FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS BIOLOGY DEPARTMENT

SBI 3013 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOLOGY

ASSIGNMENT TITLE : SIMULATION BY STELLA SOFTWARE Prepared by :NAME

MATRIC NUMBER

NABILA ALIYA BINTI SHAHROL

D20152071968

SITI NOR AMIRA MOHD AZLI

D20152071969

SITI QHALILAH RADIN

D20152071984

LECTURER’S NAME :ENCIK AZMI IBRAHIM

TABLE OF CONTENT No.

Title

Page Number

1.0

Introduction to Simulation

2

2.0

Model simulation of biological control in the palm ecosystem by

3

STELLA software 2.1

Results

4-5

2.2

Discussion

6

3.0

Importance of simulation in learning process

7

4.0

Simulation in future learning

8

5.0

Conclusion

9

References

10

1.0

Introduction to Simulation

In a wider sense, simulation means imitation. It is a representation of the functioning of a system or process. Application of this simulation have been used since thousands of years to train, explain and entertain. Nowadays, we are getting good at using simulation with the help of computers and technology. However, computer power does have its limitation, thus, the simulation are deliberately emphasize one part of reality at the expenses of the other parts. Through simulation, a model may be implanted with unlimited variations, producing complex scenarios. These capabilities allow analysis and understanding of how individual elements interact and affect the simulated environment. When we heard of stimulation, most of us will think of aeroplane stimulation, that is exactly it is. For example, a flight simulator is a device that artificially re-creates aircraft flight and the environment in which it flies, for pilot training, design or other purposes. It includes replicating the equations that govern how aircraft fly, how they react to applications of flight controls, the effects of other aircraft systems and how the aircraft reacts to external factors such as air density, turbulence, wind shear, cloud and precipitation. There are three types of simulations; live, virtual and constructive. A simulation can be a combination of two or more style. Usually, simulation can be science-based or involve interactions with humans. For live simulations, it normally involve human or equipment and activity in a setting where they would operate for real. Military training events using real equipments are the example of live stimulation. They are considered live stimulationss because they are not conducted against a live enemy. In virtual simulations, it involves real people operating simulated system. A flight stimulator is included in this category. Constructive simulations typically do not involve humans or any equipment as participants. Rather than by time, they are more driven by the proper sequencing of events. The anticipated path of hurricane might be constructed through application of temperatures, pressures, wind currents and other weather factors. Most of science-based simulation are constructive in nature. Stella, is a software that can be used to develops simulations needed in an easy way by the educators. Besides that, Stella models provide endless learning opportunities to be explore and observe what will happen next, inspiring an exciting momments or learning. Stella models also support diverse learning styles with a wide range of storytelling features. Diagrams, charts, and animation help visual learners discover relationships between variables in an equation

2.0

Model simulation of biological control in the palm ecosystem by Stella software This model represents the simulation of biological control agents that had been performed in palm ecosystem using owl to control the rats .Palm oil is one of Malaysia's largest agricultural export and contribute well for this country’s economy. The production of the palm oil is depends on some factor which one of the factor is . the presence of pests, rodents, will caused a negative impact on the production of oil resources in the ecosystem. Therefore, this study focuses on the use of biological control methods using owl to ensure that the rat population in palm oil plantations are at a minimum using simulation by Stella software. From this simulation, we are able to observe the relationship between rats and production of oils and also the relationship between rat and owls. (Azmi Ibrahim & et al, 2015). Diagram 2.0: Model simulation which shows the relationship between the owl, rats and palm production.

2.1

Results of simulation and modelling using Stella software

Figure 2.1 (a): Original graph of population of rats, owl and production of palm

Description: 1) The number of rat population

= 15000 rats

2) The number of owl population

= 10 owls

3) Production of palm

= 207,000,000.00

Figure 2.1 (b): Graph of high population of rats with low population of owl and effects on production of palm.

Description: 1) The number of rat population

= 25000 rats

2) The number of owl population

= 5 owls

3) Production of palm

= Low

Figure 2.1 (c): Graph of low population of rats with high population of owl and effects on production of palm.

Description: 1) The number of rat population

= 15000 rats

2) The number of owl population

= 15 owls

3) Production of palm

= High

Figure 2.1 (d) : Table of number population for owl, rats and production of palm in the ecosystem.

2.2

Discussion

Model simulation of biological control in the palm ecosystem by Stella software shows the relationship between the rats, owl as the agents of biological control and the production of palm. The prototype model successfully demonstrates the balance of this ecosystem between the three entities involved in the study. (Azmi Ibrahim Zuraidy Adnan, Khairul Annuar Abdullah, Mohd Fahmi Mohamad Amran & Nor Azliana Akmal Jamaludin, 2015). Biological control refer to the use of a pest's natural predators in controlling their populations in order to minimize their impact on economic and environmental practices. Based on this stimulation, owl has been used as biological control agents to reduce the damage of palm production. Based on the graph obtained 2.1 (a), we can observed there are 15000 population of rats, 15 owls and produce 207,000,000.00 of palm. For the second graph, 2.1 (b), when the data was manipulated in which there are high population of rats with 25 000 rats and low population of owls caused low production of palm. In the other hand, for the graph 2.1 (c), we can observed that when there are low population of rats and high population of owls caused high production of palm. In addition, based on the table obtained from this stimulation also, we can observed that the production of the palm is depends on the population of the rats while the rats population depend on the number of owl population. From this result, we can conclude that these three organisms are related to each other by food chain that had happen in the ecosystem. Food chains are formed by the producer and consumers. In this study, the producer referred to the palm, followed by rats as primary consumer and secondary consumer which is the owl. The food chain in the ecosystem can be represented by the diagram below:Diagram 2.2: Food chain in palm ecosystem

From the food chain, we can see the relationship between them in which if the numbers of rat increase , the palm production will decreasing, but the population of owls will increasing.If the rat population decrease, the production of palm will increasing.In a conclusion, a food chain is a way of depicting the flow of energy from one organism to the next and to the next and so on and shows the relationship between organism in an ecosystem which depends on each other.

3.0

Importance of simulation in learning process Simulation can be very much of helps in the process of teaching and learning in the class. First of all, simulation can encourage and increase students motivation to learn something new in the class. Denton’s 1994 study supports the motivational power of simulation. By using simulation such as Stella, students are given the opportunities to explore and experience with the situation they could not work directly with in real life due to several factors such as time consuming, dangerous and costly. Since simulations can recreate experiences, a research shows that people, especially adults learn better by experiences than through reading or lectures . Simulated experiences can be just as valuable training tool as the real thing. A simulator usually use any combination of sound, sight, motion and smell to make us feel that we are actually experiencing the situation. This make the learning become much more intresting and this kind of learning is usually is hard for us to forget. Simulations promote concept of learning through experiential practice which help students understand more on the concepts. They find them more engaging in the activities as they experience the activity first hand, rather than hearing or watching about it. Besides, simulation helps us to do prediction by manipulating the data involve in the situation. Simulations help students to change parameter values and see what happens. Students develop a feel for what variables are important and the significance of magnitude changes in parameters. As for this Stella simulation, we study what happens on the palm ecosystem when we have high population of rats and low population of owl. Then, we change the parameter and study the effects of palm ecosystem if we have low population of rat and high population of owl. Apart from that, simulation promotes the use of critical and evaluative thinking in which the situation feels real and thus leads to more engaging interactions by learners. For instances, for medical students, they need to practiced the skills they learn and acquired in order for them to be prepared to face the real situation. Thus medical simulation creates the environment that allows these skills to put into practices. This simulation would situate students into real world conditions in which they would be expected to perform

4.0

Simulation in future learning Simulation based-learning has a future in the world of education as our world are moving fast forward towards the era of computer and technology. Thus, simulation is one of the best alternative way to engage the students in teaching and learning process as the students nowadays are more intrested in technologies and gadgets. Some of the top local universities in Malaysia such as Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Teknologi Petronas are aware of the facts. These universities have incorporated simulation into their learning syllabus to help the country to produce the necessasry skilled labor. However, most of these universities do not make it as a must take subjects; hence many students just take it easy and they pass through school without being exposed to it. Though, simulation based-learning might seem like a waste of time and money to the governments but it is considered a good investment for a better futur for our children. The future of teaching and learning process can excel better with the help of simulations.

5.0

Conclusion Simulation is a highly effective tool that is highly effective in helping students develop the higher learning levels of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. This will help students be better to prepared to handle the decisions they will face in the reals world. Simulation will be the point of development in the world of eduction in future since our world are involving better towards computer and technology. In conclusion, simulation is a powerful and effective tools for either educators to be used in their teaching and learning process or company for their company benefits. Simulation like Stella software should be used more often in teaching process to allows the students to manipulate the different parameters in the models and study the knowledge or concepts in different perspective. Stimulations helps student to gain new knowledge, applied the knowledge and engage more in the teaching and learning process in the class.

References

:

Azmi Ibrahim Zuraidy Adnan, Khairul Annuar Abdullah, Mohd Fahmi Mohamad Amran & Nor Azliana Akmal Jamaludin. January 2015. Comparison of empirical and simulated preypredator models in biological control technique. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science

and

Technology

(JMEST)

2,

(1)

,

274-278.

Retrieved

from

http://www.jmest.org/wp-content/uploads/JMESTN42350397.pdf James M. Sottile & Jr. Dallas Brozik. 2004. The use of simulations in a teacher education program. Journal of Hawaii International Conference On Education. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED490383.pdf Lateef, F. (2010). Simulation-based learning: Just like the real thing. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock, 3(4), 348–352. http://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2700.70743 Nico

Rutten.

2010.

Teaching

with

stimulations.

Retrieved

from

http://doc.utwente.nl/93718/1/thesis_N_Rutten.pdf Teresa Coffman. 2006. Using simulations to enhance teaching and learning: Encouraging the creative process. Journal of Virginia Society for Technology in Education. 21 ( 2) . 1-7. Retrieved from http://vste.org/documents/vj_2006_02.pdf Zuraidy Adnan, Azmi Ibrahim, Khairul Annuar Abdullah, Nor Azliana Akmal Jamaludin & Mohd Fahmi Mohamad Amran.2015. Long term effects using biological control in palm-oil ecosystem. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research. 3(4). Retrievedfromhttps://ijair.org/administrator/components/com_jresearch/files/publication s/IJAIR-1202_final.pdf

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