IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pg. 136-147

International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT)


ISSN 2001-5569

Detecting the Impact of landslide through Wireless Sensor Networks Reeti Sharma, Er. Maninder Singh Department of ECE, RIEIT, Ropar, Punjab,India [email protected]

Abstract The arrangement of hardware and software that connect two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data is called networking. This interconnection can be established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet. Wired network technology works well for some systems but as the network grows, wires can become a problem. These problems are cost, maintenance and the lack of mobility. In the last few years a solution to these problems has emerged. Wireless network communication has evolved very fast and become one of the most important ways of allowing devices to communicate and share data directly. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has come forth as an important new field in wireless communication. The recent developments in making energy efficient Wireless Sensor Network is giving new direction to deploy these networks in applications like surveillance, industrial monitoring, traffic monitoring, habitat monitoring, home security, earthquake warning, etc. But most of the natural disaster may disturb the functionality of the Sensor network . Landslide is one of them. First of all we have to detect this process and has to give the remedies to it .In the current paper we have firstly discussed the occurrence of the landslide. We are also giving the solution if there is disaster we could create dynamic clustering by providing cluster header to a sensor network

Keywords: Landslides, WSN,AODV,Dynamic Clustering

1.Introduction A WSN is a computer network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical environmental conditions such as temperature, motion, pressure, sound, vibrations or pollutants at different locations. This network can be deployed in any type of environment such as geographic regions, office buildings, interior of planes and urban toxic environment. In general, there are two types of WSNs- Structured and Unstructured. An unstructured WSN is one in which sensor nodes are deployed in an ad hoc manner into the field. There is no preplanned manner of sensor nodes in unstructured wireless networks. But in structured networks, all the sensor nodes are deployed in planned manner. The benefit of structured wireless sensor network is that some nodes can be deployed with lower network maintenance and management cost. The aim of wireless sensor network is to provide efficient connection among the physical environmental condition and internet worlds.

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pg. 136-147

Fig 1.1 Illustration of a Wireless Sensor Network

2.Sensor Node Architecture A natural architecture for such collaborative distributed sensors is a network with wireless links that can be formed among the sensors in an ad hoc manner. The wireless sensor nodes are the essential building blocks in a sensor network. A general sensor node is composed of four basic components as shown in Figure 1.2 - a sensing unit, a processing unit, a transceiver unit and a power unit.

Figure 1.2: Architecture of Sensor Node It may also have application dependent additional components such as location finding system to determine their position, a mobilizer to change their location or configuration (i.e. antenna’s orientation) and a power generator. 2.1 Sensing unit: This is one of the important parts of the sensor node which physically reads and collects data from the environment. These are usually composed of two subunits: Sensors and Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs). • Sensors: Sensors are the small tiny, self-contained, battery-powered, low cost devices which can sense, store and gather information. These hardware devices produce a measurable response to a change in a physical condition like temperature, humidity or pressure. The analog signal produced by the sensors is passed to an analog-to-digital conversion stage for digitization and further processed. There are two types of sensors: active and passive. Active sensor gathers data by examining the environment, while passive sensors collect data without actually disturbing the environment. • ADC: The analog signals produced by the sensors by the observed phenomenon are converted into digital signals by the ADC and then fed into the processing unit. Reeti Sharma, IJRIT-140

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pg. 136-147

2.2 Processing Unit: The processing unit is generally associated with small storage unit, which manages the procedures that make the sensor node collaborate with other nodes to carry out the assigned sensing tasks. • Microprocessor: It performs tasks after that it processes information and then controls the functionality of other components. • External memory: The processor also stores the gathered data in the memory until it is forwarded to the next node. Two kinds of memory are used on the basis of type of storage- User memory for storing application related or personal data and Programming memory for program the device. 2.3 Transceiver Unit: The Transceiver connects the node to the network and serves as the communication medium of the node. The transceiver provides the functionality of both transmitter and receiver. Most transceivers operating in idle mode have power consumption almost equal to the power consumed in receive mode. Thus, it is better to completely switch off the transceiver rather than leave it in the idle mode when it is not transmitting or receiving due to the more power consumed in this mode. A significant amount of power is consumed when switching from sleep mode to transmit mode in order to transmit a packet. 2.4 Power Unit: One of the most important components of sensor node is the power unit because it determines the lifetime of the sensor network. Power source supplies power to sensors and to the other components of the sensor node. Power unit may be supported by power scavenging unit such as solar cells. Sensors can sense, store and gather information. For all this they consume power. Power is stored either in batteries or capacitors. Batteries are the main source of power supply for sensor nodes. The cost of sensor nodes varies, ranging from a few to hundreds of dollars, depending on the complexity of the individual sensor nodes. The size and cost constraints on sensor nodes result in other constraints on resources like energy, memory, computational speed and communication bandwidth. The topology of the WSNs can vary from a simple star network to an advanced multi-hop wireless mesh network. Battery powered nodes are a common feature of many WSN applications, where recharging or replacement would not normally be feasible and so are considered to be disposable. Increasing the capacity of batteries is not possible due to the tiny size requirement of the sensor nodes. There are two main factors which make difficult to recharge power supply of sensor nodes once deployed over an area: • Large number of nodes: it is very difficult to recharge thousands of sensor nodes in sensor node deployment environment. • The complexity of the environment: It may be dangerous or too time-consuming to replace sensors when they have failed due to battery energy consumption. Wireless Sensor Networks are subject to node failures due to energy loss. In order to provide reliable service throughout the network, the network should have self adjustable properties. 3. Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks Clustering provides an efficient method for minimizing the energy consumption of a wireless sensor network. These techniques organize the sensor nodes into the clusters in which sensors can be managed locally by a cluster head; a node elected to manage the cluster and responsible for communicating the data between the cluster and the base station as shown in figure 1.3. Therefore, an efficient clustering in sensor networks is required to save energy by forming efficient groups or clusters that communicate with each other and process information in the network to send to the BS.[9]

Figure 1.3: Architecture of Cluster based wireless sensor network

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pg. 136-147

Clustering can support many network features within a cluster such as channel access for cluster members and power control; as well as between clusters such as routing and code separation to avoid inter-cluster interference [9]. Cluster head aggregates the data received from the members of its cluster along with its own data to compress the data amount which is to be transferred to BS. Clustering helps in reducing the number of exchanged communications in wireless sensor network resulting in low consumption of battery power of individual sensor nodes. This increases the life time of the wireless sensor network. However, a CH drains its energy more quickly than ordinary sensor nodes due to the more computational and operational activities.

4.Impact of natural disaster through Wireless sensor network Every year there is great loss of life and property due to landslides. An early warning system for landslide prediction could help in preventing these losses. The losses due to these disasters are increasing at an alarming rate. Hence it would be beneficial to detect the pre-cursors of these disasters, early warn the population evacuate them and save their life. However these disasters are largely unpredictable and occur within very short very short spans of time. Therefore, technology has to be developed to capture relevant signals with minimum monitoring delay .Wireless sensors are one of the cutting edge technologies that can quickly respond to rapid changes of data to data analysis center in areas where cabling is inappropriate. WSN technology has the capability of quick capturing ,processing and transmission of crtical data in real time with high resolution. However it has its own limitations such as relatively low amounts of battery power and low memory availability compared to many exhibiting technologies. It does,though,have the advantage of deploying the sensors in hostile environments with a bare minimum of maintenance. This fulfils a very important need for real time monitoring especially in hazardous and remote scenarios. So researchers are using WSNs in the chance occurrence of landslides. India faces landslides every year with a large to human life causing annual loss of US $400 million[9]

5. Detection Algorithm : The process of detecting the disaster impact and reconstruction of network involves following steps


a) Communication Link b) Life Span c) Power loss Reconstruction and once the process is detected the landslide we use the remain node that has least impact for reconstruction of network using the concept of Dynamic clustering.

6. Steps of algorithm 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

First of all, data is requested from all other sensor nodes present in the cluster. Then request goes to cluster head for the availability of communication links. If link is available then the data is transferred and if not then its link with other nodes is checked If link is available then CH is reconstructed with dynamic clustering. And if no link is available with other nodes then landslide is reported and early warning for the same can be generated.

Reeti Sharma, IJRIT-142

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pg. 136-147

7. FlowChart Start

Request data from Cluster Request goes to Cluster Head ( CH)


Is it communicating?


Link is healthy

Link with other nodes? Yes

No Transfer Data Report landslide

Stop Stop Reconstruct CH (Dynamic) 8.Experimental Results Technique

End to end Delay




232.957 ms




237.957 ms



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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pg. 136-147

9. Graph Plots Graph plots showing comparison of parameters between Proposed technique and Earlier technique. End to End Delay

Pdf Graph

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pg. 136-147

Throughput Graph

Reeti Sharma, IJRIT-145

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pg. 136-147

10. Conclusion and future work Having seen the result of simulation of various parameters it is concluded that the proposed approach can provide synergetic improvement for efficient network performance in the wireless sensor network. Wireless sensor networks are used in different application areas such as military monitoring, traffic tracking, patient monitoring etc. Thus it is mandatory to keep active the network group and there should have some strategy to detect the landslide occurring in parts of the network. In the current work we have presented the new concept of detecting the the landslide in sensors network. The proposed approach is compared with earlier approach , delay, throughput and packet delivery fraction with respect to time. The results show an improvement in throughput and packet delivery fraction and also reduction in delay and energy. This is mainly due to the successful transmission of packets from source to destination Hence the proposed technique improves the performance of wireless sensor network and increases the efficiency of the network. In future work, this proposed work will be extended this technique using fuzzy concept with more parameters that may give more precesion in the accuracy to detect the landslides and also appropriate action log will be reported

11. References Reeti Sharma, IJRIT-146

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2015, Pg. 136-147

[1] Akkaya K. and Younis M., “A Survey on Routing Protocols for Wireless SensorbNetworks.”, Ad-hoc Networks, Elsevier B.V., pp. 325-349, 2003. [2] Al-Karaki J. N. and Kamal A. E. “Routing Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey”, IEEE Wireless Communication, Vol. 11, pp. 6-28, 2004. [3] Sharma G., “Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks”, A thesis submitted under the supervision of Dr. A.K. Verma & Mr. Vinod Bhalla, Thapar University, Patiala, May, 2009. [4] Yassein M. B., Al-zou'bi A., Khamayseh Y. and Mardini W., “Improvement on LEACH Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network (VLEACH)”, International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 132-136, June, 2009. [5] Ali A. and Akbar Z., “Evaluation of AODV and DSR Routing Protocols of Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring Applications”, A thesis submitted under the supervision of Karel De Vogeleer, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, October, 2009. [6] Samundiswary P. and Dananjayan P., “Performance Analysis of Trust Based AODV for Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 4, No.12, pp. 6-13, August, 2010. [7] Qin H., Zhong X. and Xiao Z., “Balanced Energy Consumption and Cluster-Based Routing Protocol”, 9th IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation (ICCA), Santiago, Chile, pp. 686-691, December, 2011. [8] Samundiswary P.,“Trust based Energy Aware Reactive Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks”, International of Computer Applications, Vol. 43, No.21, pp. 37-40, April, 2012. [9] Thampi, P. K.; Mathai, J.; Sankar, G. & Sidharthan, S. (1997). Landslides: Causes, Control and Mitigation, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum [10] Singh M , Lyenger ;. “Routing multiple services in Optical Transport Network environment using mixed line rates” Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics [11]Maninder Singh, Maninder Lal Singh,” A novel algorithm to integrate synchronous digital hierarchy networks into Optical Transport Network using mixed line rates” Optik International Journal for light and electron optics.

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