UNIT-IV

D6ion.f RC.Ele erts iworiaRKs

yow.|.$it y 6tuhn a3 .h.rt otumn(x.y/Ju..2oo7) lS 4s6 clartfies €ctangutarotumns Es shorr.otumn when the Eflo of efre.tve b.gtn 0eff) to the te*t tateGt drmenston ts tss then 12, rne ratio is @[ed stendedes 6tro ol @lumn. rt t E @tumn ts of dtmenston bxD, srendemess 0 about najor axrs -tevD slenderness 6Uo nhout najor ai's rteylD Il any of these two 6tlo ts eqlat to or moe than 12,tt l, @lled a stende.6trnn. rr both stdes6E tsthan 12,.tttsa short cotimn: l.How ao

6

2.wrlt..hort not . on 6r...d cotumn (ir.y/Jun.2ooe) h hll burldhos, tareEt supports lke shefual 6n be [email protected] $

loads aE taken by them. su.h

@lumnsaecled [email protected] @tumn.

rhat the tateEt

3.D€nn6 snt-5xirr D6,dt,s(NoviD;2biei C.lumn such as the externatcotumn offEmed bu dtnqs orcotuBns crrytno crane load thbush cbels of a @tomn aE nor onty to d,re.r [email protected] (p),bu! atso the homenis du€ to th€ e(enhJclty ln.pplictlon of the toad. rn the above corumns the eeenrrrcrty is wtrh respect to one axisonly and these otrmns are said to be under unldxlalbendtng. 4.uniaxlal bending :nd bhn.t lrending( .y/rum)

uniaxl3l bEndinq:rn above rhe.6rumna the eccentndtv is wi$ respect to on_. axis onry and the @tumns are said to be under untaxtat bendtns

s,Olffer€ntlat between short

6thn

blaxial bendinq:a corner stumn ofa buildrng is subje.ted to eccehtrtc toad alons b.th thex and yaxtssuch @iuinns a.e said !6 be underbtaxlat

.nd tory .otunr(l{.yrune2oo7)

Shortcolunnr The perhi$tbte [email protected] for coluhns wrrh heliGtd Etnfomment.ha[ b. 1.o5tim*the permtsstbte toad for stmitar member with tateratdimenston. The ratlo of volume ol [email protected] EtnfoEemeniofthe wtume of the core shal nor b€ tes than

0,16(49/.(

.r

)

(ck/ry)

msibtesxesi

in a Ernrorced o.rcrete @tumn

orpan

::",':,i:fl li"";iiTSnTJ::fl '#t""Tl,T"i::il:::,,",::,,T"":;,i*l:"""1,-*l s."r'ut I"

[btls< roD -ru-nr d membd @rrvhg

a{aload IrveriGtand havhg an . ,When dceeding tnree n6 rhe h4t tateEt d mens,on E @Ied as cotumneffe.trve t6nsrh ,.daseiy rn€ catuhB ba*d on type of to.ding and tranw.E€ reintor .em. ? @umn cn be ddjfied rnro rh€eryps b:sed on toadtng . wtth axta|loadind ,. @rumn r) rcruonwrtx unr.yrar e(;ntri. r.:dh" rrr) 6rufi n wtth btarrat [email protected] [email protected] rhe6rmm [email protected] ro r.lsv;ce *,".*.""r."

_,"r""..

ii)sptEtorhelet a.wh.t l. utatty toad.d @tlmtr? (or) wr[..tort rt . or .d.r,lo.d.d 6tunr. An axt.t toaded erumn rrdremiLs rhe complBtve foae wtlhour an explardes,gn Equrrement to crry taE6t,oaas or e.a mo-..r (or) when the Jrne .ctEn of toad

,. .

pas*

tFrouqh trom cenrE of 96vrty ot catumn

g.sh.t t. e.nrtaly toad.d @trmn? /orwrtt .hort not , columr.

on

e.ntrtca

I

ts

y to.ded

An lo.ded etumn rEsn,re rhe comprestle rorce w,tl an qptEt dBtgn -requ,remeirro crry tateE toads orend moments (o.) when rhe lne ofacl,on 6r toad oas<6atrav tEr renrre of oEvrty or @tumni tr ts . @lled as e.([email protected][y toaded

lo.wh.t lr unbraed cotunn? (or) wrtt.shorrnotes o. unbrac.d 6tumn

r
A cotumn ts

subjeded

be under untaxial bending

tosentllc load a ong oneaxis ontysu.h a @tumn issaid to

Tne momen! due to [email protected]

nandered nlm one direcUon ofcotumn is caled as untaxtat wrire sftort noles otr btaxiat b€rdang A lolumn rs {oiFcred ro (cenrric oad atong oorh x aia.;:::i lurh c EotJmn ts

bending

l2.whatIsbi.xht berdlng ? (or)

sard to be under bjaxtatbendnq {o.) fte homenr due ro todd narle

of

6l!mn

is

alled.s

ls,under whl.h condttion a.otumn tsd.etgned wttn axrat Acoluqn wrtl6xta oad cnd orartatbend,ng [email protected] 6olnd tn srruduee

oecu*

2/

or two malor reasons

btaxiat

'

i)

arallold

may hav€ naturdt

e.entdcltes breuqh salt ryith Ep€rt

ro

lorh rhe

[email protected] @luhns of a botldtng may be subleded to b.nding [email protected] In bour the dlre.tlon along wrth aral load 14..t t6 th. @d.l [email protected]'m.ndrlld tor .tsndm llmttt ,.. otu n.? l)The [email protected] lenoth b€tv*n tiE end E tr.tnts shal not rced 60 um6 t E least late6l dlnensron ola @lumn, ll) yln any d* one end of. @lumn rs lnEstEtned tt lGupported tengt. shoutd rct deed roo brd wh4 b and d .e wtdh .nd deput or clw *dton m..$Ed tn ,tae

$..r.t tfi. mlnl ur [email protected] r4rnrmum

WheE,

to s.td.r.d nor @r!mn d..lgn? [email protected] Gml.) ={ totsoo + d/30) but tes tnrn 20nfr

t!)un$pported tength ln b.ndtnl

drlat El dln6!i.n

3

i i

,tu ttDrr+F,*ed 4ehddl at

ced

oterc b ard
,b_.

&1

.

16,

.b

zoMEi&e{

*,

tlifrn\i!!^

O:zedt

icrhf bntl, . J=.

n

l_ a,t

talp.rqo qirne,lzion &1 ?A9T-B

t. 14

dLo,t qa. .rC,

.

._-

W,,**,""4""XXffi;u

|trffiffiwwm# "",t-ii* 5rJ1Gi;: ;:r .**"sn

ulr\rE/.,I

- \,

96 tn . .

tr'Y.}=* bbokL

u$Q-

!-bL u.rk

--

45oft tu\ x

* u, ,o" 1i*[email protected] "^a *r.Jii

)/

4,"o,y^av1

'r? EIr.rD:-

\,;n ,,,,,*" ai)

t50'

i

+!. 3o

2*

$,L

X,e-r,4

4

1N,.

= ,;l5o

soo -=t

:5.5o-ll5

(i) aoan* eh; . 0.05h

=

ero,so,ria^

o.oS x 4so

sonnnY. "ak . -- @ < D,osh

*

.l

tg,-

&l.a-_

..-*t bqr{a .f e,o.n^6 uAc A,,,

"l' ;;":0,.t

E?=

o*"oro

A+

2,o.sDb+n61

_=L=

=

,

=

2159.n|!Yno_

oi .ra"+trtl _- a.,e ,llozsoo = 6i,vv.'-

bc

e.
=

_

2Jaa

: ttqqEa %lhz

"J*;^"Ia

k"l iL g.;,

P*. r.+u J"q a" 1o.6X,

,r.

Ar:

o 40x

?,o

ytqliqrg

+ a.6+ x r,Eo

I

a,s

li,

:l5qq1D4 r.+&o160 = e!.&o 66+

^t

P,- = ro,,c,65414,rg HEsul"r

tk

---

ultiw+Iz /.od,

qg1 1N*
PrL-. ,',ol!jo.L6+7,N.

o )<\. T0 Fr 1i

= o'aoo(han = r,o N ^.tn

l^n/ynr,,l

!

_- z.o N l,n\ahl

--

1rr^J-

+9,,.

q.r."*

4 h!W,",^r4n

hryrr,,tL.

sDLll-rIoN..-

u

+flr ar,r- .4 dbat-bL n!. ,4uo, .s, .o,..ft.L .."_, _..,, -_ 4$x4oo _ne

,^

* u'* '''*oooo-^u)-,^,

+&" "r..&.tar, dh'^!t \1D,",

'

'eW

/abt

-.L

] -+5o

tso

W4$";;ff.htu_L I 50;

*:y o'n u *'i,^tZ**, #=*

-o'ob3----),2^^", 6 '4 4!t

tu.rl&, D

zto, 20 C tSooDn

,+ao

r,r"- *^." -45?oh

! $

s-ri"'hi

-o

'}
.

1 ,51.'u

lsr,6nsc

=

3doXio3

9:L:?!?g+ont12.

6"i- l r{i! o

"iai* ./a

plo"fu t-qt

gbqr*

r.4l +.,n -

:^^ ci) t4,

q*

*" aa "l a o,r*y &b$rlb ahlX

d;dmuttL

2t_

a|t t!5 +L,1.

1 tbzl]rn;.el

Lata

ri ) s",,". .

RESULT

=Voyn =

sa,tn

).

. .;) Atao,

4 """b"_"r,,t *Ari"_1

',rlffffii::,'ldu,,,,.g ,to".* *rjui

6,!d

Lzstz Ytln[\ t

z

zs

u":ffi:#:_*

Fe4,s a&d2

e"h{ ,_j'""V

+n

4

NrDo e,a..(!/.zL

-

u'rrvEM

9nrflt-

kaX.fi Aa.;rI I

LL) = z.tsan hod -thoo t1N

ULL Mz.o aoh! it - onA" Fe +ts .to F,no i

ahrl

tl.* 4*ln*,^ SOLUTIoa,,.-

ffi"*ruruxXX Abf"""fL h"A-

1a,,"*i",X zt-a+*l,

p

ptL

*

q1

o.

'-

: o.
.!cs 4. * 0.6*

__

o. oaAZ

Rc:

o.rrt

+o t to-Xo.

&,.rbyto3

9a A

I

I

o.

ba

a e+a?t s. strrtt *4oonos

tz.lotv: p, [email protected] 97'tt9oi1.11 *u-'

Fs*

^ 1,{r,a\L A!.t b^ A;AL 4 t4* dfl,o% =b=g+ror-i;

gu

t4B

*

x

o,

6h '?

!.

I -l^notlr4t +^s/rtwrx +254\4^

rqinhvw,** Li) z,o,^,1^

.i,)

L $- g.dL- .t

.

!* L ba' *o .

$! a ,+zs 5oo -a;

<.h)a! . 9,0.n.rt

o.DSb

= o,os,

+rs

. pt, ,wurltt ernri. z- o.os! r. {^,'615 qrua, e,, ,e*r*"

4

\=

AkL&+,

4xx+'>s

\ tsob2s,q.nL Aaaa, fl atul . cz. ,$'!- oy rzhlt "ti " tu*. Crr o zs - Asc),yyryrq B

t445t

F*

=o

to3 -

I

46,1"* fiL.ro,L+l3asL :r4ooxos

h scl +, I

E,

os

Asc .-

A4

ooxt oa

zao.o5n6c:gS5xloa Aec

t ba'6 4

= 16g5.4^n*rz Ls,n,rn Jid/yrula^ @qzsd;1;t

ti') r+t i,a.,whJ.

.1l*u,L

s

4nm

4 1"ry;ua";S- Lu =,r**"u I L;L

ffi:3 la.hi"t 1.*.*4

t;) Llq,tt 'n

t,r" aa""*^

c,;,i)

a8x d.iarw!,ar1

a,wt,r-.d..

iffi,j,@

-fv.o\\1iL

srn^t,. y lrtt

--- 4'15 uLo

r-,j*"1

- 4,o,to -

= asx.

cD=ooolan -zs+'r.

=n*,*n

-

@ loo,v,rh

t-

' T'l"ie

0ltel oern.-

/z;l-

,rod, = rsoohir. L,l-)

u&

ltao

:

&.so,m-

Ja|(nrir

arnd,

pe+rs

d&/.

9ou.trroN:-

l,t

tfu- .d;w"4r'r, a+ t'," {aL,4, ,/" t

*T y

-t\A^;A;y

"./,

A:,:

.,

.

i'- 44. \ral4n?L:6ai-,,D! +

&tr,l,

=o. 02 At

fu*u 4 db\\rrl- , A" =ni_o.oze7

",,;_h r..d,;..1:3",.",

ffii***#,y w+\,d,,,v^,, Pa

:

o'a(.k Bcio.6?&

I, og

(o,?-tEk tuc i o.6l ds nso

fu",

z:so rro3 l. 05

.".-\

o.4x yo.gan?ro.6+y4ls to,oas?: 2.sLEo>r to3 ' l.ds

15,-4ol n9 :: 2r5€rtlO3

,,os

e?. tsqtor.,+a4n'r2

l:

tsqqoa,?,

=

O = ,+5 t .a,r6an

c,, &ir.r,ctri. e& 4so*,,n qdL

m

t^*y" t,

ffi"ffi 6 -.

rLir

.

e

ri 4 xlad

+l- t^t *}.dt^^qd^

c.a(llr'{ t&r& rz,.

q.d,,,,,,nL

!i) 2o,y\dr

rii)€ * o qo5 3.- * ::i = *oanan

e*i o- 05o

e*.,i,

=zcnnvn

!

o,

:

q,t,.5,yn7yt

..- o

,

ost oso

45O .

+!l

W:t7* : o'rrau .{r{a

M

t"qa 4,,-e-

r.os C6.+fck Ac+ o.Ally tu.).

4 +l_ "A,"^^

+,t",t.^".

A* 4'o*"t p(:

,aa**;

=r.,:

rs9r4a. ra-tsc

t,osao.+xr-6arEqo-r.-

- '" rFq+b'Lrt+tso,J

2,4\o : A,zaa,sor t; = r,os(o.4!t,Asr043.r3_rs.) ' "'"o+ LfiA'r\g Ase: =ael.J,.ayz

;T;.f:;:Y,.',=iza2hah, ' Di,r..rl*

FM

,o I '

*-%"hfu;NT ^,

"t"d

.

r Na '9 ,e"r, "{ & ,-". . = --u-\2x4o) -

-:-- -L o.'aoorh_n

".^,._

^.r .!

r385/h4nh

. -'"h".'r

+ Lzxr)

.

i'rL.ffII;:::!?"* o * s3s6 -B

s Pa*&.rLqr

@ .&

-

io p &;l k^a;" 4""'t'utuL ,/orl*l4 . Tl,{ 6 Uo., (r*"1w, a".l

,:b"l fli.a+

8,b" 4 tl,ta^tv2ft- ai,L "r.d"r"n . Meb

4,,otr rn y ADo4ntrl

ffif;,ffiA".,-!*.,,.,-t.o,",h*r F*b\nJ {e-i,,*

=

ffiffi,il: tif^r1

& ;; ti^,

rsarnr,fl

dk ud!\)u,,\an a.;,,,*.

-o'r3

"<)^^r,L

b, # =''''

Jq( bo

Mr lcr<

[ Do

= o.69s 2Eox /+oo [email protected]

o,l l+

, 6,{,.".^j ro J.".,a,, *s &l<

Rsc

=3- x 45orooo

Asc = +i.ooqaq,AL

1;".#.* *1""!-^ t a-i,*4,,,^

ffitpq

9Y "*

nd*.,ry

r.t,n*ttz &," "p ""Lr,,,,* rntutltL .tu^L e{riorlr-.|

ll"d

fo{t 1jd Mel'1lrd

e!) Hdrp

urd,tD2

w Z.ffy

goLU.lto^J.-

"^rr" "y

6Lt=

,tid*"rk, h,,L ,* ,-J^n

qo +tz.s =

sL-s'n+n

d' ^ or.s a 4Bo

{* 4 =o.," 4;1L AL u^')o-) ratrav.ru

..J1"

*a

n;aa.,"^_,t

lct or =o.31

.

t4'.

i*l D:

ru$Ut a J""r, _e_

n

,^^+",f ,& &,n

,

P:o'oqv2o P :r'6 7.

i

4".

=Ii " n, asno 4 : AA6-eftdz

-fr!4.\r;Jo 6!qeA

4 ,t-.-

.d.*nnj^

L2q4]5.,,nt)

Mc l. as

a'*'"j a j

W*W

,1"^rrt , -_

q

o.oss.

r,,;;t*,,,

fuc =2ro zltn., -frh64J^dr 6 bo* .l ur** ,4
,.,1

?

,,

;;f

"r=,o

tr!#il:'---* ^;W,^ :4r,o_2L40-8)

&

+soo = rr tt 3a6 !

:t.3Ej_

'

=t

H- l

. \r61!i4a.4

:0'36 cr.ss? -o

+

)"Lst Y+ x

-4(5 = c'oo6a

.,., _, =

=s6"p

7u 34t;.lr

.

o.or&

aL

at:v*it ,*,aut . a,ot Ah -: -< D.,1A I rb. ,.l Ics

_

0'or nu

-'

La; !i;

s o.006r_ P_
;;;a2

:

Ffu 4..

.

€0.6

rtu dlg *,r.,a

.Co.htn_

,",:" r-- -

#*_!tr;[email protected];ou*^ ffin4fi;;1-.*.,*-Frbtu4le4 o".r;;" A.tv*.t .r""-.^t n* =

..*I

I

@

srlultoN:,,otwwa q hv,E

H^I

o - -aE = o., 4,,,n^

l,

"t o

dqg

".ro


or

rn

rt:t

4

,

p

,qsF

"**;x u "t""*

,b fi. obr,r

P

,oo --_.t-4o3.+nrf

: n !9al{L r+ bo}G 4,r,,*_

dl_n

*o ukn^.,

l.n oo

I'o€i '

M|r

4zxrl!

:

o.o55

l,05 = a.os:,

.

,b &"

"g4ur- Je-e,.

,(h

4""

=l:1, o*+"o. roo

t1"

Ea. - 7Le.b.L.6h, :

.

p,6ur:tq e

b4

.

ol zonnq Jid,nul>, L2+rz.n *,

D6lon of R.C.Elefr€nts

twoitaRl(s ?' l.How do Yow .la$lfcy @ludn as shora .olrmn(Uav/'ln€zooD z.wlt 3hon notE otr b6edoludn ( nvlrun.2oog) ll 3.Deflr. qnl-5xlat b.ndlng( d/[email protected]) ?| 4.Differ.ntlat tEtwocn gnl.nal b.ndlry atd bl.xl.l l,'ndi8(MavlJqn') f' s.Drll.r.rd.t betw..n.ho.t @lrmtr and lons @lumn(M.vl1tn12oo7) ?t

6.wh.t i'.olumn? fr-r\E{r.rr f! 7,.la..llY th. @tumr3 based on tvp. or bidlng .nd tr:ndeB t'lnlo'en'l|t'l a.wh.t l. .xlrllY lcd.d 6lumn? (o.) w.it .hon nd€ or r:l.llv totd'd 6lunn' P ! g.wh.t [email protected] lo.d.d olim? ,'or srlt€ shon not" cn 4"ntrLtllv lo'd6d

to.wh.t ls !nbr..ed @l!mn? (or) wrlt€ shon hot u on untra.cd 6l!mn ?2 1l.what i. unlaxlal b.n.Ihg? (G) wrn .h6rt hot6 on rnlail.l b.trding wrtt.3hon not€. on bl.n.l b'hdlng l3.underwhich Gondltlor a 6lomr i. deslgn€d wlth tal lo'd ttrd blaxitl bending? h 14.5t.te thc .od.l r..omfrchdstion ror .l.nderne$ liriB lor GoluBns? P3 15.st.te th€ minifrum eccenkl.itv to .orcld€red ror .oludn d'sign? tJ

12.what

l. blsxlal

bGnding ? (or)

[email protected] !t'N,,''4.

1.

6lunn 4s0hmx450hn l elnlorced wlth 8 b.u 6f 20nm dianeter. The efieclrveleru ofthe col!6n is 2.75m\lind th. ultimate load for tho @lumn. use M20 A short R.cc

ut\x"r }..r - ?4

.on.r.r.andF.2to{..1.

). 3.

. .

[email protected] Loncrete column h 450mmx4mmm and has tocr'ry a fadored loadof 18001(N. The unsqported lensth of th€ mlumn is 2h. Find the area of [email protected] requlred. Use M2o @ncrete and ter5o steel l$ lN.6 .r,t - PL A relnfored concr*e column ol2.75m efiective length cardes an lal load oa 160oxN.

A

Desrm the cotu

m

n usl na M2O @ncrete an d Fe41s

steel Nolk-

-B1+i

4. Dengn a dEul.r6lum; to.arry an aiialload of lsool(N. fte column has dn eff€
berow Na4r.

siz€ of the @lumn =

condde

mix

2e.t Fa

'lOOhmXrO06r

= Mzo

charactednrc nrenclh of reinforcenent = 415N/mm^2 FactoEdload = 2000m Factored momem = [oxNM Arangem€nt of relnforcement = on two sides

6,

Findthe reinforcement requiredfora [email protected] tothefollostna

&{ q 1,"1 },

paltr(ura,s Didmele' [email protected] - 450itr

condetemlr ReinforFment tactored load

=

M20

-Fe41s = 1500KN

Fa.toieddoment =1100M 7, Findthereidfor.ementrequledforaci.cular.olumntothefollowincpariicula6 DEmete, o(lhe.olumn

Gradeofon.rete

Gradetosteel Iddoredload Pu

.45omm =M20 = Fe415

l200rN

Factor€dmomentMu =100KNM

lccl\1'1 t !'

drc uni 4_NoRestriction.pdf

Page 1 of 23. UNIT-IV. D6ion.f RC.Ele erts. l.How ao yow.|.$it y 6tuhn a3 .h.rt otumn(x.y/Ju..2oo7) lS 4s6 clartfies €ctangutarotumns Es shorr.otumn when the Eflo of efre.tve b.gtn 0eff) to the te*t tateGt drmenston ts tss then 12, rne ratio is @[ed stendedes. 6tro ol @lumn. rt t E @tumn ts of dtmenston bxD,. srendemess 6 0 ...

2MB Sizes 1 Downloads 42 Views

Recommend Documents

drc uni 3_NoRestriction.pdf
4) What are spe.ifi.afions of pirch of tateral rie6 tn. The pltch oftransveree [email protected] be not. i)Ine least tareratdimension ofthe compresto. member.

Guide-DRC-hiver-2017.pdf
4. Page 4 of 16. Guide-DRC-hiver-2017.pdf. Guide-DRC-hiver-2017.pdf. Open. Extract. Open with. Sign In. Main menu. Displaying Guide-DRC-hiver-2017.pdf.

UNI SA 5 - gimmenotes
OctoberlNovember 2011. RFA1 502. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES, CONCEPTS AND PROCEDURES. Duration 2 Hours 100 Marks. EXAMINERS.

Uni SIM essay.pdf
Being a preschool educator, I know that early childhood education does not only focus on. educating and developing ... Main menu. Displaying Uni SIM essay.pdf.

solucionario-2017-i-uni-matematica.pdf
Connect more apps... Try one of the apps below to open or edit this item. solucionario-2017-i-uni-matematica.pdf. solucionario-2017-i-uni-matematica.pdf. Open.

DRC 2015 membership app and renewal form.pdf
DRC 2015 membership app and renewal form.pdf. DRC 2015 membership app and renewal form.pdf. Open. Extract. Open with. Sign In. Main menu.

UNI 2017 - II (RESPUESTAS).pdf
Whoops! There was a problem loading more pages. Retrying... UNI 2017 - II (RESPUESTAS).pdf. UNI 2017 - II (RESPUESTAS).pdf. Open. Extract. Open with.

Phy 2 uni 5_NoRestriction.pdf
L. m-a,,k Bt/$c. .e-arpas !Lo( 6rd, io1, fl_tva e ureo i orodu..ro 1or hrsh ndg.eric t:erdr. 8,Whatis the adabtage ofBins metalicslasses as $ansformer co.e harerial?

Information sharing in contests - Wiwi Uni-Frankfurt
Oct 1, 2013 - E%mail: [email protected]%koeln.de. 1 .... from engaging into parallel strategies that will lead to overcapacities or to a duplication.

2-Uni-UMA-BioAnimal.pdf
Page 1. Whoops! There was a problem loading more pages. Retrying... 2-Uni-UMA-BioAnimal.pdf. 2-Uni-UMA-BioAnimal.pdf. Open. Extract. Open with. Sign In.

Community Manager WESTWOOD VILLAGE CONDOMINIUM UNI
Westwood Village Condominium. DESIGN REVIEW APPLICATION AND ALTERATION AGREEMENT. Please mail or deliver to: Community Manager.

Everyday politics and practices of family planning in the DRC
Exceptions for the doctoral degree can be granted to applicants who are able to ... and believes this will contribute to our mission and vision of being the best.