Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 4, 591–598 (2000)

Efficient photoinduced electron transfer between C60/C70 and zinc octaethylporphyrin studied by nanosecond laser photolysis method MOHAMED E. EL-KHOULY, MAMORU FUJITSUKA and OSAMU ITO* Institute of Chemical Reaction Science, Tohoku University, Katahira, Aba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan Received 15 July 1999 Accepted 12 October 1999 ABSTRACT: Photoinduced electron-transfer processes between C60 or C70 and zinc octaethylporphyrin (ZnOEP) have been studied in polar solvents with the nanosecond laser flash photolysis method, observing the transient absorption spectra in the visible and near-IR regions. By the predominant excitation of ZnOEP with 532 nm laser light the transient absorption bands of 3ZnOEP* decayed, accompanied by the appearance of the transient absorption bands ÿ 3  3  of Cÿ 60 and C70 . By the predominant excitation of C60 and C70 with 610 nm laser light the decays of C60 and C70 were ÿ ÿ observed, accompanied by the appearance of C60 and C70 . The electron transfer rate constants (ket) and the quantum 3 ÿ 3  3  yields (Φet) of Cÿ 60 and C70 formation via ZnOEP* and C60 or C70 have been evaluated. These values increase with the solvent polarity; in polar benzonitrile these values are higher than for other porphyrins such as zinc ÿ tetraphenylporphyrin. The back electron transfer rate constants were evaluated from the decays of Cÿ 60 and C70 , which also show a solvent polarity dependence. Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEYWORDS: zinc octaethylporphyrin; C60/C70; electron transfer; laser photolysis

INTRODUCTION The mechanism of photoinduced electron transfer has been investigated by laser flash photolysis for porphyrin–fullerene connected systems [1–9]. By measuring the fluorescence quenching and appearance of the ion radical absorption bands with the picosecond laser flash photolysis method, it has been proved that efficient electron transfer takes place via the singlet excited state of the porphyrin moiety. These dyads and triads can be applied to efficient solar cells generating photocurrent [10]. It has been envisaged that functionalization of fullerenes with porphyrins moieties can lead to the development of advanced materials with new optical and optomagnetic properties [11]. Furthermore, it was reported that a stacked film of porphyrin and C60 acts as a highly effective solar cell, suggesting photoinduced electron transfer between them [12, 13]. In solutions containing fullerenes and porphyrins/ phthalocyanines, electron transfer via the triplet states is anticipated under appropriate concentrations. In our earlier investigations on photoinduced electron transfer between C60 or C70 and phathalocyanines (Pc) we confirmed that photoinduced electron transfer takes place via the lowest triplet states of C60 and C70 (3 C60 and 3 C70 ) in polar solvents by the selective excitation of C60 and C70 [14]. In the case of

the C60 or C70 with tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) system it was found that the electron transfer mechanism depends on their concentrations [15]. By 532 nm laser exposure of a concentrated C60 and C70 solution where C60 and C70 are photoexcited predominantly, electron transfer takes place from the ground state ZnTPP to 3 C60 and 3 C70 . In a concentrated ZnTPP solution where ZnTPP is predominately photoexcited, the triplet state of ZnTPP donates an electron to the ground states of C60 and C70, producing Cÿ 60 and Cÿ 70 . These electron transfer processes via the triplet states were confirmed using Fourier transform EPR (FTEPR), which gives rise to resonance peaks attributed to 3 C60 and Cÿ 60 , indicating that both energy and electron transfer take place from porphyrin to C60 [16]. For the utilization of wide-range solar light in the visible region it is necessary to confirm the excitation wavelength dependence on the electron transfer mechanism. On this basis we report here the photoinduced electron transfer between C60 or C70 and zinc octaethylporphyrin (ZnOEP) by applying a tunable laser to the selective excitation of C60 or C70 and ZnOEP. ZnOEP was selected as electron donor for its high electron donor ability because of the substitution of the electron-donating –OEt groups to the porphyrin skeleton. We clearly indicate here that 3ZnOEP* and 3C60 or 3  C70 play important roles in the efficient electron transfer processes which can be controlled by selective excitation.

——————— *Correspondence to: O. Ito, Institute of Chemical Reaction Science, Tohoku University, Katahira, Aba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

EXPERIMENTAL

Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

C60 and C70 (>99.9%) were purchased from Texas

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Ge APD module (Hamamatsu, C533) was used to monitor the light from a pulsed Xe lamp. For long-timescale measurements an InGaAs PIN detector was used with a continuous Xe lamp. The details of the experimental set-up have been described elsewhere [17]. Steady state measurements were carried out using an optical cell (1 cm) with a Jasco/V-570 spectrophotometer. The solutions of C60, C70 and ZnOEP were deaerated by Ar bubbling before measurements, and all measurements were carried out at 23 °C.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Steady State Absorption Spectra of C60, C70 and ZnOEP

Fig. 1. Steady state absorption spectra in benzonitrile. Upper: (a) C60 (0.05 mM); (b) ZnOEP (0.05 mM). Lower: (c) mixture of C60 (0.05 mM) and ZnOEP (0.05 mM); (d) synthesized spectrum of (a) ‡ (b), which is overlapping with (c).

Fullerene Corp. Commercially available zinc octaethylporphyrin (ZnOEP) was used after repeated recrystallization. All solvents were of spectroscopic or HPLC grade. Transient absorption spectra and time profiles were measured using a laser photolysis apparatus with an Nd:YAG laser (OPO; 6 ns FWHM) as excitation source. For short-time transient absorption in the near-IR region a

The steady state absorption spectra of C60 and ZnOEP in benzonitrile were recorded between 300 and 700 nm (Fig. 1). The absorption spectrum of a mixture of C60 and ZnOEP in benzonitrile is a superimposition of the components, indicating that no apparent interaction between C60 and ZnOEP in their ground state is present under the concentration range employed in the laser photolysis. Similarly, the absorption spectra of C70 and ZnOEP in benzonitrile show no appreciable change in the visible region between the mixture spectrum and synthesized spectrum. In other solvents the absorption spectrum of the mixture is a superimposition of the components, suggesting no interaction. It was found that the molar absorption coefficient for ZnOEP is much higher than that for C60 or C70 at 532 nm, whereas the molar absorption coefficient for C60 or C70 is much higher than that for ZnOEP at 610 nm. Thus C60 and C70 or ZnOEP can be selectively excited by selecting the excitation wavelength and the employed concentrations.

Fig. 2. Transient absorption spectra observed by 532 nm laser photolysis of ZnOEP (0.10 mM) in presence of C60 (0.10 mM) in deaerated benzonitrile. Inset: time profiles at 760 and 1080 nm. Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 4, 591–598 (2000)

PHOTOINDUCED ELECTRON TRANSFER BETWEEN C60/C70 AND ZnOEP

593

Fig. 3. Transient absorption spectra observed by 532 nm laser photolysis of ZnOEP (0.15 mM) in presence of C70 (0.075 mM) in deaerated benzonitrile. Inset: time profiles at 780 and 1380 nm.

Electron Transfer via 3ZnOEP* The laser flash photolysis of ZnOEP was carried out in the presence of different concentrations of C60 in benzonitrile. Figure 2 shows the transient absorption spectra in the visible and near-IR regions observed using 532 nm laser light to excite predominantly ZnOEP. The sharp absorption peak at 780 nm is attributed to 3ZnOEP*, while the absorption band appearing at 1080 nm with the decay of 3ZnOEP* is due to ÿ Cÿ 60 [18–21]. The rise curve of C60 seems to be slightly faster than the decay of 3ZnOEP* because of the initial fast rise of Cÿ 60 due to the scattered light. Thus the decay rates of 3 ZnOEP* are more reliable than the rise rates of Cÿ 60 . This 3 indicates that Cÿ 60 is produced from ZnOEP* by donating an electron to C60 in the ground state. The formation of ZnOEP‡ was confirmed by the absorption band at 670 nm [22]. In the case of C70 with ZnOEP, similar photoinduced electron transfer behaviour was observed in benzonitrile by

Fig. 4. First-order plots of decay rate of 3ZnOEP* at 780 nm with changing C70 concentration in deaerated benzonitrile. Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

532 nm laser light exposure, which excites mainly ZnOEP in addition to slight excitation of C70. In the transient absorption spectra (Fig. 3) the absorption bands at 780 and 980 nm are attributed to 3ZnOEP* and 3 C70 respectively, while the absorption band appearing at 1380 nm is due to Cÿ 70 [23–25]. Under the condition [C70] > [3ZnOEP*] the decay time profile of 3ZnOEP* obeys first-order kinetics as shown in Fig. 4, in which the first-order rate constant is referred to as kobs. The decay rate of 3ZnOEP* and the rise rate of Cÿ 70 increase with increasing concentration of C70 as shown in Fig. 4. From the kobs values the quenching rate constants (kq) of 3ZnOEP* were determined using equation (1), in which Q is C70 in Fig. 4: kobs ˆ kd ‡ kq ‰QŠ

…1†

where kd is the rate constant without quencher Q. Plots of kobs vs [Q] give a straight line. The kq values for 3ZnOEP*/ C60 and 3ZnOEP*/C70 were estimated as listed in Table 1. The contribution of 3ZnOEP* to electron transfer was ÿ confirmed by examining the yields of Cÿ 60 and C70 , which were suppressed almost completely with addition of O2 to benzonitrile [26]. The decay of 3ZnOEP* was accelerated on addition of O2 to the solution, indicating that 3ZnOEP* was quenched by O2 owing to energy transfer from 3 ZnOEP* to O2. This supports the mechanism of the electron transfer process as shown in Scheme 1. Immediately after the laser pulse at 532 nm, ZnOEP is excited to the lowest excited singlet state (1ZnOEP*), which is converted to 3ZnOEP*; then 3ZnOEP* donates an electron to C60 or C70 having high electron acceptor ability. ÿ via 3ZnOEP* The efficiencies of Cÿ 60 and C70 formation 3 ÿ were evaluated from ‰C60 Šmax =‰ ZnOEP Šmax and 3  ‰Cÿ 70 Šmax =‰ ZnOEP Šmax at appropriately high concentrations J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 4, 591–598 (2000)

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Table 1. Second-order quenching rate constants (kq), quantum yields (Φet) and electron transfer rate constants (ket) from 3 ZnOEP* to C60 or C70 and back electron transfer rate constants (kbet) Solvent

Reaction system

kq (Mÿ1 sÿ1)

Φet

ket (Mÿ1 sÿ1)

kbet (Mÿ1 sÿ1)

BN

‡ C60 ‡3 ZnOEP* ! Cÿ 60 ‡ ZnOEP

3.7  109

0.28

1.0  109

8.4  109

3.3  109

0.22

7.3  108

1.3  1010

DCB

‡ C60 ‡3 ZnOEP* ! Cÿ 60 ‡ ZnOEP ÿ * C ‡3 ZnOEP ! C ‡ ZnOEP‡

0.08

2.5  10

4.9  1010

BZ

C60 ‡3ZnOEP* →

6.5  109

BN

C70 ‡ ZnOEP* !

BN–DCB

C70 ‡3 ZnOEP* !

DCB

C70 ‡ ZnOEP* !

BZ

C70 ‡3ZnOEP* →

DCB–BN

60

60

3

3

Cÿ 70 Cÿ 70 Cÿ 70

3.3  10

9

8





‡ ZnOEP

3.1  10

9

0.49

1.5  10

‡ ZnOEP‡

2.9  109

0.36

1.0  109

1.3  1010

0.08

2.5  10

5.6  1010









‡ ZnOEP

2.7  10

9

6.8  109

– 9

8

8.9  109

Each value contains an estimation error of 5%. BN (benzonitrile); DCB (o-dichlorobenzene); BZ (benzene).

Scheme 1.

[C60] and [C70] respectively [26]. On substituting the 3 ÿ reported e values for Cÿ 60 , C70 and ZnOEP* as 12 000 ÿ1 ÿ1 ÿ1 M cm at 1080 nm, 4000 M cmÿ1 at 1380 nm and 8500 Mÿ1 cmÿ1 at 780 nm respectively [14, 23, 27–29], 3  plots of ‰Cÿ against [C60] and 60 Šmax =‰ ZnOEP Šmax 3 ÿ  ‰C70 Šmax =‰ ZnOEP Šmax against [C70] are presented in Fig. 5, in which the curves show saturation, yielding the Φet

Fig. 5. Efficiency of electron transfer in various solvents. 3 3  ÿ  Upper: ‰Cÿ 70 Š=‰ ZnOEP Š vs [C70]. Lower: ‰C60 Š=‰ ZnOEP Š vs [C60]. Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

values as listed in Table 1. The Φet values are less than unity, which implies that some 3ZnOEP* is deactivated ÿ without forming Cÿ 60 and C70 . It was found that the Φet value for C70 is greater than that for C60. For the C60/ZnOEP system in a moderately polar solvent (1:1 mixture of benzonitrile–DCB) the absorption intensity of Cÿ 60 at 1080 nm was weaker than that observed in benzonitrile, although the decay rate of 3ZnOEP* at 780 nm and the rise rate of Cÿ 60 at 1080 nm were as fast as those in benzonitrile. Furthermore, in less polar DCB the absorption band for Cÿ weak. The Φet values for 60 became quite 3  ÿ 3  Cÿ 60 = ZnOEP and C70 = ZnOEP tend to decrease with decreasing solvent polarity, while the kq values are similar. Finally, the ket values decrease with decreasing solvent polarity (Table 1), indicating that electron transfer is competitive with other processes in less polar solvents [30]. In benzene as a non-polar medium the laser photolysis of ZnOEP (0.1 mM) was carried out in the presence of C60 or C70 (0.05–0.20 mM). Figure 6 shows the transient absorption spectrum in the visible and near-IR regions, in which the absorption peak at 780 nm of 3ZnOEP* was observed, 3 but not Cÿ 60 . Since the decay of ZnOEP* was accelerated on ÿ addition of C60 or C70 without the appearance of Cÿ 60 or C70 , 3 ZnOEP* was quenched by C60 or C70 by processes other than electron transfer. A triplet energy transfer from 3 ZnOEP* to C60 or C70 may occur, although the rise of the T–T absorption of C60 or C70 was not clearly observed because of spectral overlap (Fig. 6) [31]. The decay rates of 3 ZnOEP*/C60 and 3ZnOEP*/C70 in benzene were slightly increased compared with the decay rates in benzonitrile because of the faster diffusion-controlled rate constant (kdiff) in less viscous benzene. J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 4, 591–598 (2000)

PHOTOINDUCED ELECTRON TRANSFER BETWEEN C60/C70 AND ZnOEP

595

Fig. 6. Transient absorption spectra observed by 532 nm laser photolysis of ZnOEP (0.10 mM) in presence of C60 (0.10 mM) in deaerated benzene. Inset: time profiles at 720 and 780 nm.

The free energies of the electron transfer processes from ZnOEP* to C60 and C70 (DG0 via 3ZnOEP*) were calculated as ÿ13.60 kcal molÿ1 for C60 and ÿ15.45 kcal molÿ1 for C70 from the Rehm–Weller relation 3

[32], employing the lowest triplet energy of 3ZnOEP* (T1 = 40.59 kcal molÿ1) [22], reduction potentials (Ered = ÿ0.51 V for C60 and Ered = ÿ0.43 V for C70 vs SCE) [14, 23, 28, 33–35], the oxidation potential of ZnOEP

Fig. 7. Transient absorption spectra observed by 610 nm laser photolysis of C60 (0.10 mM) in presence of ZnOEP (0.10 mM) in deaerated benzonitrile. Inset: time profiles at 720 and 1080 nm. Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 4, 591–598 (2000)

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Table 2. Second-order quenching rate constants (kq), quantum yields (Φet) and electron transfer rate constants (ket) from ZnOEP to 3 C60 or 3 C70 and back electron transfer rate constants (kbet) kq (Mÿ1 sÿ1)

Φet

ket (Mÿ1 sÿ1)

kbet (Mÿ1 sÿ1)

‡ C60 ‡ ZnOEP ! Cÿ 60 ‡ ZnOEP

2.8  109

0.63

1.8  109

1.1  1010

‡ C60 ‡ ZnOEP ! Cÿ 60 ‡ ZnOEP

2.7  109

0.51

1.4  109

1.7  1010

0.16

3.7  10

4.3  1010

Solvent

Reaction system

BN

3

DCB

3

DCB–BN BZ BN BN–DCB DCB BZ

3  C60 3  C60 3  C70 3  C70 3  C70 3  C70

‡ ZnOEP !

Cÿ 60

‡ ZnOEP



‡ ZnOEP ! ‡ ZnOEP ! ‡ ZnOEP ! ‡ ZnOEP !

2.5  10

9

4.8  109 Cÿ 70 Cÿ 70 Cÿ 70

‡ ZnOEP



‡ ZnOEP‡ ‡ ZnOEP



‡ ZnOEP !





9

3.1  109

3.2  10 2.9  10

9

5.4  109

8



0.49

1.6  10

9

1.0  1010

0.37

1.1  109

1.2  1010

0.18

5.2  10

2.3  1010





8



Each value contains an estimation error of 5%.

(Eox = 0.72 V vs SCE) [36] and the reported Coulomb energy in benzonitrile [29]. The DG0 (via 3ZnOEP*) values are far negative, anticipating that the ket values via 3ZnOEP* are close to kdiff, which is in good agreement with the observed ket values in benzonitrile in Table 1.

Electron Transfer via 3C60* and 3C70* On excitation of C60 with 610 nm laser light in the presence of ZnOEP the transition absorption spectra were obtained under the concentration conditions [C60] = 0.10 mM and [ZnOEP] = 0.20 mM as shown in Fig. 7. The absorption band at 740 nm appearing immediately after the laser pulse is attributed to 3 C60 [15], which decayed accompanied by a rise of the absorption band of Cÿ 60 at 1080 nm. From the rise 3  and decay it is evident that Cÿ 60 is produced via C60 which accepts an electron from ZnOEP. Under the condition ‰ZnOEPŠ  ‰3 C60 Š it was found that the decay rate of 3 C60 increases with increasing concentration of [ZnOEP]. Each decay of 3 C60 at 740 nm obeys firstorder kinetics giving kobs, from which the kq value was evaluated for 3 C60 /ZnOEP. For other solvents the kq values were evaluated as listed in Table 2. From the decay kinetics of 3 C70 at 980 nm the kq values for 3 C70 /ZnOEP were evaluated in various solvents (Table 2). Electron transfer via 3 C60 was also supported by the fact that the Cÿ 60 formation was suppressed by adding O2 to the solution under the condition [ZnOEP] < [O2], in which the decay rate of 3 C60 was accelerated on addition of O2. The

decay rate of Cÿ 60 was not accelerated on addition of O2, indicating that the reaction between Cÿ 60 and O2 is slow. The Φet values for electron transfer via 3 C60 and 3 C70 3  ÿ were evaluated from ‰Cÿ 60 Šmax /‰ C60 Šmax and ‰C70 Šmax / 3  ‰ C70 Šmax at appropriately high concentrations of ZnOEP. On substituting the reported e values for 3 C60 and 3 C70 as 16 000 Mÿ1 cmÿ1 at 740 nm and 6500 Mÿ1 cmÿ1 at 980 nm respectively [23, 37, 38], the Φet values are evaluated as listed in Table 2. The Φet values are less than unity, which implies that some 3 C60 and 3 C70 are deactivated without ÿ forming Cÿ 60 and C70 (Scheme 2). It was found that the Φet values for C60/ZnOEP via 3 C60 are greater than those via 3 ZnOEP*, indicating that electron transfer via 3 C60 is more efficient than that via 3ZnOEP* in each solvent. In benzene the absorption bands of 3 C60 and 3 C70 were observed ÿ without the appearance of ZnOEP‡ and Cÿ 70 or C60 , indicating that electron transfer does not take place. Although the decays of 3 C60 and 3 C70 were accelerated on addition of ZnOEP, the appearance of 3ZnOEP* was not observed, indicating that energy transfer also does not occur. The DG0 values for electron transfer from ZnOEP to 3 C60 and 3 C70 in benzonitrile were calculated as ÿ8.30 kcal molÿ1 for C60 and ÿ9.45 kcal molÿ1 for C70 from the Rehm–Weller relation [32], employing the lowest triplet energies of 3 C60 and 3 C70 (T1 = 35.28 kcal molÿ1 for 3  C60 and T1 = 34.59 kcal molÿ1 for 3 C70 ) [14, 23, 28, 39]. The DG0 values via 3 C60 and 3 C70 are far negative, anticipating that the ket values via 3 C60 and 3 C70 are close to kdiff in benzonitrile, which is in good agreement with the observed ket values in benzonitrile in Table 2.

Scheme 2. Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 4, 591–598 (2000)

PHOTOINDUCED ELECTRON TRANSFER BETWEEN C60/C70 AND ZnOEP

597

Fig. 8. Decay of Cÿ 60 at 1080 nm on long timescale produced under same conditions as described in Fig. 6. Inset: second-order plot.

Compared with DG0 via 3 C60 and 3 C70 (ÿ8.30 and ÿ9.45 kcal molÿ1 respectively), the DG0 values via 3ZnOEP* are more negative, expecting that electron transfer efficiencies via 3ZnOEP* are higher than those via 3 C60 and 3 C70 . However, the observed Φet values via 3 C60 are higher than those via 3ZnOEP* in the corresponding solvents. Some factors other than DG0 may be affecting the observed Φet values. On the other hand, the observed Φet values via 3 C70 are similar to those via 3ZnOEP* in the corresponding solvents.

Back Electron Transfer 3  After reaching maximal concentration, Cÿ 60 via C60 begins to decay as shown in Fig. 8. The decay time profile of Cÿ 60 observed on the longer timescale obeys second-order kinetics in benzonitrile (inset in Fig. 8), indicating that ‡ Cÿ recombine after being solvated as free 60 and ZnOEP ions or a solvent-separated ion pair as shown in Scheme 3. The slope of the second-order plot yields kbet ="Cÿ . On 60 ÿ at 1380 nm [40, 41], substituting "Cÿ at 1080 nm and " C 60 ‡ 70 ‡ and Cÿ via the kbet values for Cÿ 60 =ZnOEP 70 =ZnOEP 3 ZnOEP* in different solvents were obtained as listed in Table 1. On the other hand, the kbet values via 3 C60 and 3 C70 were also evaluated similarly as listed in Table 2. The kbet values via 3ZnOEP* are in good agreement with the corresponding values via 3 C60 and 3 C70 . It is clear that the kbet values in benzonitrile are close to kdiff. In less polar solvents the kbet values are larger than those in benzonitrile, which may be related to the degree of contact of the solventseparated ion pair (SSIP).

Comparison with Other Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines The observed trend that the Φet values via 3 C60 and 3 C70 for ZnPc are higher than those for ZnOEP in the corresponding solvents is attributed to the lower Eox of ZnPc than ZnOEP [14]. The observed Φet values via 3 C60 and 3 C70 for ZnOEP are higher than those for ZnTPP in the corresponding solvents [15]. This trend can be explained by the difference in Eox values between ZnOEP (0.87 V vs SCE) and ZnTPP (0.95 V vs SCE) [22]. In the case of electron transfer from 3 ZnOEP* and 3ZnTPP* to C60 and C70 the Φet values via 3 ZnOEP* are higher than those via 3ZnTPP* [15]. In this comparison the high electron donor ability of 3ZnOEP* is reasonable because of both higher T1 and lower Eox values as anticipated from the Rhem–Weller relation [32].

CONCLUSIONS By changing the excitation wavelength, it is proved that the photoinduced electron transfer takes place by two routes: one is electron transfer from 3ZnOEP* to C60 or C70 and the other is electron transfer from ZnOEP to 3 C60 or 3 C70 . The Φet value of the latter process is higher than that of the former process. Compared with other porphyrins, ZnOEP shows higher electron donor ability for both routes.

Acknowledgements The present work was partly supported by Grants-in-Aid on

Scheme 3. Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 4, 591–598 (2000)

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General-Research (No. 11440211) and Priority-Area-Research on ‘Laser Chemistry of Single Nanometer Organic Particle’ (No. 10207202) from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japan.

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J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 4, 591–598 (2000)

Efficient photoinduced electron transfer between C60 ...

70 were observed, accompanied by the appearance of C. БА. 60 and C. БА. 70. The electron transfer rate constants (ket) and the quantum yields (Φet) of C. БА.

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