International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering Volume 2, Issue 12, 2015 Available online at www.ijiere.com

International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering e-ISSN: 2394 – 3343

p-ISSN: 2394 – 5494

Internet of Things and Cloud Computing for Agriculture in India Kiran R. Biduaa, Dr. Chhaya N. Patela a

MCA Department, Anand Institute Of Information Science, Anand, India

ABSTRACT: Agriculture is the major source for the largest population in India to earn money and carry out their livelihood. Precision agriculture is already adopted in other countries, but we still need to involve IoT and cloud computing technologies for better production of crops. IoT will be beneficial to connect the devices, collect and distribute the information. Cloud adoption is expected to increase significantly in near future due to improved cloud hosting facilities and faster internet speeds. Together they will be able to give required information along with the consideration of reduction in cost which will be beneficial to farmers.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IOT), Cloud Computing, Agriculture, Sensor network. I. INTRODUCTION The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation (FAO) predicts that the global population will reach 8 billion people by 2025 and 9.6 billion people by 2050. In order to keep pace, food production must increase by 70 percent by 2050 globally. India is a large agricultural country, and agricultural production has an important impact on national food security also. Compared with developed countries in the world, the area of farmland per capita is far lower than the average level in the world and the production value per capita and land yield per unit are also on a lower level in case of India. Thus, to face challenges of food production, we need to develop methods to produce more output with the limited available natural resources. IOT and cloud computing is a technology which tends to connect various objects in the world to the Internet [4][5]. It involves the use of RFID, wireless and other sensors with Internet stack inbuilt into the device. Applications are developed based on IOT enabled devices to monitor and control various domains based on applications [3]. IOT and cloud computing technology can be effectively used to increase the crop production to meet the growing needs of increasing population in India [1][12][21]. M2M being the integral part of IOT is helpful to sense the geographical requirements by tracking the land where we want to implement IOT [2][16]. Cloud computing along with IOT is helpful to charge pay per usage and thus reducing the cost in agriculture [4][5][13]. New innovative IOT applications can be developed to increase the quality, quantity, sustainability and cost effectiveness of agricultural production [15]. Indian farmers have already started taking help of the modern and advanced agriculture tools and machines. But as far as usage of IOT is concerned, Indian farmers are just at an introductory level in using the IOT technology for agriculture as compared to the other countries which have reached to the advance stage in utilizing the technology for farming [22]. II. IOT AND CLOUD COMPUTING FOR AGRICULTURE With the global increase in population, the need for increase in food production is raised. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO) survey predicted that increase in world population will further create poor circumstances in future with the simultaneous increase in price of food products if proper measures will not be taken. This will result in starvation to the people who fall below the poverty line. Use of technology is constantly increasing to improve food production and commercial activities. IOT can be used to connect the world’s objects in both a sensory and intelligent manner through combining technological developments in item identification (“tagging things”), sensors and wireless sensor networks (“feeling things”), embedded systems (“thinking things”) and nanotechnology (“shrinking things”)[17]. Farmers need variety of data and services to improve crop production based on land, crop, climate conditions, finance availability, irrigation facilities etc. Cloud computing is required in agriculture as it is not possible for farmers to deal with service providers on an individual basis. They need comprehensive and cost effective service providers with multiple services. In this case cloud computing may offer data as a service (DaaS), it costs less as compared to the fixed services which are charging on a fixed basis irrespective of utilization of service. Cloud computing provides sharing of resources with cheap cost. Cloud computing service provider may also offer services like Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS) with affordable cost. Cloud computing has been used for storage of agriculture data by Government and private agencies. Use of IOT along with Cloud Computing can 27

International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering Volume 2, Issue 12, 2015 help a lot to Indian farmers to increase the production by providing the correct communication between objects and charging according to the usage of service [18]. III. EXISTENCE OF IOT AND CLOUD COMPUTING IN OTHER COUNTRIES Considering the Asian countries for reference is ideal in our case, as India is a part of Asia continent. Here, existence of IOT and Cloud Computing for agriculture is explored in two of the Asian countries, China and Japan. Both of these countries are already in the advance stage in terms of the usage of IOT and Cloud Computing for agriculture. A. IOT in agriculture at China Internet of things attracts much greater attention in China than that in the United States, the European Union and other countries including India. The first Chinese agriculture IOT application service platform has been built by scale, which connects the first group of the 64 IOT bases involved in the production, processing and distribution in China [6]. They can make analysis and decisions with information feedback from the sensing and incorporated with the agricultural knowledge [2][13]. They are now used in agricultural production (in the cities of Beijing, Shouguan and Shanghai), on the fruit (orange) farms (in the city of Chongqing), in the precise husbandry farms (in the city of Beijing) and as well as in the process of the storage, transportation and tracing of agricultural products, etc. [20]. B. Cloud Computing in Agriculture at Japan Cloud computing is highly suited to further optimize human knowledge to later generations. Fujitsu in Japan has developed a model for using Cloud Computing in agriculture which can also be used in other sectors such as environment, medicine and maintenance sectors[7][14]. The model consists of the following sequence: Inputs-Data storage-Visualization-Analysis-Instruction. The model was field tested for verification in vegetable and paddy cultivation in Miyazaki and Shiba prefectures, respectively. IV. CHALLENGES TO UTILIZE INTERNET OF THINGS IN INDIA Although IOT is beneficial for the Indian agriculture sector, this technology has various challenges [19] as far as India is concerned. Internet availability and connectivity in India is one of the biggest challenge. Consumer IOT adoption: this would remain another major challenge. As global vendors, often mistakenly, assume that Indian consumers are “not ready” for advanced products [8][9]. This is very much evident in the IOT space, with hardly any kind of vendor activity today. This, in turn has led to low awareness levels of IOT devices and systems among consumers. Apart from internet the supporting infrastructure such as smart grids, traffic systems, etc., are far from being ready for IOT. The IOT offers tremendous potential to innovate in agricultural field. With its wealth of experience in IP design and project management, India is in a unique position to come up with innovative products. Recent government incentives and support have given entrepreneurs the boost they need to forge ahead. If they do, India can truly realize the dream of “Make in India” for the world. V. PROPOSED MODEL As shown in the below figure, the proposed model uses IOT to collect required information of different objects located in different parts which is not feasible without the usage of sensor network. Here, use of cloud computing storage server is proposed to reduce the cost of data service, and thereby overcoming another drawback of high cost of data service.

Figure 1. Cloud computing and IOT based agricultural proposed model [10] As per the figure of proposed model, the data is sent to server by various gateways. The data at gateways are collected from different sensor nodes which are embedded at different locations of agricultural fields [10]. The wireless sensor 28

International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering Volume 2, Issue 12, 2015 network is gathering the data of geographical location by tracking the fields with Radio-frequency identification and other sensing devices [11]. RFID is the wireless use of electromagnetic fields to transfer data, for the purposes of automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. The server acts as the perception layer which senses and gives location information. Now the second layer gets the data from perception layer and uses different technologies like Wi-Fi, CDMA, 3G, etc. for the transport purpose. Then, the cloud computing technology is used for the virtual storage purpose. The advantage of using the cloud computing storage server is that the cost of data as a service is reduced, as now the user is provided with the extra facility to request only the required service for the required time from the server. The user not requires to pay for the whole service package for a fixed duration which is a costly solution. Thus, if the client is an individual (farmer) then that individual may not be able to afford the entire service package and if the client is any organization (state government) then they are able to purchase the entire package. Basically there are three types of services offered by cloud storage: 1) Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS) 2) Platform As A Service (PaaS) 3) Software As A Service (SaaS) According to Pay Per Utility concept of cloud computing, the client can request any of the above services. VI. BENEFITS OF IOT AND CLOUD COMPUTING IN AGRICULTURE Various beneficiary applications can be developed based on the proposed model for India. Some of the benefits of IOT and cloud computing applications in agriculture are as mentioned below:  Improvement in the efficient usage of inputs like soil, water, fertilizers, pesticides, etc.  Reduced cost  Livestock monitoring  Indoor farming – greenhouses and stables  Fish farming  Forestry  Storage monitoring – water tanks, fuel tanks  Allocation of resources on demand without limit  Maintenance and upgrades performed in the back-end  Easy rapid development including collaboration with other systems in the Cloud VII. CONCLUSIONS With the Internet of Things, single farmer may be able to deliver the crops directly to the consumers not only in a small region or shops but in a wider area. This will change the whole supply chain which is mainly in the hand of large companies and brokers at present. A more direct, shorter chain between producers and consumers can be established to provide benefit to farmers. Cloud Computing would enable corporate sector to provide all the necessary services at affordable cost to farmers in rural areas. IOT will transform the way rural India live, play, and work. It can be considered as an exciting area for innovation. It offers numerous challenges and opportunities, from scaling applications and services from billions to trillions of connected devices, and from tera to zeta bytes of data for a culturally diversified nation. REFERENCES [1] Anupriya Tuli, Nitasha Hasteer, Megha Sharma and Abhay Bansal ,“ Framework to leverage cloud for the modernization of the Indian agriculture system,” Electro/Information Technology (EIT),IEEE International Conference ,pp. 109 - 115,5-7 June 2014. [2] Charith Perera, Arkady Zaslavsky, Peter Christen and Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, “Sensing as a Service Model for Smart Cities Supported by Internet of Things,” TRANSACTIONS ON EMERGING TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES, Australia,2014. [3] Duan Yan-e, “Design of Intelligent Agriculture Management Information System Based on IOT,” Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA), International Conference on Volume:1 28-29 March 2011 pp : 1045 - 1049,2011 [4] Fan TongKe,”Smart Agriculture Based on Cloud Computing and IOT”,Journal of Convergence Information Technology(JCIT) Volume 8, Number 2, Jan 2013 [5] Hemlata Channe, Sukhesh Kothari , Dipali Kadam,Assistant Professors, Department of CE, PICT, Pune, India.”Multidisciplinary Model for Smart Agriculture using Internet-of-Things (IOT), Sensors, Cloud-Computing, Mobile-Computing & Big-Data Analysis ”IJCTA | May-June 2015 [6] Ji-chun Zhao, Jun-feng Zhang, Yu Feng, Jian-xin Guo, “The Study and Application of the lOT Technology in Agriculture ”,2010 IEEE [7] K.Venkataramana, Dr.M.Padmavathamma “A Design of Framework for AGRI-CLOUD” IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSRJCE) ISSN: 2278-0661 Volume 4, Issue 5 (Sep.-Oct. 2012), PP 01-06 Department of 29

International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering Volume 2, Issue 12, 2015 Computer Science, S.V.University, Tirupati, A.P, India, Head, Department of Computer Science, S.V.University, Tirupati, A.P, India. [8] Lin Li “Application of the Internet of Thing In Green Agricultural Products Supply Chain Management”Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA), 2011 International Conference on (Volume:1) Page(s): 1022 - 1025 Sch. of Comput. & Inf. Eng., Harbin Univ. of Commerce, Harbin, China [9] Meonghun Lee ; Dept. of Inf. & Commun. Eng., Sunchon Nat. Univ., Sunchon, South Korea ; Jeonghwan Hwang ; Hyun Yoe “Agricultural Production System Based on IOT” Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), 2013 IEEE 16th International Conference on 3-5 Dec. 2013 Page(s): 833 – 837 [10] Mitsuyoshi Hori, Eiji Kawashima , Tomihiro Yamazaki “Application of Cloud Computing to Agriculture and Prospects in Other Fields”FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 46, No. 4 (October 2010) [11] Mr. Mahesh D. S, Ms. Savitha S, Dr. Dinesh K. Anvekar “A Cloud Computing Architecture with Wireless Sensor Networks for Agricultural Applications” International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security VOL.2, NO.1, JANUARY 2014, 34–38 [12] Prashant Satpute,Omprakash Tembhurne, “A Review of Cloud Centric IOT based Framework for Supply Chain Management in Precision Agriculture “,International Journal of Advance Research in Computer Science and Management Studies, Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2014 [13] Rao, B.B.P, Saluia, P. ; Sharma, N. ; Mittal, A. “Cloud computing for Internet of Things & sensing based applications ” Sensing Technology (ICST), 2012 Sixth International Conference on 18-21 Dec. 2012 ,Kolkata, Pages: 374 – 380 [14] Rupanagudi, S.R, Ranjani, B.S, Nagaraj, P, Bhat, V.G. “ A novel cloud computing based smart farming system for early detection of borer insects in tomatoes ” Communication, Information & Computing Technology (ICCICT), 2015 International Conference on 15-17 Jan. 2015 Page(s): 1-6 [15] Sivabalan, M. A. Rajan and P. Balamuralidhar,”Towards a Light Weight Internet of Things Platform Architecture”,july 2013; Accepted August 2013,Journal of ICT Standardization, Vol. 1, 241–252. [16] Suciu. G, Vulpe, A , Fratu, O,Suciu, V. “M2M remote telemetry and cloud IOT big data processing in viticulture” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2015 International 24-28 Aug. 2015 page(s): 1117 – 1121 [17] Swathi B S, Dr. H S Guruprasad,”Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks and Cloud Computing ”,Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2014 PG Scholar, Dept. of ISE, BMSCE, Bangalore Professor and Head, Dept. of CSE, BMSCE, Bangalore,IPASJ International Journal of Computer Science (IIJCS) [18] V.C.Patil, K.A.Al-Gaadi, D.P.Biradar, M.Rangaswamy, “INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) AND CLOUD COMPUTING FOR AGRICULTURE: AN OVERVIEW”, Proceedings of AIPA 2012, INDIA. [19] Yen-Kuang Chen,Intel Corporation Santa Clara, CA, USA,“Challenges and Opportunities of Internet of Things”, Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC), 2012 17th Asia and South Pacific,IEEE, Jan. 30 2012-Feb. 2 ,2012,Page(s): 383 – 388 [20] Yichuan Zhang, Kai Zhou and Xinzheng Li,School of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003, China,”Study on the Construction of Smart Agricultural Demonstration Park ”International Journal of Smart Home Vol.8, No.5 (2014), pp.261-268 [21] Yifan Bo, Haiyan Wang ,“The Application of Cloud Computing and The Internet of Things in Agriculture and Forestry” 2011 International Joint Conference on Service Sciences School of Information Science and Technology Beijing Forestry University Beijing, China [22] Yi Liu ; Fudan Univ., Shanghai, China ; He Wang ; Junyu Wang ; Kan Qian “ Enterprise-Oriented IOT Name Service for Agriculture Product Supply Chain Management” Identification, Information and Knowledge in the Internet of Things (IIKI), 2014 International Conference on 17-18 Oct. 2014 Page(s): 237 - 241

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