Analysing research on cancer prevention and survival

CANCER PREVENTION

& SURVIVAL Summary of global evidence on diet, weight, physical activity & what increases or decreases your risk of cancer September 2017 edition

1 ABOUT /3 OF THE MOST COMMON

CANCERS COULD BE

PREVENTED THROUGH DIET, WEIGHT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

In this booklet we summarise the findings from our Continuous Update Project (CUP) – our ongoing programme to analyse global research on how diet, weight, and physical activity affect cancer risk and survival. Among experts worldwide it is a trusted, authoritative, scientific resource, which underpins current guidelines and public health policy on cancer prevention around the world. All the findings from the Continuous Update Project will be used to update the Cancer Prevention Recommendations in 2018.

STRONG EVIDENCE

ON WHAT

INCREASES THE RISK OF

CANCER

BEING OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE Being overweight or obese INCREASES the risk of 11 cancers n BOWEL (colorectum) n BREAST (post-menopause) n GALLBLADDER n KIDNEY n LIVER n OESOPHAGUS

(oesophageal adenocarcinoma) n OVARY n PANCREAS n PROSTATE (advanced) n STOMACH (cardia) n WOMB (endometrium)

WEIGHT GAIN IN ADULTHOOD Gaining weight as an adult INCREASES the risk of cancer of the n BREAST (post-menopause)

CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

5

SALT-PRESERVED FOODS Foods preserved by salting INCREASE the risk of cancer of the n STOMACH Examples of foods preserved by salting: salt-preserved vegetables and fish, and diverse salt-preserved foods as traditionally prepared in East Asia.

ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER Arsenic in drinking water INCREASES the risk of cancer of the n BLADDER n LUNG n SKIN Water can become contaminated by arsenic as a result of natural deposits present in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices.

6

CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

ALCOHOLIC DRINKS Alcohol INCREASES the risk of cancer of the n BOWEL (colorectum) n BREAST (both pre-

and post-menopause) n LIVER n MOUTH, PHARYNX AND LARYNX (mouth and throat) n OESOPHAGUS (squamous cell carcinoma) n STOMACH

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BETA-CAROTENE SUPPLEMENTS Beta-carotene supplements INCREASE the risk of cancer of the n LUNG The evidence is only apparent in smokers taking high-dose beta-carotene supplements.

MATE Mate INCREASES the risk of cancer of the n OESOPHAGUS (squamous

cell carcinoma) Mate is a South American herbal tea. The evidence is only apparent when drunk scalding hot through a metal straw.

CANTONESE-STYLE SALTED FISH Cantonese-style salted fish INCREASES the risk of cancer of the n NASOPHARYNX

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CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

PROCESSED MEAT Processed meat INCREASES the risk of cancer of the n BOWEL (colorectum) n STOMACH (non-cardia) Examples of processed meat: bacon, salami and ham.

RED MEAT Red meat INCREASES the risk of cancer of the n BOWEL (colorectum) Examples of red meat: beef, pork, lamb and goat.

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GLYCAEMIC LOAD A high glycaemic load INCREASES the risk of cancer of the n WOMB (endometrium) Glycaemic load is a measure of how much a person’s blood sugar is raised by their diet.

AFLATOXINS Aflatoxins INCREASE the risk of cancer of the n LIVER Aflatoxins (toxins produced by certain fungi) are produced by inappropriate storage of food, and are generally an issue related to foods from warmer regions of the world. Foods that may be affected by aflatoxins include cereals, spices, peanuts, pistachios, brazil nuts, chillies, black pepper, dried fruit and figs.

10

CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

HEIGHT Being tall INCREASES the risk of cancer of the n BOWEL (colorectum) n BREAST (both pre-

and post-menopause) n KIDNEY n OVARY n PANCREAS n PROSTATE Developmental factors in the womb, and during childhood and adolescence, that influence growth are linked to an increased risk of these cancers (the taller an adult is, the greater the risk). More research is needed before we can make any recommendations on this finding.

GREATER BIRTH WEIGHT Greater birth weight INCREASES the risk of cancer of the n BREAST (pre-menopause) The heavier a baby is at birth, the greater the risk. More research is needed before we can make any recommendations on birth weight.

CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

11

STRONG EVIDENCE

ON WHAT

DECREASES THE RISK OF

CANCER

NON-STARCHY VEGETABLES Non-starchy vegetables DECREASE the risk of cancer of the n MOUTH, PHARYNX AND

LARYNX (mouth and throat) Examples of non-starchy vegetables: broccoli, cabbage, spinach, kale, cauliflower, carrots, lettuce, cucumber, tomatoes, leek, swede (rutabaga) and turnip.

FRUIT Fruit DECREASES the risk of cancer of the n LUNG n MOUTH, PHARYNX AND

LARYNX (mouth and throat)

CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

13

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Physical activity (moderate and vigorous) DECREASES the risk of cancer of the n BOWEL (colon) n BREAST (post-menopause) n WOMB (endometrium)

Vigorous physical activity DECREASES the risk of cancer of the n BREAST (pre-menopause) Moderate physical activity includes walking. Vigorous physical activity includes swimming, running or cycling.

DIETARY FIBRE Foods high in fibre DECREASE the risk of cancer of the n BOWEL (colorectum) Examples of foods high in dietary fibre: vegetables, fruit, nuts, seeds and pulses; along with wholegrain varieties of cereals, pasta, rice and bread.

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CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

WHOLEGRAINS Wholegrains DECREASE the risk of cancer of the n BOWEL (colorectum) Examples of wholegrains include brown rice, wholemeal bread, oats and bulgur wheat.

BREASTFEEDING Breastfeeding DECREASES the risk of cancer of the n BREAST

COFFEE Coffee DECREASES the risk of cancer of the n LIVER n WOMB (endometrium) Unanswered questions about the coffee findings mean that we can’t give advice on consumption levels.

CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

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GREATER BODY FATNESS Greater body fatness before the menopause DECREASES the risk of cancer of the n BREAST (pre-menopause) However, it is important to remember that there is strong evidence that greater body fatness in women increases the risk of many cancers (listed on page 5).

Greater body fatness between the ages of 18 and 30 DECREASES the risk of cancer of the n BREAST (post-menopause) However, weight gain in adulthood increases the risk of breast cancer (post-menopause).

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CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

DAIRY PRODUCTS AND CALCIUM Dairy products and calcium DECREASE the risk of cancer of the n BOWEL (colorectum) Unanswered questions about the link between dairy products, including milk and cheese, and other cancers mean that we can’t give advice on consumption levels.

ALCOHOLIC DRINKS Alcohol DECREASES the risk of cancer of the n KIDNEY The evidence is only apparent when drinking up to 30g (about 2 drinks) a day. However, there is strong evidence that alcohol is linked to an increased risk of several other cancers: bowel (colorectum); breast (pre- and post-menopause); liver; mouth, pharynx and larynx (mouth and throat); oesophagus; stomach.

CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

17

CANCER PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS

Our Cancer Prevention Recommendations Be a healthy weight Keep your weight as low as you can within the healthy range.

Move more Be physically active for at least 30 minutes every day, and sit less.

Avoid high-calorie foods and sugary drinks Limit high-calorie foods (particularly processed foods high in fat or added sugar, or low in fibre) and avoid sugary drinks.

Enjoy more grains, veg, fruit and beans Eat a wide variety of wholegrains, vegetables, fruit and pulses such as beans.

Limit red meat and avoid processed meat Eat no more than 500g (cooked weight) a week of red meat, such as beef, pork and lamb. Eat little, if any, processed meat such as ham and bacon.

For cancer prevention, don’t drink alcohol For cancer prevention, it’s best not to drink alcohol. If you do, limit alcoholic drinks and follow national guidelines.

Eat less salt and avoid mouldy grains and cereals Limit your salt intake to less than 6g (2.4g sodium) a day by adding less salt and eating less food processed with salt. Avoid mouldy grains and cereals as they may be contaminated by aflatoxins.

For cancer prevention, don’t rely on supplements Eat a healthy diet rather than relying on supplements to protect against cancer.

If you can, breastfeed your baby If you can, breastfeed your baby for six months before adding other liquids and foods.

Cancer survivors should follow our recommendations (where possible) After cancer treatment, the best advice is to follow the Cancer Prevention Recommendations. Check with your health professional. CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

19

ABOUT THE

RESEARCH

What is the Continuous Update Project (CUP)? The Continuous Update Project is our ongoing programme to analyse global research on how diet, nutrition, physical activity and weight affect cancer risk and survival. Among experts worldwide it is a trusted, authoritative scientific resource, which underpins current guidelines and public health policy on cancer prevention around the world.

How is the Continuous Update Project used? The findings from the Continuous Update Project are used to update our Cancer Prevention Recommendations, ensuring that everyone – from policymakers and scientists, to members of the public – has access to the most up to date information on how to minimise the risk of developing the disease.

How is worldwide research analysed for the Continuous Update Project? As part of the Continuous Update Project, scientific research on cancer prevention from around the world is collated and added to a database on an ongoing basis and systematically reviewed by a team at Imperial College London. An independent, world-renowned Expert Panel then evaluate and interpret the evidence to make conclusions based on the body of scientific evidence. Their conclusions form the basis for reviewing, and where necessary revising, our Cancer Prevention Recommendations.

How are the Continuous Update Project findings used to update the Cancer Prevention Recommendations? Once all the worldwide research on each cancer has been analysed, a review of the Cancer Prevention Recommendations will take place to take account of all of the latest evidence reviewed for our CUP reports. This review is expected to be published in 2018. So far, new CUP reports have been published on the updated evidence for bladder, breast, colorectal (bowel), endometrial (womb), gallbladder, kidney, liver, oesophageal, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate and stomach cancers; as well as for breast cancer survivors.

2017

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CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

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When did the Continuous Update Project (CUP) begin? The Continuous Update Project develops the work of our groundbreaking First and Second Expert Reports – published in 1997 and 2007 respectively – which were the first ever comprehensive analyses of worldwide research on diet, nutrition, physical activity and cancer. Unlike these Expert Reports, however, the CUP is an ongoing review and captures new research from around the world as it is published.

Continuous Update Project database The Continuous Update Project database is being kept up-to-date with all relevant papers from randomised controlled trials and cohort studies published for 17 cancers and breast cancer survivors. The database now contains 9,037 publications on these cancers, including publications from the Second Expert Report. The CUP database is currently available to researchers on request.

Continuous Update Project

The process we use to analyse worldwide research

9 research centres 17 databases for

One central database for cancer prevention research

each cancer type

(eg breast cancer)

Prepare protocols Update central database Prepare reports

Imperial College London collates the worldwide evidence

SECOND EXPERT REPORT

2007

22

CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

External review of protocols & reports

Peer reviewers

CONTINUOUS UPDATE PROJECT

Draw conclusions from the evidence Review Cancer Prevention Recommendations

CUP Expert Panel (scientists from around the world)

Use conclusions & Cancer Prevention Recommendations to make public health recommendations & set research priorities

World Cancer Research Fund network

TO DATE

People behind the research Continuous Update Project (CUP) Expert Panel The Continuous Update Project Expert Panel comprises independent, world-renowned scientists in a variety of disciplines from across the world. The Expert Panel’s role is to: n Provide expertise and advice on maintaining a rigorous and independent process. n Provide an impartial analysis and interpretation of the systematic literature reviews

(SLRs) prepared by the research team at Imperial College London. n Ensure our Cancer Prevention Recommendations are based on the latest

available evidence.

Members of the CUP Expert Panel CHAIR – Professor Alan Jackson CBE MD FRCP FRCPath FRCPCH FAfN University of Southampton, UK DEPUTY CHAIR – Professor Hilary Powers PhD RNutr University of Sheffield, UK Dr Elisa Bandera MD PhD Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, USA Dr Steven Clinton MD PhD The Ohio State University, USA Dr Edward Giovannucci MD ScD Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, USA Dr Stephen Hursting PhD MPH University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA Professor Michael Leitzmann MD DrPH Regensburg University, Germany Dr Anne McTiernan MD PhD Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, USA Professor Inger Thune MD PhD Oslo University Hospital and University of Tromsø, Norway Professor Ricardo Uauy MD PhD Instituto de Nutrición y Technología de los Alimentos, Santiago, Chile Observers: Professor Elio Riboli MD ScM MPH Imperial College London, UK Dr Marc Gunter PhD International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France

CUP SUMMARY REPORT SEPTEMBER 2017

23

World Cancer Research Fund International is the world’s leading authority on cancer prevention research related to diet, weight and physical activity. We are a not-for-profit organisation that leads and unifies a network of cancer prevention charities with a global reach. These charities are based in the USA, UK, Netherlands and Hong Kong. Our work: n Our Continuous Update Project (CUP) is the world’s largest source of scientific research on cancer prevention and survivorship through diet, weight and physical activity. We analyse this global research so you have access to the best cancer prevention advice in the world. n We fund high-quality scientific research. n We work collaboratively with governments and organisations across the world to provide research and support the development of public health policies to reduce the number of preventable cases of cancer and other non-communicable diseases. About this booklet: This booklet is updated online (www.wcrf.org) with the latest findings from our Continuous Update Project each time a new report is published. This edition is correct as of September 2017.

World Cancer Research Fund International Second Floor, 22 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3HH, UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7343 4200 Email: [email protected] twitter.com/wcrfint

www.wcrf.org In partnership with:

WIRE9CSR

facebook.com/wcrfint

Blog

wcrf.org/blog

CUP Summary Report September 2017 - World Cancer Research ...

BREAST (both pre- and post-menopause). ▫ LIVER. ▫ MOUTH, PHARYNX AND. LARYNX (mouth and throat). ▫ OESOPHAGUS (squamous cell carcinoma).

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