The increase in volume exerts considerable bursting pressure on the surrounding concrete resulting in cracking. Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

Stage 7 : Buckling of bars and bulging of concrete The spalling of the cover concrete and snapping of ties (in compression member) causes the main bars to buckle, thus resulting in the bulging of concrete in that region. This follows a collapse of the structure. 8

Dr. K. Asha & Chethan Kumar S Minimizing the Risk of Steel Reinforcement Corrosion The quality and depth of concrete in the cover zone are all important in minimizing the risk of corrosion as shown in figure 8.0 below.

Corrosion problem : Five anchorages failed in the free length region. Severe pitting was observed in ungrouped portions. An analysis of corrosion products indicated 0.63% sulphate but no chloride or sulphide. The failure was due to deep pitting and over stressing. 6.4 Case 4: South Africa (1978) : Structural detail: Prestressed ground anchorages (permanent). Outer anchor head was grease filled or grouted with cement. Free length region was PVC sheathed and greased. Fixed length region was cement grouted and coated with epoxy resin. Tendons (4, 6 or 15.2 mm diameter) were stressed to 60% U.T.S.

cover zone Deleterious Materials

Corrosion problem : Two anchorages failed in underside of anchor head in 4 years of service. Infiltration of surface water into inner head was observed. Stray current from adjacent electrified line was identified. In the annuals between the strand and sheathing, colonies of sulphate reducing bacteria were found. The failure of the anchorage was too attributed to the combined action of stray current corrosion and bacterial attack.

Figure 8.0: Depth of concrete cover zone. 6.0 Failures in Concrete Structures: Case Studies 6.1 Case 1 : Brazil (1957) Post tensioned concrete bridge 247 / 252, Failure of 247 wires – brittle Liberation of gases due to oil burning – during construction Hydrogen sulphide – Sulphur dioxide – Sulphur trioxide

6.5 Case 5 : Mandovi Bridge, Goa Construction – 1970 – 75 13 spans – 2237’ long First distress – 1980 Corrosion survey – 1986 – CECRI spalling – exposure – severely rusted rebars Transverse cracks – 1-5mm wide – deck Analysis Chloride > 0.1 % Av. pH 11.4 (9.4) Cover < 2cm / <1cm – OCP – more negative, CCR >5 max 20 Cross diaphragms –550, -1050mV CCR 10 to 26 Corrosion rate: 0.26, 0.46, 0.73, 0.14 mm (10 times) HTS wires – snapping Collapse of 2 spans – July 1986

Very Aggressive Failure type: Hydrogen Embrittlement 6.2 Case 2 : Netherlands (1964-65): Structural details: Post tensioned concrete bridge cold drawn and stress relieved wires were used. Wires were stressed to 65% of their tensile stress. Corrosion problem : Use of aluminium trumpet and mild steel duct resulted in the formation of an electrolytic cell (Galvanic cell). Sodium carbonate was used as an accelerator, which made the electrolytic cell active. Presence of sulphides (0.05%) acted as poison. Many prestressing wires failed in a brittle manner, a few days after grouting. The failure was attributed to hydrogen embrittlement of wire resulting from galvanic cell.

7.0 Conclusion : Corrosion of steel in concrete has various detrimental effects on the reinforced concrete structures if timely check is not made. This paper makes an attempt to study the different types of corrosion, factors influencing the corrosion of steel and makes a review of different case studies which has lead to failure of concrete structures.

6.3 Case 3: West Germany (before 1971) Structural detail: Temporary anchorage for a retaining wall. Alloy steel wires of 5.2 mm diameter were used. Tendons were encased in cement Grout. Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Dr. K. Asha & Chethan Kumar S


balanced cantilever

Inside deck

water level

counter weight

precast segments pler (hollow)

superstructure construction joint water level


wellcap well strining rusted prestressed cables gave way Unbalance cantilever

Unbalanced contilever

joint opens

water level

water level

prestressed cables

precast slabs anchorage cone precast T beams 5 no.

Figure 9.0: Mandovi bridge collapse. Bibliography : 1. Fabbrocino et al (2009): “Seismic monitoring of structural and geotechnical integrated Systems”, Materials Forum Volume 33. 2. Karolina Hajkova (2015), “Mechanism of reinforcement corrosion”, Faculty of civil Engineering, Czech technical university in Prague. 3. Petro ski, H., (1995) “Case Histories and the Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018




Study of Structural Failures”, Structural Engineering International, pp. 250- 254. Delatte, N. J.,(1997) “ Failure Case Studies and Ethics in Engineering mechanics Courses”, ‘Journal of Professional issues in Engineering Education and Practice, vol. 123, pp. 111- 116. Dias, W. P. S., (1994) “Structural Failures and Design Philosophy”, the Structural Engineer, vol. 72, n2, 18, pp. 25- 29.

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Removal of Colloidal Suspension from Surface Water by Natural Coagulant

INTRODUCTION Safe drinking water is most essential for sustainability of human life. Due to increase in population, industrialization and other reasons the quality of available water decreases. Clean and safe drinking water is a very critical issue in many developing countries. Safe drinking water is the right of all people. World Health Organization (WHO) has set the guideline value for the residual turbidity in drinking water at 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). Safe drinking-water, as defined by the Guidelines, does not represent any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption, including different sensitivities that may occur between life stages. Those at greatest risk of waterborne disease are infants and young children, people who are debilitated or living under unsanitary conditions and the elderly. Safe drinking water and sanitation are essential for health. Health status determines the development of social and economical status of families, communities and nations.Mostly, raw surface water contains organic and inorganic impurities, thus it is very essential to remove impurities by treatment and disinfection before humans consumption. In surface water treatment combination of various processes are applied such as coagulation, flocculation, filtration and disinfection to produce potable water. Colloids are very fine particles, typically ranging from 10 nm to10μm. The colloidal material associated with turbidity provides adsorption sites for chemicals that may be harmful or cause undesirable tastes and odours and for biological organisms that may be harmful. Colloidal solids are the solids in between the suspended and the dissolved solids. Particles in the colloidal range prevent agglomeration. The time required to settle naturally colloidal particles is too long. To remove colloidal particles, small particles have to be destabilised first and then they will form larger and heavier flocks which can be removed by conventional physical treatment. Waters with turbidity resulting from colloidal particles cannot be clarified without special treatment. Coagulation flocculation process is the physico-chemical treatment method in water treatment for the reduction of colloidal suspended solids and turbidity. Most colloidal particles are very fine particles which are negatively charged. The chemicals added to aid coagulation are called coagulants. Aluminium sulphate(Alum), Ferric Chloride, and Ferrous sulphate,etc. are some chemical coagulants used in coagulation process. Coagulation leads colloidal particles towards destabilisation and instigates to clump together. This adds formation of the flocs, which increase in size as well as in density, due to

Alok Suman PhD Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering Jamia Millia Islamia New Delhi, [email protected]

Sreevidya. S M Tech, [email protected]

Kafeel Ahmad PhD, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering JamiaMilliaIslamia New Delhi, [email protected]

ABSTRACT Mostly, raw surface water contains organic and inorganic impurities, thus it is very essential to remove impurities by treatment and disinfection before humans consumption. In surface water treatment combination of various processes applied such as coagulation, flocculation, filtration and disinfection to produce potable water. Conventionally chemical coagulants are used in water treatment, which remove the colloidal suspension from impure turbid water. In many communities in developing countries, the use of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation is inappropriate because of the high cost and low availability of chemical coagulants. The main objective of this study is to use of natural product prepared from seeds of Saijna (Moringa Oleifera) tree as coagulant in place of conventional coagulants. Moringa Oleifera is a native of northern India region, and can grow in all climatic conditions. Fully mature, dried seeds are round or triangular, the kernel being surrounded by a lightly wooded shell with three papery wings. Power of well dried Moringa Oleifera seed kernels has very low molecular weight and carrying positive charge. The removal efficiency of colloidal suspension from turbid water was measured by using by conventional jar test using synthetic water prepared in lab using kaolin powder (1g/l) of 200NTU and pH of 7.2 at temperature of 23.8 0 C. The optimum efficiency (93%) of removal of colloidal suspension was measured at 60ml/l Moringa seed solution (6gm Moringa seed powder mixed in 1 litre of distilled water)which is similar to synthetic, positively charged polymer coagulant (Alum). No significant change in pH was observed after experiment. This natural coagulant is environment friendly alternative for treatment of water as available locally. Key Words : Coagulant, Natural Coagulant from seed, Colloidal Suspension Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Alok Suman & Sreevidya. S & Kafeel Ahmad change in shape and weight of particles it starts to settle down. The alum is very commonly used for this purpose but leads to increase in cost of treatment process. Aluminium is also believed to be a causative agent in Alzheimer’s disease. These synthetic coagulants also lead to voluminous sludge production (Ndabigengesere A et al,1998). The Moringa Oleifera tree grows in tropical and subtropical regions around the world and its seeds have been used in drinking water treatment in small scale in Sudan and India for generations. The genus Moringa is a tropical plant belonging to the family of Moringaceae, 14 species have been identified so far and all possess coagulant properties in varying degrees (Jahn, 1988). The coagulant in the seed is a protein that acts as a cationic polyelectrolyte. Moringa Oleifera seed acts as a natural coagulant, adsorbent, softening agent and antimicrobial agent.Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark and fruit, possess many beneficial qualities such as antitumor, antiinflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine, particularly in South Asia (Anwar et al., 2007). Moringa Oleifera has coagulation ability similar to CS-49 flocculant or alum coagulant and better than the rest of the synthetic flocculant compounds. It confirms the possibility of replacing traditional treatments by the Moringa oleifera seed extract treatment (J. Sánchez-Martínet al.2012). Moringa Oleiferais a locally available and alternative purification method in the improvement of water quality like turbidity, pH and hardness. After the application of Moringa Oleifera seeds in pond water treatment, they understood that Moringa is biodegradable, environmentally friendly and nontoxic alternative which can be used in purification of pond water in rural communities (Susheela.Pet al.2014). The advantages observed beside its natural and wide availability are cost effectiveness and their high turbidity removal rate (Giddeet al. 2008). Other than Moringa Oleifera, use of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was observed by Habsah Alwiet al. 2013. In very high turbid water seeds of Moringa Oleifera are found to be very effective in removal of colloidal suspension and it is also reported that the treated sludge can be used as bio-fertilizer or bio-compost which helps to increase yield of other staple food crops (Vijay Kumar et al. 2012). The combination of seed powder of Moringa Oleifera and sand filter in water treatment was found to be more effective for water purification than treatment with Moringa seed powder alone. Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

Combined treatment produced 99.97% reduction in E. coli (Adejumo et al. 2013). The study shows that Moringa Oleifera seeds are capable of adsorbing the heavy metals (copper, lead, cadmium and chromium) as reported by Ravi kumar .K et al.2013. The removal of turbidity and coliform from raw water by using locally available natural coagulants like Moringa oleifera is 89–96% (Sonal Choubeyet al. 2012). It was observed in the study that Natural coagulants work better with high turbid water than low or medium turbid water (Md. Asrafuzzaman et al.2011). Most of the chemical coagulants are directly connected with human health as well as environmental issues. Therefore, it is very much essential to introduce an environment friendly coagulant for water purification. The main objective of the present study was the use of natural coagulant prepared from seeds of Saijna (Moringa Oleifera) tree as coagulant in place of conventional coagulants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Preparation of Moringa Oleifera seed powder: Dry Moringa Oleifera pods are obtained from the green field of the Jawaharlal Nehru University forest area. High quality pods, those which were new and not infected with disease, were selected. Pod shells were removed and were dried in sunlight for two days. Hulls and wings from the kernels were removed manually. Kernels were grounded in a grinder and sieved through 600 micrometer stainless sieve. The fine powder of Moringa seeds are stored in an airtight container and kept in refrigerator to prevent the loss of its action. Preparation of Moringa Oleifera seed solution: Moringa Oleifera seed solution prepared by mixing 6gm of Moringa seed powder in a litre of distilled waterby a magnetic stirrer. This solution is ready for used for the treatment of turbid water. Preparation of synthetic turbid water : The synthetic turbid water is prepared by adding 1gm of kaolin powder to 1 litre of tap water at the laboratory. Colloidal suspension removal using jar test : Jar test is the most commonly used experimental methods for coagulation-flocculation process. Conventional jar test apparatus was used in the experiments to coagulate sample of synthetic turbid water using natural coagulant and Alum.Test was carried out in batch test, with a series of six beakers together with steel paddles. The sample was mixed homogenously before determination of optimal coagulant dose through jar test. In one litre of 13

Alok Suman & Sreevidya. S & Kafeel Ahmad synthetic water sample was poured in all six containers and fed with various doses of Moringa Oleifera seed solution ranging from 10 to 70 ml/l with an increment of 5 ml/l. A flash mixing of 2 minutes followed by slow mixing of 20 minutes, the sample were allowed to keep undisturbed for another 30-45 minutes to settle the flocs formed. All tests were performed at an ambient room temperature in the range of 22–24oC and turbidity of sample water was observed as 200 NTU. In the experiment, pH also was measured to check the effect on optimum condition of natural coagulant.

% of Colloidal Suspension Removal

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Analytical Methods : Aesthetically drinking water is measured with presence of turbidity in water, and also one of the major criteria for defining drinking water quality. In the lab, turbidity wasmeasured using turbidity meter. The turbidity and pH was measured before and after the experiment to find out the colloidal suspension removal efficiency from turbid water. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The jar test operations using natural coagulant and Alum were carried out for 200NTU turbidity of synthetic turbid water. The similar removal efficiency of colloidal suspension by the natural coagulant made from seed powder of Moringa Oleifera as compared to Alum. Coagulant doses started from 10 ml/L to 70 ml/L for testing of colloidal suspension removal through jar test. Turbidity was measured before and after treatment. Figure –1 shows the results of different doses of Natural coagulant treatment in jar test. From Table – 1, it is found that the raw water turbidity was 200 NTU and turbidity removal efficiency of turbid water was observed as 28%, 37%, 42.50%, 47%, 50%, 55.50%, 67.50%, 77.50%, 88%, 92.85%, 85.55% and 70.90% corresponding to 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 ml/l natural coagulant doses respectively. The samples were also tested for pH initially and after the experiment.

Dose ml/l


10 15 20 25 30 35

7.2 7.15 7.18 7.2 7.22 7.24

55.50 67.50 77.50 88.00 92.85 85.55 70.90

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 Natural Coagulant Doses ml/l

Similarly, Figures – 2 shows the results of different doses of Alum in jar test. Table – 2 shows the results of turbidity removal efficiency of turbid water as 19%, 45%, 62%, 85%, 93%, and 78% corresponding to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30, mg/l alum doses respectively. The samples were also tested for pH initially and after the experiment. Table – 2 : Jar test Results of Colloidal suspension removal efficiency by Alum

Colloidal Suspension Removal % 14.00 28.00 37.00 42.50 47.00 50.00

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

7.2 7.18 7.24 7.16 7.19 7.22 7.24

Figure – 1: Colloidal suspension removal efficiency by Natural Coagulant

Table – 1: Jar test Results of Colloidal suspension removal efficiency by Natural Coagulant Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

40 45 50 55 60 65 70

Alum Dose, ml/l


Colloidal Suspension Removal, %

5 10 15 20 25 30

7.2 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.25 6.98

19.00 45.00 62.00 84.50 93.20 78.00

CONCLUSIONS The colloidal suspension removal of the turbid water was successfully carried out using natural coagulant Moringa Oleifera. The turbidity removal at different dosages was observed.The comparison of results of alum with natural coagulant showed that Moringa is as effective as that of alum. Based 14

Alok Suman & Sreevidya. S & Kafeel Ahmad

% of Colloidal Suspension Removal

100 80


60 40 20 0 0









Figure – 2: Colloidal suspension removal efficiency by Alum 9.

on the experimental test results the optimum dosage of Moringa Oleifera solution for synthetic water samples concentrations was 60mg/L. No significant change in pH was observed after experiment. Natural coagulant prepared from seeds of Moringa Oleifera is an environment-friendly, locally available natural coagulant and alternative for the water treatment of water.


BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Harush D. P, Hampannavar U. S, Mallikarjuna-swami M.E (2011),Treatment of dairy wastewater using aerobic biodegradation and coagulation, International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Research Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 23-26. 2. J. Sánchez-Martín, J. Beltrán-Heredia and J. A. Peres(2012), Improvement of the flocculation process in water treatment by using moringaoleiferaseeds extract, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, No. 03, pp. 495 -501. 3. Susheela P, Sri Rahavi B andRadhaR(2014), Effectiveness of Moringa oleiferaseeds in the phytoremediation of pond water,Scrutiny International Research Journal of agriculture, Volume 1 Issue 2, pp. 34 – 42. 4. Gidde M.R, Bhalerao A.R, Yawale S. A (2008), Bentonite clay turbidity removal by herbal coagulant- A Rural Water Treatment Technology, Paper for National Conference on Household Water Treatment Technology at college of Sci. & Tech. Farah, Mathura. 5. Parmar Gaurang and Parikh Punita (2012), An evalution of turbidity removal from Industrial waste by natural coagulants obtained from some plants,Journal of Environmental Research And Development, Vol. 7 , No. 2A, pp. 1043-1046. 6. Habsah Alwi, Juferi Idris, Mohibah Musa and Ku Halim Ku Hamid (2013), A preliminary study of banana stem juice as a plant-based Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018





15. 16.

17. 15

coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater, Journal of Chemistry, article id 165057, 7 pages. Vijay Kumar. K, Rubha. M.N, Manivasagan. M, Ramesh Babu. N.G, Balaji. P(2012),Review of Moringa oleifera - The Nature’s Gift,Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology, volume 2, Issue 4,pp. 203-209. I. Bodlund, A. R. Pavankumar, R. Chelliah, S. Kasi, K. Sankaran, G. K. Rajarao (2014), Coagulant proteins identified in Mustard: a potential water treatment agent, International Journal of Environmental Science Technology, vol. 11,pages 873–880. Md. Asrafuzzaman, A. N. M. Fakhruddin and Md. Alamgir Hossain (2011), Reduction of turbidity of water using locally available natural coagulants,International Scholarly Research Network Microbiology, Volume 2011, 6 pages Prof. M. R. Gidde, Prof. A. R. Bhalerao (2007), Effect of physical parameters on coagulationflocculation of turbid water with Moringa Oleifera seeds, National Conference on Sustainable technologies for better tomorrow at VIT University Vellore. Adejumo, Mumuni, Oloruntoba, Elizabeth. O, Sridhar, Mynepalli. K (2013),Use of moringaoleifera seed powder as a coagulant for purification of water from unprotected sources in Nigeria, European Scientific Journal August 2013 edition vol.9, No.24, pp. 214-229. Ravikumar K, Prof. Sheeja A K(2013), Heavy metal removal from water using moringaoleifera seed coagulant and double filtration, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 5, pages 1013. Sonal Choubey, S. K. Rajput, K. N. Bapat (2012), Comparison of efficiency of some natural coagulants-bioremediation,International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 10, pp. 429-434. Muyibi S. A. and Evison L. M., Optimizing Physical Parameters affecting coagulation of turbid waters with Moringa Oleifera seeds, Water Research, 1995, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 25892695. Jahn S (1988) Using Moringa Seeds as Coagulants in Developing Countries. Journal American Water Works Association 80:43–50. Anwar F, Latif S, Ashraf M & Gilani AH (2007) Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytotherapy research 21:17– 25. Davy Nkhata (2001), Moringa as an alternative

Alok Suman & Sreevidya. S & Kafeel Ahmad Health Organization, 2003. 21. Abdulmoneim M. Saadabi and I.E.Abu Zaid.( 2011), An In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Moringa oleifera L. Seed Extracts against Different Groups of Microorganisms, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Vol. 5(5) pp.129-134. 22. Vivek Vardhan. C. M and Karthikeyan. J. (2011), Removal of Fluoride from Water using Low Cost Materials, Fifteenth International Water Technology Conference 2011 IWTC-15, Alexandria, Egypt.

to aluminiumsulphate, Report on 27th WEDC conference : People and systems for water sanitation and health, Lusaka, Zambia, pages 236-238. 18. Ndabigengesere, A & Narasiah, K. S. (1998). Quality of water treated by coagulation using Moringa oleifera seeds. Water Research, vol 32, pp 781–791. 19. World Health Organization, 1984.Guideline for drinking water quality Vol.1. 2nd edn. Geneva. WHO. 20. World Health Organisation/United Nations Children’s Fund, Geneva/NewYork. World

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Bio Medical Solid Waste Management Practices in Mahatma Gandhi Hospital of Jodhpur City, Rajasthan, India

The bio medical wastes generated from health care units depend upon a number of factors such as waste management methods, type of health care units, occupancy of health care units, specialization of health care units, ratio of reusable items in use, availability of infrastructure and resources etc. In general the bio medical waste / health care waste, (the term bio medical waste is used in India and the health care waste term is used by World Health Organization, both means the same), contains infectious waste and non-infectious waste. The infectious waste includes pathological waste, sharps waste, items contaminated with blood and body fluids and chemical, pharmaceutical waste etc. As regards to the category wise percentage of waste generation, non-infectious waste is 80%, and infectious waste is pathological 15%, sharps waste 1%, chemical or pharmaceutical waste 3% and others 1% [02]. A major issue related to current bio medical waste management in hospital is that the implementation of bio waste regulation is unsatisfactory as some hospitals are disposing of waste in a haphazard, improper and indiscriminate manner. Lack of segregation practices results in mixing of hospital wastes with general waste making the whole waste stream hazardous. Bio medical waste will cause environmental pollution, unpleasant smell, growth and multiplication of vectors like insects, worms and may lead to the transmission of diseases like typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and AIDS through injuries from syringes and needles contaminated with blood. Various communicable diseases, which spread through water, sweat, blood, body fluids and contaminated organs, are important to be prevented. The bio medical waste scattered in and around the hospitals invites flies, insects, rodents, cats and dogs that are responsible for the spread of communication disease like plague and rabies. The recycling of disposable syringes, needles and other article like glass bottles without proper sterilization are responsible for Hepatitis, HIV and other viral diseases. It becomes primary responsibility of health administrators to manage hospital waste in most safe and eco friendly manner. The need of proper hospital waste management system is of prime importance and is an essential component of quality assurance in hospitals[03]. The proper bio medical waste management will help to control diseases (hospital acquired infections), reduces HIV / AIDS, sepsis and hepatitis transmission from dirty needles and other improperly cleaned / disposed medical items, control zoonosis (diseases passed to humans through insects, birds, rats and other animals), prevent illegal

Prof. (Dr.) A. N. Modi Department of Civil Engineering, M.B.M. Engineering College, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur

Naveen Kumar Swami Post Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, M.B.M. Engineering College, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur (Corresponding Author) E-mail: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Bio medical waste is a potential health hazard to the health care workers, patients, local public and communities of the area. This study aimed to protect the public and the environment from potentially infectious diseases caused due to lack of management of bio medical waste. Characterization and quantification of bio medical waste generation in hospital was analyzed to assess the bio medical waste management practices including segregation, collection, transportation, storage, treatment and final disposal as per bio medical waste management and handling rules, 1998 and amended. The studies were carried out from 01 May 2017 to 31 May 2017 to assess the quantities and proportions amount of non-infectious and infectious waste generated in different wards and their handling, treatment and disposal methods. The results are described under quantification of solid waste. The average total waste generated per day 697.136 kg and average total waste generated per day per bed 1.117 kg. Study of bio medical waste management in hospital, it was found that still more proper care should be taken for segregation of wastes and wastes should be placed as per colour coding provided in bio medical waste management and handling rules, 1998 and its amended, which is helpful to minimize adverse effect to environment from bio medical waste. Keywords - health care unit, rules, bio medical waste, infectious, segregation, implementation, label, treatment, incineration, landfill 1.0 Introduction According to Bio Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 of India, “Any solid or liquid waste including its container and any intermediate product, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals” is bio medical waste[01]. Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


A. N. Modi & N. K. Swami repackaging and resale of contaminated needles, disrupts cycles of infection and avoid negative long term health effects like cancer, from the environmental release of toxic substances such as dioxin, mercury and others[04].

management of bio medical waste is segregation and identification of the waste. The most appropriate way of identifying the categories of bio medical waste is by sorting the waste based on colour. This has to be segregated into containers or bags at the point of generation in accordance with Schedule II[01] of Bio Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 as given in below Table 2[01].

2.0 Materials and Methods The present study was carried out in Mahatma Gandhi Hospital at Jodhpur city. Geographical area of Jodhpur is 22,850 Km2. The district stretches between 26°29’ to 27°37’ at North Latitude and between 72°55’ to 73°52’ at East Longitude. Jodhpur is the second largest city in the state of Rajasthan. The city’s population and density by the census of 2011 is 1,033,918 and 13,000 / Km2 respectively. Mahatma Gandhi Hospital is situated at Jalori Gate, Jodhpur. At present it has two storied building with bed capacity of 624 and offers a variety of specialty treatments, which are further supported by the Telemedicine Centre that allow doctors to connect with district hospitals and primary health centres. The departments of this hospital are given in below Table 1.

Table 2 - Colour coding bio medical waste (management and handling) rules, 1998 (Schedule II) Colour Coding

Type of Containers

Waste Category

Treatment as per Schedule I


Plastic bag


Incineration / deep burial


Disinfected Container / Plastic bag


Autoclaving / Micro waving / Chemical Treatment


Plastic bag / puncture proof container


Autoclaving / Micro waving


Plastic bag


(Solid) Disposal in secured landfill


Puncture Proof Container


Chemical Treatment and Destruction / Shredding

Table 1 - Departments of Mahatma Gandhi Hospital Sr. no



General Medicine


General Surgery






Operation Theatres


Forensic Medicine


Intensive Care Unit


Coronary Care Unit


Biochemistry Laboratory


Orthopaedics and Neurology


Haemodialysis and Anaesthesia


Pathology and Microbiology Laboratory

Bio medical waste storage is basically done in the areas and steps between the point of waste generation and location of waste treatment and disposal. Different types of containers are used for collection of waste. Bags or container of five colours (yellow, red, blue, black and translucent) was issued to all wards and department. Sharp waste was collected in separately in small container made of cardboard or plastic and after that collected in translucent bags. Once collection has done, then bio medical waste is stored in an appropriate place. The period of storage is not more than 8-10 hours in the hospital. Each container or bin is labelled to show the ward or room where it is kept. The reason for this labelling is that it may be required to trace the waste back to its source. Transportation of bio medical wastes is done by carts and containers that are not used for any other function. Wastes are collected daily and transported to the designated central storage site.

I have visited all wards and department regularly at the waste collection time along with care taker of hospital to collect all information related to bio medical waste. The quantity of solid waste generated from different sources in the hospital was weighted separately of each bag. The waste from each sources were segregated in five colour bags and weighted separately for classification in infectious waste, plastic waste, food waste, office waste and sharp waste. The key to minimization and effective Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


A. N. Modi & N. K. Swami Transportation of waste within the establishment utilizes wheeled trolleys that are dedicated solely for the purpose. All workers transporting the waste are equipped with appropriate personnel protective equipment including heavy duty gloves, coveralls thick soled boots and leg protectors. After storage, the transport of bio medical waste is being done by Sales Promoters. The waste in the closed transport arrangement is carried to Common Bio Medical Waste Treatment Facilities (CBWTF) located at Nagar Nigam Land Fill Site, Jaisalmer Road, Keru at distance of 28 km from Jodhpur which is an isolated place. Final treatment of bio medical waste is done by technologies like incineration, autoclave and shredder at Common Bio Medical Waste Treatment Facilities. Bio medical waste categories and their disposal methods is accordance with Schedule I [01] of Bio Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 as given in below Table 3[01]. Table 3 - Waste categories, treatment and disposal methods bio medical waste (management and handling) rules, 1998 (Schedule I) Option

Treatment & Disposal

Waste Category

Cat. No. 1

Incineration / deep burial

Human Anatomical Waste

Cat. No. 2

Incineration / deep burial

Animal Waste

Cat. No. 3

Local Microbiology & autoclaving / Biotechnology waste microwaving / incineration

Cat. No. 4

Disinfections (chemical treatment / autoclaving / microwaving & mutilation shredding )

Waste Sharps

Cat. No. 5

Incineration / destruction & drugs disposal in secured landfills

Discarded Medicines and Cytotoxic drugs

Cat. No. 6

Incineration, autoclaving / microwaving

Solid Waste (Items contaminated with blood and body fluids)

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

Cat. No. 7

Disinfections by chemical treatment autoclaving / microwaving & mutilation shredding.

Solid Waste (waste generated from disposable items )

Cat. No. 8

Disinfections by chemical treatment and discharge into drain

Liquid Waste

Cat. No. 9

Disposal in municipal landfill

Incineration Ash

Cat. No. 10

Chemical treatment & discharge into drain for liquid & secured landfill for solids

Chemical Waste

The quantity of different categories of waste generated in Mahatma Gandhi Hospital was weighed separately at the source of generation. The data regarding total bio medical waste generated as per colour coding was collected on a daily basis from 01 May 2017 to 31 May 2017 and analyzed. The waste quantities are estimated by assuming 100% bed occupancy in the hospital. The waste from each sources were segregated in five colour bags and weighted separately for classification in infectious waste, plastic waste, food waste, office waste and sharp waste. The quantities generated vary from hospital to hospital and depend on the type of health care facility and local economic conditions. Final treatment of bio medical waste is done at Common Bio Medical Waste Treatment Facilities (CBWTF), Keru, Jodhpur. Infectious waste was treated via incineration. Double chamber incinerator installed at plant. The benefits of controlled incineration of infectious wastes include volume reduction and the removal of pathogenic risk, as long as the system operates correctly. After incineration, the final waste is deposited in a site and they are taken by the vehicle of the municipality for the landfill. However, plastic waste is treated via shredder and sharp waste is disposed in sharp pit. Non-infectious waste such as food and office waste is discarded directly in a sanitary landfill of the city of Jodhpur. 3.0 Results and Discussion The survey result show as in Table 4 that the 19

A. N. Modi & N. K. Swami average amount of waste generated per day in the hospital is Total waste collected 697.136 kg/day, Infectious waste 213.880 kg/day, Plastic waste 59.010 kg/day, Food waste 279.008 kg/day, Office waste 139.490 kg/day and Sharp waste contains 5.748 kg/day. The averages of bio medical waste in yellow, red, blue, black and translucent colour category were analyzed using the following formula :The bio medical waste generated per day per bed = Bio medical waste generated per day / Bed strength per day Bio medical waste generated average total waste 1.117 kg per day per bed. The average values of bio medical waste generated per day are presented in Table 4 and Figure 1.

Fig. 1 - Different types of bio medical waste generated in Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jodhpur per day (Average)

200 280 260 240



Table 4 - Different types of bio medical waste generated in Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jodhpur per day (Average) Day

C 279.008

A 213.880

200 180 160

D 139.490

140 120

Infectious Waste (Kg)

Plastic Waste (Kg)

Food Waste (Kg)

Office Waste (Kg)

Sharp Waste (Kg)

03 May






07 May






09 May






11 May







15 May






17 May







19 May






23 May






21 May







25 May







27 May







29 May






31 May












80 60

B 59.010

E 5.478



the environment. If people coming to hospitals come in contact with this waste, they will get infected. It was noticed that during waste collection time on the majority of the places, coloured bins were placed properly but some places in the hospital, only one, two or sometimes three coloured bins were there. This is due to lack of awareness. For proper segregation process there should be bio medical waste label on waste carry bags and waste carry trolley and also poster has to be put on the wall adjacent to the bins (waste) giving details about the type of waste that has to dispose in the baggage as per bio medical waste management rule. Bio Medical Waste Management programme cannot successfully be implemented without the

4.0 Conclusion Jodhpur is fast developing into health care centre of Rajasthan. The number of hospitals, nursing homes and clinics are increasing day by day as compared to other districts of Rajasthan. In Jodhpur city there are many private, government hospitals and laboratories. They generate bio medical hazardous waste every day. The need of bio medical waste management is very important because there are several types of harmful microbial active agents present in it. This waste is very hazardous, sensitive and harmful to Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018



A. N. Modi & N. K. Swami willingness, devotion, self motivation, cooperation and participation of all sections of employees. Bio medical waste is an urgent problem to be solved to safeguard the environment. By better planning and management, not only waste generated can be reduced, but also even all expenditure on waste management can be controlled. Safe and effective management of bio medical waste is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. The possible reasons for poor implementation could be a combination of social, technical, institutional and financial issues. Public awareness, political will and public participation is essential for the successful implementation of the legal provisions and to have an integrated approach towards sustainable management of bio medical waste management in the Jodhpur city.




5.0 Bibliography 1. The Bio Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 & its amendment, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India. 2. Glenn, Mc.R & Garwal, R. Clinical waste in

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018




Developing Countries. An analysis with a Case Study of India and a Critique of the Basle TWG Guidelines, 1999. Praveen Mathur, Sangeeta Patan and Anand S. Shobhawat. Need of Bio Medical Waste Management System in Hospitals - An Emerging issue - A Review. Department of Environmental Science, MDS University, Ajmer, India, 2012. Dr. Manika Barar, Arpita Kulkhestha. A Review Bio Medical Waste Management : Need of Today; Department of Chemistry, SIMT College, Meerut, India, International Journal of Science and Research, 2013. Gayathri VP, Kamala Pokhrel. Bio medical solid waste management in an Indian hospital : A case study of waste management; Institute of Pharmacy, Bundel khand University, Jhansi, India, 25, P.P. 592 - 599, 2005. Hospital Waste - A Major Problem : Dr. Mukesh Yadav, M D. Department of Forensic Medicine ACOMS, Sidhra, Jammu. Indian Journal Environmental Health, 2001

BF Ironmaking

Direct Reduction

Mining & Mineral Processing EAF Steelmaking


Rolling Mills

BOF Steelmaking

Infrastructure IT Services

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

Power Plant


Kinetics and sorption equilibrium studies of Trivalent Chromium removal from aqueous solution using Calcite

few elements C, N, O, S, Fe and Mn are predominant participants in redox processes. Cr (VI) can easily penetrate the cell wall and exerts its noxious influence in the cell itself, being also a source of various cancer diseases. At short term exposure levels above maximum contaminant level, Cr (VI) causes skin and stomach irritation or ulceration. Long term exposure at levels above maximum contaminant level causes dermatitis, damage to liver, kidney circulation, nerve tissue damage, and even death in large doses.[3] The project is carried out with following objectivise. 1. Determination of sorption capacity of calcite. 2. Determination of equilibrium constant for Freundlich isotherm.

Prof. SHASHIKANT. R. MISE Prof. Department of Civil Engineering, Poojya Doddappa Appa College of Engineering, Gulbarga-585102 Karnataka, India.Email:[email protected]

Dr. T. Appareddy Prof, Department of Civil Engineering, Andhra university, Visakhapatnam 530003


ABSTRACT The present study deals with removal of trivalent chromium from aqueous solution using lignite coal. In adsorption solute present in dilute concentration in liquid phase is removed by contacting with suitable solid adsorbent so that the transfer of component first takes place on the surface of the solid. The kinetics of trivalent chromium removal was performed at room temperature at different time interval of adsorption by calcite. Sorptive capacity of calcite for Cr(III) is 1.62mg/g at pH 4.0 The adsorption process obeys Freundlich isotherm as observed form the value of 1/n and n.


Adsorbent The material used in this research study is calcite as an adsorbent. For removal of trivalent chromium from aqueous solution, adsorption technique was employed using calcite.[4] III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Kinetics of calcite: Plot of ln[1-u(t)]versus time is prepared using the sorption kinetic data and is presented in the figure 1. From the first order kinetic fit of removal data for Cr(III) on calcite, it may be noted that the straight line portions , when extended do not pass through the origin, indicating an initial lower rate of Cr(III) uptake during the first few minutes. This is probably due to the dissolution and crystallization of chromium (III) with the carbonate ions.[5] The rate of removal of chromium (III) by calcite indicates distinct stages as shown in the figure 2. The first stage is accomplished at high rate of uptake followed by a slower and still slower rate of uptakes of chromium (III) by calcite.

Keyword : Sorption, Kinetics, Cr(III), calcite, equilibrium. I.

INTRODUCTION The scope of interest in this present study is to use calcite as an alternate adsorbent in removal of chromium (III). The calcite is available locally at Shahabad Gulbarga Dist Karnataka state ( India) abundantly. The interest to choose this is that it has not being used as adsorbent in any other studies for the removal of Cr (III).[1] Chromium is a common pollutant introduced into fresh water due to discharge of variety of industrial wastewater. Chromium is considered as one of the top 16th toxic pollutants and because of its carcinogenic and teratogenic characteristics on the public, it has become a serious health concern. According to World Health Organization (W.H.O) drinking water guidelines, the maximum allowable limit for total chromium is 0.05mg/L.[2] Cr(VI) are used for chrome plating industries, dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving industries. Cr (VI) is mobile in environment and is highly toxic. Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is reduced to trivalent chromium Cr (III) under reducing conditions in acid media. A Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

0.9 0.8



0.6 0.5

0.4 0.3

▲ ■ ◆

■ ◆

▲ ■ ◆



0.2 0.1 0




y = -0.118x + 0.526 ◆ 2mg/L R2 = 0.909 y = -0.155x + 0.761 ■ 7mg/L R2 = 0.916 y = -0.192x + 1.036 ▲ 10mg/L R2 = 0.975

▲ ■ ◆ 5


Time in Hrs

Fig.1 First order reversible kinetic fit of Cr(III) sorption on calcite. 23

7 6

Instanteneous sorption

gas molecules (Fripiapp et al., 1971) and for trace level exchange of ions with soil colloids ( Sposito, 1980). This due to fact that majority of the sorption processes do not comply with the first assumption on which the Langmuir equation is based. A complete monolayer is not usually formed in the sorption of solute from the solution. [6]

Calcite:6gm/L Temp: 28±2p C pH: 4±0.2 Cr(III) Conc: 2-10mg/L

⏐ ↓

5 Gradual sorption


⏐ ↓

3 2

2 mg/L Final Equilibrium

5 mg/L 10 mg/L

⏐ ↓

Cr(III) remening in solution (mg/L)

Shashikant. R. Mise & T. Appareddy



Where [X/M]e= Weight of Cr(III) sorbed /unit wt of sorbent Ce= concentration of Cr(III) remaining at equilibrium and K and n = Constants to be determined experimentally.

0 0





Time (hrs)1/2

Fig 2. Distinct stages of Cr(III) sorption on calcite.

Data is usually fitted to the logarithmic form of the equation

From the graph it is observed that as time increases concentration of sorbate in the solution decreases and attains equilibrium after 1.44 hrs for all the concentrations studied. Sorptive capacity of calcite for Cr(III) removal from solution under the present experimental condition is presented in table 1.

log[X/M]e= logK+1/n log Ce Which gives a straight with a slope of ‘1/n’ and an intercept equal to the value of log K for Ce=1 (Log Ce=0). The intercept ‘K’ is roughly an indicator of the strength of sorption,or sorption capacity, and is an indicator of sorption intensity, i.e., whether sorption remains proportional to concentration (n=1) or changes with increasing sorbate concentration (n ≠ 1). Experimental results for the equilibrium studies of sorption of Cr(III) on calcite are presented

Table 1. Sorptive capacity of calcite for Cr(III) Sorbent

Ultimate sorption capacity mg/g

calcite for Cr(III) at pH 4.0


C(III) Sorbed (mg/g)

2 1.5 1

2mg/L to 14mg/L

0.5 0 0





Equilibrium Concentration (mg/L)

Fig 3. Saturation curve for Cr(III) sorption on calcite.

Freundlich Isotherm The Freundlich isotherm is a special case for heterogeneous surface energies in which the energy term, b, in the langmuir equation varies as a function of surface coverage X/M strictly due to variation in heat of sorption (Adamson,1967). Through the Freundlich equation was often refer to, in the past as strictly empirical, Regorous derivation of Freundlich equation on theoretical basis are now to be found in the literature for both adsorption of Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

Temp:28±2p C pH: 4.0±0.2 Dosage: 6g/L Time: 24Hrs Cr(III) Conc: 2mg/L-14mg/L


Sorption Equilibrium: There is no simple method to determine the amount of sorbate that a sorbent can retain before saturation. Probably, the best is the sorption isotherm, which describes the relationship between the quantity of sorbate held by the sorbent and that remaining in the solution at equilibrium. Giles et al., (1960), investigate the relation between solute sorption mechanism on solid surfaces and the type of sorption isotherms obtained. The concentration dependence of sorption isotherm often confirms to one of the Langmuir, Freundlich or B.E.T equations.

in fig 3. From the figure 3 it is observed that in the beginning as the equilibrium concentration increases Cr(III) sorbed increases with a very high rate. Further as the equilibrium concentration increases Cr(III) sorption decreases and attains equilibrium. The Freundlich isotherm constants for Cr(III) sorption are as shown in table 2. 24

Shashikant. R. Mise & T. Appareddy Table 2. Constants of the Freunlich isotherm for Cr(III) sorption Sorbent

Slope(1/n) (1/g)

Intercept (log e K)

Constant n

Constant K






From table the value of 1/n <1 which shows bond increases with surface density and n>1 is favourable adsorption condition for Freundlich isotherm.

VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Kannan N., and Vanangamudi, A., (1991),”A study on removal of chromium (VI) by adsorption on lignite coal”, Indian J.Environ. Prot.,11(4), 241-5. 2. Hayes ,R.B.,(1982), “ Carcinogenic effects of chromium “, Top. Environ. Health, 5,p 221. 3. Flora, S.D., et., (1997), “estimates of chromium (VI) reducing capacity in human body compartments as a mechanism for attenuating its potential toxicity and carcinogenecity”, carcinogenesis, 18(3),531-537. 4. Voznaya, N.F., (1983), “Chemistry of water and microbiology”, Mir Publishers, Moscow. 5. Nishimura, & Motoshi.,(1984) “ Treatment of Chrome plating wastewater by lignite” PPM, 15(4), 48-55, (Japanese). 6. Sposito,G., (1980), “Derivation of the Freundlich equation for ion-exchange reactions in soils”, Soil. Sci. Sec. Am. J., 44, p. 652.

IV. CONCLUSION 1. Sorptive capacity of calcite for Cr(III) is 1.62mg/ g at pH 4.0 2. The adsorption process obeys Freundlich isotherm as observed form the value of 1/n and n. V.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am thankful to principal P.D.A. college of engineering, H.O.D. Civil engineering department for providing laboratory facility. I am very much thankful to Dr. B. Kotaih prof and head civil department SVU Tirupati for valuable guidance. I am also thankful to H.O.D Civil engineering department Andhra university, Visakhapatnam.

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018



August 2014 4 and Centre for Science and Environment, 20145) goes untapped only to reach the rivers to keep them significantly polluted in spite of even the best possible available wastewatertreatment (with or without foreign-aided expertise, as per the Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed., 21st August 2014 6 ) given to the remaining tapped wastewaters constituting around 45% of the city’s total generated wastewaters. On the other hand, Indian farmers most often face drought like situations, a major cause for numerous farmers suicides in India (Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed., 12th October 2015 7, Hindustan, Lucknow ed., 20th October 2015 8, india/india-newsindia/odisha-farmer-suicides-onthe-rise-cops-to-keep-watch-on-moneylenders/), 9 only to be deprived of their water-needs for irrigation of their crops together with the nonavailability of natural organic manure needed for the present craze for high profit giving organic-food grown only through organic-farming such that even the life convicts are trained in organic farming in jails (Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed., 29th June 201510). The objective of this Comment is to add value to this paper by presenting herein a solution to India’s twin problems of persisting river pollution and continues rising farmers’ suicides during draught periods with demand for organic manure together in a symbiosis manner as well as the continued groundwater pollution mainly due to lack of sewerage system in areas where the wastewater goes untapped apart from the menace of toxicants entering the waters resources from small homely-industrial activities such as plating rampantly active in some areas of even Delhi amongst many other Indian cities.

Prof. (Er) Dr. Devendra Swaroop Bhargava former Environmental Enginering Professor of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Abstract In Indian context and situations, the rivers are unabatedly getting severely polluted due to unscientific handling of river pollution control strategies. On one hand, the farmers do not get irrigation waters specially during draught times when many Indian farmers are forced to commit suicide, while on the other hand, lot of organicmanure containing wastewaters are wasted on reaching the rivers and lakes only to render their waters unsuitable for human consumption apart from causing deaths of lakes due to eutrophication of their waters. Scientific strategies are presented to address and solve both the problems in a symbiosis manner as also to eliminate the presently dominating indulgence and menace of pseudoenvironmentalists for taking decisions (regarding the technologically oriented strategies of water-quality management) which had been the most significant reasons for the failure of the many river quality control programmestrategies in India. Introduction : Despite the 3 to 4 decades of very intensive governmental efforts at all possible levels, the Ganga and other Indian rivers remain unclean (thanks to the dominance, especially during the decision making stages, of the pseudo environmentalists having zero knowledge of hydraulics, the science and technology of water-flow) as also commented by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India after seeing the action plan that the Ganga cannot be cleaned even after 200 years (Hindustan Times, Lucknow ed., 12th July 20141 and Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed., 04th September 2014 2 ). This is because the wastewaters generated from slums, unsewered poor-areas, etc., constituting around 55% of total generated wastewaters in cities adjoining rivers (according to a 2013 estimate, by the Central Pollution Control Board New Delhi, only about 45% of the 11 billion litres of sewage that flows into the river Ganga river from 181 towns/ cities along the river is treated, vide Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed., 19th August 2014 3 , 23rd Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

The Menace of Green-Revolution in India Contrarily, the Indian farmers have lately been forced to use artificial fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, etc. as part of the MS Swaminathan advocated ‘green revolution’ strategies (Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed., 28th April 2015 11 ) which revolution unfortunately proved to be the greatest bane (rather than the highly advocated boon) in India because instead of adding these chemicals in calculated, controlled and properly supervised amounts, the mostly illiterate farmers, (Bhargava 2010 12 , 2014b 13 , Chauhan & Bhargava 2011 14 ) unaware of scientific/envionmental implications and related effects, indiscriminately used much higher than scientifically needed dose/use of these chemicals in the business-like greed for bumper crop yields of bigger vegetable-fruit sizes with zero damage by the insects and pests. Unlike humans, the plants and animals never over-feed themselves and likewise, the insecticides/pesticides remain 26

D. S. Bhargava unused after the killing of all insects/pests as a result of which, the excess unused chemical fertilizers, insecticides (Hindustan, Dehradun ed., 1st April 201515) and pesticides (Hindustan Times, Dehradun 4th August 201516, 3rd October 201517) stay on the fields only to enter the various Indian water resources with rain-water and irrigation run-offs thereby turning the various water resources contaminated with toxicants apart from causing the menace of eutrophication ( terms/eutrophication.htm, lake-facts/water-quality/) 18 that seriously got initiated in Indian lakes (Bhargava 2014c)19 and ponds (resulting in their conversion as marsh-lands and ultimately the death of such lakes and ponds), thus also accelerating a situation when there will be water and water all-around but not a drop of it will be fit enough to drink. May the God help as the Indian governmentis contemplating a ‘super green revolution’ (Hindustan Times, 71 Lucknow ed., 22nd September 201420, Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed., 29th June 201521) ?

only to be reclaimed for various land-uses thus causing the death of the lake. Almost all Indian lakes have already become victims of this eutrophication to a lesser or greater extent and for all this, one can blame none other than the adoptionadvocators of the Indian ‘green-revolution’ without giving any thoughts to the resulting environmental implications due to the extremely high dominance of pseudoenvironmentalists in the decision-making on environmental issues. Pitiable fate of India’s water resources The stated entry of insecticides/pesticides in the various water resources have caused their concentration beyond their permissible levels only to render such water-resources unsuitable for drinking supporting the famous quote “waterwater everywhere but not a drop to drink”. The greenrevolution, in Indian context, is again solely responsible for this biggest environmental disaster and on top of this; the Indian government is seriously considering to implement a ‘super green-revolution’ in India perhaps another super-107 disaster in the making by the dominant and trusted pseudoenvironmentalist(s). Another scientist of India (whose organization shared a climate-related Nobelprize) was at least honest enough to have admitted to some mistakes in global-warming assessments ( report/article93653.ece)22 and yet another topmost positioned Indian scientist committed plagiarism ( plagiarism-detectionblog/bid/79335/Science-Advisorto-India-s-Prime-Minister-Connected-toPlagiarism#.VjUqb9KrSt8)23 despite which he got honored with the highest Indian honor, the “BharatRatna”. India’s ministry of environment, the administrative and decision making national body/ authority is full of pseudo (something or someone fake trying to pass as the real thing – a fraud or imposter, vide pseudo) 24-environmentalists (Bhargava 1992 25 , 1995a 26 , 1995b 27, 199628) and considers the real environmental engineers as virus and out-castes which fact is well manifested by the failure of environmental projects including the various Ganga-action-plans (Bhargava 199225, 200929, 201012, 2014a30, 2014b13, whats-thedifference-between-science-and-pseudoscience/)31 executed for the cleaning of Ganga,one of the world’s dirtiest river, vide a report published in International journal Nature saying that pollution level in this river was about 3000 times of the safelimit prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for human use (Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed., 15th August 201432).

Eutrophication, the major cause of death of Indian lakes The stated uncontrolled entry of huge amounts of chemical fertilizers into the lakes in the presence of carbon-dioxide generated from bacterial activities and sunlight encourages heavy growths of algae, the ‘algal-blooms’, generating huge amounts of oxygen from the photosynthesis process. This released oxygen is consumed by the aerobes while destabilizing the organic matter only to give out carbon-dioxide needed by the algae manifesting a ‘bio-algal-symbiosis’. The severe algal blooms soon deplete all the nutrients resulting in algal deaths. The dead algae, unable to float, settle to reach the lake-bottom where it starts getting stabilized first aerobically and soon thereafter anaerobically to release nutrients and some foul-smelling gases apart from leaving some inert-fibrous like material as residual leftover. These nutrients get diffused to reach the lake-top to again start algal synthesis due to the availability of carbon-dioxide and sunlight. This cycle keeps repeating and the once started process described as eutrophication would never end such that the leftover inert fibrous material keeps building up in the lake bottom only to reduce the effective depth of the lake. This phenomenon was also detected some 5 decades ago in the famous ‘Dal’ lake in Jammu and Kaashmeer state of India when a foreign tourist took his last dive into the lake from his ‘house-boat’ (a kind of mini-hotel on the lake) only to be entangled into the said heavily accumulated inert fibrous material. In due course of time, such lakes get converted into marsh-lands Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


D. S. Bhargava Scientifically Managing the unsolved problem Unlike the European and American cities, Indian rivers are worshipped and their waters are directly inhaled, for religious rites, as Aachman. Thus, the Indian rivers must necessarily have a very good water-quality fit enough to drink directly and this is possible only when not a drop of any wastewater is allowed to enter the river. This is easily possible by creating a barrier between the river and the city through the construction of a damlike structure or a retaining wall on either or both sides of the river depending on the development pattern of the city. Between the stated dam and the city, a covered-canal (or huge sewers) can be constructed to tap all the wastewater generated in the city and carry it to some 2 or 3 km downstream of the city where part of the manure-rich wastewater can be pumped to farms during drought periods and/or normal times enabling the farmers to produce organic-food-crops as per the expensive fashion oriented organic farming giving more profits to the farmers (who will therefore, even gladly pay for the pumped wastewater) apart from preventing their suicides which had been a great menace presently. The remaining wastewater can be given a zerotreatment or only primary-treatment or a full primary-cum-secondary treatment before its disposal into the river depending on the finances available with the government as also the river will purify before reaching the next downstream city and this purification can be effected in very short distances in Ganga river which is famous for its extremely high (15 to 25 times compared to many other rivers) self-purification abilities. The dam-like structure can architecturally be developed into beautiful river-fronts and picnic-spots for the citydwellers with well designed bathing-ghats such that the different architectural styles would identify the various cities along a river. Such a dam can be constructed most economically through shramdaan by citizens/party-workers, karsevaks, retired engineers/technicians/etc. and funded by the numerous religious organizations/akharas/richpeople/public-donations/etc. and the construction can be highly accelerated by employing the stated labor in huge numbers enabling the completion in a few months only. Also, all these problems of rivers getting polluted with unwanted sewage originating from domestic water-use and the farmers not getting the rain-water due to unwanted drought while also starving for organic natural manure available abundantly in sewage are thus, a mere management crisis and easily remedied in just one-stroke as above stated. The separate-sewerage system, suitable for Indian situations where rainfall is concentrated only for less than three months in a Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

year, can collect only sewage, the wastewater coming from toilets/urinals only while the rest wastewaters and some sewage from unsewered areas, the so called ‘sullage’, flowing through open preferably covered drain/canal constructed parallel to the river can directly go into river’s downstream city side (Bhargava 199225, 200929, 201012, 1995a26, 2014b 13) while also trapping some unorganized wastewaters coming from unsewered and slum areas. The industrial complexes can have their own integrated system for segregation, reuse, re-cycle, treatment and disposal of their varying kinds of wastes. The sewage can thus be pumped for sale, at various points, to the farmers and as an alternative, the entire sewage or the left over sewage after its sale to the farmers can be led to a point some 2 or 3 km downstream of the city stretch of the river for giving it either zero-treatment or partial-treatment or full-treatment before its disposal into the river depending on the finances available with the municipal corporation of the city as above stated. The river thus polluted would naturally get selfpurified before its arrival at the next urban downstream town. This strategy would, for sure, eliminate the need of pseudo-environmentalists who had been taking technological decisions on waterpollution control in India for the last 3 to 4 decades as also 181 any need for a ‘super green revolution’. Constrution Works Keeping regard of the Indian economic situations, the construction works related to the above works can be managed freely through donations from the various religious, NGOs and social organizations connected with Ganga affairswho would gladly come forward to donate the required construction materials and the constructional design, supervision, etc. can comfortably be managed through service donation (service without claiming any money or rewards) by the various retired construction engineers and technicians. The Indian laborers and the sevaks (servants of the various religious and other organisations) can freely and abundantly be available in India to carry out the project-work in desired time-schedule. Conclusion Thus, the farmers would get irrigation water during the draught periods as well and that too with organic manure material which would eliminate the possibility of their suicides, while at the same time, the city stretches of the rivers would not get polluted and remain well protected and pollution free enabling the citizens to visit river sites for pleasure 28

D. S. Bhargava and aesthetic view. To summarize, the presented strategy would ensure (1) prevent river pollution in a fool-proof manner and permanently forever, (2) safe and economical disposal of the city;s wastewaters, (3) prevent water pollution from toxicants, (4) prevent the frequent suicides by farmers, (5) provide natural manure to the farmers for high profit-giving organic farming, (6) prevent groundwater pollution and eutrophication of lakes, (7) provide almost a free pollution control of Indian rivers, (8) provide a very quick and fast control of river pollution, (9) prevent the entry of toxic wastes into the rivers and various other water resources as the various industrial complexes would have their own self-sustaining segregation and management of the varying kinds of wastes generated within their complexes, (10) provide a beautiful picnic cum recreation spot to the citydwellers along the river front of the city as a tourist attraction, (11) all free of costs.

organic farming, p.7. 11. Hindustan Times, Lucknow ed, (28th April 2015), M S Swaminathan : “Country of Green Revolution in Deep Agrarian crisis”, p.7. 12. Bhargava, D.S.(2010), “Restoring the Pristine Waters of the Ganga River,”World Water (Formerly World Water & Environmental Engineering), of Water Environment Federation, USA, 33 (2): 28-31. 13. Bhargava, D.S.(2014b), “Editorial on Most severely polluted Ganga, India’s national river, will remain a gold-egg giving goose,” Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 34 (10): viii (editorial page). 14. Chauhan, S.N. and Bhargava, D.S.(2011), “Environmental Strategies for Rural India,” presented as an Invited talk at the National Conference on Management of Technologies for Advancing Rural India, organized by the S.D. College of Engineering & Technology, Muzaffarnagar, and S.D. College of Management Studies, Muzaffarnagar during February 5 and 6, 2011, vide,Conf. Proc.: 3-9.

References 1. Hindustan Times, Lucknow ed.,(12th July 2014), ‘Clean Ganga’ plan by IITs gathering dust’, p.2. 2.

Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed. (4th September 2014), SC Raps Govt. : “Device plan to restore Ganga within 3 weeks”, p.7.


Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed. (19th August 2014), Super body headed by PM to drive Mission Ganga, p.4.


Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed. (23rd August 2014), Ganga cleaning takes off, toxin sensors to keep tabs, beep alerts, p.9


Centre for Science and Environment (2014), The River, its pollution and what we can do to clean it, 41, Tughlakabad Institutional Area, New Delhi, 110062, p.9,


Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed. (21st August 2014), Govt sets 3-year target to rejuvenate ganga as Australia experts help, p.6.


Hindustan Times city, Dehradun ed. (12th October 2 211 015), Deepika to now help distressed farmers, p.1.


Hindustan, Lucknow ed. (20th October2015), mantriyon ko kisano ki atmahatya ki khabar nahin (The ministry not aware of farmers’ death), p.4.


timestp:// suicides-on-the-risecops-to-keep-watch-on-moneylenders/

15. Hindustan, Dehradun ed. (1st April 2015), Pita Banne ki khushi cheen lenge keetnashak (Insecticides will snatch hopeful fatherhood), p.14. 16. Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed. (4th August 2015), No pesticide spraying while flyers are on board : NGT to centre, p.9. 17. Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed. (3rd October 2015), 12.5% Food items have unapproved pesticides : Test, p.4. 18. Eutrophication – Wikipedia, the free 239 encyclopedia, eutrophication.Hindustan timesm, Eutrophication – Jeremy Mack – Miami University, 19. Bhargava, D.S.(2014c), “Pollution Control Strategies Appropriate for Rajasthan Lakes,” Invited presented at the 26th to 27th April 2014 National Conference on Energy and Environmental Engineering (NCEEE-2014) organized by the Manda Institute of Technology, Raisar, NH-11, Jaipur Road, Bikaner, 1st page in the Seminar Souveir p.3, Full paper in Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 35 (6): 505-513. 20. Hindustan Times, Lucknow ed. (22nd September 2014), “Second green revolution will bring prosperity to east UP”, p.5.

10. Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed. (29th June 2015), “Good” Tihar Life Convicts to train in Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


D. S. Bhargava 21. Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed. (29th June 2015), “Good” Tihar Life Convicts to train in organic farming, p.7.

Environmental Education” included in April 1719, 1996, First International Conference on Environmental Engineering Education and Training, organized by Wessex Institute of Technology, U.K., held at Ashurst Lodge, Ashurst, Southamptom, SO407AA, U.K., also published in Journal of the Institution of Public Health Engineers, India, 1999 (4):38-42

22. report/article93653.ece 23.

29. Bhargava, D.S.(2009), “Technological Challenges in Environmental Control for National Growth ,” an invited paper presented as special lecture on 13th December 2009 in the Valedictory session of the 24th Indian Engineering Congress organized by the Institution of Engineers (India) and held at the National Institute of Technology, Surathkal during December 10-13, 2009, vide the Abstract in the Congress Souvenir, pp last, and full paper text in Our Earth (a quarterly publication devoted to ecology and environment management), 8 (4): pp.7-10.

24. 25. Bhargava, D.S.(1992), “Why the Ganga (Ganges) Could Not Be Cleaned”, Environmental Conservation, Switzerland, 19 (2): 170-172. 26. Bhargava, D.S.(1995a), “Environmental Engineering and the Menace of Pseudoenvironmentalists,” Guest Comment (Editorial), Environmental Conservation, Geneva, Switzerland, 22 (2): 5-6. 27. Bhargava, D.S.(1995b), “Pseudo Environmentalists 263 as the Menace to National Development and Society’s Awareness,” presented at the November 10-11, 1995, XIth National Convention of Environmental Engineers & Seminar on Environmental Control Technology - Advances, Law and Awareness to Curb Pseudoism, organized by the Institution of Engineers, India, held at Roorkee Local Centre, Roorkee, India, Proc. : 21-27. 28. Bhargava,



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30. Bhargava, D.S.(2014a), “Editorial on A sustainable foolproof pollution control for Ganga and all other rivers,” Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 34 (5): viii (editorial page). 31. and-pseudo-science/ 32. Hindustan Times, Dehradun ed. (15th August 2014), Cleaning one of the world’s dirtiest rivers tough, despite govt efforts, p.11



Treatment of fishery wastewater using aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor

water requirements are met by the use of sea water(Adav et al. 2008; Figueroa et al. 2008). This wastewater is rich in nutrients and various pollutants and moreover disposal of the untreated seafood wastewater, lead to eutrophication and significant negative impact to the surrounding environment(Gonzalez 1996). Hence, it is extremely necessary to treat properly to comply the discharge standards set by the regulatory agencies. Activated Sludge Process is a commonly adopted treatment method, in which activated sludge reacts with substrate to remove pollutants from wastewater and higher salinity leads to performance failure(Figueroa et al. 2008). Granular sludge is one of the recent advancement in the treatment of wastewater and within those aerobic granules poses more advantages over anaerobic based granules. It can be termed as the granules containing active microorganisms with not only limited to microbial origin (Cassidy and Belia 2005; de Kreuk and de Bruin 2004; Ni et al. 2014; Su and Yu 2005; Williams and de los Reyes 2006; Yang et al. 2008).The Recent literature survey shows that aerobic granules exhibit great tolerance against various complicated wastewater (Arne Alphenaar et al. 1993; Schwarzenbeck et al. 2004, 2005) and the use of Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) greatly reduces the land requirement. This research work focuses on by combining both technologies, to develop an effective treatment process within minimum space requirement and Chlamydospores of strain HSD was used as an accelerating agent to accelerate up the process of granulation (Hailei et al. 2011).

Mohamed Usman T.M Department of Civil Engineering Regional Campus at Tirunelveli, Anna University

Thirumal. J Department of Civil Engineering Regional Campus at Tirunelveli, Anna University

Venkatesan. G Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering Tiruchirapalli (BIT campus), Anna University, Tiruchirapalli

Abstract Exporting seafood is one of the most important business worldwide, which brings forth a tremendous amount of wastewater at the end of its process. Utilization of sea water as a primary resource for its process make the wastewater rich in salinity, thus leads to performance failure in the treatment of wastewater using activated sludge process. Various researches on aerobic granules reported that it has advantages like quick settlingability, treatability against salinity as well as tolerance to toxic substances. This work particularly focussed on treating the fishery wastewater by forming aerobic granules in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for improving process performance and achieving good treatability with rifling operational area. This research indicates that effective cultivation of aerobic granules in fishery wastewater can be accelerated by inoculating Chlamydospores of strain HSD. Results reveal that aerobic granules was successfully cultivated and accelerated at 25 days of operation with strain HSD acceleration, in comparison to the process operation without the HSD strain of 32 days. Further aerobic granules reinforce SBR and the BOD removal efficiency of 78%, 76%, and 79% from R1, R2, and R3 respectively was achieved after 8-hours of the treatment process.


Index Terms — Aerobic granules, Chlamydospores, fishery wastewater, SBR.

Fishery wastewater, Chemical and seed activated sludge Fishery wastewater was collected from nearby seafood industry and directly transported to the lab for storage in preserved condition. All chemicals used were of analytical grade. The seed activated sludge was obtained from the domestic wastewater treatment plant and Superior mixed flora (SMF) and Chlamydospores of Phanerochaete sp. HSD was obtained from the National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune.



Reactor Operation The batch experiment was conducted in controlled conditions in the lab scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR), which consist of three SBRs and categorized as R1, R2 and R3.Chlamydospores was prepared based on the method prescribed by

INTRODUCTION Exporting seafood is an important economic mainstay for many of the nations and among them India is the second largest country in Seafood export. The Seafood processing industry utilizes a vast quantity of water for its processing and most of its Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Mohamed Usman T. M., Thirumal. J. & Venkatesan. G Hailei et al. 2006. Initially the reactor was fed with 1 litre of activated sludge seed for 3 days and later 1 litre of fishery wastewater was added to the reactor. After 6 days of initial operation the reactors R2 and R3 were inoculated with Chlamydospores strain and the reactor R1 was kept as such without inoculation as control. The reactor Operation cycle consists of four phases namely feeding phase, aerobic phase, discharge and idle phase (Li et al. 2014; Wichern et al. 2008). Aeration was provided at the bottom using air bubbles to diffuse. This technique of aeration made uniform of air transfer around the reactor, which leads to a favourable condition for aerobic granules cultivation (Beun et al. 1999; Lee et al. 2010; Liu and Tay 2002; McSwain et al. 2004; Osman et al. 2001). After the successful cultivation of granules, the granules were separated from flocculent sludge using a sieve. This separated granule was considered as aerobic granules and it further reinforced the reactor to carry out wastewater treatment (Benzhai et al. 2014; Ni and Yu 2008). During the entire cognitive process, influent as well as effluent characteristics were tested in order to calculate the treatment efficiency and to observe the extent of treatability (American Public Health Association et al. 1999).


MLSS (mg/L)

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0








Figure 4.1 MLSS varied with time during Aerobic Granule cultivation Reactor 1 Reactor 2 Reactor 3

200 180 160



III. ANALYSIS OF AEROBIC GRANULES The morphology of the granules was observed using a bio-microscope and SEM was used to understand the microorganisms on the surface and the interior of aerobic granule. Integrity coefficient (%)was assessed by using the method of prescribed by Ghangrekar et al. 1996and the Percentage of GR was calculated using the following formula

120 100 80 60 40 20 0






Time (Days)

Figure 4.2 Variations of SVI with time during Aerobic Granule cultivation

Weight of Aerobic Granules ⎛ Gr(%) = ⎛⎜ ⎜ x 100 Weight of Sludge ⎝ ⎝

After day 7, SVI in R2 and R3 was significantly lower than that in R1, Further more Subsequent operation of 15 days in the reactor R1 the flocs started to appear. On the other hand the reactors R2 and R3 only took 9 to 10 days of operation to form mature flocs.The formation of random Granules occured during the 23rd day of operation in R1 and 16, 14 days of operation in the reactors R2 and R3 respectively. The R1 was operated without Chlamydospores of strain HSD, while other two reactors R2 and R3 were incubated with Chlamydospores of strain HSD. In R2 and R3 aerobic granules appeared earlier than R1. This result infers that Chlamydospores of strain HSD accelerate the aerobic granule formation in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and the maximum number of granules appeared in the 32 nd day of operation in R1 and 25 days in Reactors R2 and R3 respectively


Cultivation of Aerobic Granules Aerobic granules cultivation has been carried out in the same Sequencing Batch Reactor, where wastewater treatment also was processed. During the start-up phase, microbes grew up more rapidly in the reactors. The MLSS curves of the reactors shown in the Figure 4.1 reveals that a sharp decline was observed during the start-up phase this phenomena was happening in the reactor due to scattering of sludge with poor settling abilities which were washed out in the effluent during the process. After day 4, the MLSS concentration in reactors started to rise. The MLSS concentration in R2 and R3 were higher than in R1 throughout the testing period and the SVI in reactors were improved during the operation which is depicted in the Figure 4.2. Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

Reactor 1 Reactor 2 Reactor 3



Mohamed Usman T. M., Thirumal. J. & Venkatesan. G It was observed that the average size of the granules is approximately 2.8 mm and the shape of aerobic Granules was in spherical or spherical with compact appearance. SEM image of cultivated Aerobic Granules (GR) in the Figure 4.3 showed that Aerobic Granules had an uneven appearance, with many spherical and filamentous microorganisms on its surface.


Treatment of Wastewater using cultivated Aerobic Granules Treatment of fishery wastewater was carried out in a fully aerobic granules reinforced Sequencing Batch Rector (SBR). The same Sequencing Batch Rector (SBR) setup was utilized for the present treatment which was utilized earlier for aerobic granules cultivation. In R1, R2, R3, the BOD removal rate of the wastewater treatment observed was 78%, 76%, and 79%, respectively after 8 hours. The results obtained from our study is shown the figure 4.5 and it was concluded that for the treatment of fishery waste water successful cultivation as well as the higher treatment efficiency using Aerobic Granules can be achieved by Sequencing Batch Reactor. 90 80 Removal Efficiency (%)


4/18/2015 3:05:36 PM

mag 1.949x

WD 5.6 mm




40 20 0 25




Time (Days)

Figure 4.4 Variations of GR with time during Aerobic Granules formation Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018



CONCLUSION The Seafood export involved many processes which require huge quantity of water and its waste water was rich in nutrient pollutants. Most of its traditional treatment technique adopted so will encounter serious performance and occupies large operation area leads to financial over burden to the sector. This limitation makes us to find out newer solution for the effective treatment of fishery wastewater. Sequencing Batch reactor based technology effectively utilizing land by combining all treatment process than can be borne away in a single reactor and process dynamics limitation can be overcome by using Aerobic Granule technology and Studies reveals that a microbial process culture can be accelerated by Superior mixed flora (SMF) or chlamydospores of Phanerochaete sp. HSD. Chlamydospores of Phanerochaete sp. HSD incubated in the reactors R2 and R3 produce aerobic granules within 25 days of operation which is quicker




Figure 4.5 Comparison of BOD Removal efficiency in reactors




Time (Hours)



R1 R2 R3



It was also further observed that Sludge Granules increase with time till the maximum value was reached. In Reactor R1 more than 80% of granules were obtained after 32 days of SBR operation, R2 and R3 produce more than 80% of granules with 25 days of successful SBR operations which is shown in the Figure 4.4.




Figure 4.3 SEM images of microbes on the surface of Granule




30 μm Quanta 400

det HV LFD 10.oo kV



Mohamed Usman T. M., Thirumal. J. & Venkatesan. G than R1 (32 days of operation. The aerobic granules reinforced rectors achieved BOD removal efficiency of 78%, 76%, and 79% for reactors R1, R2 and R3 respectively. This, study showed that effective treatment can be achieved with help aerobic granules for treating fishery wastewater.

Fisheries Dept. Hailei, W., Guangli, Y., Guosheng, L., and Feng, P. (2006). ‘A new way to cultivate aerobic granules in the process of papermaking wastewater treatment’. Biochemical Engineering Journal, Elsevier, 28(1), 99–103. Hailei, W., Li, L., Ping, L., Hui, L., Guosheng, L., and Jianming, Y. (2011). ‘The acceleration of sludge granulation using the chlamydospores of Phanerochaete sp. HSD’. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 192(3), 963–969. de Kreuk, M. K., and de Bruin, L. M. M. (2004). ‘Aerobic Granule Reactor Technology’. IWA Publishing, STOWA REPORT, IWA Publishing, 4(0), 9781780402901–9781780402901. Lee, D. J., Chen, Y. Y., Show, K. Y., Whiteley, C. G., and Tay, J. H. (2010). ‘Advances in aerobic granule formation and granule stability in the course of storage and reactor operation’. Biotechnology Advances, Elsevier Inc., 28(6), 919–934. Li, J., Ding, L. Bin, Cai, A., Huang, G. X., and Horn, H. (2014). ‘Aerobic sludge granulation in a fullscale sequencing batch reactor’. BioMed Research International, 2014, 268789. Liu, Y., and Tay, J. H. (2002). ‘The essential role of hydrodynamic shear force in the formation of biofilm and granular sludge’. Water Research, Pergamon. McSwain, B. S., Irvine, R. L., and Wilderer, P. A. (2004). ‘The effect of intermittent feeding on aerobic granule structure’. Water Science and Technology, 49(11–12), 19–25. Ni, B.-J., Yu, H.-Q., and Bing-Jie Ni and Han-Qing Yu. (2014). ‘Aerobic Granular Sludge Technology for Wastewater Treatment’. Biological Sludge Minimization and Biomaterials/Bioenergy Recovery Technologies, 429–463. Ni, B. J., and Yu, H. Q. (2008). ‘Growth and storage processes in aerobic granules grown on soybean wastewater’. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company, 100(4), 664–672. Osman, J. J., Birch, J., and Varley, J. (2001). ‘Nremoval in a granular sludge sequencing batch airlift reactor’. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 75(1), 82–92. Schwarzenbeck, N., Borges, J. M., and Wilderer, P. A. (2005). ‘Treatment of dairy effluents in an aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor’. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Springer-Verlag, 66(6), 711–718. Schwarzenbeck, N., Erley, R., Mc Swain, B. S., Wilderer, P. A., and Irvine, R. L. (2004). ‘Treatment of malting wastewater in a

REFERENCES Adav, S. S., Lee, D. J., Show, K. Y., and Tay, J. H. (2008). ‘Aerobic granular sludge: Recent advances’. Biotechnology Advances, 26(5), 411– 423. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation. (1999). ‘Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater’. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, 541. Arne Alphenaar, P., Visser, A., and Lettinga, G. (1993). ‘The effect of liquid upward velocity and hydraulic retention time on granulation in UASB reactors treating wastewater with a high sulphate content’. Bioresource Technology, Elsevier, 43(3), 249–258. Benzhai, H., Lei, L., Ge, Q., Yuwan, P., Ping, L., Qingxiang, Y., and Hailei, W. (2014). ‘Simulation of wastewater treatment by aerobic granules in a sequencing batch reactor based on cellular automata’. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 37(10), 2049–2059. Beun, J. J., Hendriks, A., Van Loosdrecht, M. C. M., Morgenroth, E., Wilderer, P. A., and Heijnen, J. J. (1999). ‘Aerobic granulation in a sequencing batch reactor’. Water Research, Pergamon, 33(10), 2283–2290. Cassidy, D. P., and Belia, E. (2005). ‘Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from an abattoir wastewater in a SBR with aerobic granular sludge’. Water Research, Pergamon, 39(19), 4817–4823. Figueroa, M., Mosquera-Corral, A., Campos, J. L., and Méndez, R. (2008). ‘Treatment of saline wastewater in SBR aerobic granular reactors’. Water Science and Technology, 58(2), 479–485. Ghangrekar, M. M., Asolekar, S. R., Ranganathan, K. R., and Joshi, S. G. (1996). ‘Experience with UASB reactor start-up under different operating conditions’. Water Science and Technology, No longer published by Elsevier, 421–428. Gonzalez, J. F. (1996). Wastewater Treatment in the Fishery Industry.FAO Fisheries Technical Paper (FAO), No. 355/FAO, Rome (Italy), Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Mohamed Usman T. M., Thirumal. J. & Venkatesan. G granular sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR)’. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, WILEY VCH Verlag, 32(1), 16–24. Su, K.-Z., and Yu, H.-Q. (2005). ‘Formation and Characterization of Aerobic Granules in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Treating SoybeanProcessing Wastewater’. Environmental Science & Technology, American Chemical Society, 39(8), 2818–2827. Wichern, M., Lübken, M., and Horn, H. (2008). ‘Optimizing sequencing batch reactor (SBR) reactor operation for treatment of dairy wastewater with aerobic granular sludge’.

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

Water Science and Technology, 58(6), 1199– 1206. Williams, J. C., and de los Reyes, F. L. (2006). ‘Microbial community structure of activated sludge during aerobic granulation in an annular gap bioreactor’. Water Science and Technology, IWA Publishing, 54(1), 139–146. Yang, S. F., Li, X. Y., and Yu, H. Q. (2008). ‘Formation and characterisation of fungal and bacterial granules under different feeding alkalinity and pH conditions’. Process Biochemistry, Elsevier, 43(1), 8–14.


Uncertainty Characterization in the Stability Analysis of an Earthen Dam

to select characteristic or design value for these parameters, even though it is recognized that the appropriate values are in fact uncertain. Usually, there is a lack of consensus on these choices, and a large range of levels of conservatism on the choice of soil strength and methods of analysis is common. The uncertainty level associated with the resistance and load is not explicitly considered. Consequently, inconsistency is likely to exist among engineers and between applications for the same engineer. A larger factor of safety does not necessarily imply a smaller level of risk, because its effect can be negated by the presence of larger uncertainties in the design environment. The factors of safety are thus working elements of the design process and do not constitute a reserve of unused strength. In general, the factor of safety is not a consistent measure of and cannot reflect the uncertainty of its underlying parameters [1] and[2].To address this problem appropriately; an essential step is to quantify the uncertainties in the design or assessment of slope stability. Hence, a more formal and rational approach of reliability concept is used for quantifying the uncertainty. In general, uncertainty analysis involves determining the variation or imprecision in the model results from the collective variation in the parameters used to define the model. Estimating uncertainty is done by translating the uncertainty in the analysis models and in the crucial model parameters into uncertainty in the outputs of the model. An important outcome of this is, the factor of safety itself is a variable, which is dependent on random soil parameters. It has been shown by researchers like[3], [4], [5], [6] and others that even though factor of safety is greater than one slopes have failed as the probability of failure was relatively high, hence proving the reliability analysis of the slope is a useful tool. It can be concluded that combining conventional deterministic slope analysis and reliability analysis will be beneficial to slope engineering practice and will enhance the decision making process, by providing more insight into the stability of a slope than does the factor of safety of a slope alone. From the literature review, it is clear that there is still a need to assess and compare the consistency of different probabilistic methods especially Monte Carlo Simulation method in association with Response surface method, for use in earth slope stability analysis. Reliability analysis is carried out not only to determine how close the slope is to failure, but also to know about how significant the contribution of each parameter is.

Sriram. A. V. Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, UVCE, Jnanabharathi, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560036. (e-mail : [email protected])

Abstract The numerical value of factor of safety depends upon loading, materials and analytical procedures. Each of these factors involves some degree of uncertainty which in turn, causes an uncertainty in the numerical value of factor of safety. Hence, the main shortcomings of conventional safety measure concept are that the factor of safety does not account for the variability of material properties and other factors on which it depends. In order to overcome these shortcomings and account for the variability of material parameters, reliability analysis is used for providing an alternative to factor of safety in the form of probability of failure. The present study investigates how uncertain information related to the input parameters can be propagated in a deterministic system, namely, Simplified Bishop’s Method that calculates factor of safety of earthen embankment slopes using a computer program Rotational Equilibrium Analysis of Multilayered Embankments (REAME). Probability of failure is used as an alternative risk measure to the usual factor of safety. Since, probability of failure is more complete than factor of safety alone and allows more consistency to be brought to the selection of a design or target factor of safety. The probability values are useful in planning mitigation measures and to reduce economic and social losses due to slope failures. Index Terms—Earthen embankment dam, Factor of safety, Probability of failure, Reliability Index, Uncertainty. I.

INTRODUCTION Slope stability has traditionally been analyzed using deterministic methods, wherein variables such as soil strength and pore pressures are represented by values that are certain. The output of a traditional stability analysis is a single–value deterministic estimate of whether the slope will be stable or unstable and is expressed as either a factor of safety or critical height. The conventional factor of safety depends on the method of calculation, and most importantly, on the choice of soil parameters. The engineer needs Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Sriram A. V.

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Sriram A. V. variables; 2 quantifying the probabilistic characteristics of all the random variables in terms of their PDFs or PMFs; 3 generating the values of these random variables; 4 evaluating the problem deterministically for each set of realizations of all the random variables, that is, numerical experimentation; 5 extracting probabilistic information from N such realizations; and 6 determining the accuracy and efficiency of the simulation


Mean Values

Standard Deviation

Coefficient of Variation (COV)(%)


3.00 (deg.)


Unit weight, γ f, kN/m 3


0.893 kN/m 3


Cohesion, c’e kN/m 2


2.76 kN/m 2



2.8 (deg.)



0.893 kN/m 3


Friction angle, (degrees)

In the present study all the random variables are assumed to be continuous and normal distribution, the factor of safety of the slope is calculated using Simplified Bishop’s method which is an iterative solution method. Hence, it is not compatible with the Monte Carlo method. Thus, the Response Surface method is used to develop a predictive equation that can be used in Monte Carlo Simulation method. A regression equation is developed from the 2n (n is number of random variables) FS values obtained from REAME in the following form:

Friction angle, (degrees)

φ' f

φ 'e

Unit weight, γe, kN/m3

Source: [15] Suffixes f and e in the above table mean foundation and embankment respectively.

FS = a + bc' + c φ' + dr u The validity of the model is verified by comparing a midpoint SBM analysis with the prediction from the regression equation. This regression equation is then used as a deterministic equation for use in the Monte Carlo simulation method. III. APPLICATION TO CASE STUDY – SAVEHAKLU EARTHEN DAM. Savehaklu dam is a homogeneous earthen dam 53 m high above the deepest foundation. It has a length of 639 m at the top at an elevation of 587 m above MSL. This is one of the two diversion dams under chakra scheme. It is constructed across Savehaklu river a tributary of chakra river, for augmenting the water for power generation in the existing generating station of the Sharavathi valley hydroelectric project. It is located in Shimoga district of Karnataka state. This dam lies 85 kms from Shimoga towards south-west. It is located at 130 46’ 56’’N Latitude and 740 58’ 12" E Longitude. The reservoir formed has a catchment area of 48.11 sq. kms with a mean annual rainfall of 900 mm. The full reservoir level (FRL) is at RL 582 m above MSL and maximum drawdown level (MDDL) at RL 573 m above MSL. The cross section of the dam considered for the reliability analysis is shown in Figure 2, and the statistical properties of the soil parameters used in the analysis are given in Table I. Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

Fig. 2. Cross section of Savehaklu earthen embankment dam 38

Sriram A. V. IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The variables considered as random are φ 'f, γf , c' e, φ ' e, and γ e where suffixes ‘f’ and ‘e’ indicate foundation and embankment respectively. The piezometric level is considered as deterministic because the amount of uncertainty decreases with time as conditions change from end-of-construction to long term. As the dam was constructed in the year 1980, the amount of uncertainty has decreased and is more or less constant now. Upstream and downstream slopes are analyzed for steady seepage condition using MFOSM, RPEM and MCS methods. The upstream slope is analyzed with different reservoir levels starting from Full Reservoir Level, FRL (+582.00 m) to Maximum Draw Down Level, MDDL (+573.00 m) in steps of 1.5 m, whereas the downstream slope is analyzed for FRL only. Deterministic analysis is carried out using the computer program, REAME that uses Simplified Bishop method of analysis.

reservoir pool elevation decreases. Hence, for different reservoir pool elevations the reliability index of the upstream slope is calculated. TABLE III RESULT OF DETERMINISTIC ANALYSIS OF SAVEHAKLU DAM FOR STEADY SEEPAGE CONDITION ON DOWNSTREAM SLOPE.

Reservoir Elevation


+582.00 (FRL)

Central Factor of Safety 2.025






































7 +573.00 (MDDL)

Geometric parameters of slip circle X (m) Y (m) R (m)

Factor of Safety




1.90 1.80 571.5




‹ ‹



+582.00 (FRL)


Reservoir Level



Central Factor of Safety

Geometric parameters of slip circle X (m) Y (m) R (m) 268.775




Savehaklu Dam Upstream Slope


Reservoir Elevation

If the upstream slope of an earth dam is partly or wholly submerged, the soil in the dam is acted on not by its own weight but also by the seepage pressure of the water that percolates through the dam. The seepage pressure is due to the friction between the percolating water and the walls of the voids, and, as a consequence, it acts in the direction of flow. Since the water seeps from the upstream toward the downstream slope, the seepage pressure increases the stability of the upstream slope. At the same time, it reduces the factor of safety of the downstream slope to the smallest value that is likely to assume under normal operating conditions. Hence, for the downstream slope the hydraulic state corresponding to a full reservoir represents the critical condition [17]. The result of deterministic slope stability analysis of the downstream slope is presented in Table III.


Sl. No.


% Contribution of Variance c' e























Reservoir Elevation (m)





Fig. 3. Results of deterministic slope stability analysis of upstream slope of Savehaklu dam.







576 577.5





Table IV above shows the percentage contribution of the various random variables for upstream slope stability under steady seepage condition. From the table it is evident that the effective angle of internal friction of the embankment soil is the significant contributor for the variance.

The critical reservoir pool elevation for a steady seepage is not, either a full or an empty reservoir, but is an intermediate elevation which varies for each particular structure for upstream slope[16]. Figure 3, also indicates that the factor of safety decreases as the Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018



σ (FS) COV(FS)













































Reliability Index

Reservoir Elevation

Savehaklu Dam Upstream Slope 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 571.50 573.00 574.50

576.00 577.50 579.00 580.50 582.00 583.50 Reservoir Elevation (m)

Fig. 4. Results of Probabilistic analysis of Savehaklu dam upstream slope deviation (SD) of FS decreases, the reason being that, when the reservoir level is at 582.00 the variance contribution of



σ (FS) COV(FS)














































φ e'



σ (FS) COV(FS)








2.340 x 10-7






8.588 x 10-7





1.055 x 10


+579.00 +577.50





1.423 x 10







1.637 x 10-6






4.121 x 10-6






6.108 x 10-

+582.00 M


seed = 31069

4.34 4.32 4.3 4.28 4.26 4.24 0




Number of iterations of FS

Tables V, VI and VII show the results of reliability analysis obtained using MFOSM method, RPEM and MCS method respectively for upstream slope. Figure 4 depicts the variation of reliability index to the variations in reservoir pool elevation for uncorrelated case. Tables V, VI and VII indicate that as the reservoir level decreases the standard Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

Savehaklu Dam


Reliability Index


is 73.02% as seen from Table IV. However,

when the reservoir level lowers down to 573.00 m, the variance contribution of decreases to 9.36% while that of increases to 90.00%. Since, the standard deviation of is 10% and that of is 20%, it can be summarized that at higher reservoir levels both and contribute to the SD(FS), while the reservoir level decreases the major contributor to the SD(FS) is. Hence, the SD(FS), which expresses the scatter of a random variable about its expected value decreases as reservoir level decreases. Table VII shows the results of reliability ' canalysis e of upstream slope using MCS method applied on the response surface developed, the equations are as given below in Table VIII.


is 22.31% whereas that



x 105

Fig. 5. Reliability Index vs. number of Monte Carlo trials for Savehaklu Dam at +582.00 m Reservoir level. The above Figure 5 is plotted to determine the number of iterations of FS to be carried out so that 40


Regression Equations for FS

R2 value

Number of Trials


FS=0.63675+0.036485 c'e+0.0643304 φ'e-0.050840 γe




FS=0.47675+0.033992 c'e+0.063306 φ'e-0.0414566 γe




FS=0.443+0.0338107 c'e+0.0623214 φ'e-0.0394958 γe




FS=0.14675+0.023613 c'e+0.0679018 φ'e-0.02423 γe




FS=0.11175+0.025290 c'e+0.0659821 φ'e-0.021849 γe




FS=0.03225+0.0217096 c'e+0.065759 φ'e-0.017227 γe




FS=0.00025+0.0215283 c'e+0.064509 φ'e-0.015266 γe



the Monte Carlo solution is stabilized. The above figure indicates that the Monte Carlo solution stabilizes around 120000 iterations of FS; the seed value selected for the above figure is 31069. However, a total of 26 seed values from 5 to 31069 are selected and similar graphs are plotted and finally the number of iterations required for the Monte Carlo simulation method is fixed at 120000 for the upstream slope of Savehaklu dam for steady seepage condition when the water level is at +582.00 m. Similarly for other water levels the number of trials required is determined and the results are tabulated in the Table VIII above along with the regression equations for FS.

is as shown in Figure 6. The distribution has a mean factor of safety, E(FS) of 2.033 and a standard deviation, SD(FS) of 0.27352. The reliability index of the slope is 3.77667, assuming normal distribution the probability of failure of the slope is 7.9508 x 105 . However, relying on the results of one seed value for simulation is a dangerous practice as it is clearly evident from the comparison of the results obtained from a seed value of 31069 and the results obtained from the average of 26 different seed values. Hence, in the present study the final result is based on the results using 26 different seed values, the results of which are presented in Table VII for 120000 Monte Carlo trials for uncorrelated variables. From Figure 7 it is evident that the number of Monte Carlo trials considered for the analysis is justified, as the CDF curve is smooth.

2500 Seed = 31069 E(FS) = 2.033 SD(FS) = 0.2735 Pf = 7.095E-05

Savehaklu Dam +582.00 m

1 +582.00 m

0.9 1500

Savehaklu Dam seed = 31069

0.8 Cumulative Frequency





0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3

0 0.5



2 Factor of Safety





Fig. 6.Histogram of the Factor of Safety for Savehaklu Dam Upstream slope for Steady seepage condition at +582.00 m Reservoir level

E(FS) = 2.033

0 0.5







Fig. 7. Cumulative distribution function of the factor of safety for Upstream slope of Savehaklu Dam at +582.00m reservoir level.

The histogram of the factor of safety obtained for an iteration of 120000 with a seed value of 31069 Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018



Sriram A. V. Table IX Results of Reliability analysis of Savehaklu dam downstream slope Probabilistic method


σ (FS)
















desired value of factor of safety for reservoir partial pool on upstream slope is 1.3. If the dam were to be designed to this target factor of safety then the probability of failure would have been 0.05803 and reliability index would have been 1.5715. However, a target probability of failure of slope stability failure of about 0.001 seems reasonable for design purposes and consistent with past experience [1]. To achieve a Pf = 0.001 the minimum FS value should be 1.590, thereby the reliability index value would be 3.0902. The present condition of the dam is safe as the probability of failure is lower than the target value of 0.001.

Savehaklu Dam U/S slope +573.000 m 9

Reliability Index

8 7 6 5

Savehaklu Dam D/S slope +582.000 m

4 3 2 Reliability Index

1 0 1 1.1



1.4 1.5


1.7 1.8


2 2.1



2.4 2.5 2.6

Expected Factor of Safety, E(FS)

Fig. 8: Reliability Index versus Expected Factor of Safety for Savehaklu Dam Upstream slope.


1.1 1.2

1.3 1.4

1.5 1.6


1.8 1.9


2.1 2.2

2.3 2.4

2.5 2.6

Expected Factor of Safety, E(FS)

Fig. 8 shows the projected reliability indices as function of the computed factors of safety for the Savehaklu dam upstream slope with reservoir level at +573.000 m. Fig. 9 shows the projected probability of failure as a function of the computed factors of safety for the Savehaklu dam upstream slope with reservoir level at +573.000 m. The probabilities are computed on the assumption that the factor of safety is normally distributed.

Fig. 10. Reliability Index versus Expected Factor of Safety for Savehaklu Dam Downstream slope

Probability of Failure

Savehaklu Dam D/S slope +582.000 m

Savehaklu Dam U/S slope +573.000 m 1.00E+00 Probability of Failure

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

1.00E+00 1.00E-01 1.00E-02 1.00E-03 1.00E-04 1.00E-05 1.00E-06 1.00E-07

1.00E-01 1.00E-02









Expected Factor of Safety, E(FS)

1.00E-03 1.00E-04

Fig. 11. Probability of Failure versus Expected Factor of Safety for Savehaklu Dam Downstream slope.

1.00E-05 1.00E-06 1.00E-07 1.00E-08 1


1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Fig. 10 shows the projected reliability indices as function of the computed factors of safety for the Savehaklu dam downstream slope with full reservoir level at +582.000 m. Fig. 11 shows the projected probability of failure as a function of the computed factors of safety for the Savehaklu dam downstream slope with full reservoir level at +582.000 m. The probabilities are computed on the assumption that the factor of safety is normally distributed. From Table IX the E(FS)=1.718, σ (FS) =

Expected Factor of Safety, E(FS)

Fig. 9. Probability of Failure versus Expected Factor of Safety for Savehaklu Dam Upstream slope. The results presented in Table V are that E(FS) = 1.825, σ(FS) = 0.1909, β=4.3216 and Pf=0.000008. As per IS 7894-1975 (Reaffirmed 1997) the minimum Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Sriram A. V. 0.1523, β=4.7144 and P f=0.000001. As per IS 78941975 (Reaffirmed 1997) the minimum desired value of factor of safety for steady seepage with reservoir full for downstream slope is 1.5. If the dam were to be designed to this target factor of safety then the probability of failure would have been 0.000514 and reliability index would have been 3.2830. However, a target probability of failure of slope stability failure of about 0.001 seems reasonable for design purposes and consistent with past experience [1]. To achieve a Pf = 0.001 the minimum FS value should be 1.471, thereby the reliability index value would be 3.0902. The present condition of the dam is safe as the probability of failure is lower than the target value of 0.001




CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions can be drawn from the analysis performed in the present investigation: 1 The three probabilistic methods used in the present investigation, namely, Mean value First-Order Second-Moment (MFOSM) method, Rosenbleuth’s Point Estimate Method (RPEM) and Monte Carlo Simulation Method (MCS) have been found to give nearly the same values of reliability index for Savehaklu dam upstream slope stability under steady seepage condition, for example for the reservoir level at FRL, the reliability index values are 4.8670, 4.882 and 5.0390 respectively, similar trends are observed for the other reservoir levels and also for the downstream slope stability. 2 For all the cases, RPEM method gives marginally higher β value than MFOSM method consistently. As the RPEM method accounts for some of the problem nonlinearity and does not involve linearizing the problem about the expected value. 3 The expected values as obtained from all the three methods, namely, MFOSM, RPEM and MCS methods are nearly the same. As, MFOSM method requires fewer evaluations(i.e, 2n+1 evaluations) of the performance function than RPEM method (i.e, 2n evaluations) when the number of random variables is three or more. Further as MCS method is complex and time consuming. It is recommended that MFOSM method can be effectively used for the determination of the moments of the performance function. 4 MFOSM method can be treated as a structured sensitivity analysis method as it provides a measure of the relative contribution to uncertainty of each random variable. MFOSM method also explains the reason for the Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

decrease in σ(FS) values from 0.2106 to 0.1909 as the reservoir level decreases from +582.00 m to +573.00 m, by calculating the percent contribution of variance of each of the random variable. Whereas the other probabilistic methods are unable to directly explain the reason for the above mentioned phenomena. The probabilistic reliability analysis carried out on the upstream slope of Savehaklu earthen embankment dam, show that the reliability index value decreases with the decrease in the reservoir pool elevation. Hence, proving that the critical reservoir pool elevation for steady seepage is not, either a full or an empty reservoir, but is an intermediate elevation which varies for each structure. The reliability index is used as an alternative risk measure to the usual factors of safety, and is more complete than FS alone and allows more consistency to be brought to the selection of a design or target FS. Based on the study presented here some design guidelines are given for the selection of an appropriate FS. For Savehaklu dam downstream slope under steady seepage condition, to achieve a target Pf of 0.001 the minimum FS required should be 1.471 and Reliability index of 3.0902.

REFERENCES [1] Christian, J.T., Ladd, C.C. and Baecher, G.B, Reliability Applied to Slope Stability Analysis. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 120(12), 2180-2207, 1994. [2] Low, B.K., Gilbert, R.B. and Wright, S.G, Slope Reliability Analysis using Generalized Method of Slices. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 124, 350352, 1998. [3] Yong ,R.N., Alonso, E., Tabba, M.M., and Fransham, P.B. Application of Risk Analysis to the Prediction of Slope Instability. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 14(6), 540-553, 1977. [4] Wolff, T.F. Application Brief: Embankment reliability versus Factor of safety: Before and after slide repair. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical methods in Geomechanics, 15, 41-50, 1991. [5] Duncan, J.M. Factors of Safety and Reliability in Geotechnical Engineering. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 126(4). 307-316, 2000. [6] Venkatachalam, G. Reliability and Risk Analysis of Slopes. Indian Geotechnical Journal, 36(1), 1-67, 2006. [7] Wolff, T.F., Hassan, A., Rahat Khan., UrRasul, I., and Miller, M. Geotechnical 43

Sriram A. V. Reliability of Dam and Levee Embankments. USACE, Geotechnical and Structural Laboratory, ERDC/GSL CR-04-1, 2004. [8] Rosenblueth, E. Two-Point Estimates in Probabilities. Applied Mathematical Modeling, Vol 5, 329-335, 1980. [9] Harr, M.E. Reliability Based Design in Civil Engineering. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1987. [10] Wolff, T.F. Probabilistic Slope Stability in Theory and Practice. Proceedings of uncertainty 96: Uncertainty in the Geologic Environment, from theory to practice, Madison, (Eds C.D. Shackelford, P.P. Nelson and M.J.S. Roth) Vol 1, 419-433.. ASCE, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 58, 1996. [11] U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Introduction to Probability and Reliability methods for use in Geotechnical Engineering. ETL 1110-2-547, Department of Army, Washington, DC, 1997. [12] Wolff, T.F., Hassan, A., Rahat Khan., Ur-Rasul, I., and Miller, M. Geotechnical Reliability of

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Dam and Levee Embankments. USACE, Geotechnical and Structural Laboratory, ERDC/GSL CR-04-1, 2004. Christian, J.T and Baecher, G.B. PointEstimate Method as Numerical Quadrature. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering,125(9), 779-786, 1999. Haldar, A., and Mahadevan, S. Probability, Reliability and Statistical Methods in Engineering Design. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2000. Ramanath, K.P. Analysis of Earthen Dams and Related Instrumentation. An Unpublished M.Tech Thesis Submitted to Mangalore University, KREC, Surathkal, Karnataka, 1986. Turnbull, W.J., and Hvorslev, M.J. Special Problems in Slope Stability. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, 93(4), 499528, 1967. Terazaghi, K and Peck, R.B. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice. Asia Publishing House, Japan. 566p, 1961.

Sustainability Framework Design

present condition of an activity. 2.0 Indicators for Sustainability For indicating sustainability, both monetary and physical approaches are present. In this paper, we mainly focused on physical indicators. Such indicators can be divided into three groups: i. societal activity indicators (that indicate activities occurring within society, the use of extracted minerals, the production of toxic chemicals, recycling of material), ii. environmental pressure indicators (that indicate human activities which directly influence the environment-e.g., greenhouse gas emissions) and iii. Environmental quality indicators (that indicate the state of the environmental medium -e.g., the concentration of heavy metals in soils and pH levels in lakes).

Dr. N.S. Raman Deputy Director and Head, EAC, CSIR-NEERI, Nagpur India

Dr. Y.R.M. Rao Principal Dr. Pauls Engineering College Tamil Nadu India

Abstract This paper addresses the systematic design of sustainability framework. In approach, there is importance given to societal activities that negatively affect the environment and to societal resource use. The sustainability indicators predict the causes of societal activities and way of unsustainable use of resources in a society. The ultimate aim of this paper is that socio-ecological indicators should work as a helpful tool in organizing and decision-making processes in a society. The designing of the indicators takes into account four principles of sustainability, which lead to four corresponding sets of indicators.

It should be well known that most of the indicators of sustainability produced and used so far belong either to the group of environmental pressure indicators or to the environmental quality indicators, which is represented in Table 1. 3.0 Principles of Sustainability In our designing of indicators of sustainability, we apply four principles that should be fulfilled in a sustainable society. The principles are given below. The symbol ‘x’ indicates the main focus of the work, while (x) means that such indicators are included, but only play a minor role in the work.

Keywords : Indicators; Sustainability 1.0 Introduction The publication of the Brundtland report ‘Our Common Future’ (WCED, 1987) and the Rio Declaration (United Nations, 1992a) lies the challenge of sustainable development on the agenda for planners, decision-makers, and politicians at all administrative and institutional levels of the global society. Since then, more effort has been formulated to introduce and functionalize the concept of sustainability. There are two aspects that are considered important in the construction of indicators: i. In many cases, long time delays have been observed between an activity and the corresponding environmental damage. It shows that indicators based on the environmental condition may give a warning too late, and sometimes it only indicates whether societal activities were sustainable or not. ii. The complexity of the ecosystems makes it impossible to predict all possible effects of a certain societal activity. Some damages are well-known, but others have not yet been identified. Most of the sustainability indicators are formulated based on known effects in the environment but we suggest that indicators of sustainability should be formulated with respect to principles of sustainability and Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

Principle 1: substances extracted from the lithosphere should not systematically accumulate in the ecosphere. Principle 2: substances produced by the society must not accumulate in the ecosphere. Principle 3: the physical conditions for production and diversity within the ecosphere must not become deteriorated. Principle 4: the use of natural resources must be in an efficient way. 4.0 Framework design 4.1 Preamble The main objective of sustainability indicators is the management of renewable natural resource and in agriculture and rural area development. The widespread adoption of sustainable development and sustainability indicators started after the Earth Summit held in Rio in 1992, in which Agenda 21 involves the development of, amongst many things, sustainable agriculture, land management and rural 45

Dr. N. S. Raman & Dr. Y.R.M. Rao Table 1: The Focus Indicators for Sustainability Reference

Indicated Area



Adriaanse (1993)

The Netherlands



Alfsen and Saebo (1993)


Ayres (1995)

Mainly USA

Ten Brink (1991)

Specific ecosystem

Brown etal. (1994)

The world







ECE (1985)

ECE, member countries



Environment Canada(1991)




Miljominisleriet ( 1991)















Nilsson and Bergstorm(1995) Municipality andCompany OECD (1994)

State of theEnvironment

OECD countries

Opschoor and Reijnders(1991) Not specific

(X) X

SNV (r994)



Haesetal, (1991)

Specific ecosystem


Vos etal. (1985)

The Netherlands

This paper

The world




SA-Social Activities, EP- Environmental Pressure to ‘flip’ from one state to another”. The determination of levels at which indicators can be applied depends upon both the data available and issues being addressed. However, as one of them go beyond the levels it may become difficult to identify causal relationships and required output. The level suggests which type of indicator is feasible to construct. It is difficult to identify a suitable indicator for the particular issue. Broadly there are two types of indicators, firstly, an external indicator recognized by external experts such as researchers and secondly, an internal indicator recognized by internal experts such as stakeholders in the systems. There are some groups which involve in identification process as farmers, households, communities, and local agencies (e.g. NGOs). However, the indicator which each group uses to monitor the issue may differ. A major issue is whether indicators are to be constructed and monitored at a single point in time, monitored over time, or both. It is considered that indicators of both types can be measured. However, monitoring over time is more difficult, as data from external sources is generally required. There are two relevant alternative sources of data for determination of indicators over time:

area development. This has led to many activities to define sustainability which mainly relevance to sustainable agriculture, land management, and forestry. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has developed an approach to sustainability and many methodologies to calculate indicators of sustainability for the areas of agriculture, forestry and fisheries, desertification, freshwater, land use, and mountain ecosystems. At present, there is no general agreement on appropriate sustainability indicators and many countries are in process of establishing potential environmental indicators. Environmental attributes that measure or reflect environmental status or condition of change are defined as indicators. An indicator is also a quantitative measure against which some aspect or aspects of policy performance or management strategy can be assessed. The quantitative measure designated by many authors is not accepted universally since some authors also assigned qualitative indicators as a tool of sustainability. A developing issue that focused by many authors is the importance of interpreting thresholds for indicators. A threshold is defined as a boundary level of a variable that represents the condition at which notable changes occur. “Thresholds are particularly important in an agri-environmental context given the propensity of ecological systems Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Dr. N. S. Raman & Dr. Y.R.M. Rao 1. 2.

Historical sources of information as past records, studies, and surveys. Biophysical data taken from sites which were previously of a similar type to other study sites have been cultivated or use in a different manner over a recent, known time-period. In this way, a baseline site can be paired with other sites.

development and also used in the methodology of the World Bank’s Land Quality Indicator (LQI) programme which makes use of the 5 Pillars of Sustainable Land Management. Pressure refers to “human activities that exert a pressure on the environment and change its quality and the quality and quantity of natural resources (the ‘state’). Society responds to the changes through environmental, general economic and sectoral policies (the ‘response’). The latter forms a feedback loop to pressures.” (Gallopin, 1991:22). These pressures are considered to be negative. The representation of how the PSR framework might be applied to this study is given in Figure 2.

4.2 Frameworks There are many methodological frameworks have been recognized for the measurement of sustainability indicators at the community to district levels. All of these have tended to give an approach focused on sustainable agriculture and/or sustainable land management which is often directly related to an International Framework for Evaluating Sustainable Land Management (FESLM). According to FESLM, the matrix for sustainability indicator of different dimensions is given in Table 2. Organizations like United Nations, World Bank, OECD, European Environment Agency (EEA), and national governments are currently constructing indicators for sustainable development and sustainable agriculture. The Pressure Stress Response (PSR) framework and its model, represented in Figure 1 and Figure 2 respectively, was derived from the stress-response framework which was applied to ecosystems. The PSR framework is most widely accepted framework and used by OECD for its State of the Environment (SoE) group, SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment), European commission’s indicators

Pressure Human activities affecting the environment, e.g. CO2, emissions

Driving Forces and Impacts in the PSR Framework In the DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressure, State, Impacts, and Response) Framework, State and Impact indicators are separated from other elements. The DPSIR framework is illustrated in Figure 3. State indicators demonstrate the present status of the environment. Examples include the noise levels near main roads due to vehicular horn and traffic; the global rise in temperature, contaminated lakes, and rivers. Impact indicators relate the effects occurred due to changes of state. Examples include the percentage of children suffering from contaminated water; the mortality due to noise-induced health attacks; the number of people starving due to climate-change induced crop losses and drought.




State Observable Changes of the environment e.g. rising global temperatures

Response of Society to the problem e.g. introduction of energy taxes

Figure 1: The Framework Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Dr. N. S. Raman & Dr. Y.R.M. Rao PRESSURE



Information ⎯⎯→

Indirect Pressures Human Activities ● ● ● ●

Pollution waste

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ →⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ Resources use


Conditions and trends ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ Air Water Land and soil Wildlife Biodiversity

● ● ● ● ●

Economic and environmental agents


Decisions actions

● ● ● ● ●

Administrations Households Enterprises National International


Energy Transport Industry Agriculture Other

State of the environment and natural resources

Direct Pressures

Decisions/actions Figure 2: PSR Model

Driving Forces basic Trends e.g. in transport industrial production, consumption


Response of Society to the problem e.g. introduction of energy taxes

¨ ©

Pressure Human activities affecting the environment i.e. CO2, emissions

State Observable Changes of the environment e.g. rising global temperatures

Impact Effects of a changed environment e.g. Fall in agricultural production

Figure 3: The DPSIR framework

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Dr. N. S. Raman & Dr. Y.R.M. Rao 5.0 Currently used indicators Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the market value of all goods and services produced within a country during a given time period, usually considered as one year. It is usually correlated with the standard of living, which in fact is not true in its entirety. GDP is the basic measure of a country’s overall economic output.

Determination of GDP GDP can be determined by three approaches which are the product (or output) approach, the income approach, and the expenditure approach. The ‘product approach’ is the sum of all enterpriseclass outputs to arrive at the total. The product approach as the name itself suggest is used to calculate the market value of goods and services produced in the country over a given time period. The second one is ‘income approach’ method measures GDP by adding incomes that firms pay households for the factors of production they hirewages for labor, interest for capital, rent for land and profit for entrepreneurship. The third approach to GDP is the ‘expenditure approach’, which calculates GDP by summing the four possible types of expenditures as follows:

Limitations of GDP 1. GDP only counts goods and services that pass through the market, but there are many productive activities which are not generally get counted. 2. GDP does not evaluate how much output contributes to people’s need, it simply consider the how much output a country produces. For example, people’s lives in urban areas spend some amount of their income to help them cope with urban issues like an alarm system for their homes and self-defense classes. 3. Shadow Economy is not reported in the GDP. The shadow economy is the economic activity unreported to the government. For example when a waitress takes tips that she does not report or a farmer who sells vegetables at a roadside comes under the shadow economy.

GDP = Consumption + Investment + Government Expenditure + Net exports

Carbon Footprint A carbon footprint is a measure of the amount of greenhouse gases produced in people’s everyday lives concerning, for example, burning fossil fuels for generation of electricity and heat, and for transportation. Carbon footprint expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO 2).Carbon footprint consists of two parts: primary and secondary. The primary footprint is further explained to be a measure of our direct emissions of CO2 that we can control. These include, for example, domestic energy consumption and transportation. The secondary footprint is stated to be the measure of our indirect emissions from the whole life-cycle of the products we use. Thus, these include all the emissions caused by the manufacturing of the products, and also the waist that they create when breaking down. All in all, the more we buy, the more emissions we cause. (CFL)

Elements of GDP GDP (Y) is the sum of Consumption (C), investment (I), Government Expenditure (G) and Net Exports (X - M). This is represented by the equation below: GDP(Y) = C+I+G+(X-M) ❑

Consumption (C): It’s normally the largest GDP element in the economy of any country, which represents private consumption expenditure by household and non-profit organization in the economy. These expenditures categorize under durable goods, non-durable goods, and services which includes rent, food, gasoline, and medical expenses. Investments (I): It is a business investment in machinery/equipment and also spending on new houses by households. It does not include exchanges of existing assets e.g. includes the purchase of a software or machinery for a factory. However, investment in GDP does not mean purchases of financial products. Government (G): It is the sum of government expenditures on final goods and services for

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

e.g. salaries of public servants, purchase weapons for the military, and any investment expenditure by a government. Net Export (X - M): Net exports represent gross export minus gross imports. Exports include goods and services produced for other country’s consumption, and therefore exports are added. On other hand imports which include goods and services produced by other nations and brought into the country and therefore imports are subtracted.

Ecological Footprint At the moment people in the world consume so much that we have already exceeded the Earth’s ecological potential. In other words, we consume faster that the planet is able to regenerate its 49

Dr. N. S. Raman & Dr. Y.R.M. Rao account in the GDP. Every year, it is calculated by the Program of the United Nations for the development, for 175 countries. (HDI, 2011) The HDI is the aggregation of three elements: the GDP per capita, the life expectancy and the level of education. Those three components have the same weight in the calculation in order to reduce the in equalities between all the different countries. (P. Leroy, 2011) Nevertheless, its main drawback is that if one of the components decreases, the increase of another one can balance the loss. Yet, the components are not substitutable. Besides, the HDI is evaluated between 0 and 1 as its elements, so that let developed countries a very little margin of progress. (P. Leroy, 2011) Furthermore, this indicator does not take into account any environmental aspects.

resources. The growing pressure of ecosystems creates disintegration and distinction of natural habitats, threatens the biological diversity and wellbeing of humanity; and the economic and social development in a country should be oriented such way that it doesn’t harm the opportunity to satisfy the needs of future generations. The ecological footprint is an indicator that reflects national and global sustainable development. The concept was first created by Mathis Wackernagel and William Rees in 1990. It exists to indicate the effects inhabitants have on their environment and natural resources in a region or a country, i.e. “how much biologically available earth and water resources are consumed and how much of our waste do they absorb”. The concept of Ecological Footprint also includes the product’s lifecycle analysis, which quantifies product’s impact on the environment through its life, including, for example, the energy and material associated with materials extraction, manufacturing, assembly, distribution, use, disposal, and the resulting emissions. For that reason, the carbon footprint discussed above is a part of the ecological footprint. Ecological Footprint is calculated and reported yearly by an international organization called Global Footprint Network.

Happy planet index The Happy Planet Index shows “the ecological efficiency with which human well-being is delivered around the world”.(Global HPI, 2011) It is composed of three parts (Global HPI, 1996): ❑ Life expectancy at birth: it is quite easy to measure (the calculation is based on reliable and constantly updated figures: the number of deceases can be obtained on the basis of death certificates, ages, frequencies). It could be an interesting tool to keep. ❑ Life satisfaction: First, it seems complex and quite subjective to measure. But researchers have found means of quantifying life satisfaction; the size and strength of social networks, education level, relationship status, disability, material conditions, such as income and employment. It can be useful as long as it is correlated to richer natural resources, better climate, and higher levels of social capital and life expectancy, and better standards of living. Here is a proof that governments may trust it to assess progress (the achievement of human goals). In 2008, the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs used it in its set of sustainable development indicators. But you could always add criteria. That is why it might not be the most appropriate tool for our new indicator, at least if we want to have a “transparent” measure. ❑ Ecological footprint: It is the measures of the amount of land required to produce for all their resource requirements plus the amount of vegetated land required to absorb all their CO2 emissions incorporated in the products they consume, which is expressed in global

Green GDP The Green GDP is an indicator which was created in China in 2004 by Wen Jiabao premier of China. It replaced the GDP between 2004 and 2006. Its aim is to calculate the GDP of China in taking into account the negative externalities on the environment caused by the economy. (Du Jing, 2011) Hence, the calculation of the Green GDP is as follows: GDP - Resource and environmental costs. (Schenk, Robert, 2011), The advantages: ❑ It gives us another perspective on GDP, which provides some keys to improve the protection of the environment and deals with the scarcity of resources ❑

It gives indications to save our future. (Ni Xiaoqiang, 2004)

The importance which is given to the environment does not reduce the one of the economic development. (Du Jing, 2006)

No preliminary step to calculate it.

Human development index (HDI) The Human Development Index (HDI) has been created in 1990 by the economist AmartyaSen, in order to give information that is not taken into Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Dr. N. S. Raman & Dr. Y.R.M. Rao hectares. It includes a notion of sustainability. The European statistical agency ‘Eurostat’ is considering incorporating the ecological footprint into its sustainable indicator set; this will helps in the understanding of social justice and can also improve living standards in poorer countries. Therefore, it is a pragmatic indicator, providing information about the way countries manage to achieve sustainability in the whole process of their activities, focusing on the input and the output. The input is represented by the resources from the environment and the output by the human welfare. (Bechstedt, HD and Renaud, F. 1996)


6. 7.

However, there are some limits: ❑ As it focuses on the input and output, it does not really consider the in-between elements (the operations; economic aspects) ❑ One of its subcomponents (life satisfaction) is quite subjective to calculate since you can indefinitely add criteria to assess it.

8. 9.

Gross National Happiness The 4th King of Bhutan, HM JigmeSingye Wangchuck, promulgated GNH since the beginning of his reign in 1972. The fact that he said GDP needed to be channeled towards happiness in the 1970s and 1980s was quite new. Since then, GNH has attracted attention, and opinion around the world has started to converge on happiness as a collective goal. (Bockstaller, C., Girardin, P., and van der Verf, H.M. 1997) The GNH indicators have been designed to include nine core dimensions that are regarded as components of happiness and well-being in Bhutan, and are constructed of indicators which are robust and informative with respect to each of the dimensions. These nine indicators are- (Carney, D. Ed. 1998) 1.




6.0 Socio-ecological Indicators for sustainability The socio-ecological principles assessed in the previous portion, defined as a set of socio-ecological indicators. These indicators are constructed so that they reflect what extent (a certain aspect of) a societal activity violates the corresponding principle. 6.1 Indicators based on Principle 1. The basic idea behind the first principle is that the total flow of an element from the lithosphere to the ecosphere i.e., emissions due to societal activities of any element extracted from the lithosphere, weathering and volcanic processes, should not exceed the return flow of the same element from the ecosphere to the lithosphere, by sedimentation processes and by flows to final deposits in the lithosphere. As a starting point for the construction of the indicators for Principle 1, we apply Figure 4, which represents basic features of the cycle of a specific element between the lithosphere, the technosphere, and the ecosphere. The cycle started from the extraction of an element from lithosphere and used in the technosphere and then finally it will be emitted to the ecosphere, where it will remain until sedimentation processes once again bury it in the lithosphere The variables used in this cycle are denoted as XT and XE for the total contents of the element in the technosphere and the ecosphere, respectively, and XR is used for the total resources. Furthermore,

Psychological Well-being: It includes the following indicators, general psychological distress indicators, emotional-balance indicators, and spiritually-balance indicators. Time Use: In the GNH index, time use component is divided into benchmark indicators of sleeping hours and of total working hours, Culture: There is a wide range of indicators such as dialect use indicator, traditional sports indicator, community festival indicator, artisan skill indicator, value transmission indicator, and basic precept indicators. Community vitality: Community indicators are

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

family vitality indicator, safety indicator, reciprocity indicator, trust indicator, social support indicator, socialization indicator, and kinship density indicator Health: Three main indicators take place within the health measuring, health status indicator (self-rated health, disabilities, body mass index, and number of healthy days per month); health knowledge indicator (HIV transmission and breastfeeding practices); barrier to health indicator (distance to the nearest health facility) Education: Education attainment indicator as well as knowledge and skills Environmental Diversity: GNH also focuses on ecological indicators such as Ecological degradation indicator, Ecological knowledge indicator, and afforestation indicator. Living Standard: The living standards indicator consists of income indicator, housing indicator, food security indicator, and hardship indicator. Governance: Government performance indicator, freedom indicator, and institutional trust.


Dr. N. S. Raman & Dr. Y.R.M. Rao Table 2: Matrix for Sustainability Indicators Dimensions (FESLM) Productivity


Natural Levels and trends for: Productivity (per unit of land, per unit of water [irrgated systems])

Economic viability

Return on fixed capital assets. Access to markets

P r o d u c t i o n Pest/ disease risk/security risks.Months with lack of waterFlood and fire risk Cultivation of ‘marginal’ land

(investment in) flood control irrigation infrastructure. in) and



Levels and trends for : Rates of return on investment [financial outlay]

Total earned income (onfarm and offfarm) per w o r k i n g household member

Active cooperative associations, organizations; Government extension services; Labour or asset sharing.

Farm gross margins Farm profitNet household income Output and input price varia-bility; Savings and debt levels Credit access Income d i v e r s i t y Insurance Welfare /pensions

Affordability of health, education

Contributions to / claims on social welfare.

Health status E d u c a t i onal a t t a i nment Unemployment

Security of crop, livestock from theft, damage; Security of land use rights Government food security measures; Gifts, loans intimes of need Environmental; organizations, campaigns; Local natural resource management authorities, organizations

Distribution of access to infrastructure, equipment

Income distribution within society/community’/ household

Inequality in Accountability of access to elected or customary health / representation or education / leadership Social training exclusion.

P r o t e c t i o n Soil ‘quality’ from degra- Soil erosion dation Pesticide use and toxicity levels Agrobiodiversity Ground cover (deforestation) Conservation technologies Social accep- Conflicts over tability accessto, or tenure of, land, water

Assets (SRL) Financial

Final deposit


⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ kex

XT ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ kem Technosphere kw



⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ Ecosphere →⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ ks

Figure 4: Lithosphere Element Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Dr. N. S. Raman & Dr. Y.R.M. Rao k ex is the extraction of annual rate, kW is the total natural contribution to ecosphere (i.e., weathering and volcanic eruptions), k e m represents the emissions of the element from the technosphere and k represents the rate of sedimentation from the ecosphere to the lithosphere. It should be observed that in general kS is an increasing function of the total content in the ecosphere. The figure shows that the total contents of an element will increase in the ecosphere if the total emissions from the technosphere (k em) plus the natural flow from the lithosphere (kW) exceed the rate of sedimentation (kS). The dashed line shows direct flow from the technosphere to the lithosphere for final deposition in repositories, but this option is only planned for radioactive waste. Society can stop the lithospheric materials accumulation in the ecosphere by (i) controlling the extraction rate, (ii) controlling the leakage from the technosphere - i.e., by using high degree of recycling and by avoiding dissipative use, (iii) returning the material to underground repositories (dashed line in Fig. a) and (iv) increasing the sedimentation rate (e.g., by guiding the emissions from the technosphere to areas in the ecosphere where the sedimentation rate is high). There are several reasons for putting the focus early in the causal chain when indicating Principle 1. The elements that are extracted do not disappear and as long as we do not have clever strategies for preventing accumulation in the ecosphere, so it can be approximately acceptable that the elements extracted will finally leak to the ecosphere. Moreover, from the consumption area of the economy, the diffuse emissions now go beyond the more easily detected emissions from the production area for many elements. Bergback (1992) has shown that this is the case for many metals used in Sweden.

6.3 Indicators based on Principle 3 The global population is expected to nearly double by the year 2050. In order to provide a sustainable supply of biomass for food, material, and energy for the growing population, we need to maintain the services of the ecosystems. These services include, for example, generation and maintenance of soils, disposal of wastes and cycling of nutrients, pest control, and pollination. This means that the productivity of lands and the biodiversity of ecosystems must not worsen. This is the essence of Principle 3. 6.3.1

Large-scale transformation of lands Since the beginning of the 18th century, humanity has carried out a large-scale transformation of the Earth’s ecosystems and productive surfaces (see Fig. 3). The area used for crops and grasslands has increased dramatically at the expense of huge losses of primary forests. In the long run, this trend is obviously not 6.4 Indicators based on Principle 4 Principles 1, 2 and 3 constitute the framework for a sustainable influence on nature. Principle 4 states that if we want a prosperous society within this framework, the societal metabolism must be efficient and just. This principle covers four aspects: overall efficiency, inter- and intra-generational equity, and basic human needs. Below, indicators for some of these aspects are given: 6.4.1 Indicator no. 4. 1: overall efficiency A simple schematic description of the societal metabolism is given in Fig. 4. The overall efficiency indicators are measures of the productivity in the technosphere. They indicate how much service13 that is delivered for a certain amount of resources extracted from nature, normalized with respect to the situation a certain year y:

6.2 Socio-ecological indicators based on Principle 2 Based on the second socio-ecological principle for sustainability, substances that are produced due to societal activities should not systematically accumulate in the ecosphere. Here, we formulate socio-ecological indicators for substances that naturally exist and for substances that are foreign to nature.

Service I4.1 =

Service Ey

It is also possible to complement the overall efficiency indicators with specific efficiency indicators that focus on the internal conversion in the technosphere- e.g., the flow P per unit of total input E + R, or the recirculation R compared to the total input E + R,

6.2.1 Indicators for man-made substances that naturally exist The main objective of the two principles discussed above is that sustainability requires that human disruption of the natural cycles and flows of substances should be small enough to prevent a systematic accumulation. Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


η1 =



; η2 =



Dr. N. S. Raman & Dr. Y.R.M. Rao References Adriaanse, A., 1993. Environmental policy performance indicators, Netherlands Ministry of Housing, spatial planning and the environment, The Hague.

The recirculation flow R can also be compared to the total output P* + L:

η2 =

R P* + L

Alfsen, K. H. and Saebo, H.V. (1993): “Environmental quality indicators: Background, Principles and Examples from Norway”. Environmental and Resource Economics 3: 415 - 435, 1993.

In a stationary state, P equals P*and E equals D. It is possible to normalize the efficiencies with normalization values ηn determined according to various principles: normalization to the maximum possible theoretical value, to the best available technology (BAT), or to a desirable value. We get complementary efficiency indicators: Ii =

Ayres,, 1995. Statistical Measures of Sustainability. Working paper 95/34/EPS. 1NSEAD, Fontainebleau.


Basher, L.R. (1996). Biological indicators of sustainability for land management in the South .v Pacific. In: Sustainable Land Management in the South Pacific. Hewlett, D. (Ed). Network” Document no 19. International Board for Soil Research and Management, Bangkok, Thailand:IBSRAM.


Where i =1, 2, 3. As an example of a complementary specific efficiency indicator, we have chosen to indicate the efficiency of the use of nutrients in the Swedish agricultural system. This indicator is defined as;

η= 7.

Bechstedt, HD and Renaud, F. (1996). Protocol for conducting case studies under the framework for the evaluation of sustainable land management. International Board for Soil Research and Management, Bangkok, Thailand: IBSRAM.

Nutrients in provisions from the Swedish agricultural system The supply of nutrients to the Swedish agriculturel system Epilogue

Bockstaller, C., Girardin, P., and van der Verf, H.M. (1997) Use of agro-ecological indicators for the evaluation of farming systems. European Joumal of Agronomy,7,26l-270.

The analytical framework based on the ‘Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Approach’ is used in this paper and applied it to generate a matrix for sustainability indicators compatible with dimensions of sustainability. On working this, we have prepared a single methodological approach by bringing together different elements of the ‘sustainability’. In setting out to test the applicability of this approach in assessing the sustainability of farming in East and Southern Africa, we recognize that exclusive reliance on a predetermined set of indicators to be measured at each case study site would be a mistake. Firstly, it should be noted that indicators may vary in their state of being according to the present environment and the final purpose of their measurement and monitoring. Secondly, it is important to examine external indicators against local stakeholders’ criteria for the success of valid indicators and agricultural systems and livelihoods sustainability.

Brown JD, et al. (1994) Subunits of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae signal recognition particle required for its functional expression. EMBO J 13(18):4390-400 Carbon Footprint Ltd. Carbon FootprintTM. Carbon Footprint Ltd, [n.d.],” Carlsson, 1994, sweden Wikipedia:https:// Carney D (1998) Sustainable Rural Livelihoods. What Contribution Can We Make? DFID, London. Carney, D. Ed. (1998). Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: What Contribution can we make. Papers * presented at DFID’s Natural Resource Advisers Conference, July 1998. Department for International Development, London. CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment). 1991. Appendix IX — A protocol for the derivation of water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life (April 1991). In: Canadian water quality guidelines, Canadian

The main emphasis of this paper is the method for designing socio-ecological indicators for sustainability. Such indicators should be (i) based on a framework for sustainability (the four socioecological principles for sustainability) and (ii) focus early in the causal chain. Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


Dr. N. S. Raman & Dr. Y.R.M. Rao Development Studies 35(1)

Council of Resource and Environment Ministers, 1987. Prepared by the Task Force on Water Quality Guidelines. [Updated and reprinted with minor revisions and editorial changes in Canadian environmental quality guidelines, Chapter 4, Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, 1999, Winnipeg].

Ellis, F. Forthcoming (1999). Rural Livelihood Diversity in Developing Countries: Analysis, ^ Methods, Policy. OUP, FAO. (1996). Use of farm-level information in policy making and planning for sustainable agriculture and rural development, Rome: FAO.

CDE. (1998). Sustainable Land Management: Guidelines for Impact Monitoring. Workbook and Toolkit. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment.

Global HPi | Global HPI | Explore| Happy Planet Index. Home j Happy Planet Index. Web. 03 Feb. 2011

Coughlan, K. (1996). Assessing the sustainability of cropping systems in Pacificland countries: biophysical indicators of sustainability. In: Sustainable Land Management in the South Pacific. Hewlett, D. (Ed). Network Document no 19. International Board for Soil Research and Management, Bangkok, Thailand: IBSRAM,

Haesetal, 1991. The AMPEBE approach as useful tool for establishing sustainable development In: Kuik, O., Verbruggen, H. (Eds), In search of Indicators for Sustainable Development. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 95-124 Ni Xiaoqiang, “The way to green GDP”,,cn, 1 June 2004. Web, 3 February 2011

Doran, J.W., Colernan, D.C., Bezdicek, D.F. and Stewart, B.A. (Eds.) (1994). Defining soil quality for a sustainable environment, SSSA Special Publication No 35, Madison, Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy.

Nilsson, J., & Bergstrom, S. 1995. Indicators for the assessment of ecological and economic consequences of municipal policies for resource use. Journal of Eco-logical Economics,14, 175– 184

Du Jing, “Green GDP Accounting Study Report 2004 issued”. 11 September 2006. Web. 3 Febmary 2011.

OECD (1994), Natural resources Accounts: Taking Stock in OECD countries Opschoor and Reijnders (1991), Towards Sustanable Development Indicators. PP 7 – 29

Dumanski, (1995). Guidelines for conducting case studies under the FESLM.Mimeo.1 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

P. Leroy “L’indice du bonheurmondial: pourquoi? comment?”, OECD website. N. D. 3 February 2011.

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Schenk, Robert, (February, 2011), CyberEconomics, An analysis of Unintendecl Consequences, [Online],, available from: http

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Dr. N. S. Raman & Dr. Y.R.M. Rao : //ingrimayne. GNP2.html

com/econ/Measuring/> 2010, 3 February 2011

SNV, 1994, sweden Wikipedia:https://

Vos etal. (1985), The Netherlands Wikipedia:https:/ /

Ten Brink, B.J.E., 1991. The AMPEBE approach as useful tool for establishing sustainable development In: Kuik, O., Verbruggen, H. (Eds), In search of Indicators for Sustainable Development. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 71-88

Wiedmann, T. and J. Minx. “A Definition of ‘Carbon Footrpint”’. ISAUK Research & Consulting (2008).Web. 5 Feb. 2011. Wikipedia website “Human development index”. . 29 January 2011, 3 February 2011. B.

The Guardian, Beyond GDP Study, (14 Sept. 2009), [Online],, available from: http:// en.wikipediaorg/wiki/Gross_domesticiroduct UNDP




World Commission on Environment and Development, (WCED) 1987. Our Common Future. Oxford University Press, New York.



Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


NOTES & NEWS India Becomes the Second Most Attractive RE Investment Destination

Government serious about straw burning

India has overtaken the US to become the second-most attractive country after China for renewable energy investment, according to a report by a UK accountancy firm EY. In an annual ranking of the top 40 renewable energy markets worldwide in terms of allure, China was ranked at the top, followed by India. According to EY, the US slipped to the third spot from first in last year’s ranking. India was ranked third on last year’s EY renewable energy country attractive-ness index (RECAI) behind the US and China. “India continued its upward trend on the index to second position with the government’s programme to build 175 GW in renewable energy generation by 2022 and have renewable energy account for 40 per cent of installed capacity by 2040. A combination of strong government support and increasingly attractive economics has helped push India into the second place,” EY said in a statement. Solar power tariff has dropped to hit a new low of 2.44 per unit in the recent auction conducted for Bhadla Solar Park. Akshay Urja, June, 2017

The Union government has set aside funds to purchase over 34,000 machines to better manage paddy straw and avoid burning it in three northern states. Happy seeders, hay rakes and straw choppers will be bought for Punjab (13,700), Haryana (15,000) and Uttar Pradesh (6,045). Farmers in the three states burn crop residue during SeptemberNovember and March-May, as wheat and paddy are grown in rotation in the region. It contributes significantly to air pollution in cities like Delhi. As a result, on December 10, 2015, the National Green Tribunal banned the burning of crop residue in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab. Down to Earth, 1-15 September, 2017

IREDA Finances 10,000 Crore Green Projects during 2016-17 The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) increased its financing of green energy projects considerably in 2016-17, crossing the milestone of 10,000 crore in a single year for the first time. IREDA provided loans of 10,200 crore through 2016-17 for 112 clean energy projects across solar, wind, small hydro, and biogas. “In the coming year, we plan to do 12,500-13,000 crore,” said Shri K S Popli, Chairman and Managing Director. It nearly doubled its support for solar projects to 4,785.87 crore in 2016-17 from 2,684.68 crore in 2015-16, but its financing of wind projects dropped slightly to 2,511.69 crore from Rs.2,735.51 crore. The company, currently an NBFC under the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, with mini navratna status, also hopes to come out with an initial public offering later this year. IREDA has also initiated the process of converting from an NBFC to a green bank. The falling tariffs of solar and wind power, thanks to the auction process initiated by the government, may please discoms and consumers, but financiers of renewable energy projects such as IREDA may have reasons to worry as their borrower’s margins get squeezed. Akshay Urja, June 2017

Ecosystem Services Improvement Project The Government of India, the Governments of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh, the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education and the World Bank have signed a $24.64 million grant from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to improve forest quality, sustainable land management and benefits from Non-Timber Forest Products for forest dependent communities in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. The Project will support the Government of India’s Green India Mission’s (GIM) goal of protecting, restoring and enhancing India’s forest cover and responding to climate change. It will improve the quality and productivity of the existing forest in about 50,000 ha. Another 25,000 ha will be used to scale up Sustainable Land and Ecosystem Management (SLEM) practices to prevent land degradation and desertification and increased above-ground forest carbon stock. This will help some 25,000 small and marginal farmers arrest the challenge of land degradation through sustainable land management. The World Bank of India, September 2017 Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

NGT slams Delhi over the use of plastic The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has slammed the Delhi government over the indiscriminate and rampant use of plastic in the national 57

of people who have access to toilets, use them. The Quality Council of India conducted the survey for the ministry. It surveyed 140,000 rural households between May and June this year. Uttar Pradesh and Bihar were found to have the worst rural sanitation facilities. Only 30 per cent of the rural households in Bihar had access to toilets, while Uttar Pradesh was slightly better at 37 per cent. Jharkhand scored the same as Uttar Pradesh. The original survey report will be published later by the ministry. Only a few sections have been published till now on social media by the ministry and the Quality Control of India. Down To Earth, 1-15 September, 2017

capital despite its prohibition. A bench headed by NGT Chairperson Justic Swatanter Kumar directed the government to enforce the ban. “There is ban order on plastic. Why have you not enforced it strictly? There are plastic bags spread all across Delhi. Why don’t you check it up?” the bench asked. When the government counsel said plastic was already banned, the bench said, “Everyday, we see plastic lying on roads in different parts of the city. Why don’t you do something?” In 2016 NGT had banned the use of disposable plastic in Delhi and the National Capital Region with effect from January 1, 2017. Down to Earth, 1-15 September, 2017


India’s infant mortality rate declines

2,60,000 The number of extra deaths projected to be caused by air pollution till 2100 if climate change is left unaddressed, according to a recent study published in Nature Climate Change.

India’s Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) has declined by 8 per cent in 2016. According to data from the Sample Registration Survey bulletin, from 37 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2015, IMR has decreased to 34 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2016. Sachin Jain, a researcher working with Bhopal-based non-profit Vikas Samvad told Down To Earth that India still has a long way to go as far as IMR was concerned. “Child marriage, early pregnancy, neonatal mortality, bad quality of antenatal care, maternal malnutrition and privatisation of healthcare are the reasons why IMR will remain high in India for quite sometime.” The US had an estimated IMR of 5.7 in 2016, while Japan had the lowest, 2.0. Down To Earth, 16-31 October, 2016

15,000 The number of deaths out of 260,000 that would be caused by a boost in fine particulate matter. 43,600 The number of deaths out of 260,000 that would be caused by a climate change-related boost in ozone. 60,000 The number of extra deaths projected to be caused by air pollution by 2030 if climate change is left unaddressed. 55,600 The number of deaths out of 60,000 that would be caused due to a climate change-related boost in fine particulate matter. Down to Earth, 1-15 September, 2017

Wetland management decentralised The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MOEFCC) has notified the new Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules 2017 which prohibit a range of activities in wetlands. The new rules will replace the Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2010. The new rules decentralise wetlands management by giving states powers to not only identify and notify wetlands within their jurisdictions but also keep a watch on prohibited activities. These activities include any

Rural India’s sanitation status In a recent survey, the results of which were recently released by the Union Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, only 62.45 per cent rural households across India were found to have access to toilets. The report also said that 91.29 per cent


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Rajasthan. The park is being set up by M/s Saurya Urja Company of Rajasthan Limited, a joint venture between the Government of Rajasthan and M/s IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited. This tariff is fixed for 25 years with no escalation and bidders have sought no VGF from the government. The winners are M/s ACME Solar Holdings Pvt. Ltd. (200 MW) at a tariff of 2.44 per unit and M/s SBG Cleantech One Ltd. (300 MW), quoting a tariff of 2.45 per unit. It is understood that this fall in solar tariffs is the result of a combination of various factors, most important being the decision of the Government of India to cover solar power by SECI under the ambit of the Tripartite Agreement for payment security against defaults by state distribution companies. Other factors contributing are about 7-8 per cent higher yield in Rajasthan due to better solar radiation conditions, drop in module prices in international market, and strengthening of Indian rupee against US dollar. Akshya Urja, June 2017

kind of encroachment, setting up of any industry, expansion of existing industries, solid waste dumping, discharge of untreated waste and effluents from industries, cities, towns, villages and other human settlements, and poaching. As per the new rules, the Centre’s role has been restricted to monitoring the rules’ implementation by states, recommending trans-boundary wetlands for notification and reviewing integrated management of selected wetlands under the Ramsar Convention. Down To Earth, 16-31 October, 2017

Solar Power Tariff Drops to a Historic Low at 2.44/Unit History was created as the record low tariffs achieved in the auction concluded in May 2017 for Bhadla Phase-IV Solar Park, Rajasthan has been broken, with an even lower tariff of 2.44 per unit discovered in the auction carried out by the Solar Energy Corporation of India Limited (SECI) for 500 MW capacity in Bhadla Phase-III Solar Park,

NEW HORIZONS Manufacturers of : R.C.C. PIPES & COLLARS, S.F.R.C. MAN HOLE COVERS & FRAMES Office : 41A, Syed Amir Ali Avenue, 2nd Floor, Kolkata-700019 Mobile : 9339532911 ● Fax : (033) 24669436 E-mail : [email protected] Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018

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OUR MEMBERS Corporate members of IPHE (I) are requested to send News about their achievements (promotion, new job, foreign assignment, new areas of activities, special honours, scholarships etc.) for publication in the 'Members' News' column. Matters within 100 words should be sent to the Editor.

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Members Elected The following persons with details mentioned against each were elected Corporate Members during 2017-2018. Sl. No. 7.

Name and Address

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Devendra Gill A-232, Shastri Nagar, Delhi-110052

LF 738

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Name and Address Dipak Kumar Sarkar FD-62/3, Sector-III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700106

Membership No. LF 739

Sl. No. 7, 8 were elected in EC Meeting dated 07.11.2017. We cordially welcome the newly elected Members and look forward to their keen interest and whole hearted participation in the activities of IPHE.

Volume XXXXV ● Number 4 ● January 2018


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