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Running Head: IMPLICIT THEORIES AND SELF-STEREOTYPING

Implicit Theories of the World and Implicit Theories of the Self as Moderators of Self-Stereotyping

Yung-Jui Yang1 and Ying-yi Hong1, 2 1

2

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

(in press) Social Cognition

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Abstract Self-stereotyping involves aligning one’s self-perception with the ingroup characteristics and norms, and is arguably a manifestation of a general process to fit oneself in the world. We predicted that this general process should be most salient if the individuals believe in a fixed world and also a malleable self. Using an implicit measure of self-stereotyping, we found that when the individuals believed in a fixed world and the traits were positive, self-stereotyping was accentuated. Furthermore, when they also believed in a malleable self, the aforementioned accentuating effect was stronger. The results suggest that belief in a fixed world may orient individuals to fit in, while belief in a malleable self may further facilitate the process. Also, the moderation effects were found on positive traits only, suggesting that a prevailing self-enhancement process may be concurrently operating. In sum, the results provide an interesting perspective into self-stereotyping from the implicit theories approach.

Keywords: self-stereotyping, implicit theories approach, self-enhancement

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Implicit Theories of the World and Implicit Theories of the Self as Moderators of Self-Stereotyping People seek to define and interpret themselves in various ways and one of them is to define themselves in terms of group membership (Brewer & Gardner, 1996). As soon as people categorize themselves as members of a group, however, depersonalization may take place, whereby “people come to perceive themselves more as the interchangeable exemplars of a social category than as unique personalities defined by their individual differences from others” (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987, p.50). As a result, people would systematically alter the perceptions of the characteristics and attributes of their self in a direction toward the perceived stereotypic ingroup characteristics and norms. This process is known as self-stereotyping (Hogg & Turner, 1987; Simon & Hamilton, 1994). Research has shown that contextual factors can heighten self-stereotyping (e.g., Sinclair, Hardin, & Lowery, 2006). For instance, activating one’s gender identity would lead to a stronger tendency to endorse gender stereotypic attributes for the self and to display gender stereotypic behaviors than without activating gender identity (Chiu, Hong, Lam, Fu, Tong, & Lee, 1998). However, few studies have examined moderating factors that are intrinsic to the self-stereotyping process itself. For one, if self-stereotyping involves a tendency to assimilate the self toward the ingroup stereotypes and norms, the process should be affected by the individual’s assumptions

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(implicit theories) about the malleability of the ingroup and those of the self. That is, self-stereotyping would be most likely to occur if the individual believes that the ingroup stereotypes and norms are fixed (versus malleable) and the self is malleable (versus fixed). To extrapolate this further, self-stereotyping should be strongest if the individual believes that the characteristics of social groups and organizations in general are fixed (versus malleable) and those of the self are malleable (versus fixed). To test this idea, we designed the present study that combined the implicit theories approach and self-stereotyping. Implicit Theories Approach Implicit theories approach has its roots in multiple disciplines. Personality psychologist G. A. Kelly’s (1955) theory of personal construct and social psychologist F. Heider’s (1958) theory of social personality share the argument that lay people are naïve (i.e., untrained) scientists who use naïve assumptions to make sense of themselves and the social reality. Cognitive psychologist D. L. Medin and collaborators (Medin, 1989; Murphy & Medin, 1985) also argued that people’s background knowledge or lay theories about the reality are important in structuring the attributes internal to a concept and making the concept, such as a social group, coherent. Implicit theories as investigated by Dweck and colleagues (e.g., Dweck, 1999) are domain-specific lay beliefs of the mutability of the social reality. As reviewed by Dweck and Leggett (1988), the domains broadly include attributes from those more internal and within the

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self, such as one’s own intelligence (Hong, Chiu, Dweck, Lin, & Wan, 1999) and abilities (Butler, 2000), to those more external and beyond the self, such as other people’s personality (Levy, Stroessner, & Dweck, 1998) and the social world people live in (Chiu, Dweck, Tong, & Fu, 1997; Dweck, Chiu, & Hong, 1995). In this article, we focus on the domain of the self and the domain of the world, in which the self is embedded. These two domains are conceptually distinct. More specifically, implicit theories of the world are lay beliefs regarding whether the social world and its institutions can be changed or not, and Dweck and collaborators make the distinction between entity and incremental theories of the world (Chiu et al., 1997; Dweck et al., 1995). In particular, entity theory of the world refers to the lay belief that the social world consists of static and fixed characteristics and thus cannot be changed (an example item is “Our world has its basic or ingrained characteristics, and you really can’t do much to change them”), whereas incremental theory of the world refers to the lay belief that the social world consists of fluid and malleable characteristics and thus can be changed or improved (e.g., “No matter what the core characteristics of our world are, they can be substantially altered”). Similarly, implicit theories of the self are lay beliefs regarding whether one’s personal qualities can be changed or not. Among them, entity theory of the self refers to the lay belief that one’s personal qualities cannot be changed (e.g., “I am a certain kind of person, and there is not much that can be done to really change that”), whereas incremental theory of the self refers to the

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lay belief that one’s personal qualities can be changed (e.g., “I can always substantially change the kind of person I am”). How would implicit theories help to elucidate self-stereotyping? We argue that self-stereotyping can be understood as a manifestation of a general process of changing oneself to fit in the world, and people living in a “perceived” static, unchangeable world would feel a need to modify their personal qualities in order to adjust to the fixed environment (Morling & Evered, 2006). In other words, the beliefs in a fixed world (versus a malleable world) should sustain this need (Chen, Chiu, & Chan, in press) and therefore the process to assimilate the self toward the established group norms. Thus, we predict that entity theory (versus incremental theory) of the world should accentuate self-stereotyping (Hypothesis 1). Furthermore, the moderating effect of entity theory of the world should also depend on whether the self can be changed or not. This is because if the self is believed to be fixed and unchangeable, people would find it difficult to change or adjust themselves and thus would become reluctant to assimilate toward the fixed world. Therefore, we predict that the more malleable (the less fixed) the self is believed to be, the stronger the moderating effect of implicit theory of the world on self-stereotyping should be (Hypothesis 2). Method Participants

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Participants were 79 undergraduate students enrolled in the Introduction to Psychology course in the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). They participated in this study in exchange for course credits. They consisted of all European Americans (56 females and 23 males) with a mean age of 18.78 (SD = 0.77). The target groups were Greek (i.e., fraternity/sorority) versus non-Greek groups. UIUC had the largest Greek system in the United States and about 22% of all undergraduate students are Greek members (UIUC Public Affairs, n.d.). In this study, there were 20 Greek group members and 59 non-Greek members participating. For participants who were Greek members, Greek group was their ingroup and non-Greek group was the outgroup; the reverse was true for participants who were non-Greek members. Materials Implicit theories of the world. We used an eight-item measure to assess participants’ implicit theories of the world (Chen et al., in press; Chiu et al., 1997; Dweck et al., 1995). Four of the items convey entity theory and four convey incremental theory. Participants responded to the items on a 7-point scale, from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). The four items for incremental theory were reverse-coded so that all items reflected entity theory of the world. The scale had a mean of 4.25 (SD = 1.09) and an internal reliability of α = .91. The range of scores was from 1.00 to 6.88.

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Implicit theories of the self. We used an eight-item measure to assess participants’ implicit theories of the self, which was adapted from the scale of the “kind of person” implicit theory—“others” form for adults (Dweck, 1999). Four items tap entity theory of the self, and the other four items tap incremental theory of the self. We substituted the reference of others (e.g., “people”, “everyone”, and “someone”) to the reference of the self (e.g., “I”). Participants responded to the items on a 7-point scale, from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). The four items for incremental theory were reverse-coded so that all items reflected entity theory of the self. The scale had a mean of 4.97 (SD = 0.87) and an internal reliability of α = .83. The range of scores was from 2.38 to 7.00. Self-stereotyping. In this research, we borrowed from Smith and Henry’s (1996) response time paradigm to tap self-stereotyping. This paradigm involves a paper-and-pencil portion and a computerized portion. First, participants were shown a list of 90 traits on a questionnaire and asked to rate how much each trait describes themselves, the Greek group, and the non-Greek group, on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (very untypical) to 7 (very typical). The 90 traits were identical to those previously used by Smith and Henry, and Smith, Coats, and Walling (1999). Sample items are “active” and “independent”. Second, on a computer screen, participants were presented with the 90 traits again in random order one at a time. They were asked to make dichotomous, “yes” or “no” responses as fast as they can about whether each trait describes

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themselves. Smith and Henry found that participants’ self-responses were faster when the self-responses matched the ingroup descriptiveness from the questionnaire (i.e., on a given trait, they responded “yes” for themselves and their previous rating of ingroup descriptiveness was above 4, or they responded “no” for themselves and the previous ingroup descriptiveness was below 4) than when they mismatched. They interpreted this pattern of responses as demonstrating self-stereotyping. Procedure When they arrived at the laboratory, the participants were first asked whether they belonged to a Greek group on campus and then completed the paper-and-pencil portion of the self-stereotyping paradigm. The three targets (themselves, the Greek group, and the non-Greek group) were shown on three different questionnaires and the order of the questionnaires was counterbalanced. Then, the participants completed the measures of implicit theories of the world and implicit theories of the self. Finally, participants completed the computerized portion of the self-stereotyping paradigm on the mouse device, with the left button for yes responses and the right button for no responses. The 90 traits showed up on the computer screen in a random order. Participants’ self-responses and the response times were recorded. After that, the participants were debriefed, thanked, and dismissed.

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Analytical Design Because the response times (RT) for the 90 traits were nested within participants, hierarchical linear modeling was employed and the dependent variable was the response latency. We analyzed the data in two models. The first model sought to replicate previous findings by Smith and Henry’s (1996), as it is important to establish that our data also demonstrated self-stereotyping effect. The second model included the implicit theories of the world and implicit theories of the self in addition to all the independent variables in the first model in order to test their moderating effects on self-stereotyping. In the first model, the independent variables were (a) Self-Response (yes, no; dichotomous self-descriptiveness on the computer), (b) Ingroup Descriptiveness (yes, no; dichotomized descriptiveness from the questionnaire, where 1-3 were categorized as no and 5-7 were yes), (c) Outgroup Descriptiveness (yes, no; dichotomized descriptiveness from the questionnaire, where 1-3 were no and 5-7 were yes), and (d) Valence of the trait, which was determined using consensual evaluations by another 230 students from the same population (positive, negative; dichotomized valence). In short, the first model had four independent variables. Self-stereotyping effect would be demonstrated if the interaction effect between Self-Response and Ingroup Descriptiveness is significant and the pattern of interaction is similar to the one we described above.1

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In the second model, two independent variables were added: (e) Fixed-World Belief (continuous, mean-centered) and (f) Fixed-Self Belief (continuous, mean-centered). Implicit theories of the world and implicit theories of the self were moderately correlated, r = .43, p <.0001. To examine their unique effects, we included both theory variables in the linear model simultaneously so that they were controlling for each other. In short, the second model had six independent variables, with the first four identical to those in the first model. Following Smith and Henry’s (1996) procedure, we excluded all outliers (i.e., response latency less than 300 ms or greater than 5,000 ms, which accounts for about 1.6% of all cases), log-transformed the response latency, and then performed the described hierarchical linear modeling. Results Self-Stereotyping Effect In the first model, we wanted to test whether our data replicated Smith and Henry’s (1996) original self-stereotyping effect. Following their procedures, we included those traits that were well-defined for the self, ingroup, and outgroup, that is, the traits that received either 1-3 or 5-7 on the 7-point scale in the questionnaires. The analysis revealed six significant effects. Three of them were also found in Smith and Henry (1996) and reported below2. First, a main effect of Self-Response, t(3392) = -5.15, p

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< .0001, showed that yes responses (M = 960 ms) were faster than no responses (M = 1044 ms). Second, there was a significant interaction of Self-Response × Valence, t(3392) = -10.11, p < .0001, indicating that people were faster to accept positive traits and reject negative ones as describing themselves. This suggests a self-serving bias. Third, the key two-way interaction of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness was significant, t(3392) = -2.00, p < .05, indicating that self-responses were faster when they matched the ingroup (M = 985 ms) than mismatched (M = 1019 ms). In short, self-responses matching the ingroup were 33 ms faster, 95% C.I. = [1 ms, 66 ms], than mismatching responses on average. This replicated the original self-stereotyping effect. Moderating Effects of Implicit Theories on Self-Stereotyping Given that we replicated the self-stereotyping effect in the first model, we continued to test whether self-stereotyping would be moderated by implicit theories of the world and implicit theories of the self. The analysis showed that in the second model, all of the six effects found in the first model remained significant or marginally significant, while there were five additional effects. One of them was relevant to our investigation and reported below3. However, the predicted three-way interaction effect of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness × Fixed-World Belief, was not significant, t(3347) = -0.56, nor was there a significant four-way interaction effect of

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Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness × Fixed-World Belief × Fixed-Self Belief, t(3347) = -0.10. Nonetheless, there was a four-way interaction effect of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness × Valence × Fixed-World Belief, t(3347) = -2.07, p < .05, suggesting that the more people believed in a fixed world and the traits were positive, the stronger the self-stereotyping effect was. Following West, Aiken, and Krull’s (1996) procedure in analyzing categorical by continuous variable interactions, we found that the simple two-way interaction effect of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness was significant only when people believed in a relatively fixed world and when the traits were positive, t(3347) = -2.51, p < .05, indicating that entity theory of the world accentuated selective self-stereotyping (Biernat, Vescio, & Green, 1996). This simple effect was plotted in Figure 1a, where self-responses matching the ingroup were 120 ms faster, 95% C. I. = [29 ms, 212 ms], than mismatching responses on average. The other three simple interaction effects were non-significant. But for the purpose of comparison, we plotted them in Figure 1b through 1d.4 In short, Hypothesis 1 was partially supported. Finally, we tested whether the four-way interaction effect of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness × Valence × Fixed-World Belief was further moderated by implicit theory of the self. The results revealed a marginally significant five-way interaction effect of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness × Valence × Fixed-World Belief × Fixed-Self Belief, t(3347) = 1.71, p

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< .10, indicating that the facilitating effect of fixed-world belief on selective self-stereotyping tended to be stronger for relatively malleable-self believers. However, it should be noted that in Smith and Henry’s (1996) dataset, the self-descriptiveness was relatively distinct to begin with (i.e., 1-3 or 5-7 on the 7-point scale). We suspected that the moderating effect of malleable-self belief should be more salient with traits that were initially rated as neutral or ambiguous in describing the self (i.e., rated 4 on 1-7) because those traits should be easier to be changed toward either ends in dichotomous self-responding, than the more distinct traits. Therefore, we added those data associated with neutral self back5 (about 10% of the data) and the analysis revealed that the five-way interaction of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness × Valence × Fixed-World Belief × Fixed-Self Belief was significant, t(3774) = 3.42, p < .001. Post-hoc simple effect analysis showed that only when the traits were positive and people believed in both a fixed world and a malleable self, the simple two-way interaction effect of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness was significant t(3774) = -2.79, p < .01 (see Figure 2a), and the self-responses matching the ingroup were 210 ms faster, 95% C. I. = [70 ms, 350 ms], than mismatching responses on average. The other seven simple interaction effects of self-stereotyping were not significant. But for the purpose of comparison, we plotted them in Figure 2b through 2h.6 In short, Hypothesis 2 was partially supported. Discussion

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This research sets out to elucidate the process of self-stereotyping from the implicit theory approach (Dweck, 1999). We argued that self-stereotyping is an manifestation of the general process of changing oneself to fit in the world, and the general process is related to the individual’s implicit theories of the world and implicit theories of the self. Specifically, we hypothesized that (a) the belief in a fixed world would strengthen the tendency to fit in, which should in turn manifest in self-stereotyping, and (b) the belief in a changeable self would further strengthen the moderating effect of the fixed-world belief on this general process, which should in turn manifest in greater self-stereotyping. Although the results do not completely support the two hypotheses, we found that when traits are positive, belief in a fixed world does accentuate self-stereotyping, and belief in a malleable self does further strengthen this moderating effect. In short, the predicted moderating effects are found on selective self-stereotyping (Biernat et al., 1996; Oswald & Lindstedt, 2006). In selective self-stereotyping, people embrace positive ingroup stereotypes as highly descriptive of themselves, while accept negative ingroup stereotypes as typical of their ingroup in general (Biernat et al., 1996). Doing so allows them not only to acknowledge their important social identity but also to fulfill the general goal of self-enhancement (e.g., Baumeister, 1982) at the same time. Our key results as seen in Figure 1a and Figure 2a also show some interesting patterns. First,

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the effect of self-stereotyping, as indicated by the response time difference toward match-mismatch traits, was 33 ms in the first model, where the two kinds of implicit theories were not included. It increased by 3.64 times to 120 ms when entity theory of the world and positive traits were considered, although this increase is not significant according to the overlapping confidence intervals. Despite this, when incremental theory of the self was also considered, it increased by 6.36 times to 210 ms, and the increase is significant because of the non-overlapping confidence intervals. This significant difference demonstrates the benefits of considering both implicit theories as well as trait valence in understanding self-stereotyping. Second, among the four bars shown in Figure 1a, it took individuals who believed in a fixed world the longest to reject positive ingroup traits as describing themselves. This pattern was even more obvious in Figure 2a when the individuals were those who believed in both a fixed world and a malleable self. This observed pattern of differences is reasonable because rejecting positive ingroup traits as describing oneself is working against the two principles of selective self-stereotyping at the same time: the general goal of self-enhancement and the inclusion of the ingroup in one’s self-concepts. By the same token, we also observed that those who believed in both a fixed world and a malleable self were quickest to affirm positive ingroup traits as describing themselves (as shown in Figure 2a). This observed pattern of differences is reasonable because affirming positive ingroup traits as describing oneself can achieve both

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self-enhancement and inclusion of the ingroup in one’s self-concepts. Third, while implicit theories of the world moderates selective self-stereotyping and implicit theories of the self further accentuate this moderating effect, implicit theories of the self does not appear to directly moderate selective self-stereotyping. Therefore, belief in a fixed world (versus a malleable world) appears to fuel the fitting-in process more fundamentally than belief in a malleable self. It is possible that people living in a fixed world may feel a need to fit in, and when such a need exists, belief in a malleable self (versus a fixed self) may facilitate the fulfillment of this need by making it easier for people to fit in. To our knowledge, the current research is the first to indicate the link between implicit theories of the world, implicit theories of the self, and self-stereotyping. Future research may consider the following directions: (a) testing whether the current effects can be generalized to other measures of self-stereotyping; (b) manipulating the two implicit theories to test a causal link and directly measuring the need to fit in, in order to further test the general process; (c) extending the moderating effects of implicit theories beyond self-stereotyping, as self-stereotyping is just one manifestation of the general fitting-in process. In sum, more work needs to be done to gain a fuller understanding of the basic principles of the psychological processes linking the self with the social world.

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References Baumeister, R. F. (1982). A self-presentational view of social phenomena. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 3-27. Biernat, M., Vescio, T. K., & Green, M. L. (1996). Selective self-stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1194-1209.

Brewer, M. B. (1991). The social self: On being the same and different at the same time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 475-482.

Brewer, M. B., & Gardner, W. (1996). Who is this “we”? Levels of collective identity and self representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 83-93.

Butler, R. (2000). Making judgments about ability: The role of implicit theories of ability in moderating inferences from temporal and social comparison information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 965-978. Chen, J., Chiu, C., & Chan, F. S. (in press). The cultural effects of job mobility and the belief in a fixed world: Evidence from performance forecast. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Chiu, C., Dweck, C. S., Tong, J. Y., Fu, J. H. (1997). Implicit theories and conceptions of morality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 923-940.

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Chiu, C. Y., Hong, Y. Y., Lam, I. C. M., Fu, J. H. Y., Tong, J. Y. Y., & Lee, V. S. L. (1998). Stereotyping and self-presentation: Effects of gender stereotype activation. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 1, 81-96. Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Dweck, C. S., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (1995). Implicit theories and their role in judgments and reactions: A world from two perspectives. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 267-285.

Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.

Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.

Hogg, M. A., & Turner, J. C. (1987). Intergroup behavior, self-stereotyping and the salience of social categories. British Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 325-340.

Hong, Y. Y., Chiu, C. Y., Dweck, C. S., Lin, D. M. S., & Wan, W. (1999). Implicit theories, attributions, and coping: A meaning system approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 588-599.

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Kelly, G. A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs. New York: Norton.

Levy, S. R., Stroessner, S. J., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Stereotype formation and endorsement: The role of implicit theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1421-1436. Medin, D. L. (1989). Concepts and conceptual structre. American Psychologist, 44, 1469-1481. Morling, B., & Evered, S. (2006). Secondary control reviewed and defined. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 269-296. Murphy, G. L., & Medin, D. L. (1985). The role of theories in conceptual coherence. Psychological Review, 92, 289-316. Oswald, D. L., & Lindstedt, K. (2006). The content and function of gender self-stereotypes: An exploratory investigation. Sex Roles, 54, 447-458.

Simon, B., & Hamilton, D. L. (1994). Self-stereotyping and social-context: The effects of relative in-group size and in-group status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 699-711.

Sinclair, S., Hardin, C. D., & Lowery, B.S. (2006). Implicit self-stereotyping in the context of multiple social identities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 529-542.

Smith, E. R., & Henry, S. (1996). An in-group becomes part of the self: Response time evidence.

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Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 635-642. Smith, E. R., Coats, S., & Walling, D. (1999). Overlapping mental representations of self, in-group, and partner: Further response time evidence and a connectionist model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 873-882. Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., & Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell. UIUC Public Affairs. (n.d.). Facts 2008: Illinois by the numbers. Retrieved April 13, 2008, from http://www.publicaffairs.uiuc.edu/facts/facts.html

West, S. G., Aiken, L. S., & Krull, J. L. (1996). Experimental personality designs: Analyzing categorical by continuous variable interactions. Journal of Personality, 64, 1-48.

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Author Note This research is partially supported by a grant from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Reference Number: RCC6/2008/NBS) awarded to Ying-yi Hong. The authors would like to thank research assistants Tim Fong and Pandu Dewa Sunu for helping collect the data. Correspondence should be addressed to Yung-Jui Yang, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA. Email: [email protected]

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Footnotes 1

Outgroup Descriptiveness was also included in the analysis to test whether self-responses

are faster not only when the self and ingroup are perceived as similar but also when the self and outgroup are perceived as dissimilar, an effect that would be interpreted as supporting Brewer’s (1991) Optimal Distinctiveness Theory (ODT). Valence was included because it helps to test whether self-stereotyping occurred for both positive and negative traits. 2

In the first model, there was also an interesting three-way interaction effect of

Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness × Outgroup Descriptiveness, t(3392) = 2.21, p < .05, showing that participants were faster to accept those traits that matched the ingroup but mismatched the outgroup, as describing themselves. This effect supports ODT. In addition, an interaction effect of Ingroup Descriptiveness × Valence, t = -3.12, p < .01, indicated that the average self-responses (regardless of yes or no) were faster when the traits were positive and typical of the ingroup. Finally, a main effect of Outgroup Descriptiveness, t = -2.19, p < .05, showed that the average self-responses (regardless of yes or no) were faster when the traits were typical of the outgroup. 3

In the second model, there was also an interesting four-way interaction effect of

Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness × Outgroup Descriptiveness × Fixed-World Belief , t(3347) = 3.25, p < .01, indicating that the ODT effect was stronger for relatively fixed-world

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believers. Moreover, a two-way interaction of Ingroup Descriptiveness × Fixed-World Belief, t = 2.59, p < .01, indicated that the average self-responses (regardless of yes or no) were slower when relatively fixed-world believers were responding on traits that were typical of the ingroup (regardless of trait valence and outgroup descriptiveness). This was further qualified by a four-way interaction of Ingroup Descriptiveness × Outgroup Descriptiveness × Valence × Fixed-World Belief, t = -3.16, p < .01, indicated that the average self-responses (regardless of yes or no) were faster when relatively fixed-world believers were responding on traits that were positive and typical of the ingroup as well as the outgroup. Finally, an interesting three-way interaction effect of Self-Response × Valence × Fixed-Self Belief, t = 2.56, p < .05, indicated that the self-serving bias found in the first model was stronger for relatively malleable-self believers. 4

In Figure 1, the p-values associated with the simple main effect of Self-Response, the

simple main effect of Ingroup Descriptiveness, and the simple interaction effect of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness, respectively, are as follows; Panel (a): p < .0001, p = .57, p < .05; Panel (b): p < .0001, p < .01, p = .89; Panel (c): p < .001, p < .01, p = .38; and Panel (d): p = .07, p = .60, p = .21. 5

With this fuller dataset, all significant effects reported were still significant; all

non-significant effects reported were still non-significant. 6

In Figure 2, the p-values associated with the simple main effect of Self-Response, the

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simple main effect of Ingroup Descriptiveness, and the simple interaction effect of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness, respectively, are as follows; Panel (a): p < .0001, p = .31, p < .01; Panel (b): p < .0001, p < .01, p = .40; Panel (c): p < .01, p < .05, p = .06; Panel (d): p < .01, p = .82, p = .18; Panel (e): p < .0001, p = .99, p = .16; Panel (f): p < .05, p = .69, p = .15; Panel (g): p < .01, p = .22, p = .09; and Panel (h): p = .48, p = .18, p = .98.

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Figure Captions Figure 1. Response times (ms) for dichotomous, forced-choice self-responses as a function of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness, with distinct traits for the self, on positive/negative traits (trait valence scores at M±1SD) and for people believing in a fixed/ malleable world (entity theory of the world scores at M±1SD). The simple interaction effect of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness, indicating a pattern of self-stereotyping, is significant only in panel (a).4 Figure 2. Response times (ms) for dichotomous, forced-choice self-responses as a function of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness, with both neutral and distinct traits for the self, on positive/negative traits (trait valence scores at M±1SD) and for people believing in a fixed/malleable world (entity theory of the world scores at M±1SD) and a fixed/malleable self (entity theory of the self scores at M±1SD). The simple interaction effect of Self-Response × Ingroup Descriptiveness, indicating a pattern of self-stereotyping, is significant only in panel (a).6

Implicit Theories 27

Figure 1

(a) Positive Traits, Fixed World

(b) Positive Traits, Malleable World

(c) Negative Traits, Fixed World

(d) Negative Traits, Malleable World

Implicit Theories 28

Figure 2

(a) Positive Traits, Fixed World, Malleable Self (b) Positive Traits, Malleable World, Malleable Self

(c) Negative Traits, Fixed World, Malleable

(d) Negative Traits, Malleable World,

Self

Malleable Self

Implicit Theories 29

(e) Positive Traits, Fixed World, Fixed Self

(f) Positive Traits, Malleable World, Fixed Self

(g) Negative Traits, Fixed World, Fixed Self

(h) Negative Traits, Malleable World, Fixed Self

Implicit Theories 1 Running Head: IMPLICIT THEORIES ...

self, such as one's own intelligence (Hong, Chiu, Dweck, Lin, & Wan, 1999) and abilities (Butler,. 2000), to those more external and beyond the self, such as other people's .... the self. The scale had a mean of 4.97 (SD = 0.87) and an internal reliability of α = .83. The range of scores was from 2.38 to 7.00. Self-stereotyping.

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