Energy-Aware Distributed Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks Nicholas Roseveare, Student Member IEEE and Balasubramaniam Natarajan, Senior Member IEEE Wireless Communication Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66502 Email: {nickrose,bala}@ksu.edu

Abstract—We consider a wireless sensor network engaged in the task of distributed tracking. Here, multiple remote sensor nodes estimate a physical process (viz., a moving object) and transmit quantized estimates to a fusion center for processing. At the fusion node a BLUE (Best Linear Unbiased Estimation) approach is used to combine the sensor estimates and create a final estimate of the state. In this framework, the uncertainty of the overall estimate is derived and shown to depend on the individual sensor transmit energy and quantization levels. Since power and bandwidth are critically constrained resources in battery operated sensor nodes, we attempt to quantify the tradeoff between the lifetime of the network and the estimation quality over time. A unique feature of this work is that instead of merely allowing a greedy minimization of uncertainty in each time instance, the lifetime of the wireless sensor network is improved by incorporating a heuristic scaling on the operating capability of each node. This heuristic in turn depends on the remaining energy, equivalent to the past history of power and quantization decisions. Simulation results demonstrate the quality of the state estimate as well as the extended lifetime of the network when power and quantization levels are dynamically updated. Index Terms—distributed estimation, distributed tracking, wireless sensor networks, convex optimization

I. I NTRODUCTION In wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, a common goal is to jointly estimate the occurrence or state of a physical dynamical process. In centralized distributed estimation, individual sensors perform some local processing and forward the data through a communication network to a fusion node, which combines the data to form an estimate of the process. Distributed estimation via wireless sensor networks presents a variety of interesting challenges. The first challenge is that of compression and transmission of the sensor data over a wireless channel. The understandable limits on communication bandwidth introduce quantization error in addition to the error induced by channel noise. Another practical constraint is that of the sensing nodes themselves. These nodes are wireless and thus have limited battery power. It is assumed that at each node the majority of this power is spent on communication. Thus, a WSN estimation paradigm is desired which performs well (in mean squared error (MSE) or a similar metric) and also efficiently uses the battery power of each node so as to prolong the lifetime of the sensor network. The problem of distributed estimation is well developed. Early works [1], [2] typically consider scenarios with spatially distributed processors utilizing linear measurements with

knowledge of the joint distribution of the measurement noise. The authors in [3] generalize distributed estimation to nonlinear observations with the similar assumption of partially known statistics. Early work on quantization in distributed systems [4] uses joint distributions of the measurement noise with perfect communication. More recent work use various statistical and algorithmic approaches for quantization in distributed estimation [5]. A universal decentralized estimator is designed in [6] which utilizes Best Linear Unbiasedness (BLU) without knowledge of the measurement noise statistics. Several authors use the BLU estimator and a plethora of analysis therein are employed to account for the effect of channel, measurement, or quantization noise on the the estimator and its efficiency [7], [8]. The authors in [9] introduce functionbased network lifetime and optimize it for a fixed estimation accuracy. The only previous works utilizing BLU estimators that incorporate measurement, quantization, and channel noise variance for use with a BLU estimator are [10] and [7]. The latter considers scheduling of sensor power transmission and quantization levels for local estimation at the nodes. However, centralized distributed estimation is not implemented. Prior efforts in distributed tracking are primarily sensor scheduling and selection algorithms, while this work focuses on optimizing the use of resources after scheduling and selection. In [11] the lifetime of the network is optimized by determining how many sensors to keep active. The authors in [12] formulate the sensor scheduling problem in terms of disjoint set covers of the observation space. Distributed tracking using WSNs is done in [13] where quantization is accomplished by reducing the dimension of the state variable such that the transmit power budget will be met. A unique alternative to the above is found in [14] where sensor scheduling is formulated as approximate dynamic programming which chooses a leader node and a subset of observation nodes. In this case power constraints and channel noise are considered, but quantization is not. Our recent work [15] considers the measurement, quantization, and channel noise variance formulated as a BLU-like estimation objective, after which this work takes its cue. This present work attempts to extend the authors’ previous concept of fairness with respect to the operating state of each node and considers a heuristic which extends the lifetime of energydeficient nodes, and thus the lifetime of the WSN. This implementation requires slightly more computational resources at

each local node than the work in [15], but offers functionality for a more sophisticated process and observation model. Thus, unique from our prior efforts, this work evaluates the trade-off between network lifetime and estimation uncertainty. In this paper, we consider a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based distributed estimation problem. We assume that in this network, sensor selection/scheduling has already been completed. Once sensors are selected, how does the fusion center instruct the optimal quantization and transmission of the node data? And how does it continue to do this so as to prolong WSN lifetime? This is the question this paper attempts to make observations concerning. It should be noted that in most distributed filtering and estimation, a difficult problem is that of filtering Kalman states at the fusion center. This issue rises from the common process and measurement noise in subsequent reports. The accompanying practically infeasible methods [16] are avoided in this work by simply estimating the current state from only the most recently reported states. Section II describes the details of our system model. In Section III we formulate an optimization problem in which distributed estimation considers the power and bandwidth constraints of wireless sensors nodes. Said formulation uses a scalar BLU estimator which is adapted for vector quantities and whose variance metric represents the effects of measurement, quantization, and channel noise. The minimization of mean-squared error (MSE)-like uncertainty objective under the aforementioned constraints is a non-convex Mixed Integer Non-Linear Program (MINLP). The relaxed problem is identified as a difference of convex functions and approximated by a convex function [17]. Prior efforts have focused on the understanding of dependencies of channel, quantization, and measurement noise on ideal sensors for distributed estimation in a single time instance. Here, we account for the operating state of the sensor and explore the improvement of WSN lifetime. Simulation results in Section IV demonstrate that the lifetime of the WSN is extended with the inclusion of a heuristic scaling parameter. The general trend is that lifetime increases for a smaller scaling parameter, with some menial loss of estimation performance. II. S YSTEM M ODEL The paradigm considered herein contains multiple remote sensor nodes with power and bandwidth constraints which filter state estimates and transmit them to a fusion center for processing, as illustrated in Figure 1. It is the responsibility of the fusion node to instruct each node on how to send its update at each time instance. It is assumed that the fusion node is not energy constrained in its transmissions and that the energy cost of receiving a transmission at a sensor node is negligible. Parameters which the fusion node controls or must consider for each node include: state estimate uncertainty, quantization level, any communication channel noise, and remaining transmit energy of the nodes. Each of these variables could be uniform or varied across the nodes. Each of the nodes filters a noisy observation using the current state model. The state

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Fig. 1. An illustration of the specified distributed estimation system in which sensor nodes send Kalman filter updates.

estimate is quantized and transmitted as per the decision from fusion node, which estimates the state from the data received. A. Optimal Estimation from Kalman Updates Consider the above wireless sensor network with N spatially distributed nodes. These nodes either actively or passively take measurements of a dynamic process and update their local states. The simplifying assumption is taken of linear, time-invariant state transition and observation functions, and that each node has the same model of the process so that Fn = F ∀ n = 1, . . . , N . However, each of the observation functions may be different. After a state update, a sensor node will obtain a state vector and covariance pair, {ˆ xn (k|k), Pn (k|k)}. The node then will quantize the state vector as ˆ n (k|k) + nqn (k) Q{xn (k|k)} = x

∀ n = 1, . . . , N

(1)

where nnq (k) is the quantization noise of the nth sensor at time k. The quantized data is mapped to a bit stream or other form suitable for transmission. Each bit of the data stream consisting of bn bits is transmitted independently (by means of some orthogonal signaling scheme) through independent noisy wireless channels to the fusion node. The final information received at the sensor fusion node is ˜ n (k|k) = Q{xn (k|k)} + ncn (k) = x ˆ n (k|k) + nqn (k) + ncn (k), x n = 1, . . . , N

(2)

where ncn (k) is the channel noise of the nth sensor at time k due to imperfect communication. In this work, we assume that the internal noise of the state estimate, the quantization, and the channel noises are all uncorrelated. The state updates received at the fusion node, which are affected by state, quantization, and channel noises, are combined linearly to form a estimate of the actual process state. We extend the simple scalar estimator of our previous work to send the elements of a vector state. In this case, we consider

each element of the state vector independently and this results in the centralized BLU-like estimator of the elements of x(k) which are xi (k) i = 1, . . . , d, where d is the dimension of the state vector. The BLUE at the fusion node determines an optimal number of bits and transmitting power for each of the sensor nodes in order to minimize the total uncertainty of each element of the state vector it is estimating. The state vector elements are estimated by calculating optimal parameters for quantization and transmission simultaneously. Allowing more bits to the state vector elements with lower estimate variance. The BLU estimate (cf. [18]) of an element of the state vector is !−1 N X 1 x ˆiBLUE = E[(˜ xin (k|k) − xi (k))2 ] n=1 ×

N X

x ˜in (k|k) , E[(˜ xin (k|k) − xi (k))2 ] n=1 ∀ i = 1, . . . , d,

(3)

where E[·] denotes the expectation operation. We assume that the fusion node has complete knowledge of the state covariance of each of the report updates from each node. We use the mean squared error associated with this BLU estimator (also the variance), denoted D, as the objective to be minimized. It is shown in our earlier work [15] that the variance of this estimator (for the scalar case) reduces to !−1 N X 1 , (4) Di (k) = E[(˜ xin (k|k) − xi (k))2 ] n=1 which becomes Di (k) =

N X

n=1

1 (i,i)

Pn (k|k) + rnc,i (k) + rnq,i (k)

!−1

,

(5)

(i,i)

where Pn (k|k) is the variance of the ith element of the update vector at time k from sensor node n. Now let Rqn = E[nqn nqn H ] = σq2 Id , Rcn = E[ncn ncn H ] = σc2 Id ∀ i = 1, . . . , d, n = 1, . . . , N , where d is the number of elements in the state vector. This is written because it is assumed these noise processes are uncorrelated with each other in each time instance. Obtaining the scalar terms, define rnq,i (k) = (Rqn (k))i,i and rnc,i (k) = (Rcn (k))i,i ∀ i = 1, . . . , d as the variances of elements of the state vector. Thus, the total uncertainty metric becomes the sum of these scalar variances of the estimates of the elements of the state vector, i.e., !−1 N d X X 1 D(k) = . (6) (i,i) c,i q,i i=1 n=1 Pn (k|k) + rn (k) + rn (k) Let xi ∈ [−W, W ] with [−W, W ] the dynamic range of the measurement source. Then for a scalar element of the state vector, W2 rnq,i (k) = i 3(2bn (k) − 1)2

is the uniform quantization noise variance. Each bin (k) ∈ [1, BW ] is the number of bits used to quantize the report from the nth sensor on the ith element of the state update being sent the fusion node at time k, where BW is the rate constraint for the entire system per transmission period. The channel noise variance for the nth sensor node utilizing BPSK modulation in a Rayleigh fading channel with noise, which was derived in our previous work, is s ! 2 2 i 4W 0.5Γ 4W n rnc,i (k) = 1− , Pni (error|k) = 3 3 1 + 0.5Γin (7) 2pi |h |2 where, Γin = nN0n represents the average received signalto-noise-ratio, pin ∈ [pmin pmax ] is the power level for the n n th th i element of the n sensor. The minimum power level per bit is pmin which is necessary to achieve a minimum system n SNR. The maximum power per bit in a transmission is pmax . n The power level pin considers only the RF transmission power required, and does not consider any internal device operation. This model assumes the possibility of a single bit error in the given bit sequence. The average power of the Rayleigh fading channel coefficient is |hn |2 and N0 /2 is the channel noise power spectral density. III. O PTIMIZATION P ROBLEM F ORMULATION We formulate the distributed estimation problem so that uncertainty is minimized. However, a desirable trade-off between uncertainty (MSE) and extending the life of the WSN is sought. The formulation minimizes the uncertainty objective in (5) for each element of the state vector. Assuming a subset of sensors has already been selected, we want to find the bandwidth assignment and transmit power levels that produce the best linear estimator of the process state, with the given resource constraints. The formal expression of the minimization problem for the scalar case is minimize D(k) subject to PN n=1 bn (k) ≤ BW Λn (k)pn (k)bn (k) ≤ prem n (k)

(8)

−bn (k) + 1 ≤ 0 pn (k) − pmax ≤ 0, pmin − pn (k) ≤ 0 n n ∀ n = 1, . . . , N, or equivalently, for each individual element of the state vector. The objective can be written as minimize − Di−1 (k), which results in a simpler objective function when summed on i. The total power resources expended by node n at time k is Λn (k)pn (k)bn (k). Here pn (k) and bn (k) denote the power and bits used by the nth sensor node at the k th time instance, and Λn (k) ∈ [1, α1 ] is the weighting parameter, with α the heuristic scaling. Λn (k) is best defined as a dynamic control parameter that reflects the resource policy of each node based on remaining battery power (prem in the above formulation). n Low battery power would result in a large value for Λn (k)

and the vice versa, the role of Λn (k) is discussed next in Section III-A. The BW quantity represents the total rate for the network, with the requirement that every node transmit at least one bit (constraint C3). The maximum and minimum constraints defined henceforth shall be referred to as “boxconstraints”. The above problem must be expanded to account for the information transmitted for each of the elements of a multi-dimensional state vector and becomes P minimize − di=1 Di−1 (k) subject to Pd PN i C1: i=1 n=1 bn (k) ≤ BW Pd i i rem C2: i=1 Λn (k)pn (k)bn (k) ≤ pn (k) (9) C3: − bin (k) + 1 ≤ 0 C4: pin (k) − pmax ≤ 0, pmin − pin (k) ≤ 0 n n ∀ n = 1, . . . , N, i = 1, . . . , d. This formulation is by nature non-convex in the variables pin and bin , and in reality is a mixed-integer non-linear program (MINLP) with respect to the discrete values of the bits. We convert this to a “differences of convex functions” problem by solving the relaxed epigraph version of the problem by introducing new “uncertainty” variables uin (k), n = 1, . . . , N, i = 1 , each of 1, . . . , d, where uin (k) = (i,i) q,i c,i (k) (k)+rn Pn (k|k)+rn which is a scalar quantity. Recalling the dependency of the channel and quantization noise on the power level and number of bits variables, the new epigraph form of the optimization problem is Pd PN minimize − i=1 n=1 uin (k) subject to 1 =0 uin (k) − (i,i) (10) P (k|k)+r c,i (k)+r q,i (k) n

n

n

∀ n = 1, . . . , N, i = 1, . . . , d,

Note that the objective decreases in uin (k) while the equality constraint increases with respect to it, the substitution is therefore adequate since the inequality introduced is strictly active at the minimum. This form of the constraint however, contains a convex function of power and bits, and concave function of the introduced uncertainty variables (i.e. the u’s). We utilize a first order Taylor approximation of the concave reciprocal uncertainty term to transform the “difference of convex functions” constraint into a approximate convex constraint. Thus the final convex approximation formulation is P P i minimize − di=1 N n=1 un (k) subject to   (i,i)

2˜ uin (k)−uin (k) (˜ uin (k))2

A. Energy Aware Optimization In the formulation presented in (11), we found that, for a fixed battery life, minimizing over uncertainty as the free variable will blindly use resources at each time iteration without consideration of the need for future transmissions. Thus, non-uniform remaining battery power causes a rapid reduction in the number of active sensors. The results section will demonstrate this. A heuristic scaling creates tightened constraint on energy usage for a disadvantaged sensor, causing it to frugally use battery power. The schema for this fairness scaling is Λn (k) =

1 α + (1 − α) ·

prem (k) n pinit

∀n = 1, . . . , N

(12)

init where prem n (k) is the remaining energy at node n while p is the maximal initial power allocated to any node. These weights are updated at each iteration and constraint C2 in (11) is replaced with d X pin (k)bin (k) < prem ∀n = 1, . . . , N. Λn (k) · n (k) i=1

in addition to constraints C1-C4. We make additional simplifications to the uncertainty constraint by rewriting it as 1 c,i q,i P(i,i) ≤ 0. n (k|k) + rn (k) + rn (k) − i un (k)

Pn (k|k) + rnc,i (k) + rnq,i (k) −

still subject to constraints C1-C4, where u˜ni (k) is the iterated point about which the Taylor approximation is taken. The Sequential Convex Programming (SCP) iterations quickly find stable upper bounds to the original non-convex MINLP. Using SCP to obtain an approximation to the DC program comes attached to an increased computational effort as we must execute O(nm2 ) operations to solve a SQP at each iteration (where m is the number of constraints and n is the number of variables and n ≤ m). Since the KKT analysis does not provide any additional intuition concerning the problem behavior, we use simulation results to quantify the estimation performance of our relaxed convex approximation.

≤0

∀ n = 1, . . . , N, i = 1, . . . , d,

(11)

IV. R ESULTS The simulation results are from the following scenario. An object is moving in two dimensions and each of the sensors keeps a position-velocity (PV) state estimate of the object. Power, time, and distance values are given in generic pu, tu, and du units, respectively. The sensors take position measurements which are corrupted by uncorrelated measurement noise, which has variance σn2 = 1 along both axes. The true trajectory starts at [0, 0, vx , vy ]T (where vx = vy = 2du/tu) and evolves with a nearly constant velocity (NCV) or Velocity Wiener process model [18]. The true process noise is 0.9 and the assume process noise (that of the local filters) is 1. The number of sensors in each of the following scenarios is N = 4. The simulation results that follow are not Monte Carlo runs but single runs of the scenario with the optimization-based estimation. The communication parameters are as follows. The total allowable bandwidth is BW = 60 bits and the dynamic range is W = 30. The Rayleigh fading channel coefficient is |hn |2 = 1 and N0 = 1pu is the channel noise power spectral density. The maximum and minimum transmit energy are pmax = 40pu and pmin = 5pu, respectively.

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In the first scenario in Figure 2 the initial power to the nodes are: prem = 5000pu for n = 1, 4 and prem = 2500pu n n for n = 2, 3. Figure 2(a) shows the individual power usage, number of bits selection, and the local normalized error of the filter. The plot of individual power usage is accompanied by a dotted line indicating remaining energy resources at the node. The error measure at the node is the norm of the difference between the estimated state and the truth vector averaged by the number of elements in the state vector. This plot shows that nodes 2 and 3 deplete their energy resources and stop functioning at about 8tu. Figure 2(b) shows the Lagrange multipliers

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(c) Two-dimensional uncertainty plot of trajectory and estimates. Fig. 2. Different starting power scenario for N = 4 and α = 1 (no heuristic scaling).

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Different starting power scenario for N = 4 and α = 0.1.

and that the necessary constraints (uncertainty, bandwidth, etc) satisfy complementary slackness in the solution to the relaxed convex approximation. The non-uniform starting battery power causes the resources of two nodes (n = 2, 3) to deplete and the remaining sensors use their energy resources quickly since the optimization greedily uses as much bandwidth and power as possible. The Λn ’s for these first two runs are always 1, as there is no mitigation or correction for unequal energy deficits amongst nodes. Figure 2(c) shows the two dimensional plot of the true trajectory of the object, the fusion node estimate of the object, and a one standard deviation uncertainty ellipse around

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depleted, since the energy budget is more constrained. Appropriate values of this heuristic scaling prolonged the lifetime of the WSN while still delivering adequate estimation results.

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each estimate, demonstrating that sensor energy resources are depleted quickly and stop tracking at about 12tu. The second scenario in Figure 3 starts the same but implements the energy aware optimization in Section III-A. Figure 3(a) shows that nodes 2 and 3 no longer deplete their energy resources, instead all of the nodes function for the entire scenario. The two dimensional uncertainty plot in Figure 3(b) shows that the sensors continue tracking the object, but the uncertainty grows larger near the end of the scenario as a result of the more constrained energy budget. Figure 3(c) shows the dynamic values of the power aware scaling used in the optimization over time. Here a lower value (cf. nodes 1 and 4) means that more of a node resources are permitted to be utilized, larger values (cf. nodes 2 and 3) are more limiting of energy usage. The final time at which the sensor network stops tracking is approximately 30tu. A. Extended Lifetime and Average Uncertainty vs. α The final metric by which we evaluate the energy-aware optimization is by observing how the lifetime is affected by the heuristic scaling parameter α. In this case we execute 10 Monte Carlo runs to find the average result across each α value. The lifetime is calculated as the time during which 75% of the nodes in the network have energy resources remaining. Figure 4 clearly shows that the lifetime is greatly extended by using reasonable values of α (between 0.1 and 0.4). The standard deviations (1 · σ) of the lifetime values for all α are very small, so much so that they are not visible in the plot. V. C ONCLUSIONS The distributed estimator in this paper attempts to form an optimal estimate using a modified BLUE uncertainty metric as an objective. It considers Kalman filter state, quantization, and communication channel noise corrupting the estimate made utilizing constrained energy and bandwidth resources. Extended formulations from the scalar case were modified with an energy-aware scaling. The energy-aware scaling degraded the estimation performance as the last remaining energy is

[1] J. Speyer, “Computation and transmission requirements for a decentralized linear-quadratic-gaussian control problem,” Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 266 – 269, apr 1979. [2] A. Willsky, M. Bello, D. Castanon, B. Levy, and G. Verghese, “Combining and updating of local estimates and regional maps along sets of one-dimensional tracks,” Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 799 – 813, aug 1982. [3] D. Castanon and D. Teneketzis, “Distributed estimation algorithms for nonlinear systems,” Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 418 – 425, may 1985. [4] J. Gubner, “Distributed estimation and quantization,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1456 –1459, jul 1993. [5] V. Megalooikonomou and Y. Yesha, “Quantizer design for distributed estimation with communication constraints and unknown observation statistics,” Communications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 181 –184, feb 2000. [6] Z.-Q. Luo, “An isotropic universal decentralized estimation scheme for a bandwidth constrained ad hoc sensor network,” Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 735 – 744, april 2005. [7] J.-J. Xiao, S. Cui, Z.-Q. Luo, and A. Goldsmith, “Joint estimation in sensor networks under energy constraints,” in Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, 2004. IEEE SECON 2004. 2004 First Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on, 4-7 2004, pp. 264 – 271. [8] V. Aravinthan, S. Jayaweera, and K. Al Tarazi, “Distributed estimation in a power constrained sensor network,” in Vehicular Technology Conference, 2006. VTC 2006-Spring. IEEE 63rd, vol. 3, 7-10 2006, pp. 1048 –1052. [9] J. Li and G. AlRegib, “Function-based network lifetime for estimation in wireless sensor networks,” Signal Processing Letters, IEEE, vol. 15, pp. 533 –536, 2008. [10] Y. Mostofi and R. Murray, “Effect of time-varying fading channels on control performance of a mobile sensor,” in Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, 2004. IEEE SECON 2004. 2004 First Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on, 4-7 2004, pp. 317 – 324. [11] S. Balasubramanian, S. Jayaweera, and K. Namuduri, “Energy-aware, collaborative tracking with ad-hoc wireless sensor networks,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2005 IEEE, vol. 3, 13-17 2005, pp. 1878 – 1883 Vol. 3. [12] M. Cardei and D.-Z. Du, “Improving wireless sensor network lifetime through power aware organization,” Wirel. Netw., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 333–340, 2005. [13] H. Zhu, I. Schizas, and G. Giannakis, “Power-efficient dimensionality reduction for distributed channel-aware kalman tracking using WSNs,” Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 3193 –3207, aug. 2009. [14] J. Williams, J. Fisher, and A. Willsky, “Approximate dynamic programming for communication-constrained sensor network management,” Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 4300 –4311, aug. 2007. [15] R. Krishnan and B. Natarajan, “Joint power and quantization optimization for target tracking in wireless sensor networks,” in Global Telecommunications Conference, 2008. IEEE GLOBECOM 2008. IEEE, nov. 2008, pp. 1 –5. [16] O. E. Drummond, “Tracklets and a hybrid fusion with process noise,” in Proc. 1997 SPIE Conf. Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets, vol. vol. 3163, 1997, pp. pp. 512 – 524. [17] R. Horst and N. V. Thoai, “DC programming: overview,” J. Optim. Theory Appl., vol. vol. 103, no. No. 1, pp. pp. 1–43, 1999. [18] J. Mendel, Lessons in Estimation Theory for Signal Processing, Communications, and Control. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1995.

Energy-Aware Distributed Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

At the fusion node a BLUE (Best Linear Unbiased Estimation) approach is used to combine ... instance, the lifetime of the wireless sensor network is improved ...... in a power constrained sensor network,” in Vehicular Technology Con- ference ...

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Achieving distributed user access control in sensor networks - CiteSeerX
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Distributed User Access Control in Sensor Networks - Springer Link
light remote authentication based on the endorsement of the local sen- sors. Elliptic ...... In In Proceedings of the 9th ACM conference on Computer and Com-.

Connectivity-based Skeleton Extraction in Wireless Sensor Networks
boundary of the sensor network to identify the skeleton points, then generating the skeleton arcs, connecting these arcs, and ..... boundary partition with skeleton graph generation. As .... into skeleton arcs which will be described in next section.

Energy-Aware Path Selection in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: A ...
Energy-Aware Path Selection in Mobile Wireless Sensor .... Next, we illustrate the credit-based approach: a node is ... R is considered as a virtual credit of.

Maximum Energy Welfare Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
In many sensor network applications, the events have ... network. Consequently, the design of the routing algorithm for sensor ..... Review, 67(2), 29-41 (1977).

A Survey of Key Management Schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks
F. Hu is with Computer Engineering Dept., Rochester Institute of Technology, ...... sensor networks, 3G wireless and mobile networks, and network security.

A Survey of Key Management Schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor network, key management, security, key predistribution, pairwise key, ... F. Hu is with Computer Engineering Dept., Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, ..... phases that perform a particular job each, including Sender Setup,