Dr. Shehab Abdelrahman

Lecture 4,5 Screening

What is Screening?  The purpose of screening is to determine whether a

proposal requires an EIA or not.  Need of gathering basic information.  The screening outcomes are:  No further level of EIA is required;  A full and comprehensive EIA is required;

 A more limited EIA is required (often called preliminary or

initial assessment); or  Further study is necessary to determine the level of EIA required (often called an initial environmental evaluation or examination [IEE]).

Information needed for EIA Screening Process:  A description of the proposal.  Applicable policies, plans

and regulations, including environmental standards and objectives.  The characteristics of the environment, including land use, significant resources, critical ecological functions, pollution and emission levels etc.  The potential impacts of the proposal and their likely significance.  The degree of public concern and interest about the proposal.

Environmental screening Classifications: Category

Scope of impacts

Projects or components

Source: World Bank (1993)

For projects likely to have significant adverse environmental impacts that are serious (i.e., irreversible, affect vulnerable minorities, involve Category ethnic involuntary resettlement, or affect A cultural heritage sites), diverse, or unprecedented, or that affect an area broader than the sites of facilities subject to physical works. A full EIA is required.

•Dams and reservoirs forestry and production projects. •Industrial plants (large scale). •Irrigation, drainage, and flood control (large scale). •Land clearance and leveling (large scale). •Mineral development (including oil and gas). •Port and harbor development. •Reclamation and new land development. •Resettlement and new land development. •River basin development. •Thermal and hydropower development. •Manufacture, transportation, and use of pesticides. •Other hazardous and/or toxic materials.

Environmental screening Classifications:(Cont.) Category

Scope of impacts

Projects or components

Source: World Bank (1993)

For projects likely to have adverse environmental impacts that are less significant that those of Category A projects, meaning that few if any of the impacts are likely to be irreversible, that they are Category site-specific, and that mitigation measures can be designed more B readily than for Category A projects. Normally, a limited EIA will be undertaken to identify suitable mitigation and management measures, and incorporate them into the project.

•Agro-industries. •Electrical transmission. •Aquaculture and drainage (small-scale). •Irrigation and drainage (small-scale). •Renewable energy. •Rural electrification. •Tourism. •Rural water supply and sanitation. •Watershed projects (management or rehabilitation). •Rehabilitation, maintenance, and upgrading projects (small-scale).

Environmental screening Classifications:(Cont.) Category

Scope of impacts

Projects or components

Source: World Bank (1993)

For projects that are likely to have Category minimal or no adverse •None environmental impacts. No EIA is C required.

Types of Screening  Case-by-case study Screening.  Initial environmental evaluation or examination

(IEE).  Environmental Overview.  Class screening.

Case-by-case Screening:  It is carried out when the significance of the potential

environmental impact of a proposal is uncertain.  Applies to proposals that fall just below or close to the thresholds.  The specific criteria for case-by-case screening differ from country to country.  Series of tests for significance is carried out to perform screening.

Initial environmental evaluation or examination (IEE).  Required when the potential environmental impacts of a

proposal cannot be established by the application of standard screening procedures.  An IEE is a preliminary EIA study that:  Describes the proposal and the environmental setting.  Considers alternatives to improve the environmental benefits.  Addresses the concerns of the local community.  Identifies the potential environmental effects.  Identifies measures to mitigate adverse impacts.

 Describes, as necessary, environmental monitoring and

management plans.

Environmental Overview  The purpose EO is to incorporate environmental

objectives into the design of the proposal, rather than produce a report.  It leads to early identification of the following:

 The environmental and social baseline conditions of the

target area.  The major environmental and socio-economic impacts and opportunities associated with the implementation of the proposal.  The modifications or alternatives to the draft proposal.  The measures that are necessary to address the environmental impacts and issues.

Class screening  A class screening may be undertaken for any type of

project or activity where there is a reasonably sound knowledge of the environmental effects and the mitigation measures are well established.

Screening Criteria Screening criteria is used for the determination of the need for, and level of, environmental impact assessment.  The Screening criteria are:  Character of the receiving environment.  Potential impact of proposal.  Resilience of natural and human environments to cope

with change.  Confidence of prediction of impacts.  Presence of planning, policy framework and other decision-making processes.  Degree of public interest.

Assignment 1 Go to following web address and study Screening Criteria. Make an essay and deliver it next week. http://eia.unu.edu/wiki/index.php/Screening_Criteria.html

Assignment 2 Go to following web address and study Project Screening Lists. Make an essay and deliver it next week. http://eia.unu.edu/wiki/index.php/Project_Screening_Lists.html

Assignment 3 According to your study, make a screen Listing for the following projects:  Textile and garment factories that do not include dyeing equipment located in industrial zones  Rubber and plastic products that depend on heating plants such as P.V.C.  Processing and packaging of various food and beverage factories in the industrial zone  Tailor weaving leather, shoes and bags factories and do not contain any tanning work and located inside industrial zones.

Assignment 3 According to your study, make a screen Listing for the following projects:  Simple expansion of power lines to no more than 10% of the total lengths  Expanding existing roads to no more than 15% of the extension or expansion  Modify or Expanding an existing pier so not contain any contaminating or scraping impressive site  Expansion of irrigation and drainage facilities to no more than 10% of them

Assignment 3 According to your study, make a screen Listing for the following projects:  Steel and iron factories and foundries nonmetallic minerals, which produced at least 150 tons / day  The galvanizing and coating for iron and minerals to less than 25 tons artifacts processing plants / day  Acts of engines and machinery workshops , pipes and boilers factories  Manufacture and assembly of cars and vehicles.  Glass, brick, refractories, ceramics and porcelain factories

Assignment 3 According to your study, make a screen Listing for the following projects:  Chemicals, pharmaceuticals, paints, detergents and glue card industry less than 25 tons / day.  Textile and spinning factories outside industrial zones.  Rubber and plastic factories outside industrial zones.  Preparing and packaging of food and vegetables for more than 1000 tons / year plants.  Fish and marine products processing factories more than 1,000 tons / year

Assignment 3 According to your study, make a screen Listing for the following projects:  Facilities and Acts of sites recycling and re-use of industrial waste and petroleum waste  Create double roads less than 50 km not including highway, tunnels, bridges and railway roads.  Expanding and modification of existing roads to no more than 15%.  Expansions and modifications to less than 10% of the irrigation and drainage projects and networks.

Assignment 3 According to your study, make a screen Listing for the following projects:  Steel, cast iron factories that increase the production capacity of 150 tons / day.  Cement factories and mineral extraction factories.  Major petrochemical industries as an industry fertilizer, petroleum products, medicines.  Textile dyeing works for more than 10 tons / day.  Exploration, extraction and development of oil and gas fields.

Assignment 3 According to your study, make a screen Listing for the following projects:  Nuclear power plants  Massive transport systems such as bridges, subway, railway, highways and regular roads (for more than 50 km)  Civilian and military airports and ports.  Irrigation projects and networks of public sewage or expansions including dams.  Waste water treatment plants.

Assignment 3 According to your study, make a screen Listing for the following projects:  Disposal of medical waste projects.  Storage, treatment and disposal of toxic and hazardous waste facilities.  Household waste treatment projects.  Typical projects for the construction of cities and industrial zones.  Development projects, urban plans and expansion.

Environmental Impact of Engineering Projects

Page 2 ... land use, significant resources, critical ecological functions, pollution and emission levels etc. ... •Renewable energy. •Rural electrification. •Tourism.

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