Why not duplicate?

Designing and Maintaining Software (DAMS)
 Louis Rose

Habitable Software Leaner

Avoids Duplication

Less Complex

Clearer

Loosely Coupled

More Extensible

More Cohesive

???

Bad Practice

Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY)

“Every piece of knowledge must have a single, unambiguous, authoritative representation
 within a system.” - Andrew Hunt & David Thomas
 The Pragmatic Programmer
 Addison-Wesley, 1999

DRY software is… Consistent Easier to change More likely to contain
 better abstractions

Why does duplication arise?

The environment (seems to) require duplication Duplication is unapparent Laziness

Essential or accidental? DRY and a cautionary tale

Idea: Clone Detection

Automatically identify fragments
 of similar text within a project

Challenges Clones can be syntactically different
 but semantically equivalent Clones can be over programs written in multiple languages or in unstructured files (e.g. README) Fragments can be identical now, but have
 different reasons to change in the future

Challenges Clones can be syntactically different
 but semantically equivalent Clones can be over programs written in multiple languages or in unstructured files (e.g. README) Fragments can be identical now, but have
 different reasons to change in the future

Essential vs Accidental? # "computeBalance" becomes "compute_balance" def java_to_ruby_method(method_name) value = method_name[0..0].downcase + method_name[1..-1] value.gsub(/[A-Z]/) { |cap| "_#{cap.downcase}" } end # "MyModuleName" becomes "my_module_name" def to_file_name(module_name) value = module_name[0..0].downcase + module_name[1..-1] value.gsub(/[A-Z]/) { |cap| "_#{cap.downcase}" } end

Accidental: two different translations that
 have different reasons to change http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1313447

Essential vs Accidental? # "computeBalance" becomes "compute_balance" def java_to_ruby_method(method_name) value = method_name[0..0].downcase + method_name[1..-1] value.gsub(/[A-Z]/) { |cap| "_#{cap.downcase}" } end # "MyModuleName" becomes "my_module_name" def to_file_name(module_name) value = module_name[0..0].downcase + module_name[1..-1] value.gsub(/[A-Z]/) { |cap| "_#{cap.downcase}" } end # Client code module_name = module_registry.find(modules.first).name to_file_name(module_name)

http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1313447

Essential vs Accidental? # "computeBalance" becomes "compute_balance" def java_to_ruby_method(method_name) value = method_name[0..0].downcase + method_name[1..-1] value.gsub(/[A-Z]/) { |cap| "_#{cap.downcase}" } end # "MyModuleName" becomes "my_module_name" def to_file_name(module_name) value = module_name[0..0].downcase + module_name[1..-1] value.gsub(/[A-Z]/) { |cap| "_#{cap.downcase}" } end # Client code module_name = modeul_registry.find(modules.first).name camel_to_snake_case(module_name)

http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1313447

Essential vs Accidental? # "computeBalance" becomes "compute_balance" def java_to_ruby_method(method_name) value = method_name[0..0].downcase + method_name[1..-1] value.gsub(/[A-Z]/) { |cap| "_#{cap.downcase}" } end # "MyModuleName" becomes "my_module_name" def to_file_name(module_name) value = module_name[0..0].downcase + module_name[1..-1] value.gsub(/[A-Z]/) { |cap| "_#{cap.downcase}" } end

Essential: translating from CamelCase to snake_case
 is a lower-level abstraction http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1313447

A Possible Resolution # "computeBalance" becomes "compute_balance" def java_to_ruby_method(method_name) value = method_name[0..0].downcase + method_name[1..-1] value.gsub(/[A-Z]/) { |cap| "_#{cap.downcase}" } end # "MyModuleName" becomes "my_module_name" def to_file_name(module_name) value = module_name[0..0].downcase + module_name[1..-1] value.gsub(/[A-Z]/) { |cap| "_#{cap.downcase}" } end # "MyModuleName" becomes "my_module_name" def camel_to_snake_case(camel_name) value = camel_name[0..0].downcase + camel_name[1..-1] value.gsub(/[A-Z]/) { |cap| "_#{cap.downcase}" } end

http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1313447

A Possible Resolution # "computeBalance" becomes "compute_balance" def java_to_ruby_method(method_name) camel_to_snake_case(method_name) end

# "MyModuleName" becomes "my_module_name" def to_file_name(module_name) camel_to_snake_case(module_name) end # "MyModuleName" becomes "my_module_name" def camel_case_to_snake_case(camel_name) value = camel_name[0..0].downcase + camel_name[1..-1] value.gsub(/[A-Z]/) { |cap| "_#{cap.downcase}" } end

http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1313447

Idea: Eliminate Duplication

Once identified essential duplication
 should be removed immediately

Challenges

Reducing duplication often increases coupling Discovering additional data points might
 change the approach to eliminating duplication

Example class StuffedCrust def bake # baking logic end end

class DeepPan def bake # identical baking logic end end

Example class StuffedCrust < Pizza def bake # baking logic end end

class DeepPan < Pizza def bake # identical baking logic end end

Example class StuffedCrust < Pizza end

class Pizza def bake # baking logic end end

class DeepPan < Pizza end

Example class StuffedCrust < Pizza end

class DeepPan < Pizza end

class Pizza def bake # baking logic end end

class Calzone def bake # folding logic # baking logic end end

Example class StuffedCrust < Pizza end

class DeepPan < Pizza end

class Pizza def bake # baking logic end end

class Calzone < Pizza def bake # folding logic super # baking logic end end

Summary Avoid duplication by representing every
 piece of knowledge once and only once Consider whether duplication is accidental
 or essential before taking action When reducing duplication: wait for the right abstraction & prefer to depend on stable canons

Designing and Maintaining Software (DAMS) - GitHub

Why not duplicate? Designing and Maintaining Software (DAMS). Louis Rose. Page 2. Habitable Software. Leaner. Less Complex. Loosely Coupled. More Cohesive. Avoids Duplication. Clearer. More Extensible ??? Page 3. Bad Practice. Page 4. Don't Repeat Yourself (DRY). “Every piece of knowledge must have a single,.

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