Deeply Decarbonizing the Lab Practice, Plans, Aspirations and Applied Research in the Climate Change Era

John Elliott, Chief Sustainability Officer April 2015

Stay below human-caused warming of 2°C Reduce total GHG emissions 26-28% below 2005 levels by 2025 Reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 and 80% below 1990 levels by 2050 Double the efficiency of existing buildings over the next 15 years Reduce GHG emissions from federal facilities 40% from current levels by 2025 Achieve UC climate neutrality in scope 1 and 2 emissions by 2025 Deep Decarbonization: Reduce energy-related CO2 per capita emissions to about 1/10 current levels with all deliberate speed by 2050

Berkeley Lab Annual GHG Emissions SCOPE&3&WASTEWATER& 35& 0.05%& SCOPE&3&ELECTRIC&T&D& LOSS& 2,663& 3.5%&

SCOPE&3&COMMUTING& 13,630& 17.7%&

TOTAL BERKELEY LAB REPORTED GHG EMISSIONS

SCOPE&3&SOLID&WASTE& 500& 0.7%& SCOPE&1&FLEET&VEHICLES& 164& 0.2%&

SCOPE&1&NATURAL&GAS& USAGE& 8,938& 11.6%&

SCOPE&1&FUGITIVE& 218& 0.3%&

kg/person-day 13.3 MT/person-yr 5,329 FTE BUILDING ENERGY ACCOUNTS FOR

SCOPE&3&AIR&TRAVEL& 6,596& 8.6%&

SCOPE&3&GROUND& TRAVEL& 503& 0.7%&

36

SCOPE&2&ELECTRIC& POWER& 43,658& 56.8%&

FY 2014 Berkley Lab Total GHG Emissions: 77,934 MTCO2e Unit: MTCO2e

78% OF TOTAL 28 kg/person-day 10.4 MT/person-yr

MORE THAN

140 BUILDINGS

25 BUILDINGS ACCOUNT FOR ~90% OF BUILDING GHG EMISSIONS

EO  13693  

Federal goals enforce an appropriate mix of efficiency and renewables to achieve climate targets See Williams et al Science 2012, CCST California’s Energy Future, Pathways to Deep Decarbonization, 2014

RENEWABLES

30% 25% OF ELECTRICITY

OF ENERGY (ELECTRICITY + GAS)

EFFICIENCY

OVERALL GHG EMISSIONS

2.5%

40%

ANNUAL EUI REDUCTION

REDUCTION

Annual&GHG&Emissions&M

!40,000!!

Behavior!"!Plug!Loads,!Hoods!

Wedges to Meet Berkeley Lab Climate Targets Over the Next 10 Years Living!Lab!

!30,000!!

Efficiency!"!Addi=onal!Required! Demoli=on!

!20,000!!

Renewables!

Addi=onal!Required!GHG!Reduc=ons!

Demoli4on!

Business!As!Usual!

Efficiency!"!Energy!Management! Efficiency!"!Ligh4ng!Retrofit!

2025!

2024!

2023!

2022!

2021!

2020!

2019!

2018!

Demoli4on!

2017!

!50,000!!

Grid!Power!

2016!

!60,000!! !50,000!! !"!!!! Annual&GHG&Emissions&MTCO2e&

Efficiency!"!Energy!Management!

Efficiency!"!HVAC!Retrofit! Efficiency!"!Ligh4ng!Retrofit!

!40,000!!

Efficiency!"!Replace!with!New!Const Efficiency!"!HVAC!Retrofit!

!40,000!!

Efficiency!"!Replace!with!New!Construc4on! Behavior!"!Plug!Loads,!Hoods!

!30,000!!

Behavior!"!Plug!Loads,!Hoods! Living!Lab!

!30,000!!

Living!Lab!

Efficiency!"!Addi4onal!Required!

Efficiency!"!Addi4onal!Required!

!20,000!!

Renewables!

!20,000!!

Renewables!

Addi4onal!Required!GHG!Reduc4on

Addi4onal!Required!GHG!Reduc4ons!

Grid!Power!

!10,000!! !10,000!!

Grid!Power!

2025!

2025!

2024!

2024!

2023!

2023!

2022! 2022!

2021! 2021!

2020! 2020!

2019!

2019!

2018!

2018!

2017!

2017!

!"!!!! !"!!!!

2016!

Business!As!Usual! Business!As!Usual!

2016!

Annual&GHG&Emissions&MTCO2e&

!60,000!! !10,000!!

For visualization purposes, after 2020, growth is assumed and modeled efficiency projects are maintained, but not expanded after 2021.

Get all building performance data onto one actionable, scalable architecture as a foundation for all approaches Energy Management Server Research Server (ETA institutional support needed)

Energy Management A process Is the building providing only the services needed? Expanding to key buildings this summer

Energy Management

How well is the building turning down and can we do better?

What keeps us from actually turning a building down? Poor or no sensing of occupancy and conservative schedules Physical lighting circuits that traverse different use areas Difficulty of scheduling HVAC and lighting separately Plug loads that are always on Little visibility below wholebuilding interval data

What keeps us from actually turning a building down?

Wireless, integrated end-use control may be a solution to deep savings “No goof” wireless occupancy and daylight sensing Flexible mapping of any sensor group to any load, regardless of circuits Scheduling and sensor-activated control across all end uses (HVAC, lighting, and plugs) Monitoring at the point of control

What keeps us from actually turning a building down?

Wireless, integrated end-use control may be a solution to deep savings

§  Developing a pilot at B74 §  How much savings are available in lab and cube settings compared to our current best practice?

Retrofits

What do we need to be successful?

1.  Deep savings 2.  Verifiable 3.  Persistent 4.  Scalable 5.  Big and small

Photo: © UC Regents through LBNL

Integrated, Deep Whole Building Retrofits

Lighting Retrofits as a Gateway to Deep Efficiency

Office Makeovers as a Gateway to Behavior

Enable VAV operation and reduce airflow where possible

Install LEDs with control

Deploy a flexible mix of technologies to interested partners:

Modernize lighting Control plug loads Wireless, integrated end use controls across lighting, HVAC, and plugs

Implement by lighting end use Lay a foundation for future HVAC and plug load control

- Good blinds - Paint - Good LED Lamp - Plug load control - Wireless sensors if wanted - Lighting retrofit if needed

§  Conducting audits to inform this strategy §  Ramping up activities for implementation beginning fall 2015

Ongoing Commissioning

How do we get persistence?

Design & Construction

Operations

Leverage Cx process

Deploy scalable middleware for ongoing Cx

Automate commissioning test scripts (Skyspark or similar) Resolve problems while contractors are on-site

Orient FDD to continued validation of Cx scripts

Stretch Target Design Target 70% of Energy Use Compared to ASHRAE 90.1 2010 How do you build highbyperformance 50% of Current Energy (normalized location) kbtu/sf 127 kbtu/sf into the base building 93 the first time? 0.3 kw/ton 0.4 kw/ton 0.5 w/cfm 0.75 w/cfm 0.3 w/cfm 0.4 w/cfm 750 sf/ton 550 sf/ton 0.75 w/sf 0.60 w/sf 0.35 w/sf 0.3 w/sf

New Construction Federal Requirement LBNL Sustainability Policy Annual Energy Use Target Cooling Plant Efficiency Laboratory Ventilation Efficiency Office Ventilation Efficiency Building Load Efficiency Laboratory Lighting Efficiency Office Lighting Efficiency

§  Sustainability Standards for New Construction

§  Establish a high target for sustainability performance that can be achieved cost-effectively with integrated design

§  Carry energy performance targets Table 5.8.1 – Energy Targets(design intent confirmed through modeling) intoand operations The following graphs shows the benchmarks energy requirements for the project. Federal Energy Requirements

LBNL Sustainability Requirements 350 300

350 100% of JGI EUI

300 Plug Loads

250 200 150

50% of JGI EUI 35% of JGI EUI

100

250

Lighting

200

Cooling, Fans, Pumps Heating

150

70% of 90.1 2010 EUI

50

0

0

Plug Loads Lighting Cooling, Fans, Pumps Heating

100

50 JGI Data 50% of Base 35% of Base (normalized Design Design for weather)

100% of 90.1 2010 EUI

90.1 2010 Data (est.)

Design Target

Behavior

How do you create behaviors that make a building tend towards less energy use and not more?

§  Work with the most engaged first §  Communicate and learn through a liason network §  Tend towards action with a research mindset §  Focus on plug load reduction and closing hoods §  Develop communities that are engaged and informed by data to save energy

We also need a building performance software architecture sMAP Front Ends SKYSPARK OR SIMILAR DAINTREE OR SIMILAR LUCID OR SIMILAR

Monitoring

Integrated End Use Control

Ongoing Cx

Bldg Control BASs

Research

Aspirations §  NERSC: Establish the infrastructure and institutions to be a world leader in energy-efficient high-performance computing §  ALS: Develop an action plan to facilitate a transformation in energy efficiency as the facility is upgraded

Photo: © UC Regents through LBNL

Renewables 1.  On-site solar: Driven by research need 2.  Off-site solar: •  Behind the meter solar at another facility •  This year, we are completing a 3-MW, 10-acre array with LLNL at their site •  We will buy 20% of the electricity through a PPA with WAPA 3.  Off-site renewable project purchase: •  Bring projects to market, directly or indirectly, with long-term commitments •  Liquidate the renewable power at the point of connection and retain the REC •  Continue to be served by WAPA See “Google’s Green PPAs: What, How, and Why” Photo: LLNL

Living Laboratory §  Global Partnership Alliance §  Building operating systems §  Guaranteed performance §  Integrated systems §  Engaged feedback

Data architecture, energy management, cx, retrofit, and behavioral projects directly map to these strategic areas

How to Cultivate a Living Laboratory §  Focus on making data available to attract projects §  Maintain a strategic backbone - know when to say no §  Staff the Living Lab with a Lab Manager

We could also be more aggressive Create the future by identifying strategic climate solutions, going after funding to conduct applied research involving - renewable generation, - efficiency, - storage, - behavior, - market understanding, and - optimization. 25

John Elliott, Chief Sustainability Officer [email protected], 510-486-7188 sbl.lbl.gov Erin Claybaugh Sustainability Program Manager Deirdre Carter Energy and Sustainability Manager

26

Stupid things Install another gas that I will do water heating without your system help

Develop a fleet of EV batteries and only use them for transportation

Install solar without storage

AREAS

PV, heat pump, passive design, controls, optimization, water conservation

EV to grid, fast DR, urban systems, EV Everywhere, behavior

Generation and storage at multiple scales, demand shifting, optimization

CHALLENGE

Reinvent solar water Extract more value heating out of a significant deployment of storage

Address the intermittent generation and storage problem head on

GOAL

Electrify half our water heating over the next 10 years

Deploy two operating integrated, scalable generation/storage plants at res and commercial scales

27

Double the carbon reduction from a fleet of EV batteries

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