G67 - Northwest Iberian supra-Mediterranean Quercus pyrenaica-forests with Genista falcata

Distribution | Scientific names | Community structure | Dominant species | Diagnostically important species | Ecological variants | Geographical variants | Natural accompanying vegetation | Adjoining climax and permanent vegetation | Land use | Site conditions | Nature protection | Loci typici | Literature | Compiled by |Pictures • Title Northwest Iberian supra-Mediterranean Quercus pyrenaica-forests with Genista falcata

Geographical distribution

• Country/territory North-eastern Portugal: Trás-os-Montes, Serra de Estrela; Spain: province Salamanca, Castilian-Leon; sector Orensano-Sanabriense and Salmantino

• area covered 13760 km²

• area frequency 14 polygons. Scientific names of main plant communities and their most common synonyms (with author citation) Genisto falcatae-Quercetum pyrenaicae Penas & Díaz 1985. •

• Structural feature of the main community(ies) (layers, life-forms, etc.) Three-layered Quercus pyrenaica forests of average height with numerous acidophytic species.

Dominant and most frequent species in different layers

• Tree layer Quercus pyrenaica

• Shrub layer Genista falcata, Halimium umbellatum, Erica arborea

• Lianas No details

• Herb layer Melampyrum pratense, Viola riviniana, Festuca elegans, Helictotrichon sulcatum, Luzula forsteri, Teucrium scorodonia, Pteridium aquilinum

• Moss layer (incl. lichens) No details • Diagnostically important species Quercus pyrenaica; Genista falcata; Festuca elegans

Ecological variants

Geographical variants (geogr. differential species)

No details

No details

Natural accompanying vegetation (most important units in complex with the name giving mapping unit, scientific names) Alluvial forests: Galio broteriani-Alnetum glutinosae, Salicetum lambertiano-salviifoliae, Fraxino angustifoliae-Quercetum pyrenaicae. •

• Adjoining climax and permanent vegetation (with numbers of mapping units) acidophilous oak forests (F23), Quercus pyrenaica-forests (G65, G70), Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia-forests (J5, J9), cork oak forests (J23, J24, J25), lowland and alluvial forests (U29).

Land use, substitute communities

• forestry (substitute communities, plantations of economic tree-species, scrub) Pine-forestry; Retama and broom scrub (Genestion floridae) as degradation stages of oak forest: Genisto hystricis-Cytisetum multiflori with Cytisus scoparius, Cytisus multiflorus, Genista hystrix, Pteridium aquilinum; degraded scrub: Genisto hystricis-Echinospartetum lusitanici on rocky soils with Echinospartum ibericum, Cistus laurifolius, Calluna vulgaris, Santolina rosmarinifolia.

• grassland (meadows, pastures, herb-rich communities) Heath scrub (Genistello tridentatae-Ericetum aragonensis) and Cistaceae scrub (Cistion laurifolii) on soils tending to podzolise; pastures: Triseto ovati-Agrostietum truncatulae; Corynephoro canescentisLeucanthemopsietum pulverulentae with species such as Agrostis castellana, Dactylis glomerata subap. hispanica, Aira praecox.

• arable land (characteristic weed communities) Only on deeper soils.

• settlements (typical ruderal vegetation) No details •

Site conditions of the mapping unit

• Landscape type, geomorphology mountainous country

• Altitudinal belt and/or altitudinal range supra-Mediterranean; 600-1200 m

• Geology (bedrock) base-deficient siliceous rock; (Palaeozoic, Precambrian)

• Soil conditions •

soil type, also the depth of fine textured earth (soil), stone content; (international nomenclature) acidic, base-deficient brown soils; (stony humic and lithic dystric cambisols; lithic leptosols)

soil texture stony, loamy-sandy

soil moisture, water balance moderately dry to dry

soil reaction strongly to moderately acidic

soil fertility oligotrophic

• Climate incl. local climate

climate type (following Walter & Lieth) IV(VI)

average annual temperature 8-12 °C

average annual precipitation 600-1000 mm

average temperature of the warmest month 20-22 °C

average temperature of the coldest month 3-5 °C

local climate or other climatic peculiarities subhumid climate.

Importance for nature protection

• Present state and development trend of natural vegetation (degree of endangerment) No details

• endangered communities, species worthy of protection in natural vegetation No details

• causes of endangerment Fires, plantation with pine.

• required measures for protection and restitution No details •

Localities of representative stands (loci typici) with state of protection

• of the natural vegetation Portugal: Parque Natural de Montesinho, Reserva Natural da Serra da Malcata and Serra da Nogueira, Parque Natural da Serra da Estrela.

• of characteristic substitute communities worthy of protection --• Most important references (author, year) Díaz González & Penas Merino 1984; Fernández-González 1988; Navarro Andres, Sánchez Anta, Gonzáles Zapatero, Gallego Martin, Elena Rosello & Valle Gutierrez 1987; Peinado Lorca & Rivas-Martínez (Ed.) 1987; Penas Merino, García González & Herrero Cembranos 1995; Rivas-Martínez 1987

• Compiled by A. Penas Merino and L. Herrero Cembranos; C. Pinto Gomes; V. Voggenreiter based on documents by S. Rivas-Martínez


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