Financial Structure: Does R&D affect Debt-financing? J. Belin a , S. Cavacob,c,*, M. Guilleb a GREThA (UMR CNRS 5113), Université Bordeaux IV, Avenue Léon Duguit 33608 Pessac cedex, France, [email protected] b LEM (JE 2486), Université Panthéon-Assas Paris 2, 92 rue d’’Assas, 75006 Paris, France [email protected]; [email protected] c CPP, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark

Abstract This paper provides evidence on the determinants of firm financial structure. We suggest that innovation is a key factor in firm debt financing. Using French panel data, we propose a dynamic analysis of firm debt ratios by applying GMM system estimator. Our results show that an increase in the R&D-to-sales ratio is associated with a decrease of the use of bank debt. Moreover, bank debt ratios depend positively and significantly on their own past realizations. We also confirm the negative impact of profitability, a finding consistent with most of the standard empirical evidence. Finally, these effects are robust to the introduction of additional control variables such as collaterals which have a positive impact on bank debt ratios.

Keywords: R&D; Financial structure; Bank debt; GMM system. JEL classification: G32; O32; D21; C23. Acknowledgments: We would like to thank participants to the 27th JMA conference in Dijon and to the AFSE thematic meeting ““Firms, Markets and Innovation”” in Sophia Antipolis for helpful comments. * Corresponding author at: LEM, Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris 2), 92 rue d’’Assas 75006 Paris, France. Tel: +33 1 55 42 50 26; Fax: +33 1 55 42 50 24; E-mail address: [email protected]

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1. Introduction How firms make their financial decisions has been one of the main research area in corporate finance since the seminal paper of Modigliani and Miller (1958). Most of this literature focuses on the debt-equity choice and suggests that leverage depends on market imperfections as debt tax shields and costs of bankruptcy (trade-off theory, TOT) or informational asymmetries between insiders (managers) and outsiders (investors or lenders). These asymmetries engender financial constraints due to agency and signalling costs (Jensen and Meckling, 1976; Ross, 1977; Stiglitz and Weiss, 1981; Jensen, 1986). According to the pecking order theory (POT), minimizing these costs results in a hierarchy: internal financing sources are preferred to external ones and debt to equity (Myers, 1984; Myers and Majluf, 1984). Following these theories, financial structure is determined by some characteristics of the firm (size, age, profitability, assets risk, ownership structure, collaterals or tangible assets and investment projects) which influence market imperfections. Though theoretically the link between financing and innovation has been underlined (Aghion and Tirole, 1994), the role of technological characteristics has not been a central issue in this literature. However, innovative firms have specific characteristics that may explain some difficulties in raising funds. Clearly, innovative investments are characterized by an extreme uncertainty, a high proportion of specialized equipment and intangible assets (knowledge, R&D expenditures) and by sunk costs. Furthermore, since innovative investments are difficult to evaluate and monitor, managers have greater opportunities to undertake riskier activities and transfer wealth from debtholders to shareholders. All these factors may have an impact on the financial structure of innovative firms which should use less debt and more internal or specific resources as public funding or venture capital than other firms. Yet, while most empirical studies consider that financial constraints faced by innovative firms are the main explanation of chronic underinvestment in R&D (Hall, 2002), the relation between innovation and corporate financial structure has rarely been investigated. The wide empirical literature on financial structure has focused on large listed companies from United States and R&D activities are not explicitly accounted for. Only a few recent studies explore the financial behaviour of innovative firms especially on European data. This issue is particularly addressed by Aghion et al. (2004). Using data on publicly traded U.K. firms, they provide new evidence on several aspects of the financial structure of innovative firms. Their results suggest that R&D activities are a key factor of firm’’s financial 2

structure. Indeed, they find a non linear relationship between R&D expenditure and the debt/assets ratio: The impact of the R&D dummy on debt/assets ratio is positive but that of the R&D-to-sales ratio is negative. Thus, the use of debt decreases with R&D intensity as well as the shares of bank and secured debt in total debt while the probability of issuing new equity increases. In the light of this evidence, it is worth further exploring the relation between R&D activities and financial structure. Our paper focuses on bank debt for several reasons. First, bank debt plays a specific role in corporate finance as it has been emphasized by the consequences of the growing scarcity of bank loans since the beginning of the current financial crisis. Moreover, although banks are more likely to reduce moral hazard or adverse selection effects than other investors, they may fail to provide debt when risk is too high or informational problems too severe. It might be the case for innovative firms. Therefore, the lack of bank debt may hinder innovative firms to undertake some of their projects. These problems may be more severe for small and medium firms (SMEs) which, unlike larger firms, rarely have access to public equity or debt markets. This is also more relevant in countries like France where descriptive statistics show that bank debt is likely to remain a limited source of finance for innovative firms (Planès et al., 2002; Belin and Guille, 2004) and the venture capital market is largely insufficient. Then, this paper investigates the relation between R&D and bank debt on a large sample of French firms including SMEs. We use panel data from two French databases over the period 1994-2004 to explore the determinants of two bank debt ratios. As well as looking at a balance sheet measure of the importance of bank debt in financial structure, we examine the composition of debt by considering the share of bank debt in total debt. Following Aghion et al. (2004), we include two variables reflecting R&D activities in our estimations, but rather than using a balance sheet measure of R&D expenditures, we use specific data from a French survey on firms R&D expenditures to avoid taxes biases. Besides, we present a different specification by introducing two new features. First, we control for additional financial variables, like collaterals, cash flows or the financing provided by the group, since these variables can be relevant to explain financial structure. Secondly, as suggested by Aghion et al. (2004) that it could be a useful extension of their study we propose a dynamic analysis and control for potential estimation biases by applying the GMM system estimator developed by Blundell and Bond (1998).

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The paper proceeds as follows. Section 2 proposes a discussion of the empirical literature on financial structure. Section 3 describes the data as well as the variables used to identify the determinants of bank debt ratios and presents the econometric methodology. Section 4 discusses the results. Section 5 summarises our main findings. 2. Determinants of financial structure Empirical literature on financial structure is mainly devoted to the determinants of leverage and relies mostly on American data. Part of this literature aims at determining whether TOT or POT is more relevant by testing the existence of a target debt ratio versus that of a relation between debt financing and the lack of internal finance. However, the evidence on these two broad and competing models remains inconclusive (Fama and French, 2002). Given the extended diversity of debt ratio determinants, there is no available model taking into consideration all the stylized facts. Thus, the other part of the literature mostly consists in testing different hypotheses from alternative theories. Several determinants appear to be positively related to leverage: debt tax shields (MackieMason, 1990) as suggested by TOT; insider ownership (Kim and Sorensen, 1986) and tangible assets or collaterals (Rajan and Zingales, 1995, using data for G-7 countries; Gaud et al., 2005, using Swiss data) as emphasized by property rights and agency theories. Firm size is also positively related to debt ratio (Rajan and Zingales, 1995; Bah and Dumontier, 2001; Franck and Goyal, 2003; Gaud et al., 2005); except in some studies on European data that exhibit the opposite result (Biais et al., 1995; Kremp and Stöss, 2001; Paulet, 2003). Both effects can be explained theoretically since leverage is supposed first to increase with size and then to decrease, as suggested by POT or transaction costs theory. Moreover, size is deeply connected to the risk perceived by banks and is often considered as a proxy for credit constraints. Hence, the relation between debt ratio and size depends on the average size of the firms in the sample. These conflicting results might also be explained by the differences in financial systems: Firms’’ debt financing is more important in continental Europe, especially for SMEs. Several other determinants appear to be negatively related to leverage. It is the case for the profitability contrary to TOT’’s prediction (Titman and Wessels, 1988; Rajan and Zingales,

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1995; Kremp and Stöss, 2001; Fama and French, 2002; Gaud et al., 2005).

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This result is

consistent with POT but can either be related to debt reimbursements or to the impact on financial markets of the relationship between profitability and better investment opportunities. Liquidity (Ozkan 2001, on British data), growth opportunities and stock price increases (Masulis and Korvar, 1986; Asquith and Mullins, 1986; Hovakimian et al., 2001) have also a negative impact on leverage. The same impact is often associated to the cost of debt though this variable is not central in financial structure theories. Kremp and Stöss (2001) using French and German data find that large firms are more sensitive to this determinant, a result consistent with transaction costs theory. Other factors that are not firm-dependent may affect financial structure. For instance, both Kremp and Stöss (2001) and De Miguel and Pindado (2001), using Spanish data, provide evidence that institutional and legal characteristics, such as taxes and bankruptcy legislation, have an impact on the dynamic adjustment process to the target debt ratio on European data. Finally, few studies explore the relationship between innovation and corporate financing. Some of them focus on the existence of specific financial constraints for innovative firms. For instance, using Italian data on high-tech firms, Guiso (1998) shows that innovative firms perceive more often to be credit constrained than other firms. Other studies highlight the key role of venture capitalists in financing innovative firms which are more likely to face financial constraints, for instance American start-up (Gompers and Lerner, 2001) and small and medium German innovative firms (Audretsch and Lehman, 2004). Bah and Dumontier (2001) and Aghion et al. (2004) depart both from this literature, because they are interested in more general financial choices made by innovative firms, and from traditional literature about the financing of R&D activities since they investigate the reverse relationship: The impact of R&D on firm financial structure. Bah and Dumontier (2001) use international cross-sectional data about public companies2 . Two groups of firms are distinguished in each country to build an R&D-intensive dummy: Firms reporting an R&D-to-sales ratio higher than 5%, which are considered R&D-intensive 1

However, according to Hovakimian et al. (2001), more profitable firms are more likely to borrow rather to issue new equity. 2 Their sample contains about a thousand US firms and around two or three hundred of firms from each other countries: Japan, United Kingdom and a group of three other European countries: France, Germany and the Netherlands.

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firms, and firms reporting no R&D 3 . Their results indicate a significant negative relationship between the total debt-to-total assets ratio and the R&D dummy even after controlling for firm size, profitability and non-debt tax shields. Aghion et al. (2004) use also data from published consolidated accounts but they build an unbalanced panel of 900 industrial companies whose shares are listed on the London Stock exchange over the period 1990-2002. Moreover, their measure of R&D activities is more precise: the R&D dummy is equal to one if firms report R&D expenditures and to zero otherwise and the R&D-to-sales ratio is also included 4 . They show that financing choices differ systematically with R&D intensity: Firms that report positive but low R&D have higher debt/assets ratios than firms reporting no R&D, but the use of debt finance falls with R&D intensity. Their other results exhibit simpler relationships between R&D intensity and two other debt ratios or equity. Hence, as R&D intensity increases, firms are likely to borrow a smaller proportion of their debt from banks as well as to increase the share of their unsecured debt in total debt or to raise more finance from equity. As a result, the more innovative firms tend to have the lowest levels of debt/assets ratios, bank or secured debt/total debt ratios and the highest levels of equity. According to Aghion et al. (2004), their findings are consistent with the control rights approach and POT. Our paper contributes to this debate in several ways. 3. Data and method The estimation is carried out using data from two French databases on firms whose main activity is in the industry sector. We create a merged sample of these databases over the period 1994-2004: the Diane (SCRL) database and the annual R&D survey conducted by the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research. The sample includes 43 755 observations (3 977 firms in average per year). The Diane database displays general information on both firm characteristics (size, activity etc.) and financial accounts measures (debt, equity, assets, sales etc.). 5 The information on R&D expenditure is provided by the R&D survey which collects data on the R&D activities of French firms following closely the OECD Frascati Manual classification. A 3

The year considered, i.e. 1996, only US firms are required to report R&D expenditures when they exceed 1% of their net sales. In the other countries, firms reporting no R&D are included in the non-R&D group only in the four industries classified as non-R&D industries by the authors. 4 Reporting of R&D expenditure became compulsory for large and medium-sized U.K. firms in 1989. 5 We convert all financial variables into constant prices using the GDP deflator.

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firm is considered a R&D firm if R&D expenditure is reported to be positive on the R&D survey for the year considered. As we introduce lagged values for dependent variables in order to test for the persistence hypothesis and because they are an important determinant for banks to grant a loan, we have to observe firms over consecutive years. We exclude firms when all the information needed is not available and we keep the data cleaning to the minimum. Our final unbalanced panel data sample is so reduced to 15 971 observations. Table 1 presents the descriptive statistics of our final sample.

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Only 19% of the firms

report positive R&D expenditure and are consequently considered as R&D firms. SMEs represent 86% of the sample according to the employees’’ threshold criteria of the EU (250 employees).

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However, R&D firms are larger than non-R&D firms (66% of SMEs versus

90%) as it is generally observed in most surveys about innovative firms. 8 [ Insert Table 1 ] 3.1 Variables and stylised facts To investigate determinants of firm financial structure, we consider two bank debt ratios as dependent variables. Both ratios are measured using book values reported on firms’’ balance sheets. The first one is the bank debt/total resources ratio. Bank debt includes the debt repayable in more than one year as well as the shorter term liabilities that are granted by banks. Total resources include total debt (bank debt, bonds and all the other liabilities with a short or longer term maturity including leasing; but trade credits and debits are excluded) as well as equity finance (new equity, retained profits, depreciation and provision) 9 . The second ratio denotes the share of bank debt in total debt. As expected, these two bank debt ratios are lower for R&D firms. Figures 1 and 2 display the comparative evolution of these ratios over the period considered for R&D and non-R&D firms. [ Insert Figure 1 ] 6

Regarding some potential sample selection related to the exclusion of some firms, it is worth quoting that if we compare the whole sample and the reduced final sample we use for our estimations, we observe the same distributions for main dependent and independent variables (R&D intensity, bank debt ratios etc.). 7 The EU definition incorporates two complementary criteria to define a SME: balance sheet or sales turnover thresholds and independency. 8 See for instance the Community Innovation Surveys (CIS) conducted by EU member states. 9 According to the Banque de France method.

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These figures confirm a well known stylised fact: innovative firms have proportionally lower bank debt ratios than non innovative. However, the differences between the two types of firms appear to be less significant at the end of the considered period. Although there has been a general reduction of bank debt over the period, this reduction has been less important for R&D firms since their debt ratios were already lower.

[ Insert Figure 2 ] Besides, the evolution of R&D firms’’ bank debt ratios seems more irregular. Furthermore, when comparing these evolutions to those of macroeconomic indicators, these ratios appear to be more sensitive to the growth rate and to bank interest rates than non-R&D firms’’ ratios (figure 3). [ Insert Figure 3 ] This excess sensitivity of R&D firms’’ bank debt to macroeconomic environment can be explained by the financial accelerator hypothesis (Bernanke and Gertler, 1989; Kiyotaki and Moore 1997, Bernanke et al. 1999). Actually, this approach explores how small shocks (real or financial) might be amplified into large cyclical movements by credit constraints. As quoted previously, R&D firms’’ investment opportunities are characterised by a higher degree of risk and opacity. Hence, when a crisis occurs, banks may reduce their credits more seriously than the ones allowed to other firms. This might suggest that innovative firms could be more affected by the current credit crisis. To estimate each bank debt ratio, we introduce several control variables besides their lagged values. First, we control for period effect by including annual indicators. The time variables control for the business cycles fluctuations (real or financial) which are supposed to affect every firm. Second, we control for individual firms characteristics. We include dummies for activity sectors since sectors influence financial policies and R&D activities. A dummy variable also indicates if the firm is a SME in order to check if the impact of size on bank debt is negative as it seems to be for total debt in continental Europe and to control for the fact that R&D firms are larger than non-R&D. This dummy is equal to one if the firm has a number of employees below 250 and equal to zero otherwise. Moreover, we introduce some additional financial control variables. Since one of the main determinants of the debt ratio is firm’’s activity, we include the real sales growth rate which may provide indirect information

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on both firms’’ investment and funding needs. This information is completed by a profitability ratio (profits/capital stock). An increase of this ratio can be considered by investors as a good signal. This ratio provides also indirect information on the internal resources of the firms. These reasons may explain its generally negative impact on debt ratios. We also introduce the cash flow ratio (internal cash flow/total resources) since this variable is directly representative of the ability of the firms to finance their projects with their own resources. Moreover, this ratio is higher for R&D firms as it is generally observed for innovative firms since they are more likely to face difficulties to raise external funds, particularly from banks 10 . Unfortunately, we cannot include new equity issues as a control variable since balance sheet measures do not allow distinguishing between finance raised by issuing new equity and finance from ““internal equity”” as Aghion et al. (2004) point out. Hence, the positive relation they obtained between R&D intensity and new equity can be explained by the fact that R&D firms use more internal finance. A better measure of new equity is not available since many firms of our sample are not publicly traded, including SMEs. That is the reason why we cannot control for equity issues or explore the determinants of equity. However, we control for the opportunity to be introduced to the stock market since we include a dummy equal to one if the firm is listed and equal to zero otherwise. Our sample only contains 1% of listed companies but R&D firms are more often listed (4%). We also consider two other sources of financing which are only available to a limited number of firms and could have an impact on their financial structure. The first one is the financing provided by the group which is traditionally not explicitly accounted for in empirical studies of financial structure. However, this financing can be considered as an internal capital allocation market (Gertner et al., 1994) and also as a good signal for external investors which reduces the informational asymmetries (Leland and Pyle, 1977) and makes external financing easier (Kremp and Sevestre, 2000). Moreover, this ratio, group funding over total resources, is lower for R&D firms. The second source of financing is the public funding received by firms to finance their R&D expenditure (public funding received/total resources ratio) in order to test whether this public aid has an impact on bank debt ratios. These three financing sources may be more important for R&D firms as they are more likely to be credit constrained, it is then necessary to introduce them as control variables. Besides, these three opportunities can either be considered as complementary or substitutable financing options for firms. 10

See Planès et al. (2002) or Belin and Guille (2004).

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We also consider collaterals since it is an important determinant of credit decision and moreover a factor that can disadvantage R&D firms which are more likely to have higher intangible assets. For instance, R&D expenditures are mainly composed of wages of highly qualified employees (scientists, engineers etc.). We introduce as a control variable the ratio of tangible assets over total resources as a proxy for collaterals. As expected, this ratio is lower for R&D firms. Finally, two additional control variables are introduced to evaluate the impact of R&D activities on bank debt ratios. First, a dummy variable indicates if a firm is a R&D firm i.e. this dummy is equal to one if R&D expenditure is reported to be positive and equal to zero otherwise. Second, among R&D firms, R&D intensity is measured by the R&D expenditure/real sales ratio. 3.2 Econometric model In order to test for the hypothesis of a specific relationship between bank debt ratio and R&D, we depart from Aghion et al. (2004) specification by estimating a dynamic model taking into account for both non observable heterogeneity and potential biases estimation. We estimate the linear relationship between the bank debt ratio, quoted D, its lagged values over two periods, the dummy R&D variable I, the R&D intensity ratio (RD) and a set of control variables, quoted X, as : Di,t

ȕ1 Di,t 1  ȕ2 Di,t  2  ȕ3 I i,t  ȕ4 RDi,t  ȕ5 X i,t  ui  ei,t

(1)

where i refers to individual firm and t to time dimension. Moreover, u denotes the unobserved time-invariant individual specific effect and e the error term. To cope with potential biases, we use an appropriate estimation method, the so called

Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) system estimator developed by Blundell and Bond (1998). Actually, several econometric problems may arise from estimating equation (1). The Blundell-Bond (1998) dynamic panel estimator is specifically designed for situations with (i) few time periods and many individuals; (ii) a left-hand-side variable that is dynamic, depending on its own past realizations; (iii) independent variables that are not strictly exogenous (correlated with past and possibly current realizations of the error term); (iiii) fixed individual effects; and (v) heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation within individuals, but not

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across them. With respect to the estimation equation (1), two points must be highlighted. First, it is worth quoting that the R&D intensity ratio is supposed to be endogenous. Since we measure bank debt ratio and R&D intensity both at the firm level, it is very likely that these variables are chosen simultaneously. Because causality may run in both directions –– from R&D to debt ratio and vice versa –– this variable may be correlated with the error term. Second, the presence of the two lagged values of the dependent variables Di ,t 1 and Di ,t  2 may give rise to autocorrelation. Besides, a crucial assumption for the validity of GMM estimates is that the instruments are exogenous. Regarding GMM system estimator, the only available instruments are ““internal””, based on lagged values of the instrumented variables. The GMM system estimator extends the model by estimation of a system of first-differenced equations and the equations in levels. In the first-differenced equations we use the lagged level values of the variables as instruments as in the GMM difference estimator (Arellano and Bond, 1991); in the levels equations we use differences as instruments. This allows the introduction of more instruments, and can seriously improve efficiency. 11 In fact, Blundell and Bond (1998) report evidence from

Monte Carlo simulations on the comparison of the finite sample performance between the first-differenced GMM estimator and GMM system and they show that by exploiting several additional moments conditions the latter dramatically improves both consistency and efficiency. They suggest that it is worth using GMM system estimator in two cases: first, in short sample periods, and second if the variables are persistent over time. 12 Finally, the GMM framework flexibly accommodates unbalanced panels. One should also note that the two-step estimates of the standard errors are asymptotically more efficient than the one-step variant. However, given that the two-step estimates of the standard errors tend to be downward biased, we use the finite-sample correction to the two-step covariance matrix derived by Windmeijer (2005). Moreover, two conditions are necessary for the GMM estimator to be consistent. According to the first one, the error term have to exhibit no serial correlation. In order to test if this condition is satisfied, we use the autocorrelation test on the residual proposed by Arellano and Bond (1991). 13 The second condition imposes the validity of the instruments 11

Our results have been tested for sensitivity to reductions in the number of instruments. If the evolution of a variable is highly persistent, the correlation between the variable in differences and its past values in levels will disappear. Therefore the instruments will be weak. In these cases the GMM difference estimator for the lagged dependent variable is also biased downwards. 13 Under the null hypothesis of no second-order serial correlation, the test has a standard-normal distribution. 12

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that are used. The overall validity of the instruments can be corroborated by a test of overidentifying restrictions. Specifically, we use the Hansen J statistic, which is the minimized value of the two-step GMM criterion function, 14 rather than the Sargan statistic since the latter is not robust to either heteroskedasticity or autocorrelation. 4. Results Estimation results are displayed in Table 2.15 We estimate two models for each debt ratio considered: Bank debt over total resources and bank debt over total debt. The first one implements our dynamic specification with the control variables used by Aghion et al. (2004) (columns 1 & 2). However, as noticed in the previous section, our sample has different characteristics since firms are more heterogeneous: There are many SMEs and non listed firms. In order to make the results as comparable as possible, we try to control for these differences by introducing a dummy variable for SMEs rather than a continuous size variable and another dummy for listed firms. The second model introduces additional control financial variables to test the robustness of this effect (columns 3 & 4). In all the specifications, we use robust standard errors and valid the two previously presented standard tests on misspecification. The Arellano and Bond test on autocorrelation supports the overall validity of the model by providing evidence of first order autocorrelation (AR1) and the absence of second order autocorrelation (AR2) while the Hansen test supports the consistency of the GMM instruments. [ Insert Table 2] Moreover, the positive and significant coefficients of the lagged dependent variables confirm the importance of including these effects. Bank debt ratios depend substantially on their own past realizations. More precisely, the first lagged value of the dependent variable is the main explicative variable in all the specifications and the second one has a non negligible influence.

Under the null hypothesis of the validity of the instruments, this test has a F distribution with (J íK) degrees of freedom, where J is the number of instruments and K the number of regressors. 15 We use the STATA module Xtabond2 developed by D. Roodman, Center for Global Development, WP 103,Washington (2006). 14

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4.1. Bank Debt/total resources ratio Controlling for dynamics and reversal causation between bank debt/total resources and R&D-to-sales ratios, our estimates (column 1) comfort most of Aghion et al. (2004) results on the determinants of total debt/total assets ratio. Thus, R&D intensity has a negative impact on bank debt ratio: Intensive R&D firms use less bank debt to finance their assets. We also find again a similar significant negative impact of profitability and the absence of effect of the sales growth ratio. However, our results boil down to two main different patterns. First, we do not find a significant positive coefficient on the R&D firm dummy. Therefore, our results do not confirm the non linear relationship between debt ratio and R&D. We conclude to a simpler negative relationship between bank debt ratio and R&D intensity. This different pattern may be due to the differences in the variables and the sample that are used. Actually, we use specific data from a French survey on firm R&D expenditures rather than a balance sheet measure and our dependent variable corresponds to the bank debt/total resources ratio rather than the total debt/total assets ratio. Moreover, our sample is larger and mainly composed of SMEs and not listed firms. Secondly, we do not find a positive firm size effect. On the contrary, we exhibit a significant positive coefficient on the SME dummy: SMEs have a higher bank debt ratio than larger ones. As well as the differences in the variables and the sample, the differences between the French financial system and the British one may explain this opposite pattern. Indeed, this result confirms the negative impact of the size obtained by some studies on French or German data, as noticed previously. This evidence comforts transaction costs theory rather than that of specific credit constraints for SMEs. Besides, we can notice that the dummy variable accounting for listed firms has a significant positive effect on the bank debt/total resources ratio. Contrary to internal resources which can be considered as a substitutable option to bank debt, since the impact of the profitability is negative, the possibility of issuing equity seems to favour bank debt. This positive effect can be explained by the fact that listed companies generally face lower information asymmetries and have a better reputation; thus they are less likely to be credit constrained than other firms. As quoted in the previous section, in order to control for some relevant dimensions of firm financial structure, we introduce additional financial variables. On the one hand, we show that our findings are robust to the inclusion of these variables since the different effects remain

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significant, particularly the negative impact of R&D intensity (column 3). On the other hand, several of these additional variables are significant. Thus, our results indicate that the positive impact of collaterals on debt obtained in most empirical studies is also relevant for bank debt ratio: The collaterals coefficient is significant and positive. Since R&D firms are more likely to have lower collaterals than non-R&D firms, this can partly explain their lower bank debt ratio. We also find a significant negative impact of internal cash flows on bank debt ratio which comforts POT and most of the empirical results, as noticed previously. Moreover, group funds also seem to be an important source of alternative financing for the rare firms which receive these funds. Their impact is negative and significant: The increase of the funds from their group allows the firms to reduce their bank debt ratio. On the contrary, R&D public funds might have a positive impact on bank debt ratio but their impact is only close to be significant (10.7%). 4.2. Debt composition Following Aghion et al. (2004), we examine the composition of total debt between bank and non bank sources. We investigate the determinants of the share of bank debt in total debt with the same method as that used for the bank debt/total resources ratio. Our findings confirm the main results presented in the previous subsection. More precisely, the results for this second dependent variable displayed in Column 2 comfort those presented in Column 1 and most of Aghion et al. (2004) results. The bank debt/total debt ratio decreases with R&D intensity. This result indicates that intensive R&D firms are likely to borrow a smaller proportion of their total debt from banks. Profitability has also a significant negative impact on bank debt/total debt ratio. However, contrary to Aghion et al. (2004), we do not find a significant negative coefficient on the R&D firm dummy. As before, this variable is not significant whereas SMEs and listed firms are likely to have higher bank debt ratios. These patterns are robust to the inclusion of additional financial control variables. Furthermore, our results confirm the significant positive impact of collaterals and negative of group funding (column 4) while R&D public funds remain not significant. However, internal cash flows are no longer significant.

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5. Concluding remarks Our approach proposes a specific analysis of the relationship between firm financial behaviour and R&D activities. We use the GMM system estimator developed for dynamic panel data models. First, our results support the hypothesis that R&D firms have a specific financial structure: The use of bank debt decreases with R&D intensity in all our specifications. Secondly, we confirm the negative relationship between profitability and bank debt ratios, a finding consistent with POT as well as standard empirical evidence. Finally, these effects are robust to the introduction of additional control variables such as collaterals which have a positive impact on bank debt ratios. Since the negative impact of R&D intensity persists, these variables do not capture all the peculiarities of R&D firms. Hence, the lower bank debt ratios of R&D firms are not only explained by their lower collaterals or higher cash flows but also by some unobservable characteristics such as the high degrees of risk and asymmetric information of their projects. These results might suggest that R&D firms may be more affected by the current credit crisis than other firms. To provide a better understanding of their financial behaviour, it could be worth further exploring whether financial structure can be related to the type of activity the R&D firms are involved in. Furthermore, we can notice that since our sample is mainly composed of SMEs, our results may reveal that SMEs have a more specific financial structure than larger firms. Evidence on firm size has confirmed that SMEs face more difficulties in raising funds to finance investments in new technologies. Indeed, SMEs have traditionally less attractive alternative financing opportunities and thus become more reliant on internal resources. Further attention has to be paid to the financial behaviour and the specific financial structure of small innovative firms.

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19

Figure 1. Bank debt / total resources

20% 18% 16%

R&D firms Non-R&D firms

14% 12%

04 20

03 20

02 20

01 20

00 20

99 19

98 19

97 19

96 19

95 19

19

94

10%

20

Figure 2. Bank debt / total debt 70% 65% 60%

R&D firms

55%

Non-R&D firms

50% 45%

04 20

03 20

02 20

01 20

00 20

99 19

98 19

97 19

96 19

95 19

19

94

40%

21

Figure 3. Macroeconomic environment 10% 8% 6%

Growth rate Bank interest rate

4% 2%

04 20

03 20

02 20

01 20

00 20

99 19

98 19

97 19

96 19

95 19

19

94

0%

22

Table 1. Descriptive statistics Variables Bank debt/total resources Bank debt/total debt SME (< 250 employees) Positive R&D expenditure R&D intensity (R&D expenditure/real sales) Profitability (profits/capital stock) Group funding/total resources R&D public funding/total resources Internal cash flows/total resources Collaterals (tangible assets/total resources) Real sales growth rate Listed companies Observations

Final sample Mean (S.E) 0.14 (0.11) 0.53 (0.31) 0.86 (0.01) 0.19 (0.01) 0.07 (0.27) 0.02 (0.06) 0.05 (0.11) 0.16 (0.11) 0.05 (0.37) 0.01 (0.01) 15 971

R&D firms Mean (S.E) 0.12 (0.11) 0.49 (0.33) 0.66 (0.01)

Non-R&D firms Mean (S.E) 0.14 (0.11) 0.54 (0.30) 0.90 (0.01)

1

0

0.05 (0.11) 0.07 (0.24) 0.02 (0.05) 0.01 (0.02) 0.06 (0.08) 0.15 (0.10) 0.06 (0.55) 0.04 (0.01) 3 041

0 0.07 (0.28) 0.03 (0.06) 0 0.05 (0.11) 0.16 (0.11) 0.05 (0.31) 0.01 (0.01) 12 930

23

Table 2. Determinants of financial structure (GMM system) Dependent variable Explicative variables Lagged dependent variable (-1) Lagged dependent variable (-2) SME Real sales growth Profitability Positive R&D R&D intensity Listed companies

Equ. (1) Bank debt/total resources

Equ. (2) Bank debt/total debt

Equ. (3) Bank debt/total resources

Equ. (4) Bank debt/total debt

0.6550*** (35.31) 0.0735*** (5.07) 0.0096*** (4.70) -0.0001 (-0.07) -0.0461*** (-5.87) 0.0008 (0.46) -0.0258*** (-2.73) 0.0176*** (2.95)

0.5568*** (37.99) 0.1387*** (9.74) 0.0287*** (4.33) -0.0015 (-0.30) -0.0317*** (-2.99) 0.0007 (0.13) -0.0971** (-2.01) 0.0477*** (2.64)

15 971 p = 0.000 p = 0.162 p = 0.374

15 971 p = 0.000 p = 0.548 p = 0.110

0.6257*** (32.08) 0.0671*** (4.72) 0.0128*** (5.92) 0.0018 (0.83) -0.0224*** (-3.28) 0.0015 (0.83) -0.0380*** (-3.56) 0.0212*** (3.54) 0.1236 *** (11.76) -0.1024*** (-3.25) -0.1176*** (-8.01) 0.2017 (1.61) 15 971 P = 0.000 P = 0.111 P = 0.390

0.5244*** (34.60) 0.1302*** (9.35) 0.0387*** (5.65) -0.0060 (-1.10) -0.0268** (-2.47) 0.0004 (0.07) -0.1075*** (-2.89) 0.0608*** (3.15) 0.4001*** (16.08) 0.0277 (1.17) -0.7578*** (-19.33) 0.1222 (1.24) 15 971 p = 0.000 p = 0.670 p = 0.111

Collaterals Internal cash flows Group funding R&D Public funding Observations AR1 AR2 Hansen test

T student ratio in brackets. * Significant at 10% ; ** significant at 5% ; *** significant at 1%. Both year and sector dummies have been included in all the models but are not reported here. Regressions are two-step system GMM and they incorporate Windmeijer correction to the standard errors. Number of instruments for specifications of columns 1 and 2: 81; number of instruments for specifications of columns 3 and 4: 85.

24

Financial Structure: Does R&D affect Debt-financing?

Section 3 describes the data as well as the variables used to identify the determinants of ... the differences in financial systems: Firms ' debt financing is more important in continental. Europe ..... “The Economics of Small Business Finance: The.

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