IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2013, Pg. 236-242
International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT)
Evolution of IT Industry Towards Cloud Computing: A New Paradigm 1
Naimesh D. Naik, 2 Kirit J Modi
M.Tech pursuing, Dept. Of Info. Technology, Ganpat University, Kherva, Gujarat, India Associate Professor, Dept. of Information technology, Ganpat University, Kherva, Gujarat, India 1
, 2 [email protected]
Abstract Cloud computing - correctly: a Computing Cloud - is a colloquial expression used to describe a variety of different computing concepts that involve a large number of computers that are connected through a real-time communication network (typically the Internet). Cloud Computing is a jargon term without a commonly accepted non-ambiguous scientific or technical definition. In science Cloud computing is a synonym for distributed computing over a network and means the ability to run a program on many connected computers at the same time. The popularity of the term Cloud computing can be attributed to its use in marketing to sell hosted services in the sense of Application Service Provisioning that run Client server software on a remote location.
1. Introduction The term cloud computing is sometimes used to refer to a new paradigm – some authors even speak of a new technology – that offers IT resources and services over the Internet. The technology analysts at Gart- ner see cloud computing as a so-called “emerging technology” (Fenn et al. 2008) on its way to the hype. When looking at the number of searches for the word pair “cloud computing” undertaken with the Google search engine one can get a feeling of the high interest on the topic. Even terms like “outsourcing”, “Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)” or “grid computing” have already been overtaken (Google 2009). Although, nearly everybody in the IT sector speaks about cloud computing, the concept remains somewhat unclear to many. With this contribution we aim to provide an understanding of cloud computing. Starting with a literature review on current definitions of cloud computing we will summarize the core characteristics and suggest a comprehensive definition. We will further examine the evolution of cloud computing from two different perspectives. From a technological point of view we will describe the phenomenon’s development, highlighting reoccurring trends in computing history. Eventually we will show, which components constitute the cloud computing concept. Our second perspective draws on the delivery model for information systems that changed through cloud computing. Our understanding of cloud computing is that of a new business model, for Naimesh D. Naik, IJRIT
delivering IT resources and services, flexible, on demand and on a pay-per-use basis. We will conclude our contribution with an estimation about what classes of applications appear to be promising for cloud computing.
2. Understanding the concept of cloud computing: defining a new phenomenon Due to the current fashion, the term cloud computing is often used for advertising purposes in order to revamp existing offerings with a new wrap. Larry Ellison’s (CEO of Oracle) statement at 2007s Analysts’ Conference provides a felicitous example: "We've redefined cloud computing to include everything that we already do. I can't think of anything that isn't cloud computing with all of these announcements. The computer industry is the only industry that is more fashion-driven than women's fashion" (Fowler et al. 2009). Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale similar to a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network.  At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services. The cloud also focuses on maximizing the effectiveness of the shared resources. Cloud resources are usually not only shared by multiple users but as well as dynamically re-allocated as per demand. This can work for allocating resources to users in different time zones. For example, a cloud computer facility which serves European users during European business hours with a specific application (e.g. email) while the same resources are getting reallocated and serve North American users during North America's business hours with another application (e.g. web server). This approach should maximize the use of computing powers thus reducing environmental damage as well, since less power, air conditioning, Rackspace, and so on, is required for the same functions cloud computing is an IT deployment model, based on virtualization, where resources, in terms of infrastructure, applications and data are deployed via the internet as a distributed service by one or several service providers. These services are scalable on demand and can be priced on a pay-per-use basis. One of the first milestones for cloud computing was the arrival of Salesforce.com in 1999, which pioneered the concept of delivering enterprise applications via a simple website. The services firm paved the way for both specialist and mainstream software firms to deliver applications over the internet. The next development was Amazon Web Services in 2002, which provided a suite of cloud-based services including storage, computation and even human intelligence through the Amazon Mechanical Turk. Then in 2006, Amazon launched its Elastic Compute cloud (EC2) as a commercial web service that allows small companies and individuals to rent computers on which to run their own computer applications.” Amazon EC2/S3 was the first widely accessible cloud computing infrastructure service," said Jeremy Allaire , CEO of Bright cove, which provides its SaaS online video platform to UK TV stations and newspapers. Another big milestone came in 2009, as Web 2.0 hit its stride, and Google and others started to offer browser-based enterprise applications, though services such as Google Apps.
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Fig 1: Evolution Of IT Computing Models(Adopted from Web)
3. Evolution of Cloud Computing Cloud computing can be seen as an innovation in different ways. From a technological perspective it is an advancement of computing, applying virtualization concepts to utilize hardware more efficiently. Yet a different point of view is to look at cloud computing from an IT deployment perspective. In this sense cloud computing has the potential to revolutionize the way, how computing resources and applications are provided, breaking up traditional value chains and making room for new business models.
3.1 A New Computing Paradigm: Cloud Computing To judge, whether cloud computing is a new computing paradigm, one needs to reflect its development in the context of computing history. In this chapter we are going to provide a short summary of the history starting with the calculating machine, describing the development of computers and the internet and eventually the beginnings of cloud computing. We also describe a layered model of the constituting components of cloud computing 3.1.1 From Calculator to Cloud Computing Computing history can be traced back to the invention of the first calculating machine. In 1623 Wilhelm Schickard was the first who documented the assembly of such a calculating machine, which worked ac- cording to the principle of Napier's bones, a sort of abacus (Freytag-Löringhoff et al. 2002). Another milestone in computing history is Charles Babbage’s description of the Analytical Engine in 1837, a mechanical calculating machine for general purpose tasks (Babbage 1864). Additional milestones were Allan Marquand’s draft of an electrical logic machine (1885) and Herman Hollerith’s development of a tabulating machine (1890). The electrical logic machine was first realized in 1936 by Benjamin Burack (1949). However, the actual history of the modern computer began with Konrad Zuse’s construction of the Z3 in 1941. Zuse’s machine was the first functioning digital computer, it was based on the binary digit system, programmable, Naimesh D. Naik, IJRIT
and Turing capable (Rojas 1997). In 1945, John Mauchley and J. Presper Eckert have built ENIAC, an Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, which was considered the first fully electronic tube computer (Goldstine et al. 1946). The ENIAC was as well programmable and Turing capable, but was based on the decimal system. Depending on the definition of the term “Computer”, either the Z3 or the ENIAC is considered the first Computer in the world. With the invention of the transistor in 1947 advancements in the development of the Computer emerged at a good pace. In 1957 IBM introduced the 704 as the first mass produced mainframe computer with floating-point arithmetic. Eventually, in 1964 the IBM System/360 followed. The highlight of this product family was that peripheral components were exchangeable and that the software was executable on all computers of this product family (Bashe 1986). Further developments and the miniaturization of the mainframe computers eventually lead to independent machines, so called Minicomputers such as DEC’s PDP-8 in 1964 or Xerox’s Alto in 1974 (Freiberger et al. 2000). The development of the Personal Computer (PC) began as recently as in the 1970ies, with the construction of the first microprocessor 4004 in 1969 and the later 8008 in 1971 by Intel. The latter was the basis for the first Home Computer, the Micral by André Thi Truong in 1973 (Freiberger et al. 2000). Another important milestone was the development of the Internet. This can be traced back to a research project at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). A communication system, which would stay available if one of its nodes would be broken, was developed in 1969, on behalf of the US ministry of defense. Eventually the ARPAnet was developed out of this project. In 1981 around 200 institutions were connected to this network. In 1983 the net’s protocol was switched to TCP/IP, which made it possible to connect whole subnets to the ARPAnet. This network of networks was soon called Internet. However, the Internet achieved its real breakthrough with Tim Berners-Lee’s invention of the World Wide Web in 1989. Tim Berners-Lee conceptualized an information management system for the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), which was based on Hypertext, a network structure, where knowledge entities are referenced through logical references, so called hyperlinks. Traditional hyper textual structures are for example content tables or cross references. The modern hypertext concept can be traced back to Vannevar Bush (1945). With the increasing diffusion of the web browser Mosaic, the World Wide Web eventually gained great popularity (Freiberger et al. 2000; Berners-Lee 1989). Further increasing bandwidths and technologies like Java, PHP or Ajax made it possible to develop more and more elaborate, interactive websites. Due to this development, we can today find many multimedia websites, online shops and numerous applications that are deployed in the Internet. Some examples are route planners, communication platforms, social networks and even whole office applications like word processors or spread sheet applications. This deployment concept, usually referred to Software-as-a- Service gained popularity around the year 2000 (Finch 2006; Bennett et al. 2000). Similar deployment concepts were developed for the deployment of hardware resources, especially computing power and storage. Primarily in academia Grid Computing got established as such a concept already at the beginning of the 1990ies (Foster et al. 2003). The term Cloud Computing was coined in 2007, typically refereeing to a joint hardware and software deployment concept. First research initiatives were started by Google and IBM, in cooperation with six American universities (Lohr 2008). Figure 2 gives an overview of important milestones of computing history.
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Fig 2: Computing History(Web reference)
4. Cloud Deployment Models 4.1 Private Cloud Private cloud is cloud infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. 4.2 Public Cloud A cloud is called a 'Public cloud' when the services are rendered over a network that is open for public use. Technically there is no difference between public and private cloud architecture, however, security consideration may be substantially different for services (applications, storage, and other resources) that are made available by a service provider for a public audience and when communication is effected over a nontrusted network.
Table 1: Public vs. Private Cloud
Public cloud Initial cost
Private cloud Typically high
Running cost Predictable
No (Host has access to the data) Yes
Single sign-on Impossible Scaling up
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Easy while within defined limits Laborious but no limits
4.3 Community Cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized. 4.4 Hybrid Cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models.[Such composition expands deployment options for cloud services, allowing IT organizations to use public cloud computing resources to meet temporary needs. This capability enables hybrid clouds to employ cloud bursting for scaling across clouds.
Fig 3: Deployment Models of Cloud Computing As Services
5. Conclusion With the rise of the recent phenomenon of cloud computing, a myriad of terms, concepts, and approaches have emerged. Although, nearly everybody in the IT sector speaks about cloud computing, the concept remains somewhat unclear to many. In this contribution we have provided an understanding of cloud computing, based on Naimesh D. Naik, IJRIT
a literature review on current definitions. From this we have derived our definition of cloud computing as an IT deployment model, that is based on virtualization, where resources, in terms of infrastructure, applications and data are deployed via the internet as a distributed service by one or several service providers. These services are scalable on demand and can be priced on a pay-per-use basis. Our second perspective drew on the delivery model for information systems that changed through cloud computing. Seeing cloud computing, we understand it as a new business model, for delivering IT resources and services, flexible, on demand and on a pay-per-use basis. We predict that this development will change the value network of IT service provision, leading to an ecosystem of IT services. Eventually we concluded with the question, which applications appear to be promising for cloud computing.
6. References 1) Strachey, Christopher (June 1959). "Time Sharing in Large Fast Computers". Proceedings of the International Conference on Information processing, UNESCO. paper B.2.19: 336–341. 2) B Rochwerger, J Caceres, RS Montero, D Breitgand, E Elmroth, A Galis, E Levy, IM Llorente, K Nagin, Y Wolfsthal, E Elmroth, J Caceres, M Ben-Yehuda, W Emmerich, F Galan. "The RESERVOIR Model and Architecture for Open Federated Cloud Computing", IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 53, No. 4. (2009). 3) Andreas Tolk. 2006. “What Comes After the Semantic Web - PADS Implications for the Dynamic Web”. 20th Workshop on Principles of Advanced and Distributed Simulation (PADS '06). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. 4) D Kyriazis, A Menychtas, G Kousiouris, K Oberle, T Voith, M Boniface, E Oliveros, T Cucinotta, S Berger, "A Real-time Service Oriented Infrastructure", International Conference on Real-Time and Embedded Systems (RTES 2010), Singapore, November 2010. 5) Hsu, Wen-Hsi L., "Conceptual Framework of Cloud Computing Governance Model - An Education Perspective", IEEE Technology and Engineering Education (ITEE), Vol 7, No 2 (2012). 6) Stackpole, Beth, "Governance Meets Cloud: Top Misconceptions", InformationWeek, 7 May 2012. 7) Web reference:www.cisco.com/go/govcloud
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