GUIs David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

GUIs

Recap

David Croft Coventry University [email protected]

January 23, 2017

GUIs

Overview

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events

1

GUIs Hello World!

2

Layout Containers

3

Events Event arguments

4

Recap

Event arguments

Recap

GUIs

Event driven

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

Your programs so far have followed a procedural pattern. Program is a series of steps. Moves through those steps in a predetermined pattern. Expects user input in a very specific order.

start

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

end

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GUIs

Event driven II

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

Going to look at event driven programming. Program reacts to events. Events have actions associated with them. Order and frequency of events is unpredictable. Does not have a predefined sequence of actions to perform. Does not have a predefined end.

start

end

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GUIs David Croft

Benefits

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GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

What sort of applications would benefit from an event driven paradigm?

GUIs

Benefits

David Croft

C

GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

What sort of applications would benefit from an event driven paradigm? GUIs Control systems Embedded systems

GUIs

Events examples

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

GUI events would include... Button presses Text entry Keyboard events Pressing a key Releasing a key

Mouse events Pressing a button Releasing a button Moving Scrolling

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GUIs

Hello World!

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

How to create a GUI. Wide range of different libraries available. Depends on language and platform.

Tkinter is the built-in Python default.

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GUIs

Terminology

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

Window Component/widget/element

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GUIs

Hello World!

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

import sys from tkinter import *

Events Event arguments

Recap

def main(): root = Tk() label = Label(root, text='Hello World!') label.pack() root.mainloop() if __name__ == '__main__': sys.exit(main()) lec_getting_started.py

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GUIs

Hello World!

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

import sys from tkinter import *

Events Event arguments

Recap

def main(): root = Tk() label = Label(root, text='Hello World!') label.pack() root.mainloop() if __name__ == '__main__': sys.exit(main()) lec_getting_started.py

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GUIs

Classes

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

GUI code should be structured as a class. Become clear later. class Gui: def __init__(self, root): self.root = root self.label = Label(self.root, \ text='Hello World!') self.label.pack() def main(): root = Tk() gui = Gui(root) root.mainloop() lec_classes.py

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GUIs

Layout

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout

So far we have seen how elements are added to window.

Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

class Gui: def __init__(self, root): self.root = root for i in range(1,10): button = Button(self.root, text=i) button.pack() lec_layout.py

C

GUIs

Layout

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout

So far we have seen how elements are added to window.

Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

class Gui: def __init__(self, root): self.root = root for i in range(1,10): button = Button(self.root, text=i) button.pack() lec_layout.py

C

GUIs

Layout II

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

Can use the side parameter for .pack(). TOP (default). Also LEFT, RIGHT and BOTTOM. class Gui: def __init__(self, root): self.root = root for i in range(1,10): button = Button(self.root, text=i) button.pack(side=LEFT) lec_layout2.py

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GUIs

Layout III

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

Use side to control layout? class Gui: def __init__(self, root): self.root = root Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, lec_layout3.py

text=1).pack(side=TOP) text=2).pack(side=LEFT) text=3).pack(side=LEFT) text=4).pack(side=TOP) text=5).pack(side=LEFT) text=6).pack(side=LEFT) text=7).pack(side=TOP) text=8).pack(side=LEFT) text=9).pack(side=LEFT)

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GUIs

Layout III

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

Use side to control layout? class Gui: def __init__(self, root): self.root = root Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, Button(self.root, lec_layout3.py

text=1).pack(side=TOP) text=2).pack(side=LEFT) text=3).pack(side=LEFT) text=4).pack(side=TOP) text=5).pack(side=LEFT) text=6).pack(side=LEFT) text=7).pack(side=TOP) text=8).pack(side=LEFT) text=9).pack(side=LEFT)

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GUIs

Containers

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

Need to learn about containers. Windows are containers. Elements are ’contained’ inside.

Tkinter also has frames. Special type of element. Contains other elements.

Group elements together using frames. Can be visible/invisible.

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GUIs

Frames

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events

class Gui: def __init__(self, root): self.root = root

Event arguments

Recap

self.frame1 = Frame(self.root) self.frame1.pack() self.frame2 = Frame(self.root) self.frame2.pack() Button(self.frame1, text=1).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.frame1, text=2).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.frame1, text=3).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.frame3, text=7).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.frame3, text=8).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.frame3, text=9).pack(side=LEFT) lec_frames.py

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GUIs

Frames

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events

class Gui: def __init__(self, root): self.root = root

Event arguments

Recap

self.frame1 = Frame(self.root) self.frame1.pack() self.frame2 = Frame(self.root) self.frame2.pack() Button(self.frame1, text=1).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.frame1, text=2).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.frame1, text=3).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.frame3, text=7).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.frame3, text=8).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.frame3, text=9).pack(side=LEFT) lec_frames.py

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GUIs

Nesting

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout

root

Containers

Events Event arguments

frame1

Recap

So what’s happening? Elements are nested in containers. Containers are nested in other containers.

1

2

3

frame2 4

5

6

frame3 7

8

8

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GUIs

Hierarchical structure

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

root frame1 1

2

frame3

frame2 3

4

5

6

7

8

9

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GUIs David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

Break

GUIs

Events

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

How do we get our code to actually DO stuff? Using Python/Tkinter. Other languages/frameworks == different syntax. Same concepts.

Event handling. Bind events to callback functions.

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GUIs

Events II

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

class Gui: def __init__(self, root): self.root = root self.label = Label(self.root, text='Hello World!') self.label.pack() self.button = Button(self.root, text='Press me') self.button.bind('', self.say_bye) self.button.pack() def say_bye(self, event): self.label.config(text='Bye!') lec_events.py

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GUIs

Events II

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

class Gui: def __init__(self, root): self.root = root self.label = Label(self.root, text='Hello World!') self.label.pack() self.button = Button(self.root, text='Press me') self.button.bind('', self.say_bye) self.button.pack() def say_bye(self, event): self.label.config(text='Bye!') lec_events.py

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GUIs

Callbacks

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

Callbacks are how we respond to events. Functions that are passed to another function as an argument. class Gui: def __init__(self, root): self.root = root self.label = Label(self.root, text='Hello World!') self.label.pack() self.button = Button(self.root, text='Press me') self.button.bind('', self.say_bye) self.button.pack() def say_bye(self, event): self.label.config(text='Bye!') lec_events.py

User

Event

Listener

Callback

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GUIs

Standard behaviour

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

User actions can consist of multiple events. I.e. clicking on button. 1 2

Press LMB whilst pointer over button. Release LMB whilst pointer over button.

Standard behaviour already programmed into Tkinter. Use command parameter. class Gui: def __init__(self, root): self.root = root self.button = Button(self.root, text='Press me' , \ command=self.say_bye) self.button.pack() def say_bye(self): self.label.config(text='Bye!') lec_events2.py

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GUIs

Event arguments

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

class Gui: def __init__(self, root): Button(self.root, text='1', \ command=self.pressed_1).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.root, text='2', \ command=self.pressed_2).pack(side=LEFT) def pressed_1(self): # seperate functions to each button self.label.config(text='Pressed 1') def pressed_2(self): # very similar code self.label.config(text='Pressed 2') lec_event_args.py

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GUIs

Event arguments II

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Much better to have one function. Function takes argument. Reuse of each button.

Recap

class Gui: def __init__(self, root): Button(self.root, text='1', \ command=self.pressed_button(1)).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.root, text='2', \ command=self.pressed_button(2)).pack(side=LEFT) def pressed_button(self, number): self.label.config(text='Pressed %d' % number) lec_event_args2.py

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GUIs

Event arguments II

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

Much better to have one function. Function takes argument. Reuse of each button. Doesn’t work. Calls function immediately.

DEMO class Gui: def __init__(self, root): Button(self.root, text='1', \ command=self.pressed_button(1)).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.root, text='2', \ command=self.pressed_button(2)).pack(side=LEFT) def pressed_button(self, number): self.label.config(text='Pressed %d' % number) lec_event_args2.py

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GUIs

Event arguments III

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

lambda functions. Only calls function when button is pressed. class Gui: def __init__(self, root): Button(self.root, text='1', \ command=lambda: self.pressed_button(1)).pack(side=LEFT) Button(self.root, text='2', \ command=lambda: self.pressed_button(2)).pack(side=LEFT) def pressed_button(self, number): self.label.config(text='Pressed %d' % number) lec_event_args3.py

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GUIs

Why do I care?

David Croft

I

GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

Everyone Ability to create simple Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs). Experience in using 3rd party libraries/modules in software. Introduction to event driven programming. Introduction to lambdas.

Games Tech & MC - Tkinter like APIs are not suited for games but can be used for game menus. Particular attention to callbacks for game input.

Computing - Similar APIs used in mobile applications. Event driven programming used in ubiquitous computing.

Ethical Hackers - Security flaws in event driven applications. ITB - GUIs programs have lower entry barrier, important for being user friendly.

GUIs David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

Quiz

GUIs

Q1

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

What is it called when a program is written to respond to button clicks, menu selections and other actions the user performs? 1

Event driven programming

2

Action driven programming

3

User driven programming

4

Mouse driven programming

GUIs

Q1

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

What is it called when a program is written to respond to button clicks, menu selections and other actions the user performs? 1

Event driven programming

2

Action driven programming

3

User driven programming

4

Mouse driven programming

GUIs

Q2

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

What is wrong with this code? class Gui: def __init__(self, root): for i in range(1,10): b = Button(self.root, text=i, command=self.pressed_button(i)) b.pack(side=LEFT) def pressed_button(self, number): print( 'Pressed button {}'.format(number) ) 1

All the buttons will say they are button 10

2

Each button will print a message twice for each mouse click

3

Each button will only print a message once, as it is created.

4

There will be no buttons

GUIs

Q2

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

What is wrong with this code? class Gui: def __init__(self, root): for i in range(1,10): b = Button(self.root, text=i, command=self.pressed_button(i)) b.pack(side=LEFT) def pressed_button(self, number): print( 'Pressed button {}'.format(number) ) 1

All the buttons will say they are button 10

2

Each button will print a message twice for each mouse click

3

Each button will only print a message once, as it is created.

4

There will be no buttons

GUIs

Q3

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

What is a callback? 1

The code that deals with GUI events.

2

Unlikely if your first date went badly.

3

A named piece of code that can be repeated multiple times.

4

A function that is passed to another function as an argument.

GUIs

Q3

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

What is a callback? 1

The code that deals with GUI events.

2

Unlikely if your first date went badly.

3

A named piece of code that can be repeated multiple times.

4

A function that is passed to another function as an argument.

GUIs

Q4

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

What is a container? 1

The class containing your GUI code.

2

A GUI object that can hold other objects within it.

3

A function containing the code to run when a button is pressed.

4

Tupperware.

GUIs

Q4

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

What is a container? 1

The class containing your GUI code.

2

A GUI object that can hold other objects within it.

3

A function containing the code to run when a button is pressed.

4

Tupperware.

GUIs

Recap

David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

GUIs are an example of event driven programming. GUI elements are arranged in containers. Containers can hold other containers. User actions generate events. Callbacks are functions that are run in response to events.

GUIs David Croft GUIs Hello World!

Layout Containers

Events Event arguments

Recap

The End

David Croft January - GitHub

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