A²ymbw 1

temI-¯nse hnhn[ KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-§Ä Cu temI-¯n Pohn-¨n-cn-¡p¶ FÃm-hcpw Xt¶ GsX- ¦ nepw coXn- b n- e pÅ KqVm- t emN\mkn²m-´-¯n hniz-kn-¡p-¶-h-cm-Wv. hnZym-k¼-¶-cpw, hnZym-hn-lo-\cpw cmjv{So-b-¡mcpw FÃmw Cu Iq«-¯n DÄs¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p. Ata-cn-¡bnse `c-W-IÀ¯m-¡fpw cmjv{Sob-t\-Xm-¡-·m-cp-saÃmw GsX-¦nepw KqVm-tem-N-\I-fn hniz-kn-¡p-¶-h-cm-Wv. H¶mw temI-a-lm-bp²hpw c­mw temIalm- b p- ² hpw DÄs¸sS Ignª \qäm-­n \S-¶n-«pÅ FÃm bp²-§-fpsSbpw ASn-Øm\ ImcWw C§s\ cq]-s¸-«n-«pÅ KqVm-tem-N-\m-`-b-am-Wv. lnä-edpw Ìmen\pw KpVmtem-N\mkn²m-´-§-fn hniz-kn-¨n-cp-¶p. KqVmtem-N\m kn²m-´§ - Ä¡v AXn-ià - a - mb kzm[o\w Df-hm-¡p-hm³ km[n-¡pw. BIm-i¯p \n¶p Fs¶¦n- e p- s am- c n- ¡  Idp¯ slen- t ¡m- ] v ä - d p- I Ä ]mªn-d§n h¶p an¶-em-{I-aWw \S¯n \½psS kzmX-{´y-§-sfÃmw CÃmbva sN¿pw F¶ `b¯m NneÀ h\m-´À`m-K¯p sh¨v tbm²m-¡Ä¡v 1

B[p-\nI bpt²m-]I - c - W - § - Ä D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶X - n ]cn-io-e\w \ÂIn-s¡m-­n-cn-¡p-¶p. bp²-s¡-Sp-XnIÄ \nan¯w Fs¶-¦nepw Hcp ]t£ s]mXp-hn-XcWkwhn-[m-\-§Ä \nÀ¯-em-¡p-Ibpw s]mXp-hnX-cW tkh\ taJ-e-IÄ kvXw`n¨p t]mIp-Ibpw sNbvXm D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶-Xn\p th­n NneÀ X§fpsS \ne-h-d-I-fn `£W]ZmÀ°-§Ä AS¡w sNbvX Sn¶p-IÄ Iq¼m-c-¡-W-¡n\p kw`-cn¨p sh¨n-«p-­v. XnI¨pw im´-Xbpw kam-[m-\hpw t£ssa-iz-cy-§fpw \ne-\n¡p¶ Ime¯p t]mepw KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-§Ä [mcm-f-ambn {]N-cn¡m-dp-­v. kw`-h-§-fpsS ]n¶n \n¶p NcSp hen¡p- ¶ - h cpw \bn¨p sIm­p t]mIp- ¶ - h cpw bYmÀ°-¯n Bcm-sW¶p \ap¡p ImWn¨p XcnI-bm-Wv AhÀ sN¿p-¶-sX¶v AhÀ Ah-Im-i-s¸Sp¶p. Ata-cn-¡³ Kh¬saâ v AXnsâ ]uc-·mcpsS {]hÀ¯-\-§sf apgp-h³ Nmc-¡-®p-I-tfmsS ho£n¨p sIm­n-cn-¡p-¶p-sh¶pw P\-§-fpsS Csabn-ep-Ifpw t^m¬ hnfn-Ifpw DÄs¸sS kIe \o¡§fpw Kh¬saâ v ]cn-tim-[n¨p sIm­n-cn-¡p-¶psh-¶pamWv AhÀ Nn´n-¡p-¶-Xv. AXp icn-bm-sW¦n \ap¡v sk]vXw-_À 11 \p kw`-hn¨ B almZp-c´w Hgn-hm-¡m³ km[n-¡p-am-bn-cp-¶p. AXn 2

DÄs¸« 19 hnam\ dm©n-Ifpw hfsc hÀj-§Ä¡v ap¼v apX Xt¶ A þ JzbvZm t\Xm-¡-·m-cpambn CâÀs\-än-eq-sSbpw t^m¬ D]-tbm-Kn¨pw Bib hn\n-abw \S-¯n-s¡m-­n-cn-¡p-Ib - m-bn-cp-¶p. F¶m B KpVm-tem-N\ I­p]nSn¨p hn^-e-am¡p- h m³ bp.- F - k v . Kh¬saân\p km[n- ¨ n- à . sSIvkm-knse t^mÀ«v lpUn \nU lʳ \S¯nb `oI-cm-{I-a-W-tam, t_mÌ-Wn amc-t¯m¬ aÕ-c-§Ä \S-¡p¶ ka-b¯p \S¶ t_mw_m{I-a-Wtam km³ s_À\mÀ Unt\m-bn \S¶ shSnsh-bvt]m, 2016  HÀem-t´m-bn \nim ¢ºn \S¶ shSn-hbvt]m H¶pw ap³Iq«n a\-Ên-em¡n XS-bp-hm³ bp.-F-kv. Kh¬saân\p km[n-¨n-Ã. KpVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-§-sf-¡p-dn¨p ]d-bpt¼mÄ \mw a\-Ên-em-¡n-bn-cn-¡p-hm-\m-h-iy-amb H¶m-as¯ Imcyw AXv P\-§-fpsS Pohn-X-¯nse Hcp ip\yX \nI-¯p¶p F¶-Xm-Wv. NneÀ KqVmtem-N\m kn²m-´-§-fn-tebv¡v BIÀjn-¡-s¸«v AXnsâ `mK-am-bn-¯o-cp-¶p-h-cm-Wv, AhÀ AXn AI-s¸«p t]mIp-¶p. KqVm-tem-N-\m-Nn-´-IÄ P\-§sf X½n Cg-]ncnbphm-\m-ImsX ]c-kv]cw Xp¶n-t¨À¡-s¸« Hcp Iq«-am¡n amäp-¶p. AXv ""bp.Fkv AhÀs¡- X nsc'' F¶ Nn´m- K - X n- b n 3

apt¼m«p t]mIp¶ H¶m-Wv. C¯cw ]²-Xn-I-fpsS `mK-am-bn-¯oÀ¶-hÀ Nn´n-¡p-¶Xv AhÀ¡p shfnbn [mcmfw hncp² Nn´m-K-Xn-bp-Å-hÀ \ne-sIm­n- c n- ¡ p- ¶ - X n- \ m AhÀ A§s\ Hcp- a n¨p \nÂt¡-­Xv Bh-iy-am-sW-¶mWv. KqUm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-§Ä kIe hnh-c-§fpw hni-Z-am-¡p¶p. Nne iàn-IÄ {]hÀ¯-\-\n-c-X-am-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xnsâ ^e-am-bn-«mWv GXp Imcy-§fpw kw`-hn¨p sIm­n-cn-¡p-¶X - v. AhÀ F´mWp sN¿m³ t]mIp¶-sX¶v \n§Ä¡v Adn-bmw. \n§Ä¡v B Imcyw t_m[y-ap-s­¶p h¶m AXp XS-bp-hm\pw \nb{´n-¡p-hm-\p-apÅ am\p-jn-I-amb Bhiyt_m[w \n§sf `cn-¡p-¶p. AXn-\m-emWv Nne a\p-jyÀ KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-§Ä F{Xbpw Bh-iy-amsW¶p Nn´n-¡p-¶-Xv. P\-§Ä kpc-£n-XXzw B{K-ln-¡p-¶p. AXn\m AhÀ AXn\p hnLm-X-ambn DbÀ¶phcp¶ FÃm Imcy- § Ä¡pw t\sc KqVm- t em- N \m kn²m´§Ä D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶p. Imen-t^mÀWn-bbnse ]kn-^nIv bq\n-b³ tImtf-Pn _ntl-hyd kb³kv {]^- k - d m- b n- c p¶ tUm. {KnKdn jvs\bvUÀ C§s\ ]d-bp-¶p. ""CSp-§nb a\-Ênsâ {]tXy-I-X-I-fn H¶v, AXn\v FÃm Imcy-¯n\pw 4

Hcp hni-Zo-I-c-W-ap-­m-bn-cn-¡pw. AXnsâ auen-Iamb hnizm-k{- ]-am-W§ - Ä¡p `oj-Wn-bmbn AXn\p tXm¶p¶ GsXmcp hkvXp-X-sb-bpw, GsXmcp hmÀ¯-sbbpw GsXmcp bmYmÀ°y-s¯bpw tI«p tIÄhn-sbbpw AXv \nÀho-cy-am-¡n-¡f - b - p-¶p. AXntâXp am{X-amWv AXns\ kw_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯mfw icn-bmb hni-Zo-I-c-Ww. AXns\ kw_-Ôn-¨n-St¯mfw asäÃm hni-Zo-I-c-W-§fpw B henb KqVmtem-N-\-bpsS' \½psS I®p-Isf h©n-¡p¶-Xn-\pÅ B henb ]²-Xn-bpsS, ^e-am-bn-«p-ÅXm-Wv. KqVm-tem-N\m Nn´ ZpjvS-i-àn-I-sf-bmWv {][m\ thZn-b n \nÀ¯p- ¶- Xv , Ah tÌPn \ndªp \n¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. i{Xp-hmWv XXv^e-ambn Gh-cp-sSbpw {i²-bm-IÀjn-¡p-¶-Xv. KpVmtem-N-\m-Nn-´-bpsS asämcp {]iv\w, AXp FXn-cmfn-Isf ]nim-Np-¡sf F¶ t]mse shdp-t¸mSpw `b-t¯mSpw ImWp-hm³ aäp-Å-hsc t{]cn-¸n-¡p¶p F¶-Xm-Wv. AhÀ ZpjvS iàn-If - psS `mK-am-sW¶p IW-¡m-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p. KqVm-tem-N\m Nn´ i{Xp¡sf Xncn-bp-hm³ t{]cn-¸n-¡p-¶p, AXv X§Ä¡p t\cn« tZmj-¯n-sâtbm ]cm-P-b-¯n-sâ-tbm ]gn Nmcp-hm³ Bsf At\z-jn-¡p-¶p, B At\z-j-Wam-bn-cn¡pw henb Zpc-´-¯n-tebv¡p \bn-¡p-¶5

Xv. IgnªIme Ncn{Xw ]cn-tim-[n-¨m C{]-Imcw ""bYmÀ°'' `oj-Wn-bmbn AsÃ-¦n ""bYmÀ°'' {]iv\-ambn ap{Z-Ip-¯-s¸« kaq-l§ - -tfmSpw hyànI-tfmSpw hfsc {Iqc-ambn CS-s]-«-Xnsâ DZm-l-cW-§Ä [mcmfw ImWmw. alm-amµy Ime¯pw (Great Depression) c­mw temIalm-bp-²-¯n\p ap¼pw hen-sbmcp hn`mKw P\-§Ä hn-iz-kn-¨n-cp-¶Xv A´ÀtZ-iob sblqZ _m¦Àamcpw dqkvshÂänsâ `c-Ws¯ \nb-{´n¡p¶ aäp [\n-Ic - mb sblp-Z-·m-cp-ambn Hcp henb KqVmtem-N\m Iq«p-sI«v D­v F¶m-bn-cp-¶p. AXn\m dqkvshÂäv \mkn-ks¯ FXnÀ¯p tXmev]n¡p-¶X - n\v klm-bI - a - mb \ne-bn tkmhn-bäv bq\nb-\p-ambn kJy-Xbv¡p {ian-¨t- ¸mÄ A¶s¯ Nne {Inkv{Xob t\Xm-¡· - mÀ dqkvshÂäv Xsâ sblqZ D]-tZ-jvSm-¡-·msc sh¨p hne-t]-ip-I-bm-sW¶ \nebnemWv AXns\ I­-Xv. XXv^e - a - mbn XnI¨pw \nµy-amb Hcp sblqZ hncp² hnImcw DbÀ¶p hcn-Ibpw XpSÀ¶v {Inkv{Xob kvt\l-¯n-sâbpw am\-ho-b-X-bp-sSbpw amlm-ßy-§Ä Ah-a-Xn-¡-s¸Sp-hm³ CS-bm-Ip-Ibpw sNbvXp. Nne kµÀ`-§fn sblqZ hntcm[w AXnsâ ]mc-ay-¯n-se-¯pIbpw {InkvXym-\n-IÄ \mkn-I-fpsS ]£w tNÀ¶p 6

Ah-tcm-sSm¸w \n¡p¶ ØnXn hntijw D­m¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. KpUm-tem-N\m Nn´ a\pjy kaq-l-¯n\p hfsc henb tZmjw D­m-¡p-hm³ Imc- W-am-Im- dp-­v. AXn\p \½psS i{Xp-¡sf ss]im-NnI kz`m-ha - p-Åh - c - m¡n amäp-hm³ Ign-bpw. AXn\p \s½ ]c-kv]cw AI¶ c­p {[ph-§-fntebv¡p XÅn-b-I-äp-hm³ Ign-bpw. Ata-cn-¡-bn Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mcpw bmYmØn-Xn-I-cmb he-Xp-Nn-´m-K-Xn-¡mcpw KqUm-tem-N\m-X{- ´-§-fn hniz-kn-¡p-¶h - c - m-Wv. Idp¯ Atacn-¡-bpsS \odp¶ {]iv\-§Ä¡p Imc-W-ambn Ckvemw t\Xm-hmb eqbnkv ^Àdm-Jm³ Ipä-s¸-Sp¯p-¶Xv bp.-F-kv. Kh¬saân-s\bpw shÅ-¡msc-bp-am-Wv.

FbvUvkpw ab¡p acp-¶p-I-fpsS D]-tbmKhpw bp.-F-kn atäXp P\-hn-`m-K-§-tf-¡mfpw A[nIw FbvUvkv tcmK-¯n-sâbpw ab¡p acp¶p-If - p-sSbpw ]nSn-bn-ea - À¶n-cn-¡p-¶Xv Idp¯ hÀ¤¡m-cmWv. XXv^e - a - mbn bp.-Fk - v.K - h - ¬saâmWv Cu amcIhn]-¯p-IÄ¡p ]n¶n {]hÀ¯n-¡p-¶s - X¶v Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-cpsS Nne t\Xm-¡Ä Kh¬saâns\-Xntc Hcp KqVm-tem-N\m X{´w Btcm-]n-¡p7

¶p-­v. Cu t\Xm-¡-·m-cn NneÀ Nn´n-¡p-¶Xv FbvUvkv tcmKw F¶Xv Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡msc hwiobambn D·q-e\w sN¿p-hm³ cq]-s¸-Sp-¯nb Hcp KqVm-tem-N\m X{´-¯nsâ ]cn-Wn-X-^-e-am-sW¶mWv . bp.- F - k n- e pÅ Idp- ¯ - h À¤- ¡ mÀ¡v Kh¬saâ v tXm¡p \ÂIn-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv AhÀ¡p ]c- k v ] cw shSn- s h¨p sImÃp- h m³ th­n- b msW¶pw AhÀ kwi-bn-¡p-¶p. temI-¯n-se-Ãm-bnS-¯p-apÅ KqVm-tem-N\mkn²m´ hn-izm-kn-IÄ¡p ]n¶n {]hÀ¯n-¡p-¶Xv Ata-cn-¡³ sk³{S Câ-en-P³kv GP³kn F¶ ZpjvS-\mb {]Xn-\m-bI-\m-sW¶pw AhÀ Icp-Xp-¶p. Ahsc kw_-Ôn¨n- S - t ¯mfw Ata- c n¡ kÀÆ- i - à - a mb Hcp cmjv{SamsW¶pw, Cu temI-¯n \S-¡p¶ kIe Imcy-§-sfbpw \nb-{´n-¡p-¶Xv Cu cmjv{S-amsW¶pw AhÀ Icp- X p- ¶ - X mbn tXm¶p- ¶ p. km³tPmkv saÀ¡pdn \yqkn C{]-Imcw {]kvXmhn-¨-Xmbn ImWp-¶p-­v. ""F¬]-Xp-I-fpsS Bcw` Ime¯v temkv Fbvs©Âkn henb hnÅ-ep­m-¡p-hm³ hym]-I-ambn hnX-cWw sN¿-s¸« sIms¡bv³ F¶ ab-¡p-a-cp¶v kn.-sF.F apJm´cw h¶-Xm-Wv.'' B{^n-¡³ `qJ-WvU-¯nse P\hn-`m-K-§sf A§s\ Xt¶ \in-¸n-¨p-¡-f-bp-¶-Xn8

\mbn bp.-F-kv. Kh¬saâ v FbvUvkv tcmK-¯nsâ \qdp-tImSn bq\n-äp-IÄ AhnsS Cd-¡p-aXn sNbvXXmbn eqbokv ^mÀdm-Jm³ hniz-kn-¡p-¶p. ^ÀdmJm³ sblq-Z-·m-scbpw ITn-\-ambn Ipä-s¸-Sp-¯ns¡m­p ]d-bp-¶-Xv I½yq-Wn-khpw Iym¸n-ä-en-khpw (-ap-Xe - m-fn¯ hyh-Øn-Xn) cq]s¸-Sp-hm\pw c­p temI-a-lm-bp-²-§Ä D­m-Ip-hm\pw Imc-W-¡mÀ sblq-Z-·m-cm-sW-¶mWv. AhÀ lnäveÀ¡p [\-klmbw sN¿p- I bpw s^U- d  dnkÀhv _m¦v t_mÀUn-s\bpw tlmfn-hp-Un-s\bpw \nb{´n¨psIm­v bp.-F-kv. Kh¬saâns\ IS-s¡-Wn-bntebv¡v XÅn-hn-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. sblq-Z-·m-cmWv bp.-F-kv. cmjv{So-bs¯ \nb-{´n¨p \nÀ¯p-¶sX¶pw am[y-a-§-fpsS ISn-ªm¬ ]nSn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶sX¶pw IqsS At±lw Btcm-]n-¡p-¶p.(""1932 apXepÅ FÃm {]kn- U âp- a mcpw sbKq- Z - · m- c psS sNm¸Sn¡p \n¡p-¶-h-cm-bn-cp¶p) At±lw XpSÀ¶p ]d-bp-¶X - v,""-sam-¯¯ - n t\m¡n-bm Cu temI-¯n-epÅ P\-kw-Jy-bn 85% t]cpw sblqZ-·m-cpsS Cc-I-fm-bn-¯oÀ¶-h-cmWv (Z hmjnw-KvS¬ t]mÌv, amÀ¨v 1, 1990) At±lw A`n-{]m-b-s¸-Sp-¶Xv sblq-Z-·mÀ Idp-¯-hÀ¤-¡m-cpsS \h-PmX inip9

¡-fn FbvUvkv sshdkv Ip¯n sh¨p F¶pw Hmtkm¬ ]mfn-I-fn hnÅ-ep-­m¡n F¶p-am-Wv. AtX kabw ISp¯ heXp ]£ hn`m-K§Ä {]Xo-£n-¡p-¶Xv sFIy-cmjv{S k`-bpsS \nÀt±i {]Imcw, hn]p-ea - mb A[n-Imc]cn-[n-If - pÅ IÀ½ tk\-IÄ(Multi-jurisdictional) F¶p km[m-cW Adn- b - s ¸- S p¶ tk\- I Ä ( MJTF) Ata- c n- ¡  sFIy-\m-Sp-Isf _e-ambn ]nSn¨-S¡pw F¶m-Wv. C§s\ Nn´n-¡p¶ am\-knI hn{`m-´n-bp-f-f-hÀ Ah-cpsS Nn´m-a-WvU-e-¯nsâ GsX-¦nepw taJe-If - n Ønc-Xb - n-Ãm-¯h - c - m-sW¶pw Icp-tX­n-bncn-¡p-¶p. Cu temI-¯n Pohn-¡p¶ FÃm-hcpw Xt¶ C¯-c-¯n-epÅ GsX-¦nepw sshI-ey-ap-Åh-cm-bn-cn-¡mw. F¶m NneÀ C¯cw {`m´-amb kn²m-´-§Ä sa\-bp-¶-Xn IqSp-X Bth-it¯msS hym]r-X-cm-bn-cn-¡p-¶p.

HIvemtlm-am-\-Kc - -¯nse t_mw_m-{I-aWw 1995 G{]n 19 \v HIvemtlmam \K-c-¯nse BÂ{^Uv ]n. aptd s^U-d sI«nS kap-¨b - ¯ - n\v ]pd¯v Hcp D{K-t_mw_p kvt^mS-\-ap-­mbn. Cu kvt^mS-\-¯nsâ BLm-X-¯n 9 \ne-I-fp-­m-bncp¶ B sI«nSw XIÀ¶v \new ]Xn-¨p, 169 t]À 10

sImÃ-s¸-Sp-Ibpw 700 e[nIw t]À¡p apdn-th¡pIbpw sNbvXp. XntamYn aIv shbvLv F¶-bmÄ Cu `oI-cm-{I-a-W-¯nsâ D¯-c-hm-Zn¯w GsäSp¯p Ipäw Gäp ]d-ªp, 2001 Pq¬am-k-¯n Abmsf h[n-¡p-I-bp-­m-bn. HIvemtlmam \K-c¯n D­mb Cu t_mw_m-{ I-W-s ¯-¡p-dn¨v [mcmfw KqVm-tem-N-\m-kn²m-´-§Ä ]pd¯p hcnI-bp-­m-bn. Kh¬saâ v Cu hnj-b-¯n X¿mdm-¡nb dnt¸mÀ«v XÅn-¡-f-ª-h-cmWv AXnse KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´§-sf-¡p-dn¨p Nn´n-¡phm³ X¿m-dm-b-Xv. Kh¬saâ v DtZym-K-Ø-cpw, bp.Fkv {]kn-Uâ v _n ¢n⬠DÄs¸-sS-bpÅ D¶X kÀ¡mÀ ta[m-hn-Ifpw Cu t_mw_m-{I-aW km[y-Xs - b-¡p-dn¨p ap³Iq«n Adn-ªn-cp-¶p-sh¶pw AhÀ¡v AXn-s\-Xnsc Hcp ap³I-cp-X \S-]-Snbpw FSp-¡m³ km[n-¡msX t]mbn F¶pw Cu Iq«À hniz-kn-¡p-¶p.

ssh 2 sI AYhm c­m-bncw hÀjw XnI-bp-t¼mÄ Df-hm-Ip¶ hnja {]iv\w 1990 Ifn Fsâ Ab k`-bn AwK-ambn-cp¶ Hcp ]WvUnX-s\-¡p-dn¨v F\n¡v HmÀ½ hcp-¶p. C¶p \t½m-sSm-¸-an-Ãm¯ tUm. t]mÄ 11

tdm¸À F¶ At±lw Hcp imkv{X-Ú\pw Ncn{Xw, tkmtjym-fPn XpS-§nb hnj-b-§-fn henb Ah-Km-l-apÅ Hcp ]WvUn-X-\p-am-bn-cp-¶p. Fsâ Kth-jW hnj-b¯ - n At±-la - m-bn-cp¶p F\n¡p amÀ¤-ZÀin. At±lw [mcmfw temIm-\p-`-h-§-sf¡p-dn¨p IrXy-ambn ap³Iq«n {]h-Nn¨ alm-\mb FUvKmÀ Imbvsk-bpsS (Edgar Cayce) injy-·m-cn Hcm-fp-am-bn-cp-¶p. t]mÄ tdm¸À ""\yqkv, hyqkv & s{]ms^-änIv slmdn-k¬kv'' F¶ t]cn Hcp amknI {]kn-²o-Ic - n-¨n-cp-¶p. hnhn[ KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m´-§-sf-¡p-dn-¨pÅ {]N-c-W-¯n-\m-bn-cp¶p B amknI {][m-\-ambpw D]-tbm-Kn-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. KpVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´§-sf-¡p-dn¨v Nn´n¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ At±-l-¯nsâ Bth-ihpw {`ahpw shfn-¸mSp ]pkvXI-¯n ]d-ªn-cn-¡p¶ kw`-h§-fp-saÃmw \qX-\hpw hnNn-{X-hp-amb Hcp ssZhimkv{Xw cq]-s¸-«p-h-cp-hm-\n-S-bm-¡n. c­m-bncw hÀjw XnI-bp-t¼mÄ Df-hm-Ip¶ hnja {]iv\w \man¶p Adn-bp¶ \½psS kwkvIm-cs¯ \in¸n¡pw F¶v At±lw hniz-kn-¨p. B \mfp-I-fn {]ap-J-cmb ]ecpw Nn´n-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. temIm-h-km\w ASp-¯n-cn-¡p-¶p F¶m-bn-cp-¶p. P\-§Ä X§fpsS \nt£-]-§-sf-¡p-dn¨pw, [\-s¯-¡p-dn¨pw, 12

tPmen-I- sf-¡p-dn¨pw, `h- \-§sf¡pdn- ¨p-saÃmw Bi-¦m-Ip-ec - m-bn-¯oÀ¶p. hnam-\§ - Ä BIm-i¯p \n¶p `qan-bn ]Xn-¡p-sa¶pw \w ]pcm-X-\-Im-es¯¶t]mse CÔ-\hpw ss]¸p-sh-f-fhpw hnZypÑ-àn-bp-sam-¶p-an-ÃmsX Ign-tb-­n-h-cp-sa¶pw A¶p hym]-I-amb {]N-c-W-§-fp-­m-bn-cp-¶p. 1999 se ]pXp-h-Õc kÔy-sb-¡p-dn¨v Rm³ C¶v F¶t]mse HmÀ¡p-¶p. Rm³ Fsâ `mcytbm-sSm-cp-an¨v sSen-hn-jsâ ap¼n Ccp¶psIm­v c­m-bncw B­p XnI-bp-t¼mÄ kw`-hn¡pw F¶v temI-s¯-¼m-Sp-apÅ P\-§Ä `b-s¸-«n-cp¶ Imcy§-tfmSv _Ô-s¸« ]pXnb ]pXnb hmÀ¯-IÄ Xnc-bp-I-bm-bn-cp-¶p. im´-Zzo-]-k-aq-l-§-fn-epw, \yqkn-emânepw Bkvt{S-en-b-bnepw FÃmw Hcp {]iv\hpw D­m-¡msX ]pXp-hÀjw ]nd-¶n-cn-¡p¶p F¶v lq̬ ssSw {]t£-]Ww sNbvXXp I­t¸mÄ aäp-Å-h-sct¸mse R§Ä¡pw Bizm-k¯nsâ ZoÀL \nizmkw s]mgn-¡p-hm³ km[n¨p. "ssh 2 sI'bnse ssh "" hÀjw'' (Year) F¶Xns\ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p, ""sI'' F¶Xv 1000 F¶ kwJybpsS imkv{X NnÓ-am-Wv. 2000 hÀjw XnI-bpt¼mÄ FÃmw XI-cm-dn-emIpw F¶ `bw hnX-¨-hÀ DbÀ¯n-¡m-«nb hnja {]iv\w I¼yq-«-dp-I-fn 13

\ÂIn-bn-cp¶ hnh-c-§-tfmSp _Ô-s¸«v I¼yq-«-dpIÄ \ne-hn h¶ Ime¯p Xs¶ DÅ-Xm-bn-cp¶p. "" B Ime¯v I¼yq-«À ]cn-]mSn X¿m-dm-¡p¶-hÀ Hcp henb {]iv\w A`n-ap-Jo-Ic - n-t¡­nh¶p, I¼yq-«-dp-I-fpsS {][m\ {^bnapIfn HmÀ½-IÄ kq£n- ¡ p- h m-\pÅ Øew Ah- ti- j n- ¡ p-¶ nà F¶-Xm-bn-cp¶p B {]iv\w. I¼yq-«-dp-I-fn hnhc-§Ä HmÀ½-bmbn Iq«n-t¨À¡pI F¶Xv henb _p²n-ap-«pÅ Imcy-am-bn-cp-¶p, AXp hfsc km¼¯nI sNe-hp-Å-Xp-am-bn-cp-¶p. BZyIme {][m\ s{^bnw I¼yq-«-dp-I-fn HmÀ½ kw`-cn-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. ""tlmsfcn¯p ImÀUp''- I - f n- e m- b n- c p- ¶ p. Ah ImÀUp-t_mÀUp-IÄ sIm­p­m¡p-¶-h-bm-bn-cp¶p, Ah-bn HmÀ½-IÄ kq£n-¨n-cp-¶Xv ]©p sNbv X p- ­m- ¡ p¶ 80 kpjn- c - § - fn- e m- b n- c p- ¶ p. C{Xbpw ]cn-an-Xa - mb Øe-§f - n hnh-c§ - Ä hfsc {i²m-]qÀÆw tcJ-s¸-Sp¯n kq£n-t¡-­Xv Bhiy-am-bn-cp-¶p. Cu ]cn-an-Xn-Isf adn-IS- ¡ - p-¶X - n-\mbn I¼yq-«-dp-I-fn ]cn-]m-Sn-IÄ {Iao-I-cn-¡p-¶-hÀ B {]iv\w \ne-\nÀ¯n-s¡m­p Xs¶ I¼yq-«-dp-IÄ {]hÀ¯n-¸n-¡p-hm³ ]mI-¯n Nne {][m\ Xocpam- \ - § Ä kzoI- c n- ¨ p. AhÀ¡p ssIImcyw 14

sNt¿­n h¶-Xmb {]iv\§ - f - n-sem¶v I¼yq-«d- nsâ DÅn-epÅ t¢m¡nsâ kab {Iao-I-cWw kw_Ôn-¨p-Å-Xm-bn-cp-¶p. ka-bhpw Xo¿-Xnbpw AXnt\-¡m-fp-]cn hÀjhpw F§s\ {Iao-I-cn¡pw F¶Xv Hcp {]iv\-am-bn-cp-¶p. aÀ½-{]-[m-\-amb HmÀ½ Øm\-§Ä ]cn-an-X-s¸-Sp¯n {Iao-I-cn-¡p¶-Xn-\mbn ""XobXn taJe'-bn-se(date field) hÀjw c­¡ \¼-cn-em-bn-cp¶p tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp-¶-Xv. DZm-l-c-W-ambn \mw km[m-cW hÀjw A§s\ Xt¶ \me¡ \¼-dn 1998 F¶mWp tcJ-s¸-Sp¯m-dp-Å-sX-¦nepw I¼yq-«-dn AXv 98 F¶p am{XamWv tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp-¶-Xv. Bcw-`-Imew apX ASp¯ Imew hsc I¼yq-«-dnse XobXn tcJ-s¸Sp-¯p-¶-Xn\v C{]-Imcw c­¡ \¼-cm-bn-cp¶p D]tbm- Kn-¨ n-c p-¶ -Xv . C{]-I mcw tcJ- s ¸- S p- ¯n- bXp sIm­p Htc \qäm-­n Hcp {]iv\hpw t\cn-Sp-ambn-cp-¶n-Ã. F¶m \qäm-­nsâ HSp-hn Cu t^mÀamäv D]-tbm-Kn¨p Imcy-§Ä ASp¯ \qäm­n-tebv¡p amäp-t¼mÄ AXp henb _p²n-ap-«pIÄ Df-hm¡pw F¶-Xm-bn-cp¶p {]iv\w. Ipd¨p Ign-bp-t¼mÄ FÃmw F§-s\-sb-¦nepw t\sc-bmbn- s ¡mÅpw F¶v FÃm- h cpw kam- [ m- \ n- ¨ p. A§s\ hÀjs¯ ImWn-¡p-hm³ c­¡ kwJy 15

D]-tbm-Kn-¡p¶ coXn Xt¶ XpSÀ¶p. F¶m 20 þ mw \qäm-­nsâ HSp-hn 1999 s\ {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn¡p¶ 99 Ign-bp-t¼mÄ hÀjw kzm`m-hn-Ia - mbn amdp¶Xv 00 F¶ kwJy-bn-te-bv¡m-I-bm AXv 1900 F¶ hÀj-ambn IW-¡m-¡s - ¸-Sp-Ibpw IW-¡p-IÄ bYmÀ° Xo¿-Xn¡p 100 hÀjw ]nd-In-tebv¡p ImWn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿pw F¶-XmWv Gh-tcbpw Ipg¡p¶ {]iv\w. I¼yq-«-dn Xo¿-Xn-IÄ tcJ-s¸-Sp¯n-bn-cn-¡p¶ Øe-§-sfÃmw 1900 P\p-hcn 1 F¶ \ne-bn ]pd-In-tebv¡p ImWn¡pw AsÃ-¦n I¼yq-«-dp-IÄ \nÝ-e-am-bn-t¸mIpw''(-\yq-kv, hyqkv & s{]ms^-änIv slmdn-k¬kv, thmfyw 2, 1998 Pq¬1). ta hnh-cn¨ kw`-hw, Hcp {]iv\w t\cn-Spt¼mÄ \ap¡v F{]-Imcw kwi-b-an-Ãm-¯-h-cmbn Ignbmw F¶pw bYmÀ°- ¯ n- e p- Å tXm sa\ªp­m-¡n-btXm Bb IY-IÄ hniz-kn-¡p-hm³ X¡-h®w \½psS akvXn-jvI§ - Ä F{X-am{Xw sacp¡-ap-Å-h-bm-sW¶pw ImWn-¡p-¶-Xm-Wv. KqVm-tem-N\m hnizm-kn-IÄ FÃm-bvt¸mgpw \mi- s ¯- ¡ p- d n¨pw AXn- t \mSp _Ô- s ¸«p \n¡p¶ \ncm-i-sb-¡p-dn¨pw ap³Iq-«n-¸-d-bp-¶p. t]mÄ tdm¸À hniz-kn-¨Xv ssh 2 sI {]Xn-kÔn 16

ImcWw 2000 P\p-hcn 1 \v B[p-\nI kwkvIm-c¯n\v A¸msS D·p-e-\miw kw`-hn¡pw F¶m-bncp-¶p. At±-l-¯nsâ ]¡Â Imcy-amb [\-ti-Jc-sam¶pw CÃm-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¦nepw At±lw Xsâ `mhn-Po-hnXw apt¼m«p sIm­p t]mIp-hm³ Hcp P\-td-äÀ hm§p-Ibpw `£Ww Sn¶n \nd¨p kq£n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. At±-l-s¯-t¸mse e£¡-W-¡n\v Ata-cn-¡¡ - mÀ C{]-Imcw `£Ww Sn¶nem¡n kq£n-¡p- Ibpw P\-td-äÀ hm§p-Ibpw sNbvXp. 1999  FÃm-hcpw {]Xo-£n¨p sIm­n-cp-¶Xv ]pXn-sbmcp kl-{km-_vZ-s¯-bm-bn-cp-¶p. 2000 P\phcn 1 \½psS Pohn-X-¯n BsI amäw hcp¶ Znh-ka - m-sW¶v FÃm-hcpw Icp-Xn. I¼yq-«d- p-IsfÃmw \in¨p t]mIp-sa¶v FÃm-hcpw `b-s¸-«p. 1999 \p tijw I¼yq-«-dn\p XpSÀ¶p hcp¶ Xo¿Xn Adnbn-Ãm-¯-Xp-sIm­v I¼yq-«-dn tcJ-s¸-Sp¯n kq£n-¨n-cn-¡p¶ hnh-c-§-sfÃmw Fs¶-t¶-bv¡pambn \jvS-s¸«p t]mIp-sa-¶m-bn-cp¶p Ah-cpsS `bw. F¶n-cp-¶mepw ssh 2 sI Zpc´w Hcn-¡epw kw`-hn-¨n-Ã.

9/11 KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´§Ä 2001 sk]vXw-_À 11 \v Hkm-am- _n³ emZsâ 17

t\Xr-Xz-¯n-epÅ Ckv eman¡v `oIc kwL-S\ - b - mb A þ JzbvZ X§-fpsS Hcp `oI-cm-{IW ]²Xn \S-¸n-em-¡n. B ]²-Xn-b-\p-k-cn¨v {][m-\-ambpw kuZn Atd-_y-bn \n¶pÅ 19 `oI-c-À tNÀ¶v \yqtbmÀ¡nse thÄUv s{SbvUv skâ-dnse Cc-«tKm- ] p- c - § - f mb s]â- K - W nepw Iym]n- t ämÄ _nÂUnw-Knepw CSn-¨p Ib-äp-¶-Xn-\mbn 4 bm{Xm sPäp hnam-\-§Ä X«n-sb-Sp-¯p. c­p Sh-dp-I-fn AhÀ hnam\w CSn¨p Ibän henb \miw D­m¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. t]Ä lmÀ_À Zpc´w apX Ct§m«v Ata-cn-¡³ sFIy-\m-Sp-IÄ I­ GsXmcp Zpc-´-¯n \n¶pw hn`n-¶a - mbn Cu Zpc-´-t¯mSp _Ô-s¸«pw [mcmfw KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-§Ä Agn¨phnSp-I-bp-­m-bn. C§s\ Hmtcm kn²-B-´§Ä Agn¨p hn«-hsc 9/11 "kXy-sam-gn-¡mÀ'(9/11 Truthers) F¶mWp hnfn-¡p-¶-Xv. Ch-cn NneÀ ]dbp-¶Xv bp.-F-kv.-K-h¬saâmWv thÄUv t{SbvUv skâÀ XIÀ¡p-hm³ ]²Xn cq]-s¸-Sp-¯p-Ibpw \S-¸n-em-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXXv F¶mWv bp.-Fk - n-epÅ Nne a²y-]qÀÆ tZi-¡mÀ hniz-kn¡p-¶Xv 9/11 sâ B{I-aWw Bkq-{XWw sN¿p-Ibpw \S-¸n-em-¡pIbpw sNbvX-Xv A´ÀtZ-iob sblqZ KqVm-temN-\-bpsS `mK-am-bn-«m-sW-¶m-Wv. Cu hnj-b-¯n 18

DbÀ¶p tIÄ¡p¶ Gähpw {]_-e-amb Hcp KqUmtem-N\m kn²m´w Cu Cc« tKm]p-c§ - Ä XIÀ¶p hogp-hm³ ImcWw hnam-\-§Ä CSn-¨n-d-§p-Itbm Xobv ]-S-cp-Itbm sNbvXXp sIm­pÅ BLm-Xaà t\sc-a-dn¨v hfsc Icp-X-tem-sS-bpÅ Hcp \ioI-cW ]²-Xn-bpsS ^e-am-bn«p A§s\ kw`-hn-¨Xm-sW-¶m-Wv.

A²ymbw 2

clky kwL-§Ä Ipcnipbp²-§-fpsS Imew apX temI¯nsâ hnhn[ `mK-§-fn cmjv{So-b-tam, kmaq-lnI-tam, aX-]-ctam Bb hnhn[ e£y-§Ä ap³ \nÀ¯n \qdp- I - W - ¡ n\p clky kwL- § Ä cq]s¸«p hcn-I-bp-­m-bn. Nne clky kwL-§-sf-¡p-dn¨p t\m¡mw 1. CÃyq-an-\m-Xn (Illuminati) CÃyq-an-\mXn (Illuminati) F¶ ]Z-¯nsâ A£cmÀ°w emän³ `mj-bn ""{]Im-in-¸n-¡-s¸-«Xv'' F¶m-Wv. AXn-\m Cu kwL-¯n AwK-§-fmbn-cn-¡p-¶-hÀ AXn\p ]pd-¯p-Å-h-tc-¡mÄ IqSpX Adnhpw Úm\-hp-ap-Å-h-cm-sW¶p Ah-Imi-s¸-Sp-¶p. bp.-F-knse Hcp tUmfmÀ_nÃnsâ ]pd-`m-K19

¯pÅ {]Xn-cq]w \msa-Ãmw- I-­n-«p-Å-h-Xm-bn-cn-¡pa-tÃm.""-k-Ie - s - ¯bpw ImWp¶ I®v'' F¶ AÀ°¯n Npäp-]m-Sp-apÅ kIe temI-P-\-§-sfbpw ImWp-Ibpw \nb-{´n-¡p-I-bpw- -P-\-§sf Ah-cpsS CjvS-¯n\p kam-[m-\-]-c-ambn Pohn-¡p-hm³ A\ph-Zn-¡pIbpw sN¿m-¯Xmb Hcp kwL-s¯-bmWv AXp {]Xn-\n-[m\w sN¿p-¶-Xv. Cu kq£va t\{Xw kI-e-s¯bpw ImWp¶ kÀÆ-Úm-\hpw kÀÆ iàn-bp-apÅ I®m-Wv. CXv CÃyq-an-\mXn F¶ t]cn Adn-b-s¸-Sp¶ kÀÆ kzm[o-\-apÅ Hcp clky kwL-¯nsâ {]Xn-cq-]-am-sW¶p ]d-b-s¸Sp-¶p. CXnsâ ]n¶n Hcp KqVm-tem-N-\b - p-s­¶v Bt£-]n-¡p-¶-hÀ temIs¯ {Kln-¸n-¡p-hm³ {ian-¡p-¶Xv CÃyq-an-\mXn F¶ Cu cl-ky-kw-LamWv sam¯-¯n Cu temIs¯ BI-am\w \nb{´n-¡p-¶s - X-¶m-Wv. temI hym]-Ia - mbn FÃm km¼¯nI Øm]-\-§-fnepw {]Øm-\-§-fnepw `c-W-IqS-§-fnepw _lp-cm-jv{S-kw-L-S-\-I-fn-ep-saÃmw Cu kwL-S-\-bpsS km¶n-[y-ap-s­¶v AhÀ Btcm-]n¡p-¶p. F¶m Nne BÄ¡mÀ hniz-kn-¡p-¶-Xpt]mse Cu cl-ky-kwLw A{Xbpw ià-sa-¦n AXn\v F§-s\-bmWv C{X-b-[nIw iànbpw hym]20

I-amb kzm[o-\hpw BÀÖn-¡p-hm³ km[n-¨n-«pÅXv? FhnsS \n¶mWv CÃyq-an-\mXn Bcw-`n-¨Xv? CXv Hcp clky kwL-S\bm-sW-¦n P\-§Ä F§-s\-bmWv AXn-s\-¡p-dn¨v a\-Ên-em-¡p-hm³ CSbm-bXv? IqSmsX kI-e-s¯bpw ImWp¶ I®v F¶-Xns\ IqSmsX atä-sXÃmw {]Xn-Iq-e-§-fmWv Cu clky kwL-S\ - -tbmSp _Ô-s¸«v ImWp-hm³ Ign-ªn-«p-ÅXv? KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-¯nsâ A\p-Km-anIÄ Btcm-]n-¡p-¶Xv CÃyq-an-\mXn F¶ cl-kykwLw Hcp ]pXnb temIhyh-ØnXn krjvSn¨v cmjv{Sob A[n-Imcw ]nSn-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶-Xn\pw P\-k½Xn t\Sn-sb-Sp-¡p-¶-Xn-\p-ambn temI kw`-h-§fpsS KXn-hn-K-Xn-I-fn kzm[o\w sNep-¯nbpw `cWkncmtI{µ-§-fnepw tImÀ¸-td-j-\p-I-fnepw X§-fpsS GPâp-amsc Xncp-In-¡b - ä- n-bpw s¡m­pw temI-¯nsâ \nb-{´Ww X«n-sb-Sp-¡p-hm³ KqVmtem-N\ \S-¯p-¶p­v F¶m-Wv.

2._nÂsUÀs_ÀKv {Kq¸v

CXv temI- ¯nse Gähpw kzm[o- \- apÅ hyàn-I-fmb {][m\ a{´n-amÀ, {]knUâpamÀ, A´ÀtZ-iob _m¦p--S-a-IÄ XpS-§n-b-hsc DÄs¸Sp¯n cq]- s ¸- « n- « pÅ Hcp clkykwL- a m- W v . 21

tkmhn-bäv bq\n-b³ Ingt¡ cmPy-§Ä DÄs¸sS Hcp kwL-¯nsâ \nb-{´Ww Dd-¸n¨p F¶p I­t¸mÄ ]Ýna bqtdm-¸n-sebpw bqss\-äUv tÌävknsebpw t\Xm-¡-·msc X½n IqSp-X ASp-¸n-¡p¶-Xn-\mbn 1954  Øm]n-¡-s¸« Hcp kwL-amWv _nÂUÀ s_ÀKv. bp² ka-b¯v \mkn-IÄs¡-Xncmbn s]mcp- X nb tPmk^v sdän³KÀ F¶ t]mf­pImc-\mb Hcp t]mfntbm _m[n-Xsâ t{]cW-bm BZy-ambn AhÀ B³slan\Sp-¯pÅ _nÂsUÀs_ÀKv tlm«- e n- e mWv kt½- f n- ¨ - X v . s\XÀemâ vknse t_¬lmÀUv cmP-Ip-am-c-\m-bncp¶p A²y-£³. B BZy tbmK-¯n ]s¦-Sp¯-h À _m¦p-S - a -I fpw km¼- ¯ nI hnZ- K²cpw ]n¶oSv te_À t\Xm-hmb lKv sKbvävkvsIÃpw aäp-am-bn-cp-¶p. B tbmKw I½yq-WnÌv `oj-Wn-sb¡p-dn¨pw bqtdm-¸nsâ GIoI-c-W-¯nsâ km[y-Xsb-¡p-dn¨pw NÀ¨ sNbvXp. Cu kwLw AXp tIhew kw`-h§ - Ä NÀ¨ sN¿p-¶X - n\p am{Xw \ne sImÅp¶ H¶m-sW¶p ]c-ky-ambn ]d-bp-¶p. HutZym-Kn-I-amb Øm\-§-sfm-¶p-an-ÃmsX ""DÄ¡mgvN-Isf {i²n¨p tIÄ¡p-hm\pw {]Xn-^-en-¸n-¡phm\pw tiJ-cn-¡p-hm\pw'' H¯p IqSp¶ t\Xm-¡·m-cpsS Hcp NÀ¨m-thZn am{Xw. 22

F¶m _nÂUÀs_ÀKv kt½-f-\-§-fpsS ap³t\-Xm-¡· - mÀ ]d-bp-¶-Xv, AhÀ KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´¡ - m-cpsS kn²m-´§ - s - f-¡p-dn¨p tcmjm-¡pe-cmbncp¶p-sh¶pw A¯-c-¯n-epÅ Imcy-§Ä NÀ¨ sN¿m³ IqSnb kt½-f-\§ - f - m-bn-cp¶p AhÀ F¡m-e¯pw kw_-Ôn¨ kt½-f\ - -§f - n Gähpw {][m-\-s¸-«Xv F¶pam-Wv. sshäv lmfn Hcp-an¨p IqSn hcp¶ HutZym-Kn-I-`m-c-hm-ln-I-fpsS tIÄhn ]cn-[n-bn \n¶pw hfsc AIse \S-¡p¶ NÀ¨bpsS AÀ°w, AhnsS \S¶ NÀ¨-bmWv B[p\nI bqtdm-¸ns\ cq]-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xn \nÀ®m-b-Iam-bXv F¶pw AhÀ ]d-bp-¶p.

3. {^o sabvk¬dn (Free Masonry)

a) {^o sabvk¬dn 16 mw \qäm-­n\pw 17 mw \qäm-

­n\pw CS-bn Øm]n-¡-s¸« Hcp ktlm-Zc kwL-amWv. AhÀ ImcpWy {]hÀ¯-\-§-fn kPo-h-am-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. sabvk¬ {]hÀ¯-IÀ AhcpsS tbmK-§-fn ]¦p sImÅp-¶-Xn-\mbn ssI ap{Z-Ifpw AwK-hn-t£-]-§fpw D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶p. sabvk¬ {]hÀ¯-Ic - mb aäp-Å-hÀ¡p kzbw ]cnN-b-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xn\pw Cu coXn-bmWv Ah-ew-_n¡pI ]Xn-hv. {^o sabvk¬dn F¶ Cu cl-kykwLw AhÀ¡p kzm[o-\n-¡p-hm³ Ign-bp¶ `c23

W- I q- S - § - f psS klm- b - t ¯msS temI- ¯ nse {][m\ kw`-h-§sf \nb-{´n-¡p¶p F¶v NneÀ hniz-kn-¡p-¶p. b) bpss\-äUv tÌävknsâ cq]-h-XvI-c-W-¯n {^osa-bvk¬dn-¡pÅ kzm[o-\s¯ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶XmWv bpss\-äUv tÌävknsâ alm-ap-{Z-bnÂ(Great Seal) ImWp¶ ]Wn ]qÀ¯n-bm-Im¯ ]nc-an-Unsâ apI- f - ä ¯p sImSp- ¯ n- c n- ¡ p¶ ssZh- ¯ nsâ I®v(Eye of providance) F¶ hmZw hfsc hym]-Iamb Hcp KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-am-Wv. 2004  ]pd-¯n-d-§nb \mj-\ {SjÀ F¶ Unkv\n ^nenan CXv \mS-Io-b-ambn Ah-X-cn-¸n-¨n-«p-­v. sabvkWp-IÄ X§-fpsS ap{Z-bn "I®v' DÄs¡m-Ån-¨n«p-s­-¦nepw AXn ]nc-anUv CÃ. F¶m c­nepw I®ns\ hebw sNbvXp ImWn-¨n-«pÅ {XntImWw H¶p Xs¶-bm-sW¶p ]ecpw hymJym-\n-¡m-dp-­v.

4. kvIÄ Bâ v t_m¬kv tbbv bq\n-th-gvkn-änsb (Yale University) ASnØm-\-s¸-Sp-¯n-bpÅ "Z HmÀUÀ Hm^v kvIÄ Bâ v t_m¬kv' F¶ kwLw BZy-Im-e¯v Adn-b-s¸«n-cp-¶-Xv "{_ZÀlpUv Hm^vv sU¯v' F¶m-bn-cp-¶p. 1832  Øm]n-¡-s¸« Cu kwL-¯nsâ AwKXzw 24

htcWy hÀ¤-¯n s]« Npcp¡w Bfp-IÄ¡mbn ]cn-an-X-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p-­v. Cu kwLw sabvk¬ {]hÀ¯-I-cpsS Bth-i-I-c-amb BNm-cm-\p-jvTm-\§Ä D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶p-­v. Cu kwLw KqVm-temN\m kn²m-´-§Ä Nqgv¶p \n¡p¶ H¶m-Wv. AXn Gähpw tIÄhn-tI« H¶v kn.-sF.F F¶ Nmc kwL-S\ Cu kwL-¯n DÄs¸-«-hÀ AwK§-fm-bn-«pÅ kwL-S-\-bm-sW¶ hmZ-am-Wv. tPmÀPv U_yq _pjv, tPm¬ sIdn XpS-§nb {]i-kvXÀ Cu Iq«-¯n DÄs¸-«-h-cm-bn-cp¶p F¶p ]d-b-s¸Sp-¶p.

5. ss{Sem-ä-d I½o-j³ ss{Sem-ä-d I½o-j³ F¶Xv hSt¡ Atacn-¡-bp-sSbpw ]Sn-ªm-d³ bqtdm-¸n-sâbpw P¸msâbpw CS-bn kl-I-cWw Du«n-bp-d-¸n-¡p-¶Xn\v tUhnUv tdm¡v s^ÃÀ 1973 Pqsse amk-¯n Øm]n¨ Hcp kÀ¡m-tc-Xc ]£-]m-X-c-lnX NÀ¨m {Kq¸m-Wv. KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-¡mÀ hniz-kn¡p-¶Xv Cu kwL-S\ GI-temI Kh¬saâp Øm]n-¡p-¶-Xn\p th­n KqV ]²-Xn-IÄ sa\bp¶ Hcp {][m\ KqVm-tem-N\m kwL-am-sW¶mWv heXp ]£-¡mcpw CSXp ]£-¡mcpamb [mcmfw Bfp-IÄ hniz-kn-¡p-¶-Xv ss{Sem-ä-d 25

I½o- j ³ ]e temI- k w- ` - h - § Ä¡pw ]n¶n {]hÀ¯n¨ kwL-am-sW-¶m-Wv.

6. Iu¬kn Hm¬ t^mdn³ dnte-j³ AsÃ-¦n kn.-F-^v.-BÀ Cu Iu¬kn 1921  bpss\-äUv tÌävknemWv Øm]n-¨-Xv. Cu Iu¬kn bp.-F-knsâ hntZi \bw, A´ÀtZ-iob Imcy-§Ä F¶o hnjb-§-fn {]tXyI sshZKvZyw BÀÖn¨ kwL-S\-bm-Wv. Cu kwL-S-\-bnse AwK-§Ä apXnÀ¶ cmjv{Sob t\Xm-¡-·mÀ, kn.-sF.-F-bpsS Ub-dIvSÀamÀ, _m¦p-S-a-IÄ, \n-b-a-ÚÀ, s{]m^-kÀamÀ apXnÀ¶ am²ya {]hÀ¯-IÀ XpS-§nbhcm-Wv. Z tPm¬ _nÀ¨v skmsskän ]d-bp-¶X - v, kn.-F^v BÀ ""GI-temI Kh¬saâ v D­m-¡p-¶-Xn\v aäp-Å-hcp-ambn tNÀ¶p KqVm-tem-N\m \S-¯p¶p F¶ Ipäw sN¿p-¶-h-cmWv'' F¶m-Wv.

7. tdm¡v s^ÃÀ ^manen tdm¡v s^ÃÀ ^manen F¶Xv 19mw\qäm-­nsâ c­mw ]Ip-Xn-bnepw 20 mw \qäm-­nepw F® hym]mc-¯n-eqsS temI-¯n Gähpw A[nIw km¼¯nI t\«w ssIh-cn¨ Ata-cn-¡³ hyh-km-b,-cmjv{So-b, _m¦nwKv IpSpw-_-§-fn H¶m-Wv. tPm¬ Un.-tdm¡v s^Ãdpw At±-l-¯nsâ ktlm-Z-c³ 26

hnÃyw tdm¡v s^Ãdpw tNÀ¶mWv ÌmtâÀUv Hmbn tImÀ¸-td-j³ Øm]n-¨-Xv. Cu IpSpw_w sP.]n.. tamÀK³ tNknsâ ap³Km-an-I-fmb tNkv am³lm-«³ _m¦p-am-bn-«pÅ ZoÀL--Ime ]¦m-fn-¯¯n\pw AXnsâ \S-¯n-¸n\pw t]cp tI«n-«pÅ Hcp IpSpw-_-am-Wv. [mcmfw BÄ¡mÀ hniz-kn-¨n-cn-¡p¶Xv tdm¡v s^ÃÀ ^man-en-bmWv Cu temI-¯n \S-¡p¶ ]e kw`-h-§-sfbpw \nb-{´n-¡p-¶Xv F¶m-Wv. I½yq-WnÌv hyh-ØnXn D­m-¡n-bXv ]Sn-ªm-d³ cmPy-§f - n \n¶pÅ [\n-Icpw kzm[o\- i - àn- b p- a pÅ t\Xm- ¡ - · mcmbn- c p- ¶ p- s h¶pw AhÀ hniz-kn-¡p-¶p. AhÀ ]d-bp-¶Xv hvfmUnanÀ se\n³ Ah-cpsS ssII-fnse ]mh-bm-bn-cp¶p F¶m-Wv. emdn A{_lmw cNn¨ ck-I-c-amb Hcp ]pkv X - I - a p- ­ v . AXnsâ t]cv , ""tImÄ Cäv tIm¬kv]n-ck - n(-AX - ns\ KqVm-tem-N\ F¶p hnfn¡pI'-) F¶m-Wv. Cu ]pkvX-I-¯n\v 325 t]Pp-Ifp-­v, AXnsâ Zi-e-£-¡-W-¡n\p tIm¸n-IÄ hnägn-b-s¸-«n-«p-­v. AXnsâ [mcmfw ]Xn-¸p-IÄ Cd-§nbn«p-­v.-Kq-Vm-tem-N-\m-I-sf-¡p-dn¨v ]cs¡ {]Xn]m-Zn-¨n-«pÅ Cu ]pkvXIw hnäv AXnsâ {KÙ-Imc³ Zi-e-£-¡-W-¡n\p tUmfÀ k¼m-Zn-¡p-bp-­m27

bn. Cu ]pkvX-I-¯nsâ Fgp-¯p-Im-c³ ]pkvXI-¯n Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv tdm¡v s^ÃÀ IpSpw_w tkmhn-bäv anen-ädn sajo³ hnI-kn-¸n-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶Xn-\mbn I½yq-Wn-Ìp-ImÀ¡v AXnsâ amXr-I(-]mäâ v) ssIamäw sNbvXp F¶m- W v. I½yqWnÌpImsc tdm¡v s^Ã-dpsS GPâp-am-cmbn-«mWv Cu ]pkvX-I-¯n Nn{Xo-I-cn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶Xv. ]pkvI-¯nsâ 117 mw t]Pn \n¶v D²-cn-¡s« ""CXn-tebv¡v shfn¨w hoip¶ Hcp hnNn{X kw`hw 1964 HIvtSm-_-dn kw`-hn-¨p. tNkv am³lm-«³ _m¦nsâ {]kn-Uâpw hntZiImcy Iu¬kn-ensâ t_mÀUp sNbÀam-\p-am-bn-cp¶ tUhnUv tdm¡v s^ÃÀ tkmhn-bäv bq\n-b-\n Hcp Ah-[n-¡mew sNe-h -g n- ¡ p- I- bp-­m- b n. temI- ¯ nse Gähpw henb ""km{am-Py-hm-Zn¡v Xsâ Ah-[n-¡mew Ign¡p-hm³ Hcp-¡nb Cu Øew hfsc {]tXy-I-X-IfpÅ H¶m-bn-cp-¶p. ImcWw I½yq-Wn-Ìp-ImÀ Cu Imcy-¯n \S-¯nb {]Nm-cW {]hÀ¯-\-§Ä tUhn- U nsâ [\w apgp- h ³ At±- l - ¯ nsâ ssIbn \n¶pw FSp¯v ""P\-§Ä¡v '' hnX-cWw sN¿p¶ hn[-¯n-ep-Å-Xm-bn-cp-¶p. tdm¡v s^ÃÀ 28

s{Iwen-\n Xsâ ""Ah-[n-¡mew'' ]qÀ¯n-bm¡n Nne Znh-k-§Ä Ign-ª-t¸mÄ Icn-¦-S Xoc¯pÅ Hcp kpJ-hmk tI{µ-¯n Xsâ Ah-[n¡mew Ign-¡p-I-bm-bn-cp¶ \nInXm {IqjvtNhv Xncn¨p hnf-n¡-s¸-«p, At±lw Øm\-{`-jvS-\m-¡s¸-«n-cn-¡p¶p F¶ hmÀ¯-bmWv At±-ls¯ kzmKXw sNbvX-Xv. F{Xtbm hnNn{Xw! temI¯nsâ ZrjvSn- b n {Iqjv tNhv tkmhyäv Kh¬saânsâ ]c-am-[n-Im-c-apÅ tkzÑm-[n-]-Xn-bmbn-cp¶p, AXn-t\-¡m-fp-]cn At±lw bp.-F-kv.-Fkv. BÀ F¶ cmjv{Ss¯ \bn-¡p¶ I½yq-WnÌp ]mÀ«n- b psS Xe- h ³ IqSn- b m- b n- c p- ¶ p................ tUhnUv tdm¡v s^ÃÀ tkmhyäp bq\n-b-\n-te-¡p t]mbXv GsX-¦nepw Hcp DtZym-K-Ø-s\-Xnsc Icp¡Ä \o¡p-¶X - n-\m-bn-cpt¶m? tkmhn-bäv bq\n-bsâ {][m-\-a{´n F¶ ]Zw Hcp Be-¦m-cnI ]Zhn am{Xam-bn-cp¶p F¶p hyàw, bYmÀ° A[n-Im-ctI{µw asä-h n- s Stbm Bbn- c p- ¶ p, Hcp ]t£, \yqtbmÀ¡nÂ''

F´mWv KqVm-tem-N\? \nb-a-{K-Ù-§-fn \nÀÆ-Nn-¡-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶-X\p-kc - n¨v GsX-¦nepw \nb-ah - n-cp-²a - mb {]hÀ¯\w \S-¯pI AsÃ-¦n Ipä-IrXyw sN¿pI F¶ Dt±29

iy-t¯mSp IqSn ct­m AXn-e-[n-Itam BÄ¡mÀ Hcp-an¨p tNÀ¶v clky-ambn Btem-Nn¨p Xocp-am\n-¡p¶ tZmj-I-c-amb ]²-Xn-bmWv KqVm-temN\. KqVm-tem-N-\-IÄ F¡m-e¯pw D­m-bn-cp-¶n-«p-­v. temI-¯nsâ cmjv{Sob Ncn{Xw ]cn-tim-[n-¨m [mcmfw KqVm-tem-N-\-I-sf-¡p-dn¨p a\-Ên-em-¡m³ km[n-¡pw. Pqen-bkv kok-dn-s\-Xn-cm-bn-«pw, kmÀ Ae-Ivkm-­À II \v FXn-cm-bn-«pw, A³hÀ kmZ¯n-s\-Xn-cm-bn«pw aäpw \S¶ KqVm-tem-N\ - I - Ä Nne DZm-l-c-W-§Ä am{Xw! KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m´w F¶Xv bYmÀ°¯n CÃm¯ Hcp KqVm-tem-N\ - s - b-¡p-dn-¨pÅ `bam-Wv. KqVm-tem-N\ Nq­n-¡m-Wn¨p Xcp-¶Xv Hcp {]hr- ¯ n- s b- b m- W v . AtX- k - a bw KqVm- t emN\mkn²m´w Hcp anYym-t_m-[-s¯bpw. KqVmtem-N\m kn²m´§fpsS kz`m-hw, Ahbv¡v Hcp hyàn-bpsS Df-fn hfÀ¶p hnI-kn¨v Ah-bv¡p Poh³ shbv¡p-¶-Xp-h-scbpw hfÀ¶p sIm­n-cn¡p-hm³ km[n-¡pw. Cu kn²m-´-§-fn apgp-Inbn-cn-¡p-¶-hsc kw_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯mfw Hmtcm kw`h-¯nsâ ]n¶nepw Ahsb \nb-{´n-¡p¶ Nne AZr-iy-I-c-§Ä Ds­¶v AhÀ Dd¨p hniz-kn-¡p¶p. DZm-l-c-W-ambn , {^©p-hn-¹-h-¯n\p ]n¶n 30

{]hÀ¯n-¨-Xv CÃ-yq-an-\mXn F¶ cl-ky kwL-amsW¶pw AXp-t]mse Xs¶, dj-y³ hn¹-h-¯n\p ]n¶n {]hÀ¯n-¨Xv PqX-·m-sW¶pw NneÀ hni-zkn-¡p¶p. hmkvX-h-¯n skan-änIv hwi-hn-tcm[n-If - mb kI-ecpw kzm-`m-hn-Ia - mbn hni-zk - n-¡p-¶Xv sblq-Z-·m-cmWv temI-¯n D­m-Ip¶ FÃm Ipg¸-§Ä¡pw Imc-W-¡mÀ F¶m-Wv. KqVm-tem-N\ F¶Xv Ncn-{X-]-ctam ]mc-¼-c-ytam Bbn e`n-¡p¶ Adn-hp-I-fn \n¶p hfsc hy-X-y-kvX-ambn a\p-j-ylr-Z-b-§-fn Df-hm-Ip¶ Hcp ho£-W-K-Xn-bm-Wv. AXp kzo-I-cn-¡-W-sa-¦n a\-Ên-em-¡n-sh-¨n-cn-¡p¶Xpw t_m[-y-am-b-Xp-amb Imc-y-§-fn \n¶v kaqe-amb Hcp hy-Xn-bm\w Bh-i-y-am-Wv. hy-àn-]-c-amb Nn´m-ssh-I-e-y-amWv cmjv{Sobm-Ô-Xbv ¡p ImcWw F¶p- Nn-´ n- t¡-­-Xn- Ã. F¶m ]e--t¸mgpw Cu c­pw sshI-e-y-§fpw Hcpan¨p tNÀ¶p {]hÀ¯n-¡p-Ibpw At\-ym-\yw iàns¸-Sp¯n apt¼m-«p-t]m-Ip-Ibpw sN¿m-dp-­v. C¯c¯n-epÅ at\m\n-e-bpÅ tIÄhn-¡msc kw_-Ôn¨n-S-t¯mfw, km[y-X, BI-kvan-IX AsÃ-¦n _p²n-iq-\-y-amb Xocp-am-\-§Ä F¶n-h-bvs¡m¶pw Hcp \ym-b-hp-an-Ã. X¯zNn´-I-\mb ImÄt]m-¸À hni-Za - m-¡n-bncn-¡p-¶X - ,v KqVm-tem-N\ - m-kn-²m-´¡ - m31

cs\ kw_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯mfw kaq-l-¯n kw`-hn¡p¶ Imcy-§Ä F´p-X-s¶-bm-bmepw AsXÃmw ""Nne ià-cmb hy-àn-I-fpsS AsÃ-¦n {Kq¸p-IfpsS t\cn-«pÅ Bkq-{X-W¯ - nsâ ^e-am-Wv''F¶mWv. KqVm-tem-N-\m-kn-²m-´-¡mÀ H¶pw BtemNn-¡msX ]c-am-[n-Im-c-i-ànsb AsÃ-¦n Znh-yiànsb X§-fpsS i{Xp-¡-fpsS ta Btcm-]n-¡p¶p. Hmtcm \nan-jhpw Cu {]]-©-¯n kw`-hn¨p-sIm-­n-cn-¡p¶ Imc-y§ - Ä¡p ]n¶n Hcp Bkq{X-W-ap-­v. Hcp KqVm-tem-N-\m-kn-²m-´-¡m-csâ ZrjvSn-bn i{Xp-¡-fmbn ]pdta Adn-b-s¸-Sp-¶-hÀ bYmÀ°-¯n kplr-¯p-¡-fm-Wv. PqX-·m-cmWv PqX- h n-t cm[w krjv S n-¨ Xpw AXns\ NqjWw sNbvXp apX-se-Sp-¯X - p-sa¶v AhÀ Icp-Xp-¶p. ZpjvSi-àn-IÄ kw`-h-§Ä¡p ]n¶n \n¶p-sIm­v kl- I - c n- ¨ p - { ]- h À¯n- ¡ p¶p. sPk- yq- « p- I Ä bYmÀ°-¯n CÃ-yq-an-\-Xn-bpsS i{Xp-¡-fà Ahcp-ambn kJyX \ne-\nÀ¯p-¶-h-cm-Wv; amÀ¸m¸ BhÀ¯n-¨m-hÀ¯n¨v {^osa-b-k¬dnsb XÅn-¸d-ªp-sIm-­n-cn-¡p-¶p-s­-¦nepw sPkyq-«p-If - mWv {^osa-bvk¬dn {]hÀ¯-I-cn {][m-\-s¸-«-hÀ. 32

ISp¯ he- X p- ] - £ ¡mc hen- s bmcp hn`mKw hniz-kn-¡p-¶Xv ImdÂamÀIvkv apX-emfn¯hyh-Øn-XnbpsS _² i{Xp-hm-bn-cp-¶n-Ã, t\sc adn¨v AXnsâ GPâm-bn-cp¶psh¶mWv. {]ikvX Ncn-{X-Im-c\mb HmkvhmÄUv kvs]³¥À ]d-bp-¶Xv ]mÝmXy _m¦Àamcm-bn-cp¶p I½yqWnÌp {]Øm\w Øm]n-¨Xpw AXns\ \nb-{´n-¨ncp-¶X - p-sa¶m-Wv. ZpÀº-ea - mb Hcp Btcm-]W - a - m-sW¶p tXm¶msa-¦nepw XncsªSp-¡-s¸« Ata-cn-¡³ HutZymKnI Øm\-§-fn-en-cn-¡p-¶-hsc \nb-{´n-¡p-¶Xv bpss\-äUv \mj³kv BWv. {^©p hn¹hw \S¡p¶Xn\p ap¼v CÃ-yq-an-\mXn- ¡v FXn-cmbn Xpd¶ Btcm]W§-fp-­m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. Cu `oIc kw`-h-§Ä¡v ]n¶n- aq¶v Adnb-s¸-Sp¶ cl-ky-kw-L§ - f - psS Ipä-hm-fn-Is - f-bmWv {][m-\-ambpw kwi-bn-t¡­n h¶n-«p-Å-Xv. Cu kwL§-tfm-tcm¶pw s]mXp-P-\-k-am-[m-\-¯n\p Xpc¦w shbv¡p¶hbmsW¶v Bt£-]a - p-­m-bn-cp¶p. Zn `th-dn-b³ CÃyqan-\mXn {^osabv-k¬dn, Zn sSwt¹gvkv F¶nh-bm-bn-cp¶p Cu clky kwL§Ä. 1790 apX {^©p hn¹hw kwL-Sn-¸n-¨Xnsâ {][m\ D¯-ch - m-Zn-IÄ CÃyq-an-\m-Xn-bm-sW¶p 33

Ipä-s¸-Sp¯ns¡m­pÅ \nc-h[n teJ-\-§fpw eLp-te-JI - fpw {]kn-²o-Ic - n-¡s - ¸-Sp-Ib - p-­m-bn. Cu {Kq¸n\v temI-¯n A¶p \ne-hn-ep-­m-bn-cp¶ GIm- [ n- ] Xy`- c - W - c oXn Ah- k m- \ n- ¸ n- ¡ p- I bpw kzImcy kz¯pw IpSpw-_-hy-h-Øbpw, aX-hn-izmk- c o- X nbpw CÃmXm¡p- I bpw sNbv X p- s Im­v temIs¯ AS¡n `cn¡mw F¶ hymtam-l-am-Wp­m-bn-cp¶-Xv.

19mw \qäm­nse {`m´-amb Bi-b§ - Ä 19mw \qäm-­nsâ a²y-¯n DbÀ¶p-tI« {]am-W-hmIyw CXm-bn-cp¶p. ""bqtdm-¸n Hcp A[nIm-c-iàn am{X-ta-bp-Åq, AXv tdm¯vkvssNÂUv BWv.'' NmÄkv IuLvfn³ ]d-ªp. ""sabvk¬dnbpw amÀIvknk-hp-am-Wv C¶s¯ temIs¯ `cn¡p-¶Xv.'' 1815 apX 1914 hsc-bpÅ Ime-L«w KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-§Ä AXn-thKw hf-cp-¶Xmbn I­ Hcp Ime-L-«-am-bn-cp-¶p. ]e KqVmtem-N\m kn²m-´-§Ä AXn-thKw hf-cp-¶-Xmbn I­ Hcp Ime-L-«-am-bn-cp-¶p. ]e KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´¡mcpw FÃm-än\pw PqX-·msc Ipä-s¸Sp¯ns¡m­n-cp-¶p. Hcp temI-hym-]-Ia - mb bp²w \S-¶-sIm-­n-cn-¡p-¶p-sh¶v AhÀ k¦-ev]n-¨p, 34

AXn GXp-Im-e¯pw GXp Øe-§-fn-ep-apÅ FÃm blqZ-·mcpw `c-Wm-[n-Imcw ssIbS¡p-¶Xn-\mbn cl-ky-ambn {]hÀ¯n¨p sIm­n-cn-¡p-¶psh¶pw AhÀ Nn´n-¨p. XpSÀ¶v t_mÄsj-hnkw BhnÀ`- h n- ¡ p- h m³ ImcWw PqX- · m- c m- s W¶v lnäveÀ Btcm-]n-¨p. se\n³ Hcp blq-Z\ - m-sW¶pw lnä-veÀ hniz-kn-¨p. blq-Z-·m-cpsS KqVm-tem-N-\-bmWv CXn\v ]n¶n-se¶v djy-¡mcpw Ìmen\pw hniz-kn-¨ncp¶p. AhÀ AXn\v I­ \ymbw, blq-Z-·mÀ FÃm-bn-S¯p-ap­v F¶ hkvXp-X-bm-bn-cp-¶p. shbvjm³]väv (Weishanpt) ImKvfn-tbmkvt{Sm (Cagliostro) F¶n-hÀ bl-Z· - m-cm-bn-cp-¶p. tiay-hw-i-hn-tcm-[n-I-fmb Nne djy-¡mÀ Btcm-]n-¨n-cp-¶-Xv, lnäveÀ, Fbvjvam³ (Elchmann) Kos_Âkv (Goebbels) XpS-§nbhscÃmw blq-Z-·mcm-bn-cp¶p-sh-¶m-Wv. KodnwKv (Gering) blq-Z-\-Ãm-bncp-¶p. {^mt¦m, NÀ¨nÂ, dqkvshÂäv F¶n-h-cpw blq-Z-·m-cmbncp-¶p. tkmhn-bäv bq\n-b-\nse {]apJ hyàn-If - n Hmtcm-cp-¯t- cbpw ]cn-tim-[n¨v AhÀ blp-Z-·m-cmtWm AÃtbm F¶v Is­-¯phm³ \mkn-IÄ \¶mbn ]cn-{i-an-¡p-I-bp-­m-bn. FÃm {]Øm-\-§-fp-sSbpw ]n¶n blq-Z-·m-cm35

sW¶v AhÀ hniz-kn-¨p. CS-Xp-]£ KqVm-tem-N-\b - psS Gähpw {][m\-s¸« ]cn-W-X-^ew {_tZgvkv tdm¯kv ssNÂUv F¶ k¼-¶-Ip-Spw_w bp²-¯n GÀs¸-«n-cp¶ Ccp I£n-I-sfbpw cl-ky-ambn kao-]n¨v AhÀ¡v bpt²m-]I - c - W - § - Ä hnäpw hmbv] \ÂInbpw bp²w sN¿p-hm³ Zpjvt{]-cW \ÂIp-Ibpw A§s\ aäpÅ-h-cpsS \nÊ-lm-bm-h-Øsb NqjWw sNbvXp em`w D-­m-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp F¶ Ipäm-tcm-]Ww kw_-Ôn-¨p-ÅX - m-Wv. H¶mw temI alm-bp-²-¯n-\p-tijw blq-Z·msc Ipä-s¸-Sp-¯p¶ {]h-WX hÀ²n-¨p-sIm-­ncp-¶p. XpSÀ¶v \S¶ djy³ hn¹-hhpw B`y-´-cbp-²hpw Imcy-§sf IqSp-X hj-fm-¡n. Cu Ipg¸-§-fn ]cn-{`m-´-cmb he-Xp-]-£-¡mÀ ]pXn-bXmbn cq]w-sIm­ t_mÄsj-hnIv `c-W-Iq-Ss¯ blq-Z-·mÀ temI-¯nsâ A[n-Imcw ]nSn-¨-S-¡p-¶Xnsâ Hcp {][m\ kqN-\-bm-bmWv Nn{Xo-I-cn-¨-Xv. I½yq-WnÌv kaq-l-¯nse {]ap-Jsc apgp-h³ Xncªp-]n-Sn¨v AhscsbÃmw blq-Z·mÀ F¶ ap{Z Ip¯p-I-bp-­m-bn. hmkvX-h-¯n Ah-cmcpw blq-Z-]-Ým-¯e - -¯n \n¶p-f-f-hc - m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. CtX anYym-k¦ - e - v]-§Ä Xt¶bmWv sdmam-t\mhv cmP-hw36

i-¯nsâ A´y-\m-fp-I-fn AXn-s\-Xnsc Bfn-¸SÀ¶ tcmjmán \ndª hntZz-j-¸-\n-bpsS ]n¶n {]hÀ¯n-¨Xpw, B sR«n¸n-¡p¶ kw`hw \S¶ tijw kmÀ N{I-hÀ¯n-sbbpw At±-l-¯nsâ IpSpw-_-s¯bpw sIm¶Xv blq-Z-·m-cm-sW¶p ]dªp-]c - ¯ - n. Cu kml-Nc - y-§Ä 1918\pw 1920\pw CS-bn shÅ-¡mÀ AsÃ-¦n tkmhn-bäphncp² iàn-IÄ sX¡³ djy-bn Hcp e£-¯n-e-[nIw blq-Z· - msc Iq«-s¡me sNb-XXv F´n-s\¶p hniZo- I - c n- ¡ p- h m³ klm- b n- ¡ p- ¶ p. ""blqZy þ t_mÄtj-hnkw '' (“Judeo-Bolshevism”) F¶ anYym I£n-_-Ôs¯¡pdn-¨pÅ hmÀ¯ ]pdwtemI¯v BI-am\w {]I-¼\w sIm­p, AXv Hcp Im«p-Xobv t]mse ]S-cp-Ibpw sNbvXp. kuZn Atd-_y-bnse cmPm-hm-bn-cp¶ ss^k {]Jym-]n-¨-Xv, ""kb-Wnk-amWv I½yq-Wn-k-¯nsâ A½'' F¶m-bn-cp-¶p. CsXÃmw Hcp henb KqVm-tem-N-\-bpsS `mK-am-bncp¶p , Bkq-{Xn-X-amb Hcp KqV-\o-¡-¯nsâ `mKw. I½yq-Wnkw F¶p-]d- p-¶Xv kb-Wn-k¯ - nsâ bp²-§sf km[y-am-¡n-¯oÀ¡p-hm³ cq]-I-ev]\ sN¿-s¸« Hcp kb-Wn-k krjvSn-bmWv F¶-Xm-bncp¶p asämcp \nco-£-Ww. lnäveÀ I½yq-Wn-ks¯-¡p-dn¨p temI-t¯mSv ]d-ªXv AXv temI37

¯nsâ A[n-Imcw ]nSn-¨-S-¡p-hm³ blq-Z-·mÀ \S¯nb Hcp KqVm-tem-N-\-bpsS `mK-am-sW-¶m-bn-cp¶p. lnäveÀ blq-Z-·msc hwio-b-ambn XpS-¨p-\o¡p-hm³ \S-¯nb Iq«-sIm-ebv¡v \ymbo-Ic - W - a - mbn ]d-ªn-cp-¶Xv Cu Imcy-am-bn-cp-¶p. lnäveÀ ]n¶oSv AXn-s\-¡p-dn¨p ]d-ªXv C§-s\-bm-Wv: Iq«-¡pcpXn ""djy³ hn¹-h-¯nsâ ap³Iq-«n-¡m-Wm³ Ignbm-sX t]mbXpw a\:]qÀÆ-aà - msX kw`-hn-¨X - p-amb ]cn-WX ^e-§-fn H¶p-am-{X-am-Wv. ''

djy³ hn¹hw KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´§Ä¡v s]mXp-PohnX-¯n-epÅ Øm\¯n\v amäw hcp-¯n. tPmk^v Ìmen³ (1878-þ1953) ZoÀL-Imew Cu temIs¯ KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-§-fpsS kwib-Zr-jvSn-bn-eqsS am{Xw t\m¡n-¡­ - n-cp¶ Hcp temIt\Xmhm- b n- c p- ¶ p. 1932 sâ c­mw ]Ip- X nbmbt¸mtgbv¡pw At±-l-¯nsâ `bm-i-¦-IÄ ]pXnb am\-§-fn-se-¯p-I-bp-­m-bn. Ìmen³ djybn djy³ tZio-bX hfÀ¯n-sb-Sp-¡p-hm³ {ian¡p-Ibpw AtXm-sSm¸w ]e skan-änIv hwiob hncp² \S-]-Sn-IÄ sIm­p-h-cn-Ibpw sNbvXp. ]e djy- ¡mcpw hniz-kn-¡ p- ¶Xv blqZ tUmIvS À 38

amcmWv Ìmens\ sIm¶-sX-¶m-Wv. ""Ìmen³ Pohn¨n-cp-¶p-sh-¦n djy-bn-ep-­m-bn-cp¶ blq-Z-·mÀ apgp-h³ ssk_n-cn-bb - n-te¡v HmSn-t¸m-Ip-hm³ \nÀ_Ôn-Xc - mIpam-bn-cp-¶p. AhnsS Ah-cn `qcn-`m-Khpw ssk_o-cn-b³ XS-hp-Im-cpsS \njvTqc s]cp-am-ä§fmepw {]Xn-Iq-ea - mb Imem-h-Øb - mbpw Ns¯mSp-§p-IX - s¶ sN¿p-am-bn-cp-¶p.'' Ìmen\pw lnävedpw KqVm-tem-N-\m-kn²m´-§-fn hniz-kn-¨n-cp-¶-Xn\m AhÀ Cu temIs¯ ASn-t¨Â¸n-¨n-cp¶ A_- ²- [ m- c - W- I - fpsS klm- b - t ¯msS AhÀ sNbvX sImSpw-{Iq-c-X-I-fpsS ^ew AhÀ Xt¶ sIm¿p-Ib - m-bn-cp¶p F¶XmWv-hmkvX-hw. Cu temI-¯n kw`-hn-¨n-«pÅ ]e Zpc-´§Ä¡pw KqVmtemN\m kn²m´-§Ä Hcp {][m\-]¦v hln-¨n-«p-­v. tkmhn-b-äp-I-fmWv AXnsâ aqi cq]-s¸-Sp-¯n-sb-Sp-¯-Xv, aäp-]e I½yq-WnÌv cmPy-§fpw AXns\ A\p-I-cn-¨p. XXv^-eam-bp­mb hwio-b-{`m´v temI-¯n-ep-S-\ofw ]SÀ¶p. hS-¡³ sImdn-b-bnse Inw II kpw§v, ssN\bn-se amthm-tk-Xp-M,v It_mUnb-bb - nse t]mÄt]m«v, AÂ_m-\n-bb - nse F³shÀ slmIvkvlm, Iyq_bnse ^oU Imkvt{Sm XpS-§nb `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-IsfÃmw km{am-PyXz hncp-²-hn-Imcw hfÀ¯n-s¡m39

­p-h-¶-h-cpw, A[n-\n-th-i-¯n-s\-Xn-cmbn t]mcm-Snb-hcpw , ska-änIv hncp² \ne-]m-Sp-IÄ {]N-cn-¸n-¨ncp-¶-h-cp-am-bn-cp-¶p. Cu KqVm-tem-N\ kn²m-´§-fn ]eXpw e£y-an-«n-cp-¶Xv \mep {][m-\-s¸« P\-ka - q-l§ - Äs¡-Xn-scbm-bn-cp-¶p. blq-Z· - mÀ (GI-tZiw 16 Zi-e-£w; {^ota-bvk¬kv (5.5 e£w); {_nt«m¬kv (60 Zi-e-£w); Ata-cn-¡-bnse kn.sF.F. KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´¡ - m-cpsS A`n-{]mba-\p-k-cn¨v Cu 4 {Kq¸p-IÄ tNÀ¶mWv temI-P-\kw-Jy-bpsS 95% s¯bpw \nb-{´n-¡p-¶-Xv. Hcp CS-Xp-]£ - {- `m-´³ Bi-b¡ - m-c\ - mb t\mw tNmkvIn Hcp {`m´³ Bibw temIw apgp-h³ {]N-cn-¸n-¡pI-bp-­m-bn.. Cu temI-¯n C¶p-­m-bn-s¡m­n-cn-¡p¶ Hmtcm tcmK-§Ä¡pw ]cn-ØnXn aen\o-I-c-W-¯n-\pw, ]«mf ta[m-hn-Xz-¯n-\pw, km¼¯nI Ak-aX - z-§Ä¡pw, Bßo-b-]m¸cXz-¯n-\pw, ab-¡p-a-cp-¶p-]-tbm-K-¯n\pw ImcWw Ata-cn¡ am{X-am-sW¶p Ipä-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶ Hcp kn²m-´-amWv At±lw {]N-cn-¸n-¨-Xv. asämcp KqVm-tem-N-\m kn²m´w eqbokv ^Àdm-Jm³ {]N-cn-¸n-¨-Xm-Wv. Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-cmbn-cp¶p Cu `qan-bn BZyw D­m-bn-cp¶ a\p-jyhÀ¤-§sf¶pw an.-bm-¡q_v F¶ ZpjvS-\mb Hcp 40

Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-c\ - mb imkv{X-Ú³ Idp¯ hÀ¤¡msc kXy-a-X-amb Ckveman-tebv¡v Xncn-¨p-sIm­p-h¶v Ahsc Hcp ]mTw ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶X - n-\m-bn-«mWv shfp¯ hÀ¤-¡msc krjvSn-¨-sX¶pamWv ^ÀdmJm³ hniz-kn-¨n-cp-¶Xpw {]N-cn-¸n-¨n-cp-¶Xpw. F¶m blq-Z-·m-sc-t¸mse asämcp a\p-jyk-aq-lhpw aäp-Å-h-cpsS KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´§Ä¡pw kwi-b-Zr-jvSn-IÄ¡pw hnt[-b-am-tI­n h¶n-«n-Ã. KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-§Ä ImcWw AhÀ At§-bäw IjvS-X-IÄ kln-t¡-­n-h-¶p.

a\pjy³ N{µ-\n Cd§n F¶ {]N-cWw Hcp h©\ a\p-jy³ N{µ-\n Cd§n F¶ {]N-cWw kn.-sF.F Ah-X-cn-¸n¨ Hcp I]-S-\m-SIw am{X-amsW¶p ]e Ata-cn-¡-¡mcpw hnizkn-¡p-¶p. Cu Ncn-{X-k-Xys¯ kwi-bn-¡p-¶-hÀ ]d-bp-¶Xv bp.F-kv.-K-h¬saâ v iq\ym-Imi ]cy-th-£W ZuXy§-fn djysb tXm¸n-¡m³ km[n-¡m-¯-XpsIm­v \ncm-i-cmbn \o Bwkvt{Smw-Kn-s\bpw _pkv BÂ{Un-s\bpw Hcp clky ^nenw skän hnfn¨p hcp¯n A`n-\-bn-¸n¨p X¿m-dm-¡n-b-XmWv AhÀ N{µ-\n Cd-§p¶ Cu hymP-cwKw F¶mWv. ChnsS {]k-à-amb Hcp tNmZyw Ata-cn-¡41

bpsS {][m\ FXn-cm-fn-I-fmb tkmhn-bäv bq\nb³t]mepw a\p-jy³ N{µ-\n-en-d-§nb B hmÀ¯bpsS B[n-Im-cn-I-X-sb- CXp-h-scbpw tNmZyw sNbvXn-«n-ÃtÃm F¶-Xm-Wv. KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´§ - Ä aq¶mw-tem-Ic - m-{ã-§fn bp.-Fk - n\v kap-{Z-¯nsâ ASn-bn-eqsS saIvkn¡³ F® apgp-h³ Duän-s¡m-­p-t]m-Ip¶ Hcp Iqä³ ss]¸vv sse³ Ds­¶v saIvkn-t¡m-bnse [mcmfw BÄ¡mÀ hniz-kn-¡p-¶p. hnh-ck - m-t¦-XnI hnZy hf-sc-b[ - nIw hnImkw {]m]n-¨n«pw C´y-¡m-cn ]e-cp-sSbpw Nn´m-K-XnIÄ¡p Imcy-amb amäw kw`-hn-¨n-«n-Ã. ]ecpw AhcpsS ap³Km-an-IÄ 200 hÀj-§Ä¡v ap¼v Nn´n¨ AtX coXn-bn-emWv Ct¸mgpw Nn´n-¡p-¶Xv. AXn\pÅ \à Hcp DZm-lc - Ww ]d-ªm Ct¸mÄ hnizkn-¡phm³ {]bmkam-bn-cn-¡pw. F¶m AXv Hcp ]c-amÀ°-amWv. C´y-bn BZy-ambn sdbnÂth sse³ h¶-Xv 1853 embn-cp-¶p, apwss_-bn \n¶p Xmt\-h-sc. 1951  sdbnÂth Hcp bq\n-ämbn tZikm¡-cn-¡-s¸-«p, C´y³ sdbnÂthbvkv temI¯nse Gähpw henb s\äv hÀ¡p-I-fn H¶mbn amdn. A¶s¯ {_n«ojv Kh¬saâ v sdbnÂth 42

Øm]n-¡p-hm³ ]²-Xn-bn-«-t¸mÄ C´y-bne§-tfm-fan-t§mfw hym]-I-amb {]Xn-tj--[-§Ä DbÀ¶p-h-¶p. C´y-¡mÀ A¶v hnNm-cn-¨Xv t{Käv {_n«¬ C´ysb \in-¸n-¡p-hm³ th­n \S-¯nb Hcp henb KqVmtem- N - \ - b mWv sdbnÂth F¶m- b n- c p- ¶ p. {_n«ojpImÀ C´ysb sdbn hgn Cw¥-­n-te¡v hen¨p sIm­p-t]m-Ip-hm³ {ian-¡p-I-bm-sW¶v AhÀ hnNm- c n- ¨ p. 200 hÀj- § Ä Ign- ª - t ¸mÄ C¶v A§s\ {`m´-amb Hcp FXnÀ¸v A¶v \S-¶n-cp¶psh¶p hnizkn-¡p-hm³ t]mepw \ap¡p km[y-a-Ã. AXp-t]mse C¡m-e¯pw \S-¡p¶ C´y³ KqVmtem-N\m kn²m-´-§Ä a­-¯-chpw bpàn-c-lnXhpam-sW¶v Xncn-¨-dn-tb-­n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p.

C´y KqVm-tem-N\m kn²m-´-§sf kzoIcn-¡p¶ Imcy-¯nepw ap¼n-emWv. C´y-¡m-cn ]ecpw Ata- cn-¡ -bvs ¡-Xntc A\y- cm-j v{S- §Ä sXmSp-¯p-hn-Sp¶ GXp tZmj-I-c-amb KqVm-temN\m kn²m-´-§fpw hnizkn-¡m-dp-­v. Z£n-tW-´y-bnse Hcp kwØm\amb tIcf-s¯-¡p-dn¨v Rm³ ]d-ªp-Ig- n-ªp. Cu kwØm\-¯n-epÅ ]ecpw X§Ä `qan-bn Gähpw henb _p²n-am-·mcpw hnZym-k-¼-¶-cp-am-sW¶v Ah-Im-is¸-Sp-¶-h-cm-Wv. F¶m Ah-cpsS {]hr-¯n-IÄ 43

Ah-cpsS {]iw-k-Isf ]e-t¸mgpw hnjahr¯¯n-em-¡m-dp-­v. Ignª 70 hÀj-§-fmbn tkmhnbäv bq\n- b ³ Gjy- s bbpw B{^n- ¡ - s bbpw ]qÀ®ambn X§-fpsS Bi-b-§Ä sIm­v \ndbv¡phm³ ]cn-{i-an¨p sIm­n-cn-¡p-¶p. \n§Ä C´y-bnse Hcp aÕy-amÀ¡-än sN¶m henb hnZym-`ymksam¶p-an-Ãm¯ ]mhw aÕy-¡-¨-h-S-¡mc³ \n§-tfmSv Atacn¡-bpsS kIe NXn-{]-tbmK-§-sf-¡p-dn¨pw hnhcn¨pXcpw. \n§Ä C´ybnse GsX-¦nepw Hcp bq\n-th-gvkn-än-bn-tebv¡v sN¶v AhnsSbpÅ GsX-¦nepw s{]m^-k-tdmSv kwkm-cn-¡p-hm-\n-S-bm-bm At±-lhpw IrXy-ambn AtX-Imcyw Xt¶-bm-Wv sN¿p-I, AXp Iptd-¡qsS ]cn-jvIr-Xa - mb `mj-bn-em-bn-cn-¡p-sa¶p am{Xw. Nne P\-hn-`m-K-§Ä akvXnjvI {]£m-f\w sN¿-s¸-«ncn-¡p-¶p-sh¶v \n§Ä¡v F§-s\-bmWv a\-Ên-em¡p-hm³ km[n-¡pI? Hcp cmPy-¯nse P\-§-fn `qcn-`mKw t]cpw X§Ä¡p th­{X a\-Ên-emIm¯ Imcy-§Ä Hcp X¯ ]d-bp-¶-Xp-t]mse AtX-]Sn BhÀ¯n¨p ]d-ªp sIm­n-cn-¡p-¶psh¶p I­m AXp XoÀ¨- b mbpw AhÀ akvXnjvI {]£m-f\w sN¿-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p F¶Xnsâ sXfn-hm-Wv. 44

Zim-_vZ-§-fmbn tIc-f-¯n amc-I-amb ]e tcmKm-Wp-¡fpw `oXn ]c-¯n-bn-«p-­v, XXv^-e-ambn [mcmfw ac-W-§fpw imco-cnI sshI-ey-§fpw kw`hn¨n«p-ap-­v. Nn¡p³Kp-\nb sshd-kv, Fen¸-\n, ]¶n-¸-\n, Ipc-§p-]-\n, sNÅp-]-\n, tImf-dm, ssSt^m- b vUv, hb- d n- f - ¡ w, aª- ¸ n- ¯ w, tlmwKvtImwKv ]\n, sshd ]\n, Bhn-b³ ^vfyq XpS-§nb amcI tcmK-§Ä ]e Zim-_vZ-§-fmbn tIc-fs¯ IjvS¯ - n-em¡n sIm­n-cn-¡p¶p. sU¦n¸\n F¶Xv sU¦p-ssh-dkvaqew D­m-Ip-¶Xpw sImXpIp ]c-¯p-¶X - p-amb Hcp DjvWt- a-Jem tcmKam-Wv. sN¦®v AsÃ-¦n sI¬sPMvän sshänkv F¶ t\{X- t cm- Khpw ChnsS km[m- c - W- a m- W v . kq£va-ambn ]cn-tim-[n-¨m Cu tcmK-§-sfÃmw tkmjyenk¯nsâ Hcp Dt]m¸-¶-am-sW¶v ImWmw. C¯-c-¯n-epÅ tcmK-§Ä tkmjy-enÌv cmjv{S-§-fn am{Xta ImW-s¸-Sp-¶p-Åp. tIc-f-¯nse {]kn-²-cmb cmjv{So-b, aX t\Xm- ¡ - · mcpw Fgp- ¯ p- I m- c p- s aÃmw Cu kwØm\¯v kw`-hn-¡p¶ kIe {]iv\-§Ä¡pw

45

Ata-cn-¡sb Ipä-s¸-Sp-¯n-s¡m-­n-cn-¡p-¶p-­v. tIc-f-¯nse {]i-kvX-\mb Hcp t\mh-enÌpw Fgp¯p-Im-c\pw AhmÀUv tPXm-hp-am-bn-cp¶p H.-hn. hnPb³ . At±lw Is­-¯n-bXv CSn-bpw, an¶-epw, `qI-¼-hpw, shÅ-s¸m-¡-hpw, hcĨbpw DÄs¸sS kIe {]IrXn Zpc-´-§Ä¡pw ]n¶n {]hÀ¯n¡p-¶Xv bp.-F-kv.F Bbn-cp¶p sh¶mWv. C´ybn P\- § sf am\- k nI hnt£m- ` - a pÅ hcm¡n¯oÀ¡p-hm³ bp.-F-kv.F `qan-bpsS D]-cnX-e-¯n-eqsS sshZypX {]hmlw IS-¯n-hn«p F¶v At±lw Btcm-]n-¡p-Ibp­mbn. H.-hn.-hn-P-b³ Xsâ cmjv { Sob teJ- \- § Ä {]kn- ² o- I - c n- ¨ Xv ""ktµ-ln- bpsS kwhmZw'' F¶ Hcp ae-b mfw ]pkvX-I-¯n-em-bn-cp-¶p. (1988  Idâ v _pIvkv {]kn-²o-I-cn-¨Xv, t]Pv 23) C¯cw Fgp- ¯ p- I mcpw Nn´- I cpw F{X \nÊm-c-am-bn-«mWv Nn´n-¡p-¶Xv F¶p t\m¡pI! Hmtcm tcmK-¯n\pw ImcWw ]dªv Ata-cn-¡sb Ipä-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xn\v ]Icw C´y Hmhp-Nm-ep-IÄ \nÀ½n-¡p-Ibpw aen-\-h-kvXp-¡Ä kwkvI-cn-¡p-¶Xn-\pÅ KmÀt_Pv ¹mâp-IÄ \nÀ½n-¡p-I-bp-amWv sNt¿-­n-bn-cp-¶-Xv. A§s\sb¦n Cu ]IÀ¨hym- [ n- I Ä ]IÀ¯p¶ sImXp- I p- I sf 46

\nÀ½mÀÖ\w sN¿p-hm³ km[n-¡pw. \Zo-Xo-c§-fnepw hbep-I-fn-ep-apÅ ]¨-¡-dn-t¯m-«-§-fn GI-tZiw Hcp e£w S¬ a\p-jy-hn-kÀÖy§fmWv C´y-¡mÀ Hmtcm Znh-khpw \nt£-]n-¡p-¶Xmbn IW-¡m-¡-s¸-«n-«p-Å-Xv. a\p-jyÀ IpSn-sh-ůn-\mbpw Ipfn-¡p-¶Xn\pw hkv{Xw Ae-¡p-¶-Xn\p-saÃmw \Zn-Isf B{i-bn-¡p-¶p. Imdp-Ifpw kvIq«-dp-Ifpw {S¡p-Ifpw ImÂ\-S-¡m-cp-saÃmw CSX-S-hn-ÃmsX k©-cn¨p sIm­n-cn-¡p-¶ hgn-tbm-c§-fn Xs¶ a\p-jyÀ ae-aq{X hnkÀÖ\w \S¯p-¶p. cmPy-¯nse 75% D]-cn-Xe Pem-i-b-§fpw a\pjy, arK, ImÀjnI, hymh-km-bnI amen-\y-§Ä sIm­p \nd-ªX - mWv. C´y³ \K-ch - n-Ik - \ a{´me-b-¯nsâ 2009 se Hcp dnt¸mÀ«v {]Imcw C´ybnse Hmtcm \K-c-hm-kn-Ifpw a\pjy hnkÀÖy§Ä D]- t bm- Kn- t ¡­ A]- I S kml- N - c y- ¯ ntebv¡v \o§n-s¡m-­n-cn-¡p-I-bm-Wv. tIc-f¯ - nse {][m-\s - ¸« \K-c§ - f - mb sIm¨nbnepw Xncp-h-\-´-]pc¯pw t]mepw ^e-{]-Z-amb coXn-bn {]hÀ¯n-¡p¶ amen\y \nÀ½mÀÖ\ ¹mâp-I-fn-Ã. Ahn-S-§-fn amen-\y-§Ä bYm-k-abw \o¡w sN¿p-¶-Xn-\pÅ coXn-Ifpw Imcy-£-aambn \S- ¸ m- ¡ n- b n- « nÃ. P\- § - fpw kÀ¡mcpw 47

tkmjy-en-k-t¯mSp NmbvhpÅhcm-Wv, AXn-\m AhÀ kzIm- c y- I - ¼ - \ n- I sf shdp- ¡ p- ¶ p. C´ybnse P\-kwJy 127 tImSn-bm-Wv. a\p-jysc imco- c nI sshI- e y- a pÅhcm- ¡ n- ¯ oÀ¡p¶ t]mfntbm F¶ amcI tcmK-¯nsâ temI-¯msI dnt¸mÀ«v sN¿-s¸-«n-«pÅ IW-¡n- ]Ip-Xnbpw C´ybn \n¶p-Å-Xm-sW¶p IW-¡m-¡-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p. ]mÝmXy \mSp-I-fn \n¶v Cu tcmKw ]qÀ®ambpw XpS¨v \o¡-s¸-«n-«p-­v. C´y-bn Hmtcm hÀjhpw 8 e£w Ip«n-IÄ hb-dn-f¡w _m[n¨p acn-¡m-dp-­v. Cu tcmK-§-fn ]eXpw D­m-Iphm³ ImcWw a\pjy hnkÀÖy-§f - m aen-\-s¸« Pew D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶-Xm-Wv. temIm-tcmKy kwLS-\b - psS Is­-¯Â {]Imcw C´y-bn D­m-Ip¶ tcmK-§-fn 80%hpw Pe-P\y tcmK-§-fmWv. icnbmb BtcmKy kwc- £ - W - a n- à m- b v a , amen- \ y\nÀ½mÀÖ-\-¯nsâ A]-cym-]vXX XpS§nb-hbmWv C´ym-cm-Pys¯ Gähpw henb s]mXp-P-\mtcmKy {]iv\-§Ä. C´y-bnse 127 tImSn P\-§fn 35% \p am{Xta Ah-cpsS hoSp-It- fmSv tNÀ¶p iuNm-e-b-§-fp-Åq. s]mXp-I¡ - q-kp-If - n-ÃmsX Xpd¶ Øe-§f - n ae-hn-kÀÖ\w \S-¯n-bm AXv Ah-bn \n¶p 48

]pd-¯n-d-§p¶ hnc-I-fmepw _mIväo-cn-b-I-fmepw a\p- j y- c n- t ebv ¡ v ]e km{I- a nItcmK- § fpw IS¯nhnSp-¶-Xn\v CS-bm-¡p-¶p. Xmsg-sIm-Sp-¯n-cn-¡p¶ dnt¸m-À«v ""ssSwkv Hm^v C´y-''bn 2015 Pq¬ 30\v {]kn-²o-I-cn¨ Hcp hmÀ¯-bm-Wv. ""{][m-\-a{´n \tc-{µ-tamZn Bhn-jvI-cn¨p \S¸n-em-¡p-hm³ \nÀt±-in¨ Hcp ]²-Xn-b-\p-k-cn¨v Hcp hnZKv² kanXn ASp¯ A©p hÀj-¯n-\pÅn Xpd¶ Øe¯p ae-hn-kÀÖ\w sN¿p¶ coXn Ah-km-\n-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn\pw Hmtcm C´y-¡mc\pw I¡q- k p- ­ m¡ns¡mSp- ¡ p- ¶ - X n- \ p- a pÅ HcpIq«w {]mtbm-KnI \nÀt±-i-§-Ä kaÀ¸n-¡p-Ibp-­m-bn. Cu \nÀt±-i-§Ä {Kma-{]-tZ-i-§-fn \ho- \ - a mb amXr- I - b n [mcmfw tkm]mkv k­mkv (Sopas Sandas) AYhm km[m-cW I¡qkp-IÄ \nÀ½n-¨p-sIm-Sp-¡p-¶-Xn\pw sNdnb ]«-W§-fn Bh-iym-\p-k-c-W-amb coXn-bn ]c-¼-cmKXcoXn-bnepÅ I¡q-kp-IÄ Øm]n-¡p-¶-Xn\pw P\-km-{µ-X-bpÅ {]tZ-i-§-fn s]mXp-I-¡qkv \nÀ½n¨p \ÂIp-¶-Xn\pw hyh-Ø-IÄ D­m-bn-cp¶p. hnZKv² kan-Xn-bpsS dnt¸mÀ«n A\y-tZis¯ sXmgn-em-fn-IÄ tPmen sN¿p¶ {]tZ-i-§49

fnepw, Xmev¡m-en-I-ambn \S-¯p¶ N´-Ø-e-§fnepw tam£ Øe-§Ä kµÀin-¡p¶ `à-cpsS CS-¯m-h-f-§-fnepw FÃmw C¯cw kwhn-[m-\-§Ä D­m-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ \nÀt±-i-§-fp-­v. hnZKv² kan-Xn-bpsS hni-Z-amb dnt¸mÀ«v ]qs\ CâÀ \mj-\ skâÀ (PIC) X¿m-dm-¡nb \b-]-c-amb tcJ-I-fn e`y-am-Wv. ""Hmtcm C´y³ ]uc\pw ipNnXz I¡qkv e`y- a m- ¡ p¶ Cu BIÀj-Wo-ba - mb ]²Xn \S-¸n-em-¡p-¶X - nsâ {]Yahpw {][m-\-hp-amb D¯-c-hm-Zn¯w Kh¬saân \n£n-]vXa - mWv.'' F¶p FSp¯p ]d-bp-t¼mÄ Xs¶ Cu tcJbn ip]mÀi sNbvXn-cn-¡p-¶Xv k¶² kwL- S - \- I Ä¡pw ( NGOS), {]mtZ- inI kaq- l§Ä¡pw ,X-t±i `cW Øm]-\§ - Ä¡pw, Cu taJe-bn tkh\w sN¿p¶ Dev]m-Z-IÀ¡pw FÃmw Cu t\Xr-Xz-¯n ]¦p-tN-cmw F¶m-Wv. 600 Zi-e-£-¯n-e-[nIw P\-§Ä Xpd¶ Øe¯v ae-hn-kÀÖ\w sN¿p¶ Hcp cmPy¯v ipNn-Xz-an-Ãm-b-a-bm kw`-hn-¡p¶ km¼-¯nI _m²yX Hcp hÀjw GI-tZiw 2.4 e£w tImSn cq] F¶p IW-¡m-¡n-bn-cn-¡p-¶-Xmbn dnt¸mÀ«n ]d-bp-¶p-­v. AXp-Iq-Sm-sX, kvIqfp-I-fn \n¶p ]T\w \nÀ¯n t]mIp¶ s]¬Ip-«n-I-sf -t]m-se50

bpÅhÀ¡v ipNn-ap-dn-I-fn-Ãm-¯Xv aqe-apÅ Kpcp-Xc-amb {]iv\-§Ä thsd-bp-­v. '' Rm³ 2009  C´y-bpsS hnhn[ `mK-§-fn kµÀi\w \S-¯p-I-bp-­mbn. Rm³ tIc-f-¯nem-bn-cp-¶-t¸mÄ hnZym-k¼-¶-cmb NneÀ Ft¶mSv, tIc-f-¯ nse ]¯-\w-Xn« PnÃ-bn IqsS Hcp hnam\w Xmgv¶p ]d-¡p-¶Xv AhÀ Is­¶v ]dªp. AXn-s\-¡p-dn¨v AhÀ hne-bn-cp-¯n-bXv AXv Hcp Ata-cn-¡³ kn.-sF.-F-bpsS hnam\w Bbncp-¶p-sh¶pw C´y-bnse P\-§-sfbpw Irjn-Isfbpw \in-¸n-¡p-hm³ ]IÀ¨-hym-[n-I-fpsS AWp¡Ä AS§nb s]mSn hnX-dp-hm-\mWv hnam\w Xmgv¶v ]d-¶Xv F¶p-am-bn-cp-¶p. Rm³ Ah-tcmSv Nne FXnÀ \ymb-§Ä tNmZn-¨-t¸mÄ AhÀ¡v adp-]Sn ]d-bp-hm³ km[n-¨n-Ã. Cu hnam-\-¯n\v ]d-¶p-bcp-hm³ Ign-b-W-sa-¦n tIc-f-¯n c­p hnam-\¯m-hf - § - Ä am{X-ta-bp-Åq. A§-s\-bs - Ã-¦n kn.sF.-F-bpsS hnam\w F¶p Btcm-]n-¡-s¸-Sp¶ Cu hnam-\-¯n\v ]d-¶p-b-cp-hm³ ]mI-¯n Ad_n-¡-S-en Hcp bp.-Fkv t\hn FbÀ {Im^väv hmln\n \nebp-d¸n¨n-«p-­m-bn-cn-¡-Ww. C´y³ \mhn-Itk\ hfsc ià-am-bXpw B[p-\nI kwhn[m-\-§-fp-Å-Xp-am-Wv. C¯-c-¯n Hcp Ata-cn51

¡³ \mhn-I-¡-¸Â Ad-_n-¡-S-en \ne-bp-d-¸n-¨n«p-ÅX - mbn C´y³ \mhn-I-tk\ Hcn-¡epw dnt¸mÀ«v sNbvXn-«p-an-Ã. Rm³ Cu kw`-hw ChnsS Fgp-XnbXv C´y-¡mÀ s]mXpth Ata-cn-¡bv¡v FXn-cmb GXp hnNn-{X-I-Y-Ifpw hniz-kn¡pw F¶p ImWn¡p-¶-Xn-\m-Wv. AXn-\m C´y-bn ImW-s¸-SmdpÅ hym]-I-amb tcmK-§Ä¡v ImcWw Ata-cn¡-bm-sW¶v hniz-kn--¡p¶Xn\m-ep-­m-Ip¶ tZmjw \n§Ä Xncn-¨-dn-b-Ww. 2016  tIc-f-¯n \n¶pw Hcp ae-bmfn {Inkv X ym\n At±- l- ¯ nsâ aI- t fm- s Sm- c p- a n¨p Nneamk-§Ä Xma-kn-¡p-¶-Xn-\mbn lpÌ-Wn-tebv ¡ p h¶p. Ata- c n- ¡ - b psS k¼Âk- a r- ² nsbms¡ t\cn«p I­p Ign-ª-t¸mÄ At±lw ]dªp, Ata-cn¡ Cu [\-sams¡ C´y-bn \n¶p IhÀ¶p sIm­p- h - ¶ - XmWv , AsÃ- ¦ n AhÀ¡v C{Xbpw A`n-hr²n {]m]n-¡p-hm³ Ign-bpam-bn-cp-¶nÃ. t{Käv {_n«¬ C´ysb AS¡n `cn¨p-sIm-­n-cp-¶ \qäm-­p-I-fn AhÀ C´ysb sImÅ-b-Sn¨p [\-sams¡ sIm­p-t]mbn F¶v ]e C´y- ¡ mcpw ]dªp Rm³ tI«n- « p- ­ v . F¶m {_n«o-jp-Im-sc-t¸mse Ata-cn-¡bv¡v Hcn¡epw C´y-bpsS ta `cWtaÂt¡mbva D­m52

bn-cp-¶n-«n-à C´y kzX-{´-bm-b-t¸mÄ Ata-cn¡ C´ybv¡v kuP-\y-ambn [\hpw [m\yhpw \ÂIpI-bmWv sNbvX-Xv. Imcy-§Ä hI-Xn-cn¨p a\-Ên-em¡p- h m³ {ian- ¡ m- ¯ - h - c n \n¶p am{Xsa CXpt]mse-bpÅ hne-Ip-dª, {]kvXmh-\-IÄ D­m-Ip-I-bpÅq. C¯cw P\-§Ä¡v Hcp-]t£ \à _ncpZ kÀ«n-^n-¡-äp-IÄ D­m-bn-cn-¡mw, ]t£ AhÀ bYmÀ° hnZym-`ymkw e`n-¨-h-c-Ã. I¶p-Im-en-I-sfbpw tImgnIsfbpw Iim¸p sNbvX-Xn-\p-tijw _m¡n-bm-Ip¶ amen-\y-§Ä tIc-f¯ - nse sat{Sm-t¸m-fn-ä³ \K-c§ - -fnse {][m\ sXcp-thm-c§ - f - n Dt]-£n¨pIf-ªn-cn-¡p-¶Xv Hcp \nXy-Im-gvNb - m-Wv. C§s\ sNbvXn«v kw`-hn-¡p¶ kmw{Iao-I-tcm-K-§Ä¡pw {]IrXn Zpc-´-§Ä¡pw ImÀjnIhnf\mi-§Ä¡pw P\-§Ä Ata-cn-¡sb Ipä-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p. 2004  tIc-fXoc-§f - n BªSn-¨ kp\man D­m-bXv bp.-Fkv kap-{Z-¯n-\-Sn-bn Hcp kp\man t_m_v s]m«n-¨-Xnsâ ^e-am-bn-«msW¶v AhÀ hniz-kn-¡p-¶p. apÉow temI-¯n {]N-cn-¸n-¡-s¸-«n-cn-¡p¶ Hcp sI«p-I-Y-bp­v. bn{km-tb-en-Ifpw Ata-cn-¡¡m-cp-amb BWh hnZ-Kv²-cpsS km¶n-[y-¯nepw kl-I-c-W-¯nepw C´y BWh ]co-£Ww \S53

¯n-bX - nsâ ^e-am-bn-«m-bn-cn¡mw kp\man D­m-bXv F¶-Xm-Wv B IY. CuPn-]vän-sebpw a[y-]qÀÆ tZi- ¯ n- s ebpw [mcmfw hÀ¯am\]{X- § Ä Btcm-]Ww DbÀ¯n-bXv C´y ]m¡n-Øm-\p-ambpÅ AXnsâ BWhaÕc¯nsâ `mK-ambn bp.-F-kn \n¶pw bn{km-tb-en \n¶pw \qX-\amb BW-hk - m-t¦-XnI hnZy-IÄ ssIh-is - ¸-Sp-¯nsb¶pw sX¡p-In-g-¡³ Gjy-bnse apÉw-§Ä Xn§n-¸mÀ¡p¶ {]tZ-i-§-fn \n¶p XpS§n a\pjy-cm-insb XpS-¨p-\o-¡p-¶X - n-\pÅ C´y-bpsS ]co£W§fn C´y-tbmSp kl-I-cn-¡p-hm³ Cu c­p cmjv{S-§fpw k½Xw \ÂIn F¶pw A§s\bmWv AhnsS Gähpw A[nIw kp\m-an-Zp-c-´-§Ä kw`-hn¨sX¶p-am-Wv. 2014 Unkw-_À 17\v Xmen_m- ³ ssk\yw s]jv h mdnse Hcp kv I qfn B{IaWw \S¯n 145 a\p-jysc sImÃp-I-bp-­mbn. B{I-a-W-¯n acn¨ hnZymÀ°n-I-fn `qcn`mKw t]scbpw sXm«-Sp¯p \n¶v Ah-cpsS Xebn shSn-sh-¨mWv sIm¶-Xv. kvIqfn sh¨p \S¶ Cu sImSpw-{Iq-c-Xbv¡v ap³ ]m¡n-Øm\n ]«mf ta[m-hn- bm- bn-c p¶ s]Àthkv apjvd^v hnaÀin-¨Xv C´ysbbmWv. ]m¡n-Øm-\n \S¡p-¶ FÃm Zpc-´-§Ä¡pw ]n¶n C´y-bm54

sW¶v ]e ]m¡n-Øm-\n-Ifpw hniz-kn-¡p-¶p. aq¶mw-tem-I-cm-jv{S-§-fn akvXnjvIw ac-hn-¨-hcmbpw am\-knI hn{`m´n]q­-h-cmbpw Ign-bp¶ P\-k-aq-l-§-sf-¡p-dn¨v Nn´n¨p t\m¡pI !

Ipsshänsâ tamN\w 1990 HmKÌv 2\v Cdm¡n ssk\yw Ah-cpsS AbÂcm-Pyhpw sNdp-sX-¦nepw F®-bm k¼-¶hp-amb Ipssh-äns\ ]nSn-¨S- ¡ - p-Ib - p-­m-bn. Ipsshänsâ {]Xn-tcm[ ssk\y-§sf Cdm-¡n\v thK¯n Iogvs¸-Sp-¯p-hm³ km[n-¨p. bp²-¯n \miw kw`-hn-¡m-Xn-cp-¶-hÀ kuZn Atd-_y-bntebv¡p ]n³hm-§n. Ipssh-änse cmPmhpw At±l-¯nsâ IpSpw-_hpw aäp Kh¬saâ v Xe-¸-¯p­m-bn-cp-¶-hcpw kuZn Atd-_y-bn-te¡v c£-s¸«p. aWn-¡q-dp-IÄ¡Iw Cdm¡vtk\ Ipsshäv knän ]nSn-s¨-Sp-¡p-Ibpw `cWw Øm]n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Ipssh-äns\ X§-fpsS cmPy-t¯mSp IqSn-t¨À¯tXmSpIqSn Cdm-¡n\v temI-¯n BsI-bpÅ F® tiJ-c-¯nsâ 20% ssIb-S-¡p-hm³ km[n¨p, Ncn{X- ¯ n- e m- Z y- a mbn t]Àjy³ KÄ^nse Gähpw \o­-Xoc{]tZ-i-§Ä kz´-am-¡p-hm\pw Ign-ªp. A¶p-Xs¶ sFIy-cmjv{S k`-bpsS skIyq-cnän Iu¬kn Cdm-¡nsâ Ipssh¯v 55

A[n-\n-th-is¯ A]-e-]n¨p sIm­p {]kvXm-h\ Cd-¡p-Ibpw Cdm-¡n-t\mSv DS³ Xs¶ Ipssh-än \n¶p ]n·m-d-W-sa¶v Bh-iy-s¸-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. HmKÌv amkw 6mw XobXn skIyq-cnän Iu¬kn Cdm-¡p-ambpÅ FÃm cmPy-´c hmWn-Py-_-Ô§fpw XS- ª p- s Im­v D¯- c - h n- d - ¡ n¡p- I bpw sNbvXp. 1990 HmKÌv 9 \v bp.-Fkv ssk\y-hyq-l-§Ä t]Àjy³ KÄ^n-tebv¡v hn\y-kn-¡-s¸-Sp-Ibpw kuZn Atd-_y-bnse Ata-cn-¡³ {]Xn-tcm[tk\bmb Hm¸tdj³ sUskÀ«v joÂUv {]hÀ¯-\am-cw-`n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. AtX-k-abw Cdm¡n tkzÑm-[n-]-Xn-bm-bn-cp¶ k±mw lpssk³ Ipsshäns\ A[o-\-s¸-Sp-¯p-hm³ 3 e£w ssk\n-I-cpÅ Hcp kwL-s¯ Ipssh-än AWn \nc-¯n-bn-cp-¶p. 1991 P\p-hcn 15 \Iw Cdm¡n ssk\yw Ipssh-än \n¶p ]n·m-dp-¶n-sÃ-¦n Cdm-¡n-s\-Xnsc bp²w sN¿p-¶-Xn\p A\p-aXn \ÂIn-s¡m-­pÅ Hcp {]ta-bw 1990 \hw-_À 29\v sFIy-cmjv{S k`-bpsS skIyq- cnän Iu¬kn ]mÊm- ¡ p- I- b p- ­m- bn. Ipssh-äns\ Cdm-¡nsâ Hcp {]hn-iy-bmbn Iq«nt¨À¯ k±mw lpssk³ AhnsS \n¶p Xsâ ssk\ys¯ ]n³h-en-¡p-hm³ Iq«m-¡n-bn-Ã. GI56

tZiw 7 e£w kJy ssk\y-§Ä Cu A´y-imk\w \S-¸m-¡p-¶-Xn-\mbn a²y-]qÀÆ tZi¯v \nebp-d-¸n-¨p, AXn `qcn-`m-Khpw Ata-cn-¡-¡m-cm-bncp-¶p. 1991 P\p-hcn 16\v D¨-Ig- nªv 4.30\v (EST) Atacn-¡-bpsS t\Xr-Xz-¯n Cdm-¡ns\Xncmbn AWn\n-c¶ Hm¸-td-j³ sUtkÀ«v tÌmw an¶-em-{IaWw Bcw-`n-¨p. BZys¯ bp²-hn-am\w kuZn Atd-_y-bn \n¶pw hnt£-]n-¡-s¸-«p. {_n«ojv hnam\ hmln-\n-¡-¸Â t]jy³ KÄ^n \ne-bp-d¸n-¨n-cp-¶p. sshIpt¶-c-am-b-t¸m-tgbv¡pw bp.-Fknsâ t\Xr-Xz-¯n-epÅ ssk\nI kJyw _mKvZmZn\pw AXnsâ Npäp-apÅ {]tZ-i-§Ä e£y-am¡n t_mw_p-IÄ hÀjn-¨p-sIm-­n-cp-¶p. kmävsseäv D]-{Klw hgn-bm-bn Cdm-¡n \n¶p kwt{]-jWw sN¿-s¸« Cu Zriy-§Ä A¶s¯ temIw apgph³ XÕ-abw Xs¶ t\m¡n¡­p. Hm¸-td-j³ sUtkÀ«v tÌmw \S-¸m-¡n-bXv t\mÀa jvhmÀkv tIm]v^v (Norman schwarzkop f) F¶ bp.-F-kv.-P-\-densâ ]cn-]qÀ® \nb-{´-W¯ - n {_n«³, CuPn]väv, {^m³kv, kuZn Atd-_y, Ipsshäv XpS§n 32 cmPy-§-fn \n¶pÅ ssk\y-§-Ä DÄs¸« Hcp A´ÀtZ-iob kJy-am-bn-cp-¶p. 57

ASp¯ Bdv BgvNb - n kJy-ià - n-IÄ CdmJnsâ ssk\nI tI{µ-§Ä¡pw aÀ½ {][m-\-amb aäp Øm-\-§Ä¡pw t\sc ISp¯ thymam-{IWw \S-¯n-s¡m-­n-cp-¶p. AXn-s\-Xn-cmbn Cdm-Jnsâ `mK-¯p-\n¶p thyma-tk-\-bp-sS-tbm thyma {]Xntcm[ tk\- b p- s Stbm Imcy- a mb sNdp- ¯ p- \ nevs]m¶pw D­m-bn-Ã. bp²w C§s\ apdp-In-s¡m­n-cn-¡p-t¼mÄ Cdm-Jnsâ Ic-tk-\bv¡v \nÊm-cambn t\m¡n \nev-¡mt\ km[n-¨p-Åq. k±mw- lpssk\p kzoI-cn-¡p-hm³ km[n¨ {]Xym-{I-aWamÀ¤w C{km-tb-en\pw kuZn Atd-_y-bv¡p-sa-Xncmbn kvIUvan-ssk-ep-IÄ Ab-bv¡pI F¶Xp am{X-am-bn-cp-¶p. k±mw-I-W-¡p-Iq-«n-bXv C{km-tben-s\-Xn-cmb kvIUv anssk-em-{I-aWw Ahsc {]tIm-]n-¡p-Ibpw AhÀ bp²-¯n ]¦p-tN-cpIbpw A§s\ kJy-cm{ã§Ä tNÀ¶pÅ bp²¯n\v Ad_v cmPy-§-fpsS ]¦mfn¯w CÃm-sXbm-¡p-Ibpw sN¿mw F¶m-bn-cp-¶p. F¶m bpss\-äUv tÌävknsâ A`yÀ°\ am\n¨v C{kmtb bp²-¯n ]¦p tNcmsX AI¶p \n¶p. s^{_p-hcn 24\v kwJycmjv{S-§Ä H¶ptNÀ¶v ià-amb Ic-bp²w XpS-§n. Cdm-Jnsâ Ime-l-c-W-s¸-«Xpw iàn-Ip-d-ª-Xp-amb bpt²m58

]-I-c-W-§-fp-ambn sNdp¯p \n¶ Ic-tk-\sb kJy-tk-\-IÄ¡v Ffp¸w Iog-S-¡m³ km[n¨p. A¶p -ssh-Ipt¶-c-am-b-t¸m-tg¡pw Cdm-Jn-tk\ ]qÀ®-ambn Iog-S-§n. Ah-cpsS 10000 ssk\n-Isc XS-hp-Im-cmbn ]nSn-¨p. Cdm-Jnsâ DÄ{]-tZ-i¯v bp.-Fkv sâ Hcp thyma ssk\nI Xmhfw Øm]n¡-s¸-«p. \mep-Zn-h-k-§Ä¡Iw Ipsshäv tamNn¸n-¡-s¸-«p. Cdm-Jnsâ ssk\y-¯n `qcn-`m-Khpw ]qÀ®- a mbn Iog- S §n NneÀ Cdm- J n- t ebv ¡ v ]n³hm§n, _m¡n-bpÅhÀ sImÃ-s¸-«p. s^{_p- h cn 28\v bp.- F kv . {]kn- U ­v tPmÀÖv _pjv bp²w Ah-km-\n-¨-Xmbn {]Jym-]n¨p. G{]n 3\v sFIy-cm-jv{S-k-`-bpsS skIyqcnän Iu¬kn Hcp {]tabw ]mÊm¡n ({]-tabw \¼À 687), AXn bp²-¯n\v Hu]-Nm-cn-I-amb hncmaw Ipdn-¡p¶Xn\m-h-iy-amb hyh-Ø-IÄ hyà-am-¡n-bn-cp-¶p. B {]ta-b-a-\p-k-cn¨v _pjv {]Jym-]n-¨-Xmb shSn-\nÀ¯Â AwKo-I-cn-¨n-cn-¡p¶p, Nne A\p-a-Xn-IÄ FSp-¯p-I-f-bpw, AtX kabw Cdm¡v sFIy-cmjv{S k`-bpsS taÂt\m-«¯n AXnsâ Bbp-[-ti-J-c-§Ä \in-¸n-¡p-¶Xp-hsc Cdm-Jnsâ F® hym]m-c-¯n GÀs¸-Sp¯nb \ntcm-[\w XpScpw. G{]n 6\v CdmJv Cu 59

{]tabw AwKo-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xmbn k½-Xn-¨p. XpSÀ¶v G{]n 11\v skIyq-cnän Iu¬kn B {]tabw {]m_-ey-¯n h¶-Xmbn {]Jym-]n-¨p. ASp¯ Hcp Zim-_vZ-¡m-e¯v k±mw-lp-ssk³ {ItaW kam-[m\Icm-dnse hyh-Ø-IÄ ewLn-¡p-Ipbpw kJy-tk-\-bpsS thymam-{I-aWw hnfn¨p hcp-¯pIbpw sNbvXp. sFIy-cm-jv{S-k` GÀs¸-Sp-¯nb \ntcm-[-\-§Ä XpS-cp¶Xn\pw AXp hgnsh¨p. t]Àjy³ KÄ^v bp²-¯n 148 Ata-cn-¡³ ssk\n-IÀ sImÃ-s¸-Sp-Ibpw 457 t]À¡v ]cnt¡Â¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. aäp kJy-cm-jv{S-§Ä¡v Hm¸-td-j³ sUtkÀ«v tÌmw \S-¸m-¡p¶ kab¯v BsI 100 ssk\n-I-tcmfw \jvS-am-bn. CdmJn-\p-­mb \jvSs - ¯-¡p-dn¨v HutZym-Kn-Ia - mb IW¡p-I-sfm¶pw e`y-a-Ã, F¶m Ah-cpsS 25000 ssk\n-IÀ sImÃ-s¸-«p-sh¶pw 75000 t]À¡v apdnhp-IÄ ]än F¶pw IW-¡m-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p. Cu bp²w Ncn-{X-¯nse GI-]£ - o-ba - mb bp²-§f - n-sem-¶mbn Adn-b-s¸-Sp-¶p. t]Àjy³ KÄ^v bp²-¯nsâ ^eambn apdn-thä ac-W-a-S-ª-hcpw shÅhpw `£Whpw e`n-¡msX acn-¨-hcpw BXpcip{iq-j-IÄ e`n-¡msX acn-¨h - c - p-amb CdmJn km[m-cW - ¡ - m-cpsS F®w Hcp e£-¯n-e-[n-I-am-sW¶p IW-¡m-¡-s¸60

Sp-¶p. XpSÀ¶p-h¶ hÀj-§-fn sFIy-cmjv{Sk`bpsS D]-tcm-[w \ne-\n-¶X - n-\m 10 e£-¯n-e[ - nIw km[m-cW - ¡ - m-cmb Cdm-Jn-IÄ acn¨p F¶mWv IW¡m-¡-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. Ncn-{X-¯n-tebv¡v H¶p Xncnªp t\m¡p-¶Xv ck-I-c-am-bn-cn¡pw. k±mw lpssks\ Ipssh-än \n¶pw HmSn-¨p-I-f-bp-¶-Xn\v ]mÊm-¡nb sFIy-cmjv{Sm-k-`-bpsS {]ta-b-¯n\p ]n¶n djybpw ssN\bpw t]mepw Dd¨p \n¶p. Ipssh-äns\ tamNn¸n- ¡ p¶ bp²w Bcw- ` n- ¨ - t ¸mÄ C´y k±mw lpssksâ `mK-¯m-bn-cp-¶p. C´y-¡m-cn `qcn`mKw t]cpw bp²s¯ hne-bn-cp-¯n-bXv Ata-cn¡ F®-bpsS taepÅ B[n-]Xyw Øm]n-¡p-¶-Xn\mWv bp²w sNbvXXv F¶m-bn-cp-¶p. a²y-]qÀÆ-tZ-is¯ bp²-¯n Bbn-c-¡-W¡n\p Ata- c n- ¡ ³ ssk\n- I À sImÃ- s ¸- « p. bp²s¯ AXn-Po-hn¨ Bbn-c-¡-W-¡n\v ssk\nIÀ¡v sshIm-cn-Ihpw Btcm-Ky-]-c-hp-amb {]iv\§-fp-­m-bn-cp-¶p. bYmÀ°-¯n Ata-cn¡ AhcpsS {]K-Û-a-Xn-I-fmb ssk\n-I-cpsS Poh-s\-bà hen-b-Xmbn I­-Xv. F´p-sIm-­mWv 2016 se Xncsª- S p- ¸ n sUm\mÄUv {Sw]n\v C{X- b - [ nIw ]n³XpW e`n-¨Xv ? Cu bp²-§-fn \n¶v Ata-cn61

¡bv¡v t\«w H¶pw D­m-bn-«n-Ã. \½Ä Ah-cpsS F® ssIh-i-am-¡p-Ibpw bp²-¯n-\p-t]mb Hmtcm ssk\n-Is-- \bpw am\n¨v AhÀ¡v h³XpI {]Xn-^e-ambn sImSp-¡p-Ibpw sN¿-Wambn-cp-¶p. asämcp hnNn-{X-amb Imcyw Cu cmPy-§Ä Ata-cn-¡-tbmSv \µn-bp-Å-hÀ t]mep-aà F¶-Xm-Wv. Ata-cn-¡bnep­m-bn-cp-¶Xv aµ-_p-²n-I-fmb t\Xm-¡-·m-cmbn-cp¶p F¶v {Sw]v ]d-bp-t¼mÄ AXp icn-bm-bncp¶psh¶pw k½-Xn-t¡-­n-h-cp-¶p. AhÀ ho­phn-Nm-c-apÅ-hcm-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¦n AhÀ Bh-iy¯n\p ]Ww {]Xn-^-e-ambn hm§-W-am-bn-cp-¶p. cmjv{Sob {]Xyb imkv{X-¯n C´y-¡m-sc-Ãmhcpw Xt¶ Htc ho£-W-apÅhcm-Wv. C´y-¡mcmb {InkvXym-\n-Ifpw apÉo-§fpw lnµp-¡fpw FÃmw Cu Imcy-¯n sFIys¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p. 2003  kZmw lpssks\ `c-W-¯n \n¶p \o¡p-hm³ bp.-F-kv. Cdm-¡n-tebv¡v t]mb-t¸mÄ Hcp ss]¸-sse³ Øm]n-¨psh¶pw AhnsS \n¶p F® Duän-s¡m-­p-t]m-Im³ XpS§n F¶pw C´y¡m-cn ]ecpw Bt£-]n¨p tIÄ¡m-dp­v. C´ybpsS km¼-¯nIamb ]cm-[o-\-X-IÄ¡v Rm³ s\{lp-hn-s\bpw Cµn-cm-Km-Ôn-sbbpw tIm¬{KÊv ]mÀ«nsb-bp-amWv Ipäw ]d-bp-¶X - v. s\{lphpw Cµn62

cm-Km-Ônbpw temI-¯nse GXm­v FÃm ]cn-jvIrX-cm-Py-§fpw ktµ-in-¨n-cp-¶-h-cm-Wv. apX-em-fn¯ cmPy-§f - nse k¼Âk-ar-²nbpw tkmjy-enÌv cmPy§-fnse ITn\ Zmcn-{Zyhpw AhÀ t\cn«p I­p a\Ên-em-¡n-b-h-cm-Wv. \n§Ä C´y³ k¼Zvhyh-Øsb-¡p-dn¨v H¶p hni-I-e\w sNbvXm F´p-sIm­mWv s\{lp C´y-bn tkmjy-enkw sIm­ph-¶Xv F¶p a\-Ên-em-Ipw. s\{lphpw Cµn-cbpw C´y-bnse P\-lr-Z-b-§-fn Nnc-{]-XnjvT t\Snb t\Xm-¡f - m-bn-cp-¶p. Zcn-{Z-amb tkmjy-enÌv cmjv{S§-fn am{Xta Ah-cpsS P\-\m-b-I-·mÀ Bcm-[n¡- s ¸- S p- ¶ p- Å q. ]mÝm- X y- \ m- S p- I - f n Hcp {][m\a{´n-tbm {]kn-Ut­m Hcp \K-c-¯n kµÀi\w \S- ¯ p- I - b m- s W- ¦ n \n§Ä¡v AhnsS henb P\-k-aq-ls¯ H¶pw ImWm³ km[n-¡p-Ib - n-Ã. Nne Gjy³ cmPy-§-fn-se-t¸mse AhnsS hocm-cm-[\ CÃ. P\-§Ä Zcn-{Zcpw hnZymhn-lo-\c - p-ambn \ne-\n-¶m X\n¡v Ahcn \n¶p _lp-am-\hpw Bcm-[-\bpw e`n-¡p-sa¶pw Xsâ \ne `{Z-ambncn¡p-sa¶pw s\lvdp Adn-ªn-cp-¶p. F¶m C´ybv¡v Dbsc N{I-hm-f-¯n Hcp ]pXnb hmÀ¯ sXfn-ªp-Im-Wmw. C´y-bpsS {][m\-a{´n \tc-{µ-tamZn _nkn-\-Êp-I-fpsS amlmßyw 63

a\-Ên-em-¡nb bmYmÀ°y-t_m-[-apÅ Hcp t\Xmhm-Wv. At±-l-¯nsâ t\Xr-Xz-¯n C´y temI¯nse Gähpw ]ptcm-K-Xn-bmÀÖn¨ Hcp cmPyambnamdpw F¶p {]Xo-£n-¡mw.

KwKm-\-Zn-bnse Pe-a-en-\o-I-cWw KwKm\Zn C´y-bnse Gähpw {][m-\s - ¸« \ZnI-fn-sem-¶mWv, KwK-bn Ipfn-¨m `à-cmb lnµp¡Ä¡v Bßobip²n e`n¡pw F¶pw hniz-kn¡-s¸-Sp-¶p. F¶m Cu \Zn temI-¯nse Gähpw aen\amb \Zn-I-fn-sem-¶mbn amdn-bn-cn-¡p¶p. KwKm-\Zn C´y-bnse Gähpw henb \Zn-bmWv. C´y-bnse c­p ]pcm-X\ \K-c-§-fmb hmcWm-knbpw ]mäv\bpw Cu \Zo-Xo-c-¯mWv ØnXn sN¿p-¶-Xv. KwK-bnse Pew C´y-bnse ]Xn-s\m¶v kwØm-\-§-fn hkn-¡p¶ GXm­v 50 tImSn P\-§Ä¡v D]-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xmbn IW-¡m-¡-s¸-«n-cn¡p-¶p. CXv C´y-bnse BsI P\-kw-Jy-bpsS GXm­v 40% BsW¶v ImWmw. 2014-þ C´ybpsS ]qXnb {][m-\-a{´n KwKm ip²o-I-c-W-¯n\v Hcp ]²Xn Bhn-jvI-cn-¡p-I-bp-­m-bn. AkwJyw XpI¸-Wn-im-eI - f - pw, cmk-hkvXp \nÀ½mW ¹mâpI-fpw, XpWn-an-Ãp-I-fpw, hmäp-]p-c-I-fpw, Ad-hp-im-eIfpw, Bip-]-{Xn-Ifpw aäpw ]pd-´-Åp¶ Akw64

kvIrX amen-\y-§Ä Cu \Zn-bn-emWv \nt£-]n-¡s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. DÕh Ime-§-fn 7 tImSn-bn-e-[nIw `à-P-\-§Ä Nne BgvN-IÄ Xt¶ KwKm-Xo-c¯v Xma-kn¨v ]m]-tam-£-¯n-\mbn KwK-bn kv\m\w sN¿m-dp-­v. lnµp-¡Ä hniz-kn-¡p-¶Xv KwKm-Pew sXm«m AsÃ-¦n AXp IpSn-¨m X§Ä ip²cm-Ip-sa-¶m-Wv. 1990-þ\v tijw KwKm-\Z- n-bn \nt£]n-¡-s¸-Sp¶ KmÀlnI amen-\y-§-fpsS Afhv aq¶nc-«n-bn-e-[n-I-am-bn-«p-­v.

tIc-f-¯n ]¼m-\-Zn-bnse Pe aen-\oI-cWw kzman A¿-¸sâ t]cn {]Xn-jvTn-¡-s¸-«ncn¡p¶ i_-cn-ae t£{Xw ]¼m-\-Zn-bpsS Xoc¯mWv ØnXn-sN-¿p-¶X - v. ]¼m-\Z- n¡v temI-¯nse Gähpw henb XoÀ°mS\ tI{µ-amb i_-cn-a-etbm-SpÅ _Ôw ImcWw AXns\ Z£n-W-KwK F¶p-hn-fn-¡m-dp-­v. i_-cn-ae - b - n Hmtcm hÀjhpw A©p-tIm-Sn-bn-e-[nIw `àÀ kµÀi\w \S-¯m-dps­¶p IW-¡m-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p. alnjn F¶ ZpÀ`qXs¯ sIm¶-Xn-\p-tijw lnµp-tZ-h-\mb A¿-¸³ X]-Ên-cp-¶Xv i_-cn-a-e-bn-em-bn-cp¶p F¶-XmWv sFXn-lyw. A¿-¸³ hnjvWp-hn-sâbpw (l-cn), inh65

sâbpw (l-c) aI-\m-bn-cp-¶p. ]¼m-\-Zn-bn Ipfn¨m `à- c psS ]m]- § Ä CÃm- s X- b m- I p- s a¶v hnizkn¡-s¸-Sp-¶p. A¿-¸sâ t£{X-¯n-te¡v h\m-´À`m-K¯p IqsS ImÂ\-S-bmbn t]mIp-¶-Xn\p-ap-¼mbn C{]-Imcw ]¼-bn Ipfn¨v ip²n hcp¯n-bn-cn-¡W - -sa¶Xv \nÀ_-Ô-am-Wv. tIc-f-¯nse \Zn-I-fnse amen\y \nt£-]-§-sf-¡p-dn¨v [mcmfw ]T- \-§ Ä \S- ¶n- «p- ­v . A¯cw ]T- \-§ - fn skâÀ t^mÀ hm«À dntkm-gvkkv sUh-e-]vsaâ v Bâ v amt\-Pvaâ v (kn.-U-»yp.-BÀ.-Un.-Fw.) F¶ Øm]-\¯ - nse tUm. eXm ado\m hÀKokv \S-¯nb ]T\w hfsc {][m-\-s¸-«-Xm-Wv. B dnt¸mÀ«n Is­-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv ]«-W-§-fn \n¶pw amÀ¡äp-I-fn \n¶pw Bip-]-{Xn-I-fn \n¶pw ^mIvS-dnI-fn \n¶pw, Ad-hp-im-e-I-fn \n¶pw Hgp-¡n-hnSp¶ henb tXmXn-epÅ aen-\-P-e-hpw ]mgv hkvXp¡fpw ]¼m-\-Znbnse shÅs¯ A]-I-S-I-c-amb \ne-bn ane-\a - m-¡n-bn-«p-s­-¶m-Wv. \Zn-bnse Pew ]cn-tim-[n-¨t- ¸mÄ a\-Ên-em-bX - v, i_-cn-ae XoÀ°mS\ ka-b-§-fn e£-¡-W-¡n\v `àÀ \Zo-Xo-c§-fn h¶p hn{i-an-¡p¶ kabw B shÅw Ipfn¡p-hm³ t]mepw D]-tbm-Ky-aà F¶mWv. D]-cnXe shÅ-¯nsâ km¼nÄ ]cn-tim-[n-¨-t¸mÄ AXv 66

]qÀ®-ambpw a\p-jy, arK hnkÀÖy-§-fn \n¶p­m-Ip¶ tIm-fnt^mw _mIvSocnb (Fecal Caliform) \ndªv aen-\-am-b-Xm-sW¶v I­p. AXn Aenªp-tNÀ¶n-cn-¡p¶ HmIvkn-Psâ Afhv ]e Øe§-fnepw hfsc Xmgv¶ \ne-bn-em-sW¶pw I­p. \Zn HgpIn sNÃp¶ Xmgv¶ {]tZ-i-§-fn `mc-tadnb teml ]ZmÀ°-§Ä ASn-ªp-Iq-Sn-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xmbn dnt¸mÀ«n D­v. `qKÀ` Pe-¯nsâ km¼nfp-IÄ ]cn-tim-[n-¨X - n \n¶pw AXv BknUv kz`mh-ap-ÅXpw _mIvSo-cn-b-IÄ \ndªv aen-\-am-b-XmsW¶pw I­p. FÃm-bn-S¯pw ssPh-am-en-\y-§Ä D­m-bn-cp-¶p. `qKÀ`-Pe km¼n-fp-I-fn 70%hpw C þ tImfn _mIvSo-cnb \nd-ª-Xm-sW¶v a\-Ên-embn. ASn-ªp-Iq-Snb amen\y km¼n-fp-IÄ ]cn-tim[n-¨-Xn \n¶pw AXn henb tXmXn teml-amen-\y-§Ä I­¯n. (A-he - w_w : Z lnµp, 26.09.2011) a[y-tI-c-f-¯nse P\-§Ä IpSn-sh-Å-¯n\mbn {][m-\-ambpw B{i-bn-¡p-¶Xv ]¼m-\-Zn-sbbm-Wv. Cu \Zn C¶s¯ \ne-bn aen-\-s¸-«p-t]mbXv a\p-jy-cpsS tZmj-I-c-amb {]hÀ¯-\-§fpsS ^e-am-bn-«m-Wv. (Anthropogenic Activitities) AhÀ a\p-jycpsS hnkÀÖy-§Ä \Zn-bn-tebv¡v Hgn-¡n-I-f-ªt¸mgpw tlm«-ep- I-fn-sebpw aäp Øm]-\-§-fn67

sebpw Jc-am-en\y hkvXp-¡Ä \Zn-bn-tebv¡v Fdnªp-I-f-ª-t¸mgpw \Zn-bnse shÅw aen-\-s¸-SpI-bm-bn-cp-¶p. Pe-P-\y tcmK-§Ä¡v AXv Imc-Wam-Ip-I-bm-bn-cp-¶p. Cu hkvXp-X-IÄ a\-Ên-em-¡p-t¼mÄ tIc-f¯n C¶p-­m-bn-s¡m-­n-cn-¡p¶ hym[n-IÄ¡pw tcmK- § Ä¡pw kn.- s F.- F .tbm aäp _mly GP³kn-I-sftbm Ipä-s¸-Sp-¯n-sIm-­n-cn-¡p-¶-XnepÅ \ncÀ°-IX hmb-\-¡mÀ¡v t_m[y-am-Ipw.

C´y-bn \S¶ {_n«ojv `c-Whpw C´y-bnse {InkvXym-\n-Ifpw C´y-bn {]N-cn-¨n-«pÅ asämcp IÅ {]N-cW-amWv {_n«o-jp-ImÀ C´y-bn h¶Xv {InkvXp-aX-{]-N-c-WmÀ°-am-sW¶ hmZw. C´y³ Ncn-{X-Imc-·m-cn A{K-KW - y-\mb kÀZmÀ sI.-Fw. ]Wn-¡À At±-l-¯nsâ Fgp-¯p-I-fn ]d-ªn-cn-¡p-¶Xv {_n«o-jp-ImÀ C´y-bn h¶Xv Hcp ssI¿n tXm¡pw adp-ssI-¿n ss__n-fp-am-bn-«mWv F¶mWv. Cu hmZw Hcp Xc-¯nepw kXy-¯n\v \nc-¡p¶-X-Ã, AXns\ ]n³Xm-§p¶ Hcp \ymb-hp-an-Ã. {_n«o-jp-ImÀ C´y-bn Hä-s¸« sImSpw-{Iq-c-X-IÄ 68

\S-¯n-bn-«p-s­-¦nepw C´y-¡mÀ¡v shÅ-¡m-tcmSp-­m-bn-cp¶ ISp¯ hntcm[w \nan¯w C´y-¡mÀ AsXÃmw AXn-i-tbmàn]c-am-bn-«mWv hni-Zo-I-cn¨n-«p-Å-Xv. C´y- bnse anj-\-dn- am-c n hnJym-X-\mb hnÃyw tIdn C´y-bn h¶Xv anj-\dn {]hÀ¯-\§Ä¡m-bn-«m-Wv. C´y-bn anj-\dn {]hÀ¯\w \S-¯-cp-sX¶ {_n«ojv ]mÀe-saânsâ \ntcm-[\w ewLn- ¨ p- s Im- ­ mWv At±lw DÄ{]- t Z- i - § - fntebv ¡v \o§n U¨p- tIm- f-\n-I - fn Xma- kn¨p {]hÀ¯n-t¡­n h¶-Xv. {]kn² C´y³ Fgp¯p-Im-c\ - mb hnim am§m-hm-Snbpw aäp ]e C´y¡mcpw hnÃyw tIdnsb IW-¡m-¡n-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv ""B[p-\nI C´ybpsS ]nXmhv '' (“The Father of Modern India”) F¶m-Wv. At±lw B[p-\nI anj-\-dn-amcpsS ]nXm- h mbn Icp- X - s ¸- S p- ¶ p. At±lw ss__nÄ _wKmfn, kwkvIrXw XpS-§nb `mj-Ifn-tebv¡pw aäp Nne C´y³ `mj-I-fn-tebv¡pw {]mtZ-inI `mj-I-fn-tebv¡pw ]cn-`m-j-s¸-Sp-¯p-Ibp-­m-bn. hfsc hÀj-§Ä¡p-tijw {_n«ojv ]mÀe-saâ v C´y-bn GÀs¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp¶ anj\dn {]hÀ¯-\§ - -fpsS taep-­m-bn-cp¶ \ntcm-[\w \o¡n, F¦nepw AhÀ C´y-bnse anj-\dn {]hÀ¯69

\-§sf \ncp-Õm-l-s¸-Sp-¯p-I-bm-Wv sNbvX-Xv. C´y-bn `cWw \S-¯nb {_n«o-jp-ImÀ¡v c­v e£y-§Ä am{X-amWv D­m-bn-cp-¶-Xv. H¶m-as¯ e£yw hym]m- c - ¯ n- e qsS ]Ww D­m- ¡ pI F¶Xpw c­m-a-t¯Xv {]mtZ-inI kwkvImcs¯ hfÀ¯pI F¶-Xp-am-bn-cp-¶p. {_n«ojv Kh¬saâ v C´y-bnse c­p ]pcm-X\ \Kc kwkvIm-c-§sf Is­-¯p-¶-Xn\p klm-bn¨p. lmc-¸m-bn-sebpw taml³ PZm-tcm-bn-sebpw ]ucm-WnI \mK-co-I-XIsf, {InkvXp-aXw H¶mw \qäm­p apX Xs¶ C´y-bn \ne-hn-ep-­m-bn-cp¶p. AXn-\m {_n«ojp-Im-cmWv {InkvXp-a-Xs¯ Cd-¡p-aXn sNbvXXv F¶p- ] - d - ª m AXn hmkv X - h - a n- à . 350 hÀjs¯ {_n«ojv B[n-]X - y-¯n\v tijhpw C´ybnse {Inkv X ym- \ n- I - fpsS P\- k w- J ym- \ p- ] mXw tIhew 3% am{X-am-Wv. t]mÀ«p-Ko-kp-Im-cm-bn-cp¶p C´y-bn 250 hÀjw `cWw \S-¯n-bn-cp-¶-sX¶v Icp-Xp-I, \nÝ-b-ambpw {InkvXym-\n-I-fpsS hfÀ¨ 60 apX 70 hsc iX- am\w BIp-a m- b n- c p- ¶ p. {InkvXym-\n-I-fpsS `mK-¯p-\n¶v ho£n-¨m AhÀ CjvS-s¸-SpI {_n«o-jp-Im-tc-¡m-f-[nIw t]mÀ«p-Kokp-Imsc BIp-am-bn-cp¶p. t]mÀ«p-Ko-kp-ImÀ Xt±io- b - c mb BÄ¡msc \nÀ_- Ô - a mbn aX- ] - c n70

hÀ¯\w sN¿m³ {ian-¨n-«p-­v. AtX ka-bw, {_n«o-jp-ImÀ¡v aX-]-c-amb Imcy-§-fn XmÂ]cy-ap-­m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. AhÀ¡v ]Ww D­m-¡p-hm\pw {]mtZ-inI kwkvIm-c-§Ä hfÀ¯p-hm\pw am{Xta {i²-bp-­m-bn-cp-¶p-Åq.

hwi-l-Xy-bpsS \ntj[w `qan ]c-¶-Xm-sW¶ {]kvXm-h-\-bn F{Xam{Xw hnizm-ky-X-bpt­m AXn-t\-¡mÄ IqSnb hnizm- ky- X- s bm¶pw sblqZ Iq«- s ¡m- e - b psS \ntj- [ - ¯ n\pw CÃ. F¶n- c p- ¶ mepw \mkn tIm¬sk³t{S-j³ Iym¼p-I-fn sh¨v 60 e£w sblq-Z-·mÀ Iq«-s¡me sN¿-s¸«p F¶ hmÀ¯v kbWnÌv KqVm-tem-N-\-bpsS ^e-ambn krjvSn¡-s¸-«n-«pÅ Hcp h©-\-b-ÃmsX asäm-¶p-aà F¶v \njvIÀ¨v ]d-bp-¶-hÀ [mcm-f-ap-­v. A£-cm-`ymk-an-Ãm¯ s]mXp-P\w bYmÀ°-N-cn{Xw ad-¡pIbpw Cu ]p\x-kr-jvSn-¡-s¸« hymP Ncn{Xw hniznkn¨v t]mIp-Ibpw sNbvtX-¡mw. lnäveÀ a\p-jyk- a q- l - t ¯mSv sNbv X sImSpw- ] m- X - I ¯nsâ \ntj[w, sXfn-bn-¡-s¸-«n-«pÅ kXy-amb hkvXp-XI-fpsS \ntj[w Xs¶-bm-Wv. 1920-þsâ Bcw`w apX Xt¶ \mkn-IÄ¡p 71

Ahkcw e`n-¨m AhÀ Ah-cpsS `c-Wm-[n-Imc ]cn-[n-bn-epÅ sblqZ P\s¯ apgp-h³ XpS-¨p\o¡n If-bp-sa¶v AXnsâ t\Xr-Xz-Øm-\-¯p-ÅhÀ Adn-ªn-cp¶p. P\-§sf Iq«-s¡me sN¿p¶-Xn\v Hcp-¡nb HSp-hn-es¯ Iym¼-bn³ ]mc-¼cy tcmK-§Ä hln-¡p-¶-hsc \nÀºÔ hÔyw-I-c-W¯n\v hnt[-b-am-¡p¶ \S-]-Sn-bm-bn-cp-¶p. AXn-s\Xp-SÀ¶v Zbm-h[ \S-]Sn (Euthanasia Programme) \S-¸nem-¡n. AX-\p-kc - n¨v 1935-þ\pw 1941-þ\pw CS-bn 70000 hnI-emw-K-scbpw am\-kn-Im-kzm-Øy-apÅhsc-bpamWv Iq«-s¡me sNbvX-Xv. \mtSm-Sn-I-fmb Pn]vknIsf hwi-ip-²o-I-cWw \S-¯pI F¶ ]²-Xn-b\p-k-cn-¨m-bn-cp¶p Cu {Iqc-Xbpw \S-¸n-em-¡n-b-Xv. Npcp-§n-bXv 4 e£w t]sc-sb-¦nepw Cu D·q-e\ Iym¼n sh¨v Iq«p-s¡me sNbvXp. IqSp-X sblq-Z-·m-scbpw Pn]vkn-I-sfbpw AXn-\p-]p-dta Iq«-s¡me sN¿p-I-bp-­m-bn.

{]oW\w Cu {Iqc-Ir-Xy-§-fpsS bmYmÀ°yw Xncn-¨-dnbm³ Ign-bm-Xn-cp-¶-hsc {]oW-\-s¡-Wn-bnÂs¸Sp¯p-hm-\pÅ \o¡-§-fmWv ]n¶oSv \S-¶-Xv. henb {]oW-\-¡m-c-\m-bn-cp¶ ap³ {_n«ojv {][m-\-a{´n 72

s\hn tN¼Àsebv³ AtUmÂ^v lnäve-dp-ambn kam- [ m\w Øm]n- ¡ p- h m³ {ian- ¨ p. tN¼À sebv \ pw At±- l - ¯ nsâ ]n³Km- a n- b m- b n- c p¶ {_n«ojv {][m-\a - {´n hn³Ì¬ NÀ¨nepw X½n-epÅ sshcp-²yw, X§Ä¡v _n³em-Zs - \tbm At±-ls¯ t]mse-bpÅ aäp t\Xm-¡-·m-sctbm CW-¡n-sacp¡mw F¶v Ct¸mgpw hniz- kn- ¡ p¶ GsXmcmÄ¡pw Hcp ]T-\-hnjw Bbn-cn-¡p-¶p. lnäveÀ 1933 emWv PÀ½-\n-bpsS Nm³k-e-dmb-Xv. At±lw DS³Xs¶ FÃm {]Xn-]-£- t\-Xm¡-sfbpw hI hcp-¯n. hyàn kzmX{´yw \nb-ahn-cp-²a - m-¡n. kz´w cmPys¯ 5 hÀjs¯ IncmX `c-W-¯n\pw ASn-¨-aÀ¯-ep-IÄ¡pw tijw 1938þ \mkn PÀ½\n Hmkv{Sn-bsb ]nSn-¨-S¡n PÀ½\n-tbmSv tNÀ¯p. XpSÀ¶v sNt¡m-tÉm-hdysb B{I-an-¡p-hm³ ]²-Xn-bn-«p-sIm-­n-cn-¡p-I-bm-bn-cp¶p. Cu ka-b¯v sN¼Àsebv³ lnäve-dp-ambn kwkm- c n- ¡ p- h m³ ayqWn- ¡ n- t ebv ¡ v t]mbn- ; tN¼Àsebv³ Xncn-¨p-h-¶v, ""Ccp-S-cm-P-y-§-fp-tSbpw B{Klw At\-ym-\yw C\n Hcn-¡epw bp²-¯n GÀs¸-S-cp-sX-¶m-I-bm AXp am\n¨v PÀ½\n B {]tZ-i-§Ä ]nSn-¨-S¡n Ah-cpsS cmPy-t¯mSv Iq«nt¨À¡p-¶-Xn\v FXnÀt¡­-Xnà F¶v k½-Xn-¨73

Xmbn {]Jym-]n-¨p''. 10 UuWnwKv kv{Snänse {][m\- a - { ´n- b psS hk- Xn- b n \n¶v tN¼Àsebv ³ BImw-£-tbmsS Im¯n-cn-¡p¶ Xsâ cmjv{S¯nse P\-§-tfmSv C§s\ ]d-ªp. ""Fsâ {]nb kvt\ln-Xt- c, \½psS Ncn-{X-¯n c­m-a-Xmbn Hcp {_n«ojv {][m-\-a{´n PÀ½-\n-bn t]mbn«v XncnsI _lp-am-\-]qÀÆw kam-[m-\-hp-ambn h¶n-cn-¡p-¶p. \½psS \à bi-Ên\v kam-[m-\-amWv \ÃXv F¶p Rm³ hniz-kn-¡p¶p; ho«n-tebv¡v t]mIp-I, kam[m-\-ambn InS-¶p-d-§pI''. t{Käv {_n«sâ Zqc-¡m-gvN-bpÅ t\Xm-hm-bncp¶ hn³Ì¬ NÀ¨nÂ, {][m-\-a{´n tN¼Àsebv\nsâ Cu \ne-]m-Sn\v ]n¶nse A]-I-S-I-c-amb a­-¯cw Xncn-¨-dn-ªp. NÀ¨-bn C§-s\-bmWv ]d-ªXv. ""\mw bp²w sN¿msX Xs¶ Hcp ]cmPbw Gäp-hm-§n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. CXp-sIm­v FÃmw Ah-km-\n¨p F¶p Icp-X-cp-Xv. IW¡p Iq«-epIÄ Bcw-`n-¨n-t«-bp-Åq. CXv BZys¯ Hcp cpNnt\m-¡Â am{Xw. Ibv]p \nd¨ Hcp I¸n \n¶pÅ H¶m-as¯ ap³Iq-«n-bpÅ cpNn-t\m-¡Â am{Xw''. (Z \mkn bntb-gvkv, t]Pv 4). Ipd¨p hÀj-§Ä Ign-ª-t¸mÄ At±-l-¯nsâ {]h-N\w kXy-amsW¶p sXfn-ªp. tN¼À sebv\n\p ImWm³ Ign74

bmsX t]mbXv NÀ¨n-en\v F§-s\-bmWv ImWm³ km[n-¨Xv? lnäve-sd-¡p-dn¨pw \mkn PÀ½-\n-sb-¡pdn¨pw ChÀ c­p-t]À¡pw e`y-amb hnh-c§ - Ä H¶pX-s¶-bm-bn-cp-¶p. tN¼À sebv\n\pw NÀ¨n-en\pw a\p-jy-kz-`m-h-s¯-¡p-dn-¨p-­m-bn-cp¶ ho£-W-KXn-IÄ XnI¨pw hn`n- ¶-a m-b n-c p-¶ -Xp- sIm-­mWv A§s\ kw`-hn-¨-Xv. NÀ¨n-en\v ZpjvSX I­-t¸mÄ AXp Xncn-¨-dn-bp-hm³ Ign-ªp. B[p-\n-II - me Ata-cn-¡³ CS-Xp-]£ Nn´mK-Xn-¡mÀ s\hn tN¼À sebv\nsâ icn-bmb ]n³Km-an-I-fm-Wv. AhÀ Imcy-§Ä hnth-Nn-¨-dn-bphm³ {]m]vXnbn-Ãm¯ ip²-K-Xn-¡m-cm-Wv. tlmfnhpUv en_-de - p-IÄ, Pn½n ImÀ«À, B[p-\nI sUtam{Im-änIv t\Xm-¡-·mÀ XpS-§n-b-h-scÃmw X§-fpsS i{Xp-¡-fpsS ssII-fn AhÀ¡n-W-§p¶ ]mhIÄ am{Xw.

CS-Xp-]£ Nn´m-K-Xn-¡m-cpsS k¦oÀ® a\Êv \qäm-­p-If - mbn temI-s¯-Ãm-bn-S§ - f - n-ep-apÅ CS-Xp-]£ Nn´m-KX - n-¡m-cpsS Nn´m-[mc H¶pXs¶bm-Wv. F¶m \oXn-bp-àhpw ]£-]mX-c-ln-X-hpamb Hcp Ncn-{X-¯n\p am{Xta AXn-eS- § - b - n-cn-¡p¶ 75

kwi-b-I-c-hpw, k¦oÀ®-hp-amb Bi-b-¡p-g-¸§sf ad-\o¡n ]pd-¯p-sIm­p hcp-hm³ km[n¡p-I-bp-Åq. temI-N-cn-{X-¯nse Gähpw _p²n-am\m-bn-cp¶ tkmf-a³ Xsâ k`m-{]-kwKn F¶ ]pkvXIw 1:9  C§s\ ]d-ªn-cn-¡p¶p : ""D­mbn-cp-¶Xv D­m-Ip-hm-\p-ÅXpw sNbvXp-I-gn-ªXp sN¿p-hm-\p-ÅXpw BIp-¶p. kqcy\p Iogn ]pXpXmbn bmsXm¶pw CÃ.'' Zim-_vZ-§-fmbn bqtdm-¸n-sebpw Ata-cn-¡bn-sebpw CS-Xp-]£ Nn´m-K-Xn-¡mÀ {]oW\ \b§Ä {]tbm-Kn-¨p-sIm-­n-cn-¡p-¶p. {]oW\ \b¯n\v sImSp-t¡­n hcp-¶X - nsâ hne F´m-sW¶v \ap¡v Ncn-{X-¯n \n¶v hmbn-¨d- n-bm³ km[n-¡pw. temI-s¯-Ãm-bn-S-¯p-apÅ {]oW\ \b-¡mÀ¡v s]mXp-hmb Nne kz`mhhnti-j-§-fp-­v. AhÀ [mÀ½n-I-ambn Imcy-§Ä hnth-Nn-¨-dn-bp-hm³ Ignhp-Å-hcmbncn¡-bnÃ; tZmjs¯ Xncn-¨-dn-bp-hm³ X¡-h®w AhÀ Imcy-§sf hni--I-e\w sN¿p-¶h- c m- b n- c n- ¡ - b nÃ; AhÀ A{]m- t bm- K n- I - a mb bqt«m]y³ kaqls¯ kz]v\w ImWp-¶-h-cm-bn-cn¡pw. ]mÝmXy t\Xm-¡-·mÀ lnäve-dpsS IpÕnX \o¡-§sf Ipsd-¡qsS aps¼ Is­¯n AXn\v 76

aq¡p Ib-dn-«n-cp-¶p-sh-¦n temI-¯n ]e-bn-S§ - fn-embn kw`-hn¨ 100 Zi-e£w ac-W-§fpw Zpcn-X§fpw Hgn-hm-¡m-am-bn-cp-¶p. ]Ýn-a- bqtdm-¸n-sebpw Ata-cn-¡-bn-sebpw CS-Xp-]£ Nn´m-K-Xn-¡mÀ \ap¡v CkvemanI `oI-c-·m-cp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn¨v Ah-cpsS at\m-`m-h-¯n amäw hcp¯mw F¶p hniz-kn-¡p-¶h - c - m-Wv. CS-Xp-]£ - ¡ - mÀ hmZn-¡p-¶Xv ]mÝmXy \mSp-I-fn-epÅ \mw Ah-tc-¡mÄ sa¨s¸-«-h-cm-sW¶pw Ah-sc-t¸mse \mw _e-{]-tbmK¯n hnizkn¡p¶-h-cà F¶pw sXfn-bn-t¡-­Xp-s­-¶m-Wv. Hcp Znhkw cmhnse \n§Ä \n§fpsS ho«n \n¶v tPmen-¡mbn ]pd-t¯-bv¡n-d-§pt¼mÄ \n§-fpsS apä¯v Hcp ISp-hsb I­p F¶phn-Nm-cn-¡pI; \n§Ä Hcp CS-Xp-]£ Nn´m-K-Xn¡m-c-s\-t¸mse kl-\-iàn ImWn-¨p-sIm­v ISph-tbmSp N§m¯w IqSn a\p-jy-cmWv arK-§-sf¡mÄ \ÃXv F¶v sXfn-bn-¡p-hm³ {ian-¨p-sIm-­ncp-¶m \n§Ä F{X kabw Cu temI-¯n Poht\mSp IqsS Ccn¡pw F¶p k¦Â¸n-¡m-hp-¶-tXbp-ff - q. ZpjvSe - m-¡p-If - pÅ {]Xy-bi - m-kv{X-§t- fmSpw ZpjvSa - \ - p-jy-tcmSpw IqSn-bm-tem-N\ - \S-¯pI Akw`-hy-am-bn-cn-¡pw. DZm-l-c-W-am-bn, CkvemanI `oIcÀ hniz-kn-¡p-¶Xv Ah³ Hcp lnµp-hn-s\tbm 77

{InkvXym-\n-sb-tbm, sblqZs\tbm AsÃ-¦n Hcp ]mÝmXy \m«p-Im-cs - \tbm sIm¶m AhÀ¡v ]dpZo-k-bn 72 I\y-I-amsc e`n¡pw F¶m-Wv. Hcp CkvemanI `oI-c\v e`n-¡p-sa¶v AhÀ hniz-kn¡p¶ {][m\ {]Xn-^ew ]dp-Zo-k-bn ssewKnI kpJw F¶-Xm-Wv. C§-s\-bpÅ ZpjvS-a-\p-jy-cpambn IqSn-bm-tem-N\ \S-¯p-¶Xv hnth-Ic-ln-Xa - mb a­-¯-c-am-bn-cn-¡pw. F¶n-cp-¶mepw CS-Xp-]-£¡m-cp-sSbpw Gjy-¡m-cp-sSbpw B{^n-¡-¡m-cpsSbpw Nn´m-KXn A¯-c-¯n-ep-Å-Xm-Wv.

A²ymbw þ 2 Gjy-¡m-cp-sSbpw B{^n-¡-¡m-cp-sSbpw CSbn s]m-Xp-sh-bpÅ Nne A_-²-[m-c-W-IÄ kaqlw P\-§sf kzm[o-\n-¡ptam ? P\-§f - psS hnizmk coXn-IÄ, s]cp-amä kz`mh-§Ä, PohnXaqey-§Ä C§s\bpÅ FÃm taJe-If - nepw Zqc-hym-]I - a - mb kzm[o\w sNep-¯p-hm³ AhÀ DÄs¸«p \n¡p¶ kaq-l-¯n\p km[n¡pw. kaq-lhpw kwkvIm-chpw ]c-kv]cw Cg-]ncn-bphm³ Ign-bm¯ coXn-bn CW-§n-t¨À¶n-cn¡p-¶p. Cu kZrV _Ôw a\p-jysâ Iem, kwKo-X, cmjv{So-b, km¼-¯nI BVw-_c cwK§fnseÃmw Ah³ {]I-Sn-¸n-¡p¶ hyàn-]-c-amb 78

Xmev]-cy-§sf _m[n-¡p-¶p. Hcp kaql¯n\v Hcp hyàn- bn- t ebv ¡ p F¯n-t¨-cp-hm³ Ign-bp¶ [mcmfw D]m-[n-I-fp-­v. sSen- h n- j ³, CâÀs\- ä v , hÀ¯- a m- \ ¸- { X- § Ä, s^bvkv_p-¡v, kvIpfnse ]mTy-]-²-Xn-IÄ, ]ÅnIÄ, A¼-e-§Ä, kap-Zmbw apX-em-b-h-sbÃmw. P\-§Ä ]mc-¼cy hnizm-k-§-fmepw Npäp-]m-Sp-Ifmepw kzm[o-\n-¡-s¸-Sm-dp-­v. IpSpw-_-§Ä, {]tXy-In¨pw amXm-]n-Xm-¡Ä, Ip«n-I-fpsS kz`mh cq]-h-XvIc-- W¯n AXn-{]-[m-\hpw ASn-Øm-\-]c-hp-amb ]¦p-hl - n-¡p-¶p. B[p-\nI kaq-l¯ - nÂ, ap³Im-e-§-fn Ip«n-Isf IpSpw-_mw-K-§Ä \nb{´n-¨n-cp-¶-Xp-t]mse C¶p \nb{´n¡p-hm³ km[n¡p-¶n-Ã. hkv{X-[m-cW coXn-IÄ, Pohn-X-\n-e-hm-c§Ä, s]cp-am-ä-co-Xn-IÄ XpS-§nb hnj-b-§-fn Ip«n-IÄ amXm-]n-Xm-¡-fpsS \nÀt±-i-§sf Hcp ]cn[n-hsc AwKo-I-cn-t¡­n hcp-¶p-­v. temI-¯n-epÅ P\-§Ä s]mXpth A\p-IcW {`a--ap-Å-hcpw GsX-¦nepw Xc-¯n-epÅ KqVmtem-N\ - I - f - n hniz-kn-¡p-¶h - c - pamWv. P\-§Ä¡p s]mXp-sh-bpÅ asämcp kz`m-h-amWv kaq-l-¯n \ne-\n¡p¶ k{¼-Zm-b-§sf tNmZyw sN¿p-I F¶-Xv. Gjym, B{^n¡, emän³ Ata-cn¡ XpS79

§nb {]tZ-i§ - f - n-epÅ P\-§Ä¡v km¼-¯nIm`nhr²n {]m]n¨ ]mÝmXy cmPy§tfmSp s]mXpth Hcp \ntj[ ImgvN-¸m-SmWpÅ-Xv. AhÀ Ata-cn¡-bpsS A`n-hr-²n-bn Akq-bm-ep-¡-fmbn ImWs¸-Sp-¶p. ss__nÄ ]d-bp-¶p, a\p-jysâ lrZbw Aip²n \ndªXmbn-cn-¡p-¶p. Akqb lrZ-b-aen-\-X-bpsS Hcp e£-W-am-Wv. DZm-l-c-W-ambn bp.-F-kn\v a²y Gjy-bnse FÃm cmPy-§Ä¡pw IqSn-bpÅ 2 {SnÃy³ _mc F® tiJ-c-s¯-¡mÄ IqSp-X F® tiJ-c-aps­¶p ]d- ª m C´y- b n \n¶pÅ Hcp hyàn¡v B {]kvXm-h-\-tbmSp s]s«-¶p-­m-tb¡m-hp¶ {]Xn-I-c-W-sa-´m-bn-cn-¡p-sa-¶-dn-bmtam ? AbmÄ ]d-bpw, ""bp.-Fkv BZyw aäpÅ cmPy-§fnse F® D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-hm³ B{K-ln¡p¶p. B cmPy-§-fpsS F® e`yX XoÀ¶p-I-gn-bp-t¼mÄ Ata-cn-¡bv¡v Ah-cpsS kz´w F® D]-tbm-Kn¡p-hm³ km[n¡pw.'' C§s\ temI-¯nsâ F® e`y-Xsb tNmÀ¯n¡f-bp¶ Hcp h©\m]c-amb KqVm-tem-N\ bp.-Fkv \S-¯p-¶psh¶v AbmÄ shdptX Btcm- ] n- ¡ p- ¶ p. Ata- c n- ¡ - b psS cmjv{Sob hyh-Ø-I sf¡pdn¨pw F´p-sIm­v Ata-cn-¡bv¡v apgp-h³ F®bpw BZyw Xs¶ 80

kwkvIc - n-s¨-Sp¯p IqSm F¶-Xn-s\-¡p-dn¨pw Ah\v H¶pw Adn-ªp-IqSm. Gjy-¡mÀ s]mXpsh shÅ¡m-cs\ shdp-¡p-¶p. AXn-sâ-bÀ°w AhÀ Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡msc kvt\ln-¡p¶p F¶Ã. Ahcn `qcn-`mKw t]cpw Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡msc shdpt¸msS ho£n-¡p-¶-h-cm-Wv. Ata-cn-¡-bn F® \nt£]w Ds­¦nepw ]cn-ØnXnhmZn-I-fp-sSbpw CS-Xp-]-£-¡m-cp-sSbpw FXnÀ¸p-aqew Bh-iy-¯n\v F® Ipgn-s¨-Sp-¡phm³ km[n-¡p-¶nà F¶-XmWv bmYmÀ°yw. Cu Imcyw hyà-a m-¡p-hm³ Ata-c n-¡-bn \S¶ {]IrXn F®-bp¸m-Z\ hn¹-h-¯nsâ (Oil shale revolution) Hcp {lkz-N-cn{Xw Xmsg-sIm-Sp-¡p-¶p.

Ata-cn-¡-bnse {]-IrXn F® \nt£-]hpw PeaÀ±w D]-tbm-Kn¨p \nÝnX coXn-bn-epÅ Ipgn-s¨Sp- ¡  hn¹- h hpw (American Shale and hydranulic fracking Hevolution) `qan-¡-Sn-bn F®-bp-sSbpw Kymkn-sâbpw \nt£] Øm\-§-fn \n¶v Xnc-Ýo-\-amb coXnbn Ah Ipgn-s¨-Sp-¡p¶ coXn (horizontal oil and gas well drilling) F®-bp¸m-Z\ hym]mc cwK¯v CXphsc \S- ¸ n- e m- ¡ n- b n- « pÅ Gähpw hne- t b- dnb kmt¦XnI hnZy-I-fn-sem-¶mWv. CXv Ct¸mÄ IqSp81

X IqSp-X kzoIm-cy-am-bn-s¡-­n-cn-¡p¶Xpw hÀ²n-X-amb tXmXn F®bpw Kymkpw e`y-am¡p-hm³ Ign-bp-¶-Xp-am-b Hcp coXn-bm-Wv. ]c-¼cm-KX coXn-bn-epÅ F® J\\w Akm[y-am-bn-cn¡p-Itbm Dev]m-Z\ sNehv Xm§m-hp¶Xne-[n-I-ambn-cn-¡p-Itbm sN¿p¶ kml-N-cy-¯n Xnc-Ýo-\amb coXn-bn-epÅ F®-J-\\w ^e-{]-Z-ambn D]tbm-Kn-¡p-hm³ km[n-¡p-¶p. ]pcm-X\Imew apX IS-ensâ ASn-¯-«n h³tXm-Xn ASn-ªp-Iq-Snbn-cn-¡p¶ Akw-kvIrX {]IrXn Kymkpw AkwkvIrX F® \nt£-]hpw temI-¯nse Gähpw henb F® t{kmXÊv Bbn amdpw.

Pe-aÀ±w D]-tbm-Kn-¨pÅ J\\w (Hydraulic fracturing )

PeaÀ±w D]-tbm-Kn-¨pÅ F®-J\ - \w (hydraulic fracturing ) AsÃ-¦n sslt{Um{^m¡nwKv Asæn {^m¡nwKv F¶Xv F®-¡n-W-dp-I-fn \n¶pw F® tiJ-cn-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ Hcp kmt¦-XnI coXn-bmWv ( a well - slimulation technique ). AX-\p-kc - n¨v Pe-aÀ±-¯m k½À±w hcp-¯nb Hcp {ZmhIw D]tbm-Kn¨v ]md s]mSn¨v J\\w \S-¯p-¶p. hfsc DbÀ¶ aÀ±-apÅ Hcp {Zh ]ZmÀ°w (km-[m-c-W82

bmbn shÅ-¯n Xq¡n-bn-«n-cn-¡p¶ cmk-]Z- mÀ°§fpw aWepw IeÀ¶ an{in-Xw) Iqä³ ]md-bv¡Sn-b n \nt£-] n- ¡s¸«n-c n- ¡p¶ Akw-kvI rX F®bpsS \nt£-]-an-{in-X-¯n hnÅ-ep-­m-¡p¶-Xn-\mbn Ipgn-¨n-cn-¡p¶ InW-dn-tebv¡v iànbmbn I-S-¯n-hn-Sp-¶p. B InW-dn-eqsS {]IrXn hmX-Ihpw s]t{Sm-fn-bhpw D¸ps-h-Åhpw iànbmbn XS-Ê-an-ÃmsX Hgp-Ip-¶p. InW-dn \n¶pw Pe-aÀ±w \o¡w sN¿p-t¼mÄ Pe-aÀ± J\-\-¯n D]-tbm-Kn¨ klm-bI ]ZmÀ°-§f - psS sNdnb XcnIÄ (hydraulic fracturing prop pantsAXv aWtem Aeq-an\nbw HmIv s sktUm Bbn- c n- ¡ mw) ]md- b n krjvSn-¡-s¸-«n-«pÅ Bg-¯n-epÅ ]nfÀ¸p-IÄ Xpd¶p Xs¶--bn-cn-¡p-hm³ klm-bn-¡p-¶p. Pe-aÀ±w D]-tbm-Kn-¨pÅ J\-\-hnZy F®-¡nW-dp-If - n \n¶v sjbv Kymkv, ssSäv Kym-kv, ssSäv HmbnÂ, tImÄ knw Kymkv XpS-§n-bh J\\w sNbvsX-Sp-¡p-¶-Xn-\mbn D]-tbm-Kn-¡p¶ hnZy-bmWv. InW-dp-I-fn- \n¶v Hgp-¡nsâ Afhv Iq«p-¶Xn\v Cu aÀ±{]tbmK coXn-bmWv km[m-cW D]tbm-Kn-¡p-¶-Xv. Hcp ]co-£Ww F¶-\n-e-bn Pe-aÀ±w D]tbm-Kn-¨pÅ F®, Kymkv J\\w Bcw-`n-¨Xv 1947 83

emWv. 1949  AXp hnP-b-I-c-ambn D]-tbm-Kn¨p XpS-§n. 2012 Bb-t¸m-tg¡pw F® InW-dp-Ifnepw Kymkv InW- d p- I - f nepw temI- ¯ n- e msI C¯cw 2.5 Zi-e£w {]hÀ¯-\-§Ä \S-¯p-Ibp-­m-bn. bp.-F-kn am{Xw Hcp Zi-e-£-¯n-e[nIw J\-\-§Ä \S-¶p. en_-d-ep-Ifpw ]cn-ØnXnhmZn-Ifpw sjbv \yqtbmÀ¡v ]²-Xn-s¡-Xnsc ]-Ãpw \Jhpw D]-tbmKn¨v t]mcm-Sn-s¡m-­n-cn-¡p-¶p. ]e tÌäp-I-fnepw Pe-aÀ±w D]-tbm-Kn¨p ]md s]m«n-¨p-sIm-­pÅ F®-J-\\w \ntcm-[n-¨n-cn-¡p-I-bm-Wv.

Atacn¡³ CS-Xp-]-£-¡mÀ ]cnØnXn hmZn-IÄ 1970 IfpsS Bcw` hÀj§fn Hs]Iv cmPy§Ä (s]-t{Sm-fnbw Ib-äp-aXn sN¿p¶ cmPy§fpsS kwL-S-\-bmb OPEC)s]s«¶v F®-hne Ip¯-s\Iq-«n. X³\n-an¯w Ata-cn-¡bv¡v ISp¯ km¼¯n-I- {]Xn-k-Ônbpw CÔ\ {]Xn-k-Ônbpw A`nap-Jo-I-cn-t¡-­-Xmbn h¶p. AemkvIm ss]¸v sse\nsâ IY 1968 emWv Bcw-`n-¡p-¶Xv. A¶v Ata- c n¡³ F® I¼- \ n- b mb Aäv e mâ nIv dn¨v^oÂUv I¼\n (ARCO) hSt¡ Aem-kvI-bnse {]qt[m IS-en-Sp-¡n F®-\n-t£]w Is­-¯n-b84

Xmbn {]Jym-]n-¨p. ISp¯ F® {]Xn-kÔnbnembn-cp¶ Ata-cn¡ Cu {]Xn-kÔn adn-I-S-¡-¶-Xn\mbn Hcp {Sm³kv AemkvIm ss]¸v sse³ \nÀ½mW-¯n-s\-Xn-cmbn ]cn-ØnXn kwc-£W kwL-§fpw ssk²m-´n-Icpw cwK¯p hcn-Ibpw AXp kÀÆ-\miw hnX-bv¡p-sa¶v [mcmfw hmZ-K-Xn-IÄ DbÀ¯n-s¡m-­p-hc - n-Ibpw sNbvXp. XpSÀ¶v amXr`q-an-sbbpw `qtKmfs¯ Xs¶bpw c£n-¡p¶Xn\mbn, F® D]-tbmKw Ct¸mÄ Xs¶ \nÀ¯p-¶Xpw km¼-¯nI hfÀ¨-sb-¡p-dn¨v Nn´m-Ip-e-cm-Im-Xncn-¡p-¶-Xp-amWv \ÃXv F¶v AhÀ hmZn-¨p. ss]¸v sse³ Øm]n- ¡p- ¶ -Xns\Xncmbn DbÀ¯nb hmZ-KX - n-If - n- NneXv C§-s\-bm-bn-cp¶p 1. `qI¼w apX-emb {]Ir-Xn-t£m-`-§Ä ImcWw ss]¸v s]m«n F® XpSsc¯p-Ssc ]pd-t¯-bvs¡mgp-Ip-hm³ km[y-X-bp-­v. 2. Aem-kvI-bnse Xt±in-b-cmb P\-§-fpsS Poh\p `oj-Wn-bp-­m-Ipw. 3. ae-am³ (elk), t]mfmÀ Ic-Sn-IÄ, IS-am³ (moose) XpS-§nb Im«p arK-§-fp-sSbpw aÕy-¡p-«-¯nsâbpw hwi-\miw kw`-hn-¡pw. 1973  Ata-cn-¡³ tIm¬{KÊv {Sm³kv þ Aem-kvIm, ss]¸v sse³ \nbaw ]mÊm-¡n, {]knU­v \nIvk³ _n H¸n-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. C¶v 85

BtKm-f-Xm]w hcp¯ntb¡m-hp¶ \mi-s¯-¡pdn¨p Bi¦s¸-Sp-¯p-¶Xp t]mse Xs¶ AhÀ Aem-kvIb - nepw bp.-Fk - v.F - b - nepw kÀÆ-\miw kw`hn¡pw F¶v apd-hn-fn-bn-«p-sIm-­n-cp-¶p. ]cn-ØnXn kwL-§Ä A¶v Bi- ¦-bp- bÀ¯n-b Xv ss]¸v sse³ \o­p \o­p t]mIp-t¼mÄ acp`q {]tZ-i§Ä Fs¶-t¶-bv¡p-ambn XIÀ¶p t]mIpw F¶mbn-cp-¶p.

35 hÀj-§Ä¡p-tijw Cu ss]¸v sse\n-s\-¡p-dn¨p \ap¡p a\-Ên-em-Ip¶ bmYmÀ°yw. Hcp {]mhiyw F® IS-en-tebv¡v s]m«n HgpIp-I-bp­mbn. AXv ss]¸v sse³ s]m«nbn«m-bncp-¶n-Ã, t\sc adn¨v FIvkvtkm¬ hmÂUkv F®¡-¸-en \n¶m-bn-cp-¶p. (Exxon Valde Ship) aq¶v Zim- _ v Z - § Ä Ign- ªp, `qI¼w CXp- h - s cbpw ss]¸v s se- \ n tISp- h - c p- ¯ n- b n- « n- à . F® sIm­pt]mIp¶Xn\mbn Øm]n¨ ss]¸vsse³ dnIväÀ kvsIbn-en 8.5 hym]vXn-h-sc-bpÅ `qI-¼§sf sNdp- ¡ p- h m³ iàn- b p- Å - X m- b n- c p- ¶ p. ss]¸vsse³ ]cn-Øn-Xnsb tZmj-ambn _m[n¡pw F¶ Bt£-]s¯ icn-sh-¡p¶ Hcp kw`-hhpw 86

CXp-hsc D­m-bn-«n-Ã. kky-Pm-e-§Ä¡pw aÕy¡p-«-§Ä¡pw Im«p-ar-K-§Ä¡pw CXp-hsc Hcp tZmjhpw `hn-¨n-«nÃ. sdbn³Un-bÀ hÀ¤-¯nÂs¸« Ico_u am\p-IfpsS (caribou) F®w Aem-kvIbn hÀ²n-¡p-Ib - mWv sNbvX-Xv. ]cn-ØnXn hmZnIÄ ]d-ªn-cp-¶Xv B Pohn-hÀ¤w \in-¨p-t]m-Ipsa-¶m-bn-cp-¶p. AemkvIm Hcp k¼¶ kwØm\-ambn amdn. ss]¸v sse³ Aem-kvI-bnse Xt±io-b-cmb P\-§fpsS Pohn-X-\n-e-hm-cs¯ hfsc Db-cp-hm³ CS-bm-¡n. CS-Xp-]£ hn`m-K-§Ä \S-¯p¶ {]h-N-\§ - fnepw AhÀ¡v 98% sXämWp kw`hn-¡p-¶X - v F¶p ImWn-¡p-hm-\mWv Rm³ asämcp DZm-l-cWw IqSn ImWn-¨-Xv. A§s\ Xs¶ C¶v Ata-cn-¡³ CSXp-]£ - ¡ - mÀ bp.-Fk - n \n¶pw IqSp-X F® Ipgns¨-Sp-¡p-¶-Xn\v AXp-t]m-se-bpÅ XS-Ê-hmZw D¶bn-¨p-sIm­ncn-¡p-¶p. C´y-¡m-cn ]ecpw Nn´n¡p-¶Xp t]mse bp.-F-kn e`y-amb F®- ap-gph³ J\\w sNbvsX-Sp-¡p-hm³ {ian-¡m-Xn-cn-¡p-¶Xn\p ImcWw Hcp KqVm-tem-N-\b - -Ã. temI-¯nse

87

CX-cc - m-jv{S-§-fn \n¶pÅ F®bpsS e`yX Xocp¶-Xn\p th­n Im-¯n-cn-¡p-¶Xp sIm­Ã Atacn¡ Ah-fpsS kz´w F® tiJ-c-¯n \n¶p J\\w \S- ¯m- ¯ - Xv. apI- fn Ipdn¨ Ncn{X hkvXpX shfn-s¸-Sp-¯p-hm³ Rm³ X¿mdmbXv ISp¯ ]cn-ØnXn hmZn-I-fn \n¶pw CS-Xp]£¡mcn \n¶pw DbÀ¶p- h - c p¶ FXnÀ¸p ImcWamWv Ata-cnbv¡v kz´w cmPy¯p \nt£]-am-bn-«pÅ F® apgp-h-³ J-\\w sNbvsX-Sp-¡phm³ km[n-¡m-Xn-cn-¡p-¶-sX¶p sXfn-bn-¡p-¶Xn\mWv. GsX-¦nepw Hcp sI«p-IY tIÄ¡pt¼mÄ AXnsâ ASn-Øm-\¯ - n Hcp Xocp-am-\¯ - n-se-¯p¶-Xn\v ap¼mbn AXn-t\mSv _Ô-s¸« kXy-amb hkvXp-X-IÄ ]cn-tim-[n-¡p-hm\pw Nn´n-¡p-hm\pw \mw X¿m-dm-tI-­-Xp-­v.

A²ymbw þ4 ^vfmäv GÀ¯v skmsskän `qan ]c-¶-Xm-sW¶ kn²m´w Ignª Nne\qäm-­p-IÄ¡p ap¼p-hsc temI-¯n-e-t§m-fan-t§m-f-apÅ ]e kwkvIm-c-k-aq-l-§fpw apdpsI ]nSn-¨n-cp-¶p. ]qcm-X\ CuPn-]väp-Imcpw _m_ntem-\ycpw ssN\-¡m-cp-saÃmw Cu kn²m´¯n88

 hniz-kn¨n-cp¶hcm-Wv. `qan ]c-¶-Xm-sW¶ kn²m-´-a-\p-k-cn¨v \mw A[n-hm-kn-¡p-¶-Xmb Cu `qan Hcp tKmf-aÃ, t\sc adn¨v ]c¶ XIn-Sp-t]m-ebpÅXmbn-cn-¡p-¶p. F¶n-cp-¶mepw Cu `qan bYmÀ°-¯n Hcp tKmf-am-sW¶v _n.kn \memw \qäm­p apX Xt¶ X¯z-Nn-´-IÀ¡pw imkv{XÚ³amÀ¡pw Xncn-¨-dn-bp-hm³ Ign-ªn-cp-¶p. {Ko¡p X¯z-Nn-´I\mbn-cp¶ Acn-tÌm-«n-emWv Cu `qan Hcp tKmf-am-sW¶p hmZn¨n-cp-¶-h-cn HcmÄ. `qan ]c-¶-Xm-sW-¶pw, Aà Hcp tKmf-am-sW-¶papÅ hmZ-{]-Xn-hm-Z-§Ä ]e kwkvImc kaq-l-§fp-sSbpw CS-bn Nne \qäm-­p-IÄ Xt¶ DbÀ¶ptI-«n-cp-¶p. C¡m-e¯v NneÀ hniz-kn-¡p-¶Xv GItZiw _n.kn 4mw \qäm­v apX Pohn-¨n-cp¶ hnZymk-¼-¶-cm-bn-cp¶ P\-§-fn `qcn-`m-Khpw `qan Hcp tKmf-am-sW¶p a\-Ên-em-¡n-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶pw B Ime-L-«-§-fn `qan ]c-¶-Xm-sW¶ hnizm-k-amWv s]mXpsh D­m-bn-cp-¶Xv F¶ hmZ-KXn 19 mw \qäm­n DbÀ¶v h¶v Hcp sI«p-IY am{X-amsW¶p- a mWv Cw¥- ­ n B- Ø m- \ - a mbn«pÅ lntÌm-dn-¡Â Atkm-kn-tb-j³ DÄs¸sS ]ecpw C¶p hniz-kn-¡p-¶Xv sImf-¼kv `qan ]c¶-Xm-sW¶Ã Nn´n-¨n-cp-¶s - X¶pw adn-¨pÅ {]N-cWw sImf89

¼-kn-s\-¡p-dn¨v hmjnw-KvS¬ CÀhnwKv Fgp-Xnb ]pkvX-I-¯n-eqsS At±lw {]N-cn-¸n¨ Hcp sI«-IY-bpsS ASn-Øm-\-¯n cq]-s¸«p h¶ Hcp AhmkvX-h-amb Imcyw am{X-am-sW-¶p-am-Wv. `qan ]c-¶-Xm-sW¶ kn²m-´-¯n hniz-kn¡p¶ ]ecpw X§-fpsS kn²m´w icn-bm-sW¶p Øm]n-¡p-hm³ ss__n-fns\ Iq«p-]n-Sn-¡m-dp-­v. AhÀ X§- fpsS kn²m- ´- §Ä icn- bm-s W¶p Øm]n-¡p-hm³ Nne thZ-`m-K-§Ä D²-cn-¡p-Ibpw Nne `mK-§Ä A£-cmÀ°-¯n hymJym-\n-¡pIbpw sN¿p-¶p. AhÀ FÃm-hcpw Cu kn²m´s¯ ]n´m-§p-hm³ ss__n-fns\ B{i-bn-¡p¶- h- c-Ã, NneÀ ss__n-fns\ am{Xw Iq«p-]n-S n¡p¶hcp-a-Ã. ^vfmäv GÀ¯v skmssk-än-bpsS Øm]I\mb kmaq-th sj⬠`qan ]c¶XmsW-¶Xpw kw_-Ôn¨ Xsâ \nK-a-\-§Ä kmam\y _p²n-bp-sSbpw imkv{X-¯n-sâbpw shfn-¨-¯n sXfn-bn-¡p-hm³ Ign-bp¶Xm-sW¶p hniz-kn-¨n-cp¶p. ^vfmäv GÀ¯v skmsskän `qan ]c-¶-XmsW¶p hniz-kn-¡p¶ Gähpw B[p-\n-Ia - mb {Kq¸pI-fn H¶m-bn-cp¶p. CXv Ignª \qäm-­n \nehn-ep-­m-bn-cp¶ B[p-\nI ^vfmäv GÀ¯v kwL-S\-I-fn H¶m-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¦nepw 2001  AXnsâ 90

Ah- km- \s¯ {]kn- U­v ac- W - a - S - ª - t XmsS AXnsâ {]hÀ¯-\hpw \ne-¨p-t]m-bn. Cu kwLS-\-bpsS t]cv Ct¸mgpw D]-tbm-Kn-¡m-dp-s­-¦nepw ]pXnb kwL-S-\-bpsS XpSÀ¨-bm-bn-cn-¡p-¶n-Ã. `qan ]c-¶-Xm-sW¶ kn²m-´-¯n Dd¨p hniz-kn-¡p-¶-hÀ¡v Ah-cpsS kn²m-´-¯s¯ hnaÀin-¡p-¶-h-tcmSp Nne \ymb-§Ä ]d-bp-hm\p­v. ^vfmäv GÀ¯v skmssk-än-bpsS {]kn-U­m-bn-cp¶ NmÄkv tPm¬k¬ ]d-ªXv a\pjy³ N{µ-\n Cd§n F¶ Ah-Im-i-hm-Zhpw hymP-am-sW¶pw AXv tlmfn-hp-Unsâ Hcp skän sh¨p FgpXn X¿m-dm¡n A{`-]m-fn-bn ]IÀ¯nb Ir{Xna Zriy-§Ä am{X-am-sW-¶p-amWv. `qan ]c-¶Xm-sW¶p hniz-kn-¡p¶ ]e-scbpw kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw Kpcp-Xzm-IÀjW {]amWw F¶Xv bYmÀ°¯n CÃm¯ Hcp anYym-i-àn-bm-Wv. A´-co-£¯n \n¶p `mc-apÅ hkvXp-¡Ä kz`m-hn-I-ambpw `qanbnte¡p ]Xn-¡p¶p F¶ Acn-tÌm-«n-ensâ Nn´m-KX - n-sb NmÄkvtPm¬k¬ AwKo-Ic - n-¡p-¶p­v. `qan ]c-¶-Xm-sW¶ Bi-bs¯ ]n³ ]äp-¶hÀ ]e-t¸mgpw hnaÀin-¡-s¸-Sm-dp-­v, ]cn-l-kn-¡s¸-Sm-dp-ap­v. Cu t]cn \ne-hn-epÅ shºvsskäp- I -fn Nne-s XÃmw tIhew Bt£- ]- lmky 91

sskäp-I-fm-Wv. ss__n-fnsâ Fgp-¯p-ImÀ `qan ]c-¶-Xm-bncp-¶p-sh¶p hniz-kn-¡p-¶-h-cm-bn-cp-¶pthm? AÃ, Cu sXämb Bibw Xncp-sh-gp-¯nse D]-tZ-i-a-Ã. ss__n-fnsâ hnaÀi-I-cn NneÀ shfn--¸mSv 7: 1 Nq­n-¡m-Wn-¨n«v ss__nÄ `qan ]c-¶-XmWv F¶v ]Tn-¸n-¡p¶p F¶v Bt£-]n¡mdp-­v. AhnsS \mep ZqX-·mÀ "`qan-bpsS \mev tImWnepw' \n¡p¶Xp I­p F¶v ]d-ªn-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-\m `qan ]c¶- X m- s W¶ Bi- b - a mWv Ahn- s S- b p- Å Xv F¶XmWv Bt£-]w. hmkvX-h-¯n AhnsS kqNn¸n-¨n-cn-¡p-¶Xv kÀÆ-kzo-Im-cy-am-bn-cn-¡p¶ \mep Zn¡p-I-sf-bm-Wv. hS-¡v, sX¡v, Ing-¡v, ]Snªmdv C¯-c¯nep-Å ]Z-{]-tbm-K-§Ä a\p-jyÀ FÃm Ime¯pw D]-tbm-Kn-¡m-dp-­v. DZm-l-c-W-ambn, kqcy-\à `qan-bmWv {`aWw sNbvXp-sIm-­n-cn¡p-¶Xv F¶ bmYmÀ°yw a\-Ên sh¨p-sIm-­pXs¶ \mw Ft¸mgpw ]d-bm-dp-ÅXv kqcy³ DZn¡p-¶p, kqcy³ AkvX-an-¡p¶p F¶n-§-s\-bm-Wv. FÃm-Im-e¯pw sN¿m-dp-ÅX - p-t]mse "Zriy-hn-hc - W `mj-bmWv (‘Language of appearance) D]-tbm-Kn-¨Xv. A§-s\-bà sN¿p-¶-sX-¦n hmb-\-¡msc Adn-bn-¡p-hm³ Dt±-in-¡p¶ ktµiw hnI-e-ambn 92

t]mIp-Ibpw Hcp-]t- £, icnbmbn a\-Ên-em-¡p-hm³ Ign-bmsX t]mIp-Ibpw sNbvtX-¡mw. ]gb \nb-a¯nÂ, Ct¿m_v 26:7  `qansb \mkvXn-Xz-¯nt·Â AY-hm, iq\y-X-bn Xq¡p¶p F¶v hni-Zam-¡n-bn-«p-­v. ChnsS `qansb kmZr-iy-s¸-Sp-¯n-bXv ZrjvSn-tKm-N-c-am-bXpw tKmfm-Ir-Xn-bn-ep-Å-Xp-amb kqcy- t \mSpw N{µ- t \m- S p- a mWv F¶v hyàw. Ct¿m_v 26: 10 A£-cmÀ°-¯n C§s\ ]cn-`mj-s¸-Sp¯mw:" ]Iepw cmhpw Ah-km-\n-¡pw-hsc Ah³ shÅ-¯n-t·Â Hcp hr¯w hc-¨n-cn-¡p¶p'. sbi¿m 40: 21þ 22epw tKmfm-Ir-Xn-bn-epÅ Hcp `qan-sb-¡p-dn-¨mWv hnh-cn-¨n-«p-Å-Xv. " `qa-WvU-e-¯n·o- s X, ' (" upon the circle of earth’) ChnsS "aWvUew' (circle) F¶ ]Z-¯n\v kam-\-ambn ss__n-fn D]-tbm-Kn-¨n-«pÅ F{_mb ]Z-¯n\v (Nphv Kv Chuwg) "hr¯w' AsÃ- ¦n "tKmfw' F¶À°-ap-­v. "Hcp tKmf-amb Cu `qan þ hfsc Imew ap¼p-Xs¶ `qan¡v tPymXn-im-kv{X-hp-am-bpÅ _Ô-§Ä Xncn-¨-dn-ªn-cp-¶p. `qan-bn \n¶p t\m¡p-t¼mÄ \£-{X-§Ä 24 aWn-¡qÀsIm­v Cu `qan¡p Npäpw Hcp {]mhiyw Id-§p¶ Hcp tKmft¯mSp tNÀ¯p _Ôn-¨n-cp-¶-Xp-t]mse ImW-s¸«n-cp-¶p. Cu Zriyw Cut¿m-_nsâ ]pkvXI - ¯ - nsâ 93

Fgp-¯p-Im-csâ a\-Ên ZrV-ambn ]Xn-ªn-«p-ÅXm-bn-cp-¶p. A{_-lm-ansâ Ime-¯n\pw hfsc ap¼p Xs¶ Cu Imcyw a\p-jyÀ¡v Adn-hp-Å-Xmbn-cp-¶p. A§s\ Hcp Adn-hn-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¦n \£{X kaq-l-§Ä cq]-s¸-«-Xn-s\-¡p-dn¨v C{Xbpw \¶mbn hÀ®n- ¡ p- h m³ Ignbpambn- c p- ¶ n- à . F¶m BIm-i-tKm-f-§fpsS tKmfm-Ir-Xn-bn-epÅ Zriyw `qan¡pw A{]-Imcw tKmfm-IrXn Xs¶-bmsW¶v Xncn-¨-dn-bp-hm³ klm-b-I-am-bn-cp-¶p. AhsbÃmw Hcp Zn\-cm-{Xw-sIm­v \nÝnX {`a-W-]-Y¯n Id-§n-s¡m-­n-cn-¡p¶p F¶ bmYmÀ°yw XoÀ¨-bm-bn«pw hyà-am-¡n-¯c - p-¶Xv Ah tIhew `qan- t bmSv am{Xw _Ô- s ¸«p Id- § p- ¶ - h - b - à . AXnÂ\n¶pw \nÝnX Zqc-¯n kzbw Id-§ns¡m­v {`aWw sN¿p-¶h - b - m-sW-¶m-Wv. AXn-\m `qan Cu iq\ym-Im-i-¯n Xq§n-¡n-S-¡p-I-bmWv F¶ hN\w kXy-am-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. Ct¿m_v AXns\-¡p-dn¨v C§-s\-bmWv hÀ®n-¨n-cn-¡p-¶X - .v "D¯c Zn¡ns\ Ah³ iq\ym-Im-i-¯n-t·Â hncn-¡p¶p; `qansb \mkvXn-Xz-¯n-t·Â Xq¡p¶p' (C-t¿m_v 26:7CâÀ\m- j - W  Ìm³tUÀUv ss__nÄ F³ssk-t¢m-]o-Un-b) kZr-i-hm-Iy-§Ä 8: 27  "Ah³ Bg-¯nsâ D]-cn-`m-K¯p hr¯w hc-¨94

t¸mgpw' F¶p ImWp-¶X - n-\m Ahn-sSbpw `qan¡p tKmfm-Ir-Xn-bm-Wp-Å-sX¶ Bi-b-am-Wp-Å-Xv (\yq InwKv sPbnwkv ss__nÄ, \yq Ata- c n- ¡ ³ Ìm³tUÀUv ss__oÄ ) \mw kap{Z¯nsâ D]cn-X-e-¯n-eqsS Zqtcbv¡v t\m¡p-I-bm-sW-¦n A§-I-se-bmbn N{I-hmfw ImWp-¶Xv hr¯m-IrXn-bn-em-bn-cn-¡pw. Ct¿m_v 26:10  hr¯m-Ir-Xnbn ImW-s¸-Sp¶ Cu N{I-hm-f-s¯-¡p-dn-¨mWv hnh-cn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. kap-{Z-ko-aI - -fn ImW-s¸-Sp¶ Cu hr¯m-Ir-Xn-bmWv {Ko¡p-ImÀ `qan¡p tKmfmIr-Xn-bm-sW¶v \nK-a\ - ¯ - n-se-¯p-hm³ D]-tbm-Kn¨ Hcp sXfn-hv. F¶m {Ko¡p-ImÀ Cu kXyw Is­¯p-¶-Xn\pw F{Xtbm Imew apt¼ Ct¿m-_nsâ ]pkvX-I-¯n Cu Imcyw tcJ-¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p-­m-bncp-¶p. Cut¿m_v 26: 10  shfn¨w AkvX-an-¡p¶n-S¯v CcpÄ Bcw-`n-¡p¶p F¶ ]d-ªn-«p-­v. CXp kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶Xv tKmfm-Ir-Xn-bn-epÅ {Kl-¯nt·Â ]Iepw cmhpw amdn-amdn hcp¶p F¶m-Wv. Cu hnj-b-¯n-epÅ Gähpw ]pcm-X-\-amb tcJ F{_mb `mj-bn Fgp-X-s¸-«n-«pÅ Ct¿m-_nsâ ]pkvXI - a - m-Wv, Cu ]pkvXIw ss__n-fnse Gähpw BZyw Fgp-Xnb ]pkvX-I-§-fn-sem-¶m-Wv. `qan Dcp­-Xm-sW¶v BZy-ambn I­p-]n-Sn-¨Xv {Ko¡pImcm95

sW-¶Wv Ncn-{X-Im-c-·mÀ s]mXp-sh(-sX-äm-bn) ]dbm-dp-Å-Xv. {InkvXp-hn\v ap¼v 6þmw \qäm-­n ss]¯-tKm-dkv `qtKm-f-s¯-¡p-dn¨p ]d-ªncp¶p. Ae-Ivkm-{­n-bb - nse Fc-t¯m-kvsX-\nkv (D-t±iw _n.-kn. 276-þ194 AsÃ-¦n 192) `qan-bpsS hr¯-]cn[n "C¡m-es¯ IW-¡\ - p-k-cn¨v 50 ssaep-IÄ¡v DÅn-emWv' F¶p IW-¡m-¡n-bn-cp¶p (F³sskt¢m- ] o- U nb {_n«m- \ n¡ am{X- a Ã, {Ko¡p- I mÀ `qtKmfw hc-¨p-­m¡n AXn tcJmwi tcJ-Ifpw A£mw-it- c-JI - fpw tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp-¶p. AhÀ¡v D¯-c-þ-Z-£nW {[ph-§-sf-¡p-dn¨pw `qa-[y-tc-J-sbIp-dn¨pw D¯-cm-b\ þ Z£n-Wm-b\ taJ-e-I-sf-¡pdn¨pw Adn-hp-­m-bn-cp-¶p. `qan Hcp tKmf-am-sW¶ Cu Bi-b-K-Xn¡v A[nIw kzm[o\w D­m-bn-Ã, ImcWw tdmam-¡mÀ `qansb \o­p ]c¶ Hcp XInSp-t]m-sebpw AXn-\p-Npäpw kap-{Z-§Ä F¶ Bib-¯nepw hc¨v {]N-cn-¸n-¡p-I-bp-­mbn. \mw A[nh-kn-¡p¶ Cu `qan Hcp tKmf-am-sW-¶- \n-K-a-\¯n- se-¯ n- t¨-c p- hm³ ImcWw kap-{ Z- ¯n-e qsS k©-cn-¨p \½psS Zriy-]c - n-[n-bn \n¶-I¶p N{Ihm-f-¯n ad-bp¶ I¸-ep-Isf \nco-£n¨p a\-Ênem-¡nb ]mT-§fpw kqcy-N{µ {KlW ka-b-§fn `qan-bn ]Xn-bp¶ \ng-ep-I-sf-Ip-dn¨p ]Tn¨p 96

a\-Ên-em-¡nb ]mT-§fpw aäp-am-Wv. Cu Imcy-§sfÃmw ]pXnb \nba Fgp-¯p-ImÀ¡pw Adn-bm-ambn-cp¶p F¶v \ap¡v Dd-¸mbpw ]d-bm³ km[n¡pw. `qan Hcp tKmf-am-sW¶ bmYmÀ°yw {InÌ^À sImfw-_-kn\pw \¶mbn Adn-bm-am-bn-cp-¶p. eqt¡m-knsâ kphn-ti-j-¯n `qan Dcp-­-XmsW¶ kqN\ \ÂIp¶ ]Z-{]-tbm-K-§Ä ImWphm³ km[n-¡pw. eqt¡m 17 : 31 - 34  tbip Xsâ aS-§n-hc - -hn-s\-¡p-dn¨v ]d-ªn-cn-¡p¶ `mK-¯mWv Cu kqN-\-I-fp-Å-Xv. 17 : 31  tbip ]d-ªp, " B ]I-en ' ("A¶v' F¶mWv BSI ae-bmf ss__nfn ImWp-¶sX¦nepw " B ]I-enÂ' F¶À°w hcp¶ ‘In tht day’ F¶mWv Cw¥ojv ss__nfnÂ) XpSÀ¶v 34 þmw hmIy-¯n tbip ]dªp: " "B cm{Xn-bnÂ' Cu ]cmaÀiw `qtKm-f-¯nsâ Hcp `mK¯v shfn-¨-apÅ ]I-em-bn-cn-¡p-t¼mÄ adp`m-K¯v Ccp«v hym]n-¨n-cn-¡p-¶ cm{Xn Bbn-cn¡pw F¶ kXy-¯nsâ ASn-Øm-\-¯n-em-Wv. ssZhw BIm-is¯ hncn-¨n-cn-¡p¶p F¶ ]d-ªn-cn-¡p¶ 16 hmIy-§Ä thZ-]p-kvX-I-¯n-ep­v F¶p a\-Ênem-¡p-¶Xv IuXp-I-I-c-am-bn-cn-¡pw. BIm-i-§Ä AYhm Cu {]]©w AXn-io{Lw hnI-kn-¨p-sImt­-bn-cn-¡p¶p F¶v B[p-\nI ]T-\-§-fpsS ASn97

Øm-\-¯n \mw a\-Ên-em-¡p-t¼mÄ Cu Imcyw hyà-ambn ap³Iq«n tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p¶ ss__nÄ kXy-am-sW¶v \ap¡v Dd-¸n-¡m³ km[n¡p-¶p. "ss__nÄ imkv{X kw_-Ô-amb hnjb-§-sf-¡p-dn¨p ]d-ªn-cn-¡p¶ Imcy-§Ä apgph³ A§s\ Xs¶ kXy-am-bn-cn-¡p-¶p.'

`mKwþ2 ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmbw ASn-a¯w F¶p tIÄ¡p-t¼mÄ s]mXpsh FÃm-hcpw Nn´n-¡p-¶Xv Ata-cn-¡-bnse ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zm-b-s¯-¡p-dn-¨m-Wv. Ata-cn-¡-bnse ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zm-b-¯n Ac-t§-dnb {Iqc-X-Isf Nn{Xo-I-cn¡p¶ H«-t\Iw ]pkvX-I-§fpw Ne-¨n-{X-§fpw Atacn-¡-bn Cd-§n-bn-«p-­v. AeIvkv lmeo Fgp-Xnb ""dq«vkv'' F¶ Ne-¨n{Xw 1976 emWv ]pd-¯n-d-§n-b-Xv. AXv temI- { i- ² sb BIÀjn- ¡ p- I - b p- ­ m- b n. B kn\n-a-bpsS CXn-hr¯w Ata-cn-¡-bn-tebv¡v IS-¯ns¡m-­p-t]mb Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-cmb ASn-a-Isf ]nSn¡p-¶-Xpw, IS-¯n-s¡m-­p-t]m-Ip-¶-Xpw, ASn-a-thebnem-¡p-¶Xpw Ah-tcmSp ImWn-¡p¶ sImSpw-{Iqc-X-I-fp-am-Wv. Cu kn\na kaq-l-¯nse FÃm hn`mK-¡m-cp-sSbpw lrZ-b-§-fn henb Ne-\-§-fp-­m98

¡n. Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mÀ Gä-hpw {]tIm-]n-X-cm-Ip-Ibpw hn¹hw D­m-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp, shÅ-¡mÀ¡v X§Ä sNbvX-Xn Ipä-t_m[w D­m-bn. Ata-cn-¡b - nse ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmbw Ncn-{X-¯nep-S-\ofw kw`-hn-¨n-«pÅ ASna k{¼-Zm-b-¯nsâ Hcp sNdnb iX-am\w am{X-am-Wv. Ata-cn-¡-bn ASnaIÄ¡v ISp-¯ -bm-X-\-IÄ A\p-`-hn-t¡-­n-h-¶p-sh¦nepw Ata-cn-¡-bn P\n¨p hfÀ¶ Ah-cpsS ]n³Xe-ap-d-IÄ¡v henb t\«-§-fm-Wp-­m-bn-«p-Å-Xv. C¡me¯v Ata- c n- ¡ -b n- ep- ff Idp- ¯ -h À¤- ¡ mÀ temI¯nsâ CX-c`- m-K-§-fn-epÅ Idp-¯-hÀ¤m-¡m-tc-¡mÄ sa¨-s¸« \ne-hm-c-¯n-ep-f-f-h-cm-Wv, bp.-F-kv. P\-kwJy-bpsS 13% Idp-¯-hÀ¤-¯n s]«-h-cm-Wv. aäp cmPy-§-fn ASn-a-hÀ¤-¯n\v ]n³X-e-ap-dI-fn-ÃmsX t]mbn. ImcWw AhÀ k´m-\-§-fn-Ãm¯-h-cmbn \in-¨p-t]m-Ip-I-bm-Wp-­m-b-Xv. a²y-]qÀÆ tZi¯pw sXs¡ Ata-cn-¡-bn-ep-sam¶pw bp.-F-kv.F,.bnse t]mse Idp-¯-hÀ¤-¡m-cmb ]n³Km-an-Isf ImWp-hm-³ km[n-¡p-I-bn-Ã. Xmsg-s¡m-Sp-¯n-cn-¡p¶ hkvXp-X-IÄ ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zm-b-s¯-¡p-dn¨v IqSpX Adn-bp-hm³ klm-b-I-am-bn-cn-¡pw. Ncn{XmXoX-Imew apXÂXt¶ temI-¯nseÃmbn-S¯pw ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmbw \ne-\n-¶n-cp-¶p. B[p99

\nI kwkvIm-c-¯n\pw kzmX-{´y-¯n\pw t\sc-bpÅ Gähpw A]-IS- I - -ca - mb `ojWn Ckvemansâ DZ-bhpw apt¶-ä-hp-am-Wv. temI-P-\-§-fn `qcn-`m-Khpw Cu Akm- [ m- c W hocyhpw Ak- l n- j vWp- X bpw ]peÀ¯p¶ hnI-e-amb aX-kw-L-S-\-sb-¡p-dn¨v `mKnI-amb Imcy-§Ä am{Xta Adn-bp-¶p-Åq. 21-þmw \qäm­nse temI- h mÀ¯- I - f n Gähpw {][m- \ ambn«pÅXv Ckvemapw CX-c-temIP\-§fpw X½nepÅ kwL-«-\-§Ä F¶-Xmbncn-¡mw. FÃm-hcpw Ata-cn-¡-bnse ASn-a-¯-s¯-¡p-dn¨v kwkm-cn-¡pt¼mÄ a²y-]qÀÆ tZi-§-fnepw Gjy-bnepw B{^n¡-bnepw \S-¡p¶ Ckveman-I ASna hym]m-c-s¯¡p-dn¨v {i²n-¡msX t]mIp¶p F¶Xv AÛp-X-I-cam-bn-cn-¡p¶p. AävemânIv kap-{Z-¯n\-¸p-d-¯p-\n¶v Ata-cn-¡b - n-tebv¡v \S-¯nb ASn-ah - ym-]mcw tIhew 3 \qäm-­p-IÄ am{Xw \o­p-\n-¶-t¸mÄ Ad-_vtZis¯ ASn-a-hym-]mcw ]Xn-\mep \qäm-­p-IÄ (1400 hÀjw) \o­p-\n-¶p. CkvemanI temI-¯nsâ Nne `mK-§-fn C¶pw ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmbw \ne-\n¡p¶p-­v.

bYmÀ° hkvXp-XI - Ä CkvemanI ASn-a¯ hym]m-chpw Ata-cn-¡³ ASn-a¯ hym]m-chpw X½n Xmc-Xayw sN¿p-I-bm100

sW-¦n ck-I-c-amb Nne sshcp-²y-§Ä a\-Ên-em¡mw. Ata-cn¡ AävemânIv kap-{Z-¯n-eqsS I¸Â Ib-än-s¡m-­p-t]mb aq¶n c­p-t]À ]pcp-j-·m-cmbn-cp-¶-t¸mÄ CkvemanI ASn-a-¯ hym]m-c-¯n CXp t\sc Xncn-¨m-bn-cp-¶p. apÉo-§Ä ASn-a-I-fm¡nb aq¶n c­p-t]À kv{XnI-fm-bn-cp-¶p. Ata-cn¡ Aävemân-Ivk-ap-{Z-¯n-eqsS IS-¯nb ka-b¯v ASna-I-fpsS ac-W\ - n-c¡v 10% Bb-cp-¶t- ¸mÄ klmd-bv¡¸p-d-¯p-\n¶pw Ings¡ B{^n¡-bn \n¶pw apÉo§Ä ASn-a-Isf sIm­p-h-¶-t¸mÄ bm{Xm-k-a-b¯v acn¨ ASn-a-I-fpsS ac-W-\n-c¡v 80% \pw 90%\pw CSbn-em-bn-cp-¶p. Ata-cn¡ AävemânIv kap{Zw IS¯n-s¡m-­p-t]mb ASn-a-Isf Irjn sN¿p¶ thebn GÀs¸-Sp-¯n-b-t¸mÄ apÉo-§Ä a²-y-]qÀÆ tZit¯bv¡p IS-¯n-s¡m-­p-t]mb ASn-a-I-fn `q-cn-]£-t¯bpw ssewKnI Nqj-W-¯n-\mWv D]-tbm-Kn-¨Xv. AhÀ A´:-]p-c-§-fnepw ]«m-f-tI-{µ-§-fnepw sh¸m-«n-I-fm-bn-XoÀ¶p. Ata-cn-¡-bn-te-bv¡p-sIm-­pt]mb ASn-a-IÄ¡v AhnsS a¡-fp-­m-bn, Ah-cpsS e£-¡-Wn-¡n\p ]n³Km-an-IÄ C¶p-hsc Ata-cn-¡³

101

]uc- ·m- c mbn AhnsS Pohn- ¡ p- ¶ p. AtX- k - a bw CkvemanI cmjv{S-§f - n-tebv¡p ASn-a-I-fmbn sIm­pt]m-I-s¸-«-h-cpsS Xe-ap-d-IÄ hf-sc- Ip-d-¨p-am-{X-am-Wv, Nne-bn-S-§n Bcpw Xt¶-bn-Ã. bp.-F-kv.-F.-bn Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-cpsS P\-kw-Jy BsI P\-kw-J-ybpsS 14.6% amWv. Ata-cn¡ Hcp Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mcs\ cmjv{S-¯nsâ {]kn-Uâm-bn-t]mepw sXc-sªSp¯p, Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mÀ Ata-cn-¡-bn ]e D¶-XØm-\-§fpw hln-¨p-sIm­p tkh\w \S-¯p-¶p-­v. Ata-cn-¡-bn-tebv¡p IS-¯-s¸« ASn-a-I-fn `qcn-`mKw t]À¡pw hnhmlw Ign¨p IpSpw-_-ambn Pohn-¡p-hm³ Ign-ª-t¸mÄ a²-y-]qÀÆ-tZ-is¯ ASna-¨-´-I-fn-tebv¡p sIm­p-t]m-I-s¸« ]pcpj ASn-aI-fn `qcn-`mKw t]tcbpw jWvU-·m-cm¡n, Ah-cpsS ]pcp-j-·mÀ¡v ASn-a-kv{XoI-fn P\n¨ Ipª-sfsbÃmw sIm¶p-I-f-ªp, ImcWw ASn-a-kv{Xo-I-fn \n¶p P\n- ¡ p¶ Ipªp- § sf hfÀ¯p- h m³ AhÀ¡v Xmev]-c-y-an-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p. hÔyw Ic-W-kw-hn[m-\-§Ä hnImkw {]m]n-¡m-Xn-cp¶ B Ime-¯v, ASn-a-Isf jWvU-·m-cm-¡p-¶-Xn\v AhÀ D]-tbm-Kn¨n-cp¶ {]mIr-Xc - oXn F{X-am{Xw `oI-ca - m-bn-cp-¶n-cn¡mw F¶p Nn´n-¨p-t\m-¡p-I, ac-hn-¸n-¡m-\pÅ amÀ¤-§sfm¶pw CÃmsX Hcp I¯n D]-tbm-Kn¨v \njvI-cpWw 102

hrj-W-tO-Z\w \S-¯p-I-bm-bn-cp-¶p. C´-y-bn-tebpw B{^n-¡-bn-tebpw ASn-a-I-fp-ambn Xmc-X-ayw sN¿pt¼mÄ Ata-cn-¡³ ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmbw IqSp-X a\p-j-y-X-z-]-c-am-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶p ImWmw. AävemânIv kap{Zw IS¯n GI-tZiw 11 Zi-e£w ASn-a-Isf sI­p-t]mbn F¶p IW-¡m-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p. Ah-cn 95% t]scbpw sXs¡ Ata-cn-¡-bn-tebpw a²-y-A-tacn-¡-bn-tebpw t]mÀ¨p-Ko-kv, kv]m\njv, {^©v tImfn\-If - n-tebv¡v sIm­p-t]m-Ip-Ib - mWv sNbvXX - v. AXnÀ 5% t]sc am{Xta bpss\-äUv tÌävkn-te¡v sIm­pt]m-bp-Åq. F¶n-cp-¶mepw 28 Zi-e£w B{^n-¡³ P\-XIsf F¦nepw apÉo-§Ä ]mÀ¡p¶ a²-y-]qÀÆ tZit¯bv¡v ASn-a-I-fmbn sIm­p-t]m-bn-cp-¶p. apÉow ASn-a-h-ym-]-c-§-fn GÀs¸-«n-cp-¶-hÀ ASna-I-fmbn ]nSn¨p sIm­p-t]mb Ch-cn 80% t]cpw ASn-a-¨-´I-fn F¯p-¶-Xn\pw, ap¼mbn acn-¨p-t]m-b-Xmbn ImW-¡m-¡-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p. 14 \qäm-­p-I-fmbn B{^n¡-bn \n¶pw apÉo-§Ä \S-¯nb ASn-a-h-ym-]m-c¯n-\nsS acn-¨p-t]mb ASn-a-I-fpsS F®w 112 Zi-e£-t¯mfw F¯p-sa-¶mWv hni-zk - n-¡s - ¸-Sp-¶X - v. CXn\p-]p-dsa Poh-t\msS ASn-a-¨-´-I-fn hn¡-s¸« ASn-a-I-fpsS F®w IqsS Iq«p-t¼mÄ B{^n-¡-bn 103

\n¶pw klm-dm-a-cp-`q-an- I-S-¯nbpw Iog-¡³ B{^n¡-bn \n¶p IS-¯nbpw sIm­p-h¶ BsI ASn-aI-fpsS F®w 140 Zi-e£w Ihnbpw F¶p IW-¡m¡p-¶p.

\thm-°m\w {Inkv X ob \hoI- c - W - I À¯m- ¡ Ä bqtdm- ¸ nepw hSs¡ Ata-cn-¡-bnepw ASn-a-h-y-]m-c-k-{¼-Zm-b-¯ns\-Xn-cmbn i_vZ-ap-bÀ¯p-I-bp-­m-bn. 19-þmw \qäm­n BZn-tbm-S´w t{Käv{_n-«¬ Ah-fpsS \mhn-Itk-\sb ASn-a-h-ym-]mcw \S-¯p¶ I¸-ep-Isf XSbp-hm\pw ASn-a-Isf kz-X-{´-cm¡n hn«-b-¸m\pw DÅ ZuX-y-¯n-\mbn Hcp¡n \nÀ¯n-bn-cp-¶p. apÉowaX¯n\p Hcn-¡epw Hcp \ho-I-cWw D­m-bn-«n-Ã. 1807  t{Käv {_n«¬ ASn-ah - -ym-]m-cs¯ \nb-a-hn-cp-²-ambn {]Jym-]n-¨p. 1815  bqtdm-¸n ASn-a-hy- m-]mcw \nÀ¯em-¡n. AtX-k-abw apÉow ASn-a-¡-¨-S-¡mÀ asämcp 2 Zi-e£w B{^n-¡-¡msc IpsS ho­pw ASn-a-I-fm¡n. 14 \qäm-­p-I-fn-embn \S¶ CkvemanI ASn-a-hym-]m-c-¯n BsI 180 Zi-e-£-¯n-e-[nIw ASn-a-IÄ DÄs¸-«n-«p-s­-¶mWv asämcp IW¡p kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶Xv. GI-tZiw 100 hÀjw Ign-ª-t¸mÄ {]kn-Uâ v A{_lmw en¦¬, Ata-cn-¡-bnse ASn-a-Isf ASn-a104

¯-¯n \n¶pw tamNn-¸n-¨-Xmbn hnfw-_cw sNbvXp (Emancipation Proclammation). 130 hÀj-§Ä Ign-ªt- ¸mÄ {_n«ojv ]mÀen-sa-â v Hcp XoÀ¸n-eqsS {_n«ojv km{amP-y-¯n³Io-gn-epÅ kIe ASn-Itfbpw kz-X-{´-cm¡n. A´ÀtZ- i ob k½À±- § - f psS ^e- a mbn 1962  kuZnbpw sba\pw 1980  audn-¯m-\n-bbpw \nb-a-]c-ambn ASn-a-¯-h-y-h-Øbv¡p \o¡w hcp-¯n. C¶v CÉm-anIcmP-y-§-fn A\u-tZ-ym-Kn-I-amb ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmbw \ne-\n-ev¡p-¶p-­v.

ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zm-b-¯nsâ DÛhw A]-cn-jvIrX PmXnIfn \n¶v [Pagan origin of slavery]

{Inkv Xp- a mÀ¤w BhnÀ`-h n-¡ p-¶ -Xn\p ap¼pXs¶ ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmbw \ne-\n-¶n-cp-¶p. BZna {InkvXy- m-\n-If - n [mcmfw t]À tdmam-km-{am-Py- ¯ - nsâ Iogn ASn-a-I-fm-bn-cp-¶p. {IkvX-ym-\n-IÄ¡p ap¼p­m-bn-cp¶ temIw ASn-a¯ - k - {- ¼-Zm-bs¯ Hcp km[mcW hy-h-Ø-nXnbmbn am{Xw ImWp-Ibpw AXp kaql-¯n Bh-i-y-apÅ Hcp Imc-y-ambn Icp-Xp-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-¶p. GsXmcp am\-h-kw-kvIm-c-t¯mSpw _Ô-s¸« GsXmcp kvamcI aµn-c-§fpw ASn-a-IfpsS ITn\ {]b-Xv\-¯n-emWv DbÀ¶p-h-¶n-«p-Å-Xv. ASn-a-I-fn `qcn-`mKw t]cpw shÅ-¡m-cm-bn-cp-¶p, 105

AsÃ-¦n bqtdm-]-y-cm-bn-cp-¶p. hmkvX-h-¯n ASna-Isf Ipdn-¡p¶ "tÉhv'(slave) F¶ ]Zw Ing-¡³ bqtdm-¸nse Hcp P\-hn-`m-K-am-bn-cp¶ "Émhp-I-'tfmSv ( slavs) _Ô- s ¸«p h¶n- « p- Å - X m- W v . kv I v f m- h pkv (sclavus) F¶ kam-\mb emän³]Zw BZ-y-Im-e-§fn kqNn-¸n-¨n-cp-¶Xv Ing-¡³ bqtdm-¸n-tebpw a²y-bq-tdm-¸n-tebpw P\-hn-`m-Ka - mb Émhp-Is - f-bm-bn-cp-¶p. Cu P\- § sf ]nSn¨v tImgn- I sf F¶ t]mse hnev¡pI ]Xn-hm-bn-cp-¶p. sFdn-jp-Im-cpsS CS-bn {]hÀ¯n¨ Cw¥ojp anj-\-dn-bm-bn-cp¶ skâ v ]m{Sn¡v Hcn-¡Â Hcp ASna-bm-bn-cp-¶p. At±-ls¯ kz´w ho«n \n¶p k½X-an-ÃmsX _e-ambn ]nSn¨v AbÀe-­n-tebv¡v sIm­pt]m-Ip-I-bm-bn-cp-¶p. tdma³ \nb-a-{]-Imcw GsX¦nepw ASn- a - I - f psS bP- a m- \ ³ sImÃ- s ¸- « - X mbn I­m Abm-fpsS ASn-a-Isf apgp-h³ sIme sN¿W-am-bn-cp-¶p. Hcp kw`hw C§-s\-bm-Wv: Hcn-¡Â ""s]Um- \ n- b kv sk¡p- ´ mkv F¶ bP- a m- \ ³ sImesN-¿-s¸-«-t¸mÄ Abm-fpsS 400 ASn-a-I-sfbpw sImÃp-I-bp-­m-bn.'' tbip-{InkvXp Cu temI-¯n PmX-\m-Ip-¶Xn\p ap¼v FÃm a\p-jycpw Imbn-I-amb A²-zm-\s¯ \nµ-y-amb Hcp {]hr-¯n-bm-bn-«mWv IW-¡m-¡n-bn-cp106

¶-Xv, AXv ASn-a-I-fpsS {]hr-¯n-bm-bn-«mWv KWn-¨ncp-¶-Xv. {InkvXp P\n-¨-t¸mÄ tdma³ km{am-P-y-¯nep-­m-bn-cp¶ P\-kw-J-y-bn ]Ip-Xnbpw ASn-a-I-fmbn- c p- ¶ p. A¡m- e ¯v BX³knse P\- § - f n \men aq¶p-`m-Khpw ASn-a-I-fm-bn-cp-¶p. ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmbw B{^n-¡³ cmP-y-§-fn \n¶pw Ad_n cmP-y-§-fn \n¶pw bqtdm-¸n-tebv¡p {]th-in-¡p-¶-Xn-\p-ap¼v AXv Ahn-S-§-fnse \m«p-coXn-bm-bn-cp-¶p. sImf-¼kv ]pXn-btem-I¯ - nsâ a®n Imep-Ip-¯-p-¶Xn\p hfscImew ap¼p-Xs¶ Atacn-¡³ C´-y-¡m-cmb tKm{X-hÀ¤-¡m-cpsS CS-bn ASn-a-the hfsc hym-]-I-ambn \ne\n-¶n-cp-¶p. 19þmw \qäm-­nse Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-cmb Ata-cn-¡-¡mcn At\-IÀ¡pw kz-´-ambn ASn-a-I-fp-­m-bn-cp¶p F¶ bmYmÀ°yw \mw ]e-t¸mgpw ad-¶p-t]m-Ip-¶p, AXp \mw ]Tn-¸n-¡m-dp-an-Ã. DZm-l-c-W-ambn ]dªmÂ, 1830 se bpss\-äUv tÌävknse P\kwJymI-W-s¡-Sp¸v {]Imcw ku¯v Imtcm-en-\m-bnse Hcp ]«-W-am-bn-cp¶ NmÄÌ-Wn am{Xw 407 Idp¯hÀ¤¡m-cmb Ata-cn-¡-¡mÀ¡v kz-´-ambn ASn-a-I-fp-­mbn-cp-¶p.

{InkvXp-amÀ¤w ASn-a-Isf kz-X-{´-cm¡n tbip Hcp X¨³ F¶ \ne-bn tImSm-enbpw CuÀ¨107

hmfpw Npän- I bpw Dfnbpw ssIbn- t e- ´ n- s ¡m­v sXmgn cwK¯v hn¹-h-I-c-amb ]cn-hÀ¯-\-§Ä hcp¯n. At±lw sXmgnÂsN-bvXp-sIm­v sXmgn-en-\v Hcp ]pXnb am\w \evIn. {InkvXp-amÀ¤w thebv¡p am\yX \evIn-sIm­v ASn-a¯ - -¯nsâ thc-dp-¯p-If - -ªp. thebv¡v Bh-i-y-amb \ho-I-cWw hcp-¯n-s¡m­v {InkvXp-amÀ¤w kmaq-l-y-h-y-h-Ø-bn apgp-h³ ]cnhÀ¯\w hcp¯n. IÀ¯m-hmb tbip-{InkvXp \ktd-¯n Xsâ ip{iqj Bcw-`n-¨Xv C§s\ Hcp AÀ°-]qÀ®-amb hnfw-_-c-t¯mSp IqSn-bmbncp¶p. (eq-s¡m.-4:18): ""Zcn-{Z-·m-tcmSp kphntijw Adn-bn-¸m³ IÀ¯mhv Fs¶ A`n-tjIw sNbvI-bm Ahsâ Bßmhv Fsâ ta D­v: lrZbw XIÀ¶-hsc apdnhp-sI-«p-hm\pw _²-·mÀ¡v hnSp-Xepw Icp-S-·mÀ¡p ImgvNbpw {]kw-Kn-¸m\pw ]oVn-X-·msc hnSp-hn-¨-b¸m\pw IÀ¯m-hnsâ {]km-Z-hÀjw {]kw-Kn-¸m\pw Fs¶ Ab-¨n-cn¡p-¶p. '' At¸m-kvXe - -\mb ]utemkv ^nse-tam\p teJ\w Fgp-Xn-b-t¸mÄ Ahsâ ASn-abm-bn-cns¡ Ahs\ hn«v HmSn-t¸mb ASn-a-bmb Ht\kn-tam-kns\ XncnsI kzn-I-cn-¡p-hm³ Bh-i-y-s¸-«p. ""Ah³ C\n Zmk-\-Ã, Zmk\p aosX (IÀ¯m-hnÂ){]nb ktlm-Z-c³ Xt¶ (^n-se-sam³-þ16) apI-fn D²-cn-¨Xpw AXn\p ]pd-ta-bp-Å-Xp108

amb [mcmfw Xncp-sh-gp¯p Iev]-\-IÄ \½psS Abev¡m-cs\ kvt\ln-¡-W-sa-¶pw, Hcp \à ia-c-y-¡m-c\m-bn-cp¶psIm­v aäp-Åh - À \n§Ä¡v F´p-sN-bvXpX- t cW- s a¶v \n§Ä B{K- l n- ¡ p- ¶ pthm AXv AhÀ¡v sNbvXp sImSp-¡-W-sa¶pw {InkvX-ym-\n-ItfmSv Bl-zm\w sNbvXn-cn-¡p-¶p. AXp inckm hln¨p-sIm-­mWv hnÃyw hnÂ_À t^mgvkv, tPm¬ \yq«³, hnÃywtIdn, tUhnUv enhn- Mv Ì ¬, temÀUv jm^vä vkv -_- dn, P\.-N mÄkv tKmÀU³, A{_lmw en¦¬ XpS§n At\I {InkvX-ym\n-IÄ ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmbw \nÀ¯-em-¡p-¶-Xn\pw _me-the CÃm-Xm¡p- ¶ - Xn\pw hn{i- a - s a- t \y {]hÀ¯n- ¨ - Xv . {InkXobk` {]hÀ¯\w Bcw-`n¨ \mfp-IÄ apX Xt¶ {InkvX-ym-\n-IÄ X§-fpsS ASn-a-Isf kz-X-{´-cm-¡n. c­pw aq¶pw \qäm-­p-I-fn {InkvXp-hns\ kzoI-cn¨p am\-km-´-c-s¸« {InkvX-ym-\n-IÄ Bbn-c-¡-W¡n\p ASn-a-Isf kz-X-{´-cmbn hn«p.-skâ v aem-\nb 8000 ASn-a-Isf kz-X-{´-cm¡n, skâ v Hhn-Un-bkv 5000 ASn-a-Isf hn«-b-¨p, s{Imam-j-ykv 1400 ASn-IÄ¡p kzm-X-{´yw \ÂIn, slÀaokv 1200 ASn-a-I-sf-bmWv hn«-b-¨-Xv. skâ v AK-Ìn\p Iogn lnt¸m-bn-ep­m-bn-cp¶ [mcmfw ]ptcm-ln-X-·mÀ ""`àn-Po-hn-X¯nsâ `mK-ambn X§-fpsS ASn-a-Isf kz-X-{´-cmbn 109

hn«-b-¨p.''F.Un 315  tIm¬Ì³ssä³ N{I-hÀ¯n ASn-a-I-fmbn hfÀ¯n-s¡m-­p-h-cnI F¶ Dt±-i-yt¯m-Sp-IqSn Ip«n-Isf tamjvSn-¡p-¶-hÀ¡v ac-Win£ Iev]n-¨n-cp-¶p. CXv At±lw {InkvXp-amÀ¤s¯ HutZym-Kn-I-a-X-ambn {]J-ym-]n¨ anem³ hnfw-_-c-¯n\p c­p hÀj-§Ä¡p tij-am-bn-cp-¶p. skâ v AKÌo³ (F.-Un.354-þ430) ASn-a-k-{¼Zm-bs¯ I­Xv ]m]-¯nsâ Dev]¶w F¶ \nebnepw ssZh-¯nsâ ]²-Xn¡p hncp²w F¶ \nbnep-am-bn-cp-¶p. (saw slavery as the product of sin and as contrary to God’s Divine plan-"The city of God'' ) 4þmw \qäm-­n Pohn- ¨ n- c p¶ skâ v {IntkmÌw ]Tn- ¸ n- ¨ n- c p- ¶ Xv {InkvXp-h-¶-t¸mÄ Ah³ ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zm-bs¯ CÃmbva sNbvXn-cp-¶p-sh-¶mWv {IntkmÌw C§s\ {]J-ym-]n-¨p. : ""{IkvXp-tb-ip-hn Bcpw ASn-a-I-fÃ, AXn-\m Hcp ASn-asb thWw F¶ Nn´m-K-Xn¡p -{]-k-àn-bn-Ã..... Ahsc hnebv¡p hm§p-I, Ahsc \n§Ä Fs´-¦nepw sXmgn hnZy ]Tn-¸n¨p kz´w Imen \nev¡p-hm³ {]m]vX-cm-¡n-b-tijw Ahsc kz-X-{´-cmbn hn«-bv¡pI.''

CkvemanI ASn-a-h-ym-]mcw Ckvemw aXw cq]w sIm­-tXm-Sp-IqSn ASn-a-h-ym-]mcw 110

]p\-cp-Öo-hn-¸n-¡-s¸-«p. sdmWmÄUv skKmÄ At±l-¯nsâ ""Ckvemansâ Idp¯ ASn-a-IÄ'' (Islam’s Black Slaves) F¶ ]pkvX-I-¯n C§s\ tcJ-s¸-Sp¯n-bn-cn-¡p¶p :""Ckvemw t]Àj-y-bnse kÊm-\nUv km{am- P - y hpw kndn- b bpw CuPn]v ä pw DÄs¸sS ss_km³ssä³ km{am-P-y-¯nsâ `qcn-`mKw {]tZ-i§fpw ]nSn-¨-S-¡nbt¸mÄ AXv Af-¶p-Xn-«- s¸-Sp¯m³ Ign- b m¯ A{Xbpw kzÀ® Dcp- ¸ - S n- I Ä ssI¡-em-¡p-I-bp-­m-bn. {InkvXob ]Ån-I-fnepw k\-ym-kn-a-T-§-fnepw I­ kzÀ®-§-sfÃmw AhÀ _e-ambn A]-l-cn-s¨-Sp-¡p-Itbm ]ptcm-ln-X-·mÀ \evtI­ kzÀ®w F¶ \ne-bn X«n-sb-Sp-¡p-Itbm sNbv Xp. ih- ¡ - à - d - I -f n \n¶pw AhÀ kzÀ®w IhÀ¨ sNbv X p. C§s\ In«p¶ ]W- ¯ nsâ A©n H¶p ]mcn- t Xm- j n- I - a mbn \ev I mw F¶ hmKvZm-\-t¯msS `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-IÄ C§s\ \S-¯nb kzÀ®-th-«sb t{]mÕm-ln-¸n-¡p-Ibpw ]Ww IhÀ¨b¡v A\p-aXn \evIp-bp-amWv sNbvX-Xv. skKmÄ C§s\ Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-¡p-¶p: ""kwKnX-¡m-c¯nIÄ, ]m«p-ImÀ, \r¯-¡mÀ F¶o \ne-Ifn hf-sc-b-[nIw kv{XnIsf ASn-a-I-fmbn th­n-h¶n-cp-¶p. AXp-Iq-SmsX [mcmfw ASn-a-kv{XoIsf ho«pthe sN¿p-¶-Xn\pw sh¸m-«n-I-fmbn {]hÀ¯n-¡p-¶111

Xn\pw Bh-i-y-ap-­m-bn-cp-¶p. ""`c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fpsS A´:- ] p- c - § Ä AXn- _ r- l - ¯ m- b - h - b m- b n- c p- ¶ p. sImÀtUm-_m-bn D­m-bn-cp¶ A_vZvAÂdlvam³ III m-asâ (912-þ961) A´:-]p-c§ - f - n Bdm-bn-c¯ - n-e[ - nIw sh¸m-«n-IÄ D­m-bn-cp-¶p. sIbvtdm-bnse ^¯o-anUv sIm«m-c-¯nse A´:-]p-c-§-fn AXn-sâ Cc-«n-bn-e[nIw sh¸m- « n- I - f m- W p- ­ m- b n- c p- X v . ""Ckv e mansâ Idp¯ ASn-a-IÄ'' F¶ ]pkvX-I-¯n ]pcpjASna-Isf jWvU-·m-cm-¡p-¶Xv Hcp km[m-cW kw`-ham- b n- c p¶p F¶p shfn-s ¸- S p- ¯ n- ¡ m- W p- ¶ p- ­ v. :"" ]¯mw \qäm-­nsâ Bcw`-¯n _mKvZm-Znse Jeo^bv¡v Xsâ sIm«m- c - § - f n 7000 Idp¯ jWvU·mcpw 4000 shÅ-¡m-cmb jWvU-·mcpw D­mbn-cp-¶p.'' AhnsS hfsc hym-]-I-amb ""kz-hÀ¤-cXn _Ô-§fpw'' D­m-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-c¡p- ¶ p. ""Ckv e mansâ Idp¯ ASn- a - I Ä'' F¶ ]pkvXIw hy-à-am-¡n-¯-cp-¶Xv Cu \mäm-­p-I-fn Pohn-¨n-cp¶ CkvemanI aX-]-WvU-Xn-·m-scÃmw ASna¯ k{¼-Zm-bs¯ A\p-Iq-en-¡p-Ibpw {]Xn-tcm-[n¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-¶psh¶m-Wv. ""bP-am-\-·mcpw ASn-a-Ifpw D­m-bn-cn-t¡-­Xv Bh-i-y-am-Wv.'' aäp NneÀ tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv C§-s\-bm-Wv: Idp¯ hÀ-K-¡mÀ ""Bß-kw-b-a-\hpw 112

am\-knI GIm-{K-Xbpw CÃm-¯-h-cmWv AhÀ Nm]e-yhpw t`mj-X-zhpw AÚ-Xbpw ]q­p {]hÀ¯n¡p-¶-h-cm-Wv, FtX-y-m]-y-bpsS AXnÀ¯n {]tZ-i-§fn hkn-¡p-¶-hcpw \q_n-b-¡mcpw km³PvtZ-i¡mcpw DÄs¸-sS-bpÅ kIe Idp¯ hÀ-¤-¡mcpw A§-s\-bp-Å-h-cm-Wv. a²-y-Ime Ckv emanI Ncn-{XIm-c\pw kmaq-ly Nn´-I-cn {]ap-J-\p-amb C_v³ JÂZq³ Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv C§-s\-bm-Wv. :""\ot{Km hÀ¤-¡mÀ H¶-S¦w ASn-a-¯-¯n\p hnt[-b-cm-sW¶p s]mXp-hmbn IW-¡m-¡-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p, Imc-Ww, AhcpsS kz-`m-h-Kp-W-§Ä, an­m-{]m-Wn-I-fmb arK-§fp-tS-Xn\p kam-\-am-Wv.'' a²-y-bp-K-§-fn ""A_vZv'' F¶ Ad_n ]Zw s]mXp-hmbn Hcp Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-c-\mb ASn-asb Ipdn-¡p-¶-Xn-\m-bn-«-mWv D]-tbm-Kn-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. AtXk-abw ""amapÂIv'' F¶ ]Zw Hcp shfp¯ ASnasb Ipdn-¡p-¶-Xn\pw D]-tbm-Kn-¨ncp-¶p. 19-þmw \qäm­p-h-tcbpw sa¡-bn ASn-a-Isf D]-tbm-Kn-¡m¯ Nne IpSpw-_-§-fp-­m-bn-cn¶p F¶p ImWp-¶p. Ahsc-Ãm-hcpw X§-fpsS \nb-am-\p-kr-X-apÅ `mc-y-amsc ]cn-N-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-\mbn sh¸m-«n-I-fmb ]cn-Nm-cn-I-amsc sh¨n-cp-¶p. Idp-¯-hÀ¤-¡m-cmb ASn-a-Isf jWvU·m-cm-¡n-bn-cp-¶Xv ""Idp-¯-hÀ¤-¡mÀ¡v \nb-{´n-¡m113

\m-Im¯ ssewKn-I-Xr-jvW-bp­v F¶ [mc-W-bpsS ASn-Øm-\-¯n-em-bn-cp-¶p.'' F¶pw ]pkvX-I-§-fn ImWp-¶p­v. ^¯o-anUv A[n-Im-c-¯n-te-dn-b-t¸mÄ AhÀ anen-«-dn-tk-h-\-¯n \ntbm-Kn-¨n-cp¶ ]Xn-\m-bn-c-¡Wn-¡n\p ASn-a-Isf apgp-h³ Iq«-s¡me sN¿p-Ibpw ]pXnb ASn- a - I sf B Øm\- § - f n- t ebv ¡ p sIm­p-h-cn-Ibpw sNbvXp. Ah-cn Nnesc X§fpsS 10-þm-as¯ hb-Ên-em-Wv ASn-a-¸-«m-f-¯n \nÀºÔ-ambn tNÀ¯-Xv. 3000 apX 2,50,000 hsc AwKkw-Jy- b - pÅ Cu ]pXnb ASn-aI - Ä t]Àj-yb - n \n¶pw CuPn-]vXn \n¶pw samtdm-t¡m-bn \n¶pw ASn-aI-fmbn ]nSn-¡-s¸-«hcm-bncp-¶p. {InkvXp-amÀ¤-t¯¡mÄ Ckv e mans\ A\p- I q- e n- ¡ p¶ sdm\mÄUv skKmÄ s]mepw k½-Xn-¡p-¶Xv ap¸-Xp-Z-i-e-£-¯ne-[nIw Idp-¯-hÀ¤¡m-cmb B{^n-¡³ ASn-a-IÄ ASn-a-¡-¨-h-S-¡m-cpsS ssII-fn Ccn-¡p-t¼mÄ acn¡p-Itbm CkvemanI ASn-a-¯-¯nÂs]«p \in-¡pItbm sNbvXn-«p­v F¶m-Wv. CkvemanI ASn-a-¡-¨-hSw \S-¶Xv ASn-a-Isf sN¦-S Xoc¯p-\n¶p klmbm acp-`qan IS-¯nbpw Ings¡ B{^n-¡-bn \n¶p C´-y³ alm-k-ap{Zw IS-¯n-bp-am-bn-cp-¶p. Bdp {][m-\-s¸« ASn-a-h-ym114

]mc]mX-I-fn-eq-sS-bm--bn-cp¶p klm-dm-a-cp-`q-an-¡-¸p-d¯p-\n-¶v, hym-]mcw \S-¯n-bn-cp-¶-Xv. 19-þmw \qäm-­n am{Xw 1.2Zi-e£w ASn-aI - sf klmdm acp-`qan IS¯n a²-y-]qÀÆ-tZ-i-t¯bv¡v sIm­p-h-¶n-cp-¶p; 4,50,000 ASn-a-Isf sN¦-S hgn-bmbn sIm­p-h-¶p; 4,42,000 ASn-a-Isf Ings¡ B{^n-¡³ Xoc Xpd-ap-J-§Ä hgn-bmbn sIm­p-h-¶p; A§s\ 1800 Ifn am{Xw BsI 2 Zi-e£w Idp-¯-hÀ¤-¡m-cmb ASn-a-Isf a²-y-]qÀÆ-tZ-i-t¯bv¡p sIm­p-h-¶p. apÉow ASna-¨-´-bn F¯p-¶-Xn\p aps¼ acn-¨p-t]mb 8 Zie£w ASn-a-IÄ thsd-bp-ap­v F¶v IW-¡p-IÄ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p. 19-þmw \qäm-­nse ASna h-ym-]m-cs¯ kw_-Ôn¨ IrX-y-amb IW-¡p-IÄ e`-y-am-Wv. ""CÉm-ansâ Idp¯ ASn-a-IÄ'' F¶ ]pkvXI- ¯ n C§s\ ]d- ª n- c n- ¡ p¶p : ""1570 Ifn CuPn]väp kµÀin-¨p-sIm-­n-cp¶ Hcp {^©p-Im-c³ sIbvtdm-bnse ASn-a-hy- m-]-mc-¨´Znh-k-§f - n hnev]\-¡mbn \nÀ¯n-bn-cp¶ Bbn-c-¡-Wn-¡n\p Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡msc ImWp-I-bp-­m-bn. kv]m\njv/s_ÂPnb³ bm{Xn- I - \ m- b n- c p¶ ^m.- A - t â- m - W n- t bmkv tKm¬km-enkv 1665  dnt¸mÀ«v sNbvXn-cn-¡p-¶Xv Hcp Znhkw am{Xw sIbvtdm-bnse ASn-a-¨-´-bn hnev¡s¸-«n-cp-¶Xv 800 \pw 1000 \pw CS-bn ASn-a-I-fm-bn-cp115

¶p-sh-¶m-Wv. 1776  Hcp {_n{«ojv k©mcn dnt¸mÀ«p sNbvXXv 5000 ASn-aI - sf IS-¯n-sIm-­p-t]m-Ip¶ Hcp k©m-c-¡q-«s¯ UmÀ^-dn \n¶v ]pd-s¸-Sp-¶-Xmbn I­p F¶m-Wv. 1838  e`-y-amb Hcp IW-¡-\p-kcn¨v 10000 apX 12000 hsc ASn-a-IÄ Hmtcm hÀjhpw sIbvtdm-bnse ASn-a-¨-´-bn F¯n-s¡m-­n-cp-¶p. '' B{^n- ¡ - b psS Ings¡ Xoc¯v km³kn- _ mÀ, s]¼m Zzo-]p-I-fnse tXm«-§-fn am{Xw 7,69,000 Idp¯-hÀ¤-¡m-cmb ASn-a-I-fp-­m-bn-cp-¶p. 19-þmw \qäm­n \S¶ Ing-¡³ B{^n-¡³ Idp-¯-hÀ¤-¡mcmb ASn- a -I - f psS hym- ]m- c - ¯ n DÄs¸- « n- c p- ¶ Xv 3,47,000 ASn- a - I - f m- b n- c p- ¶ p, Ahsc Atd- _ - y - b ntebv ¡ pw t]Àjy- b n- t e¡pw C´- y - b n- t ebv ¡ pw I¸ÂI-b-än- sIm­pt]mbn. akvImcw Zzo-]p-I-fn-epÅ Ad_v tXm«-§-fn-tebv¡p I¸Â Ib-än-sI-­p-t]m-bXv 95000 ASn-a-I-sf-bm-bn-cp-¶p. skKmÄ Fgp-Xp-¶p.: ""a²-y-]qÀÆ tZis¯ Idp¯-hÀ¤-¡m-cmb ASn-a-I-fpsS CS-bnse DbÀ¶ acW-\n-c¡pw Ipdª P\\\nc-¡pw, hSs¡ B{^n¡-bn-sebpw a²-y-]qÀÆ-tZ-i-t¯bpw Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mcmb ASn-a-kv{Xo-I-fpsS CS-bnse Gähpw Ipdª P\-\-\n-c¡pw Idp-¯-hÀ¤-¡-mcpsS P\-kw-Jy henb tXmXn Ipd- ª p- t ]m- I p- h m³ Imc- W - a mbn. 116

CkvemanI kwkvImcw s]mXp-P-\m-tcm-Ky kwc-£W hnj-b-¯n ]mÝm-X-y-\m-Sp-I-fpsS hfsc ]n¶n Bbn-cp-¶p. CkvemanI cmjv{S-§Ä \S¯nb Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-cmb ASn-a-I-fpsS hym-]m-c-s¯-¡p-dn-¨pÅ IW-¡p -t\m-¡p-t¼mÄ Ahsc ]nSn-¡p-Ibpw kq£n¡p-Ibpw IS-¯p-Ibpw sNbvX ka-b-§-fn Poh³ \jvS-am-b-hcpw ImWm-sX-t]m-b-h-cp-amb ]pcp-j-·mcp-sSbpw kv{XoI-fp-tSbpw Ip«n-If - p-tSbpw IW¡v AhK-Wn-¨p-I-f-b-cp-Xv. Hcp ASn-asb ]nSn¨v ASn-a-th-ebv¡mbn hnev¡p-t¼mÄ AXnsâ ]n¶n P\-kw-Jy-bn \n¶p 10 Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mÀ Ipd-bp-¶-Xm-bn-«mWv A\p-`-hw. B Hcmsf ]nSn-¡p-t¼mÄ \S-¡p¶ sNdp¯p-\nÂ]nepw B{I-aW - -¯nepw sImÃ-s¸-Sp-¶-hÀ; B Hcmsf \jvS-am-b-Xn-\m kw`-hn-t¨-¡m-hp¶ ]«nWn- b nepw {]bm- k - § - f nepw acn- ¡ p¶ kv { XnIÄ, Ipªp-§Ä; ASn-a-I-fm-¡p-¶-h-tcmSp s]mcp-¯-s¸Sm³ Ign-bmsX acn-¨p-t]m-Ip-I-tbm, \jvS-s¸-«p-t]mIp-Itbm sN¿p¶ Ip«n-IÄ, {]mb-am-b-hÀ, tcmKn-IÄ; IS-¯n-s¡m-­p-t]m-Ip¶ ka-b¯v \S-¡p¶ t]mcm«-§-fn ac-W-s¸-Sp-¶-hÀ, \ncm-i-bn acn-¨p-t]m-Ip¶-hÀ FÃmw AXn DÄs¸-Sp-¶p. ''

sdmWmÄUv skKmÄ þ ""Ckvemansâ Idp¯ ASn-a-IÄ'' 117

Hcp {_n«ojv ]c-y-th-£-I³ {Sns¸m-fn-bn-te-bv¡pÅ ASn-a-h-ym-]mckwL-¯nsâ amÀ¤-a-t²y 100 e[nIw a\p-j-y-cpsS AØn-Iq-S-§Ä Is­-¯p-hm-\n-S-bm-bn. Ing-¡³ B{^n-¡³ Xoc-¯p-\n¶p bm{X Xnc¨p 3000 t]c- S -§nb Hcp bm{Xm kwL- ¯n 1/3 t]cpsS Poh³ ]«n-Wn-sIm­pw tcmKw sIm­pw sIme-]mXIw sIm­pw \jvS-s¸-Sp-hm³ CS-bm-bn. s\_q-bnb³ acp-`q-an-bn-eqsS k©-cn¨ 2000 ASn-a-I-f-S-§nb Hcp bm{XmkwL-¯nse Hmtcm ASn-abpw acn-¨-tXmsS A£-cmÀ°-¯n Xt¶ AXv A{]-X-y-£-am-bn.

Hcp ZrIvkm£n hnh-cWw 1818  tdmb t\hn-bnse Iym-]vä³ entbm¬ C{]Imcw dnt¸mÀ«v sNbvXp: ""{Sns¸m-fn-bnse AÂ-þ-ap-Im\n AXnsâ {]Xn-tcm[ tijn-bn-Ãm¯ AbÂtZ-i-§-fpambn bp²w sN¿p-Ibpw hÀjw tXmdpw 4000 apX 5000 hsc BÄ¡msc ASn-a-I-fmbn ]nSn-¨p-sIm-­pt]m-Ip-Ibpw sN¿p¶ ImgvN Gähpw Zb-\o-b-am-bn-cp¶p ! ]oVn-Xcpw aÀ±n-X-cp-am-bn-cp-¶ Cu ]mh-s¸« a\p-j-y-Po-hn-I-fn- -`q-cn-`mKw t]cpw XfÀ¶v Ah-i-cmb-h-cpw, \S-¶p-t]m-Ip-hm³ iàn-bn-Ãm-¯-hcpam-bn-cp¶p. Ah-cpsS saen-ªp-W-§nb ico-c-¯nsâ ImepI-fn-tebpw ]mZ-§-fn-tebpw B Ak-[m-cmW ho¡w Hcp sshcp-²-y-amb ImgvN-bm-bn-cp-¶p. AhÀ Hmtcm-cp118

¯cpw I\¯ hnd-IpsI«pIÄ Npa-¶p-sIm-­mWv \S¶n-cp-¶-Xv. £oWw sIm­pw XfÀ¨-sIm­pw bmX\-IÄ sIm­pw AØn-Iq-S-§Ä t]mse saenªp timjn¸ Ip«n-IÄ t]mepw Ah-cp-tS-Xmb Npa-Sp-IÄ Npa-¡p-hm³ \nÀº-Ôn¡-s¸-«n-cp-¶p. AtX kabw I®n tNmc-bn-Ãm¯ Ah-cpsS bP-am-\·mÀ `bm-\I-amb henb Nm«bpw Ac-bn XncpIn `ojn-s¸-Sp¯n-s¡m­p Ah-scm-sSm-¸a - p-­m-bn-cp-¶p..... FÃm ASna-¡-¨-h-¡mcpw ASn-a-I-sf-¡p-dn¨v kwkm-cn-¡p-¶Xv Irjn-¡mÀ Ip¶p-Im-en-I-tfmSp sN¿p-¶-Xp-t]m-se-bmbn-cp-¶p. ... sX¡³ {]tZ-i-§-fn-epÅ \nt{Km-I-fpsS {]Xn-tcm[ tk\-I-fn-Ãm¯ \m«p-cm-P-y-§Ä ASn-a-h-ym]m-cn-IÄ¡v Hcp {]tem-`-\-am-bn-cp-¶p. AXn-\m sNdp¯p-\nÂ]p `b-s¸-Sp-hm-\n-Ãm¯ Cu P\-§s-f sImÅ sN¿p-hm\pw Ahsc ASn-a-I-fmbn ]nSn-¨p-sIm-­pt]mIp-hm\pw, Ah-cpsS ]mÀ¸n-S-§Ä Xobn«p \nin¸n-¡p-hm-\pw, {]mb-t-a-dn-b-h-tcbpw inip-¡-tfbpw sIm¶p-I-f-bp-hm-\pw, Ah-cpsS Irjn-bn-S-§Ä \in¸n-¡p-hm-\pw, AhÀ¡p kÀÆ-hn[ Zpcn-X-§fpw hcp¯p-hm\pambn hÀjw tXmdpw Hcp tk\sb Abbv¡pI ]Xn-hm-bn-cp-¶p. GXp ASn-a-¯hpw ]cn-[n-bnÃm¯ Ime-t¯-bv¡mWv ... Ah-cpsS bP-am-\-·m-cn Bcpw Nm« ssIh-ia - n-Ãm-sX-bà At§m-«pw Ct§m«pw 119

k©- c n- ¨ n- c p- ¶ - X v . þ AXv IqsS- ¡ qsS {]tbm- K n¨p sIm­n-cn-¡p-am-bn-cp-¶p...... IqSp-X shÅw IpSn-¡p¶Xpw, Af-hn Ipdhp hndIp Npa-¶p-sIm-­p-h-cp¶-Xpw, ]mNIw ]qÀ¯n-bm-¡p-¶-Xn-\p-ap¼v Dd-§n-t¸mIp-¶-Xp-saÃmw ISp¯ in£ \evIp-hm³ aXn-bmb henb Ipä-§-fmbn IW-¡m-¡n-bn-cp-¶p. XfÀ¶p £oWn¨p t]mb- Xp- s I-­ mWv A§s\ kw`- h n- ¨ sX¶p \ymbw ]dªp At]-£n¨p Ic-bp-hm³ B ]mhw PohnIÄ¡p Ah-Im-i-an-Ãm-bn-cp¶p. Nm«-hmÀ {]tbm-K-¯n \n¶p c£-s¸-Sp-hm³ Hcp amÀ¤-hp-ap­m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. ASn-a-I-fn-emÀ¡pw tcmKn-I-fm-sW¶p ]dªp hn{i-an-¡p-hmt\m \S-¶p-\o-§m-sX-bn-cn-¡phmt\m ss[cy-ap-­-m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. F¶m ]mhw ASna C§s\ IjvSw kln¨p acn-¡p-I-bm-sW-¦n DÅn Ft´m Ipg¸w kw`-hn-¨n-cp-¶n-cn-¡m-sa¶v bP-am-\³ kwi-bn-¡p-Ibpw AhÀ km[m-cW {]tbm-Kn-¡p¶ NnIn-Õm-coXn F¶ \ne-bn DZ-c-¯n Np«p-]-gp-¸n¨ Ccp-¼p-sIm­p s]mÅn-¡p-hm³ km[n-¡m-sX-t]m-bXn ]mÝm-¯-]n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-am-bn-cp-¶p.''

{InkvXob ASn-aIÄ skKmÄ Xsâ ]pkvXI - -¯n \nco-£n-¨n-«pÅ asämcp Imcyw IqsS ]d- b s«: ""{InkvXob cmP-y -§- fmb kvs]bn³, a²-y-]qÀÆ bqtdm¸v XpS-§nb tZi-§-fn 120

\n¶pÅ shfp¯ ASn-a-I-tfbpw a²-y-]q-ÀÆ tZit¯bv¡v I¸ÂIbäns¡m-­p-t]m-bn-cp-¶p. AhÀ`-cWm-[n-I-fpsS sIm«m-c-§-fnepw [\n-I-cpsS Øm]-\§-fnepw tkh\w A\p-jvTn-¡p-hm³ \ntbm-Kn-¡-s¸«n-cp-¶p.'' At±lw C§-s\-bmWp tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«pÅ-Xv.: ""Émhp hÀ¤-¯nÂs]« FÃm jWvU-·m-cptSbpw k´-X-ypÂ]m-Z-\-tijn \in-¸n-¨n-cp-¶p. sblqZ-·m-cmb I¨-h-S-¡m-cm-bn-cp¶p Cu ikv{X-{Inb \S¯n-bn-cp-¶-Xv.'' skÀPv {Sn^-vtIm-hnIv At±-l-¯nsâ ""{]hm-N-Isâ hmÄ'' (""The Sword of the Prophet''- Serge Trifkovic) F¶ ]pk-XI - ¯ - n ]d-ªn-cn-¡p-¶Xv F.Un 781 apÉo-§Ä Fs^-skmkv ]nSn-¨-S-¡n-b-tijw AhÀ 7000-e-[nIw {Ko¡p-Imsc ASn-a-I-fmbn ]nSn-¨psIm-­p-t]mbn F¶m-Wv. F.Un 903  apÉo-§Ä sXÊ-sem-\n-Iy ]nSn-¨-S¡ - n-bt- ¸mÄ AhÀ 22000 e[nIw {InkvX-ym-\n-Isf ASn-a-I-fmbn hnäp-I-f-ªp. AXpt]mse 1064  apÉo-§Ä tPmÀPn-bbpw AÀta-\nbbpw ]nSn-¨-S-¡n-b-t¸mÄ AhÀ Bbn-c-¡-W-¡n\p P\-§sf ASn-a-I-fm-¡n-bn-cp-¶p. Ncn-{X-Im-c-\mb Hmt«m-kvtIm«v At±-l-¯nsâ ""Z t{Käv {InkvX-y³ sdshm-e-yq-j³''F¶ ]pkvX-I¯n hnh-cn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶Xv 1526  kpsse-am\pw At±l-¯nsâ 3 e£w ssk\n-I-c-S-§nb SÀ¡n ]«m-fhpw 121

lwKdn B{I-an¨p Iog-¡n-b-t¸mÄ 2 e£w lwK-dn¡m-cmb {InkvX-ym-\n-Isf ASn-a-I-fmbn ]nSn-¨p-sIm­p-t]mb Imc-y-§-sf-¡p-dn-¨m-Wv. 1571  ssk{]kn \n¶pw Bbn- c - ¡ - W - ¡ n\v {Ko¡p- I msc tIm¬Ìmân-t\m-¸n-fn-te-b¡v ASn-I-fm-¡n- I-¸Â Ibän-sIm-­p-t]m-bn. tdm_À«v tUhnkv F¶ Ncn-{X-Im-c³ Xsâ ""{InÌ-y³ ASn-a-IÄ, apÉow bP-am-\-·mÀþsaUo-ä-td\n-b³, _mÀ-_dn tImÌ,v Cäen XpS-§nb tZi-§fn \n¶pÅ shÅ- ¡ m- c psS ASn- a ¯w'' F¶ ]pkvXI - ¯ - n ("Christian Slaves Muslim masters-White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy ) IW¡m¡nbncn-¡p-¶-Xv. t\mÀ¯v B{^n-¡³ ISÂs¡mÅ-¡mÀ 1530 \pw 1780 \pw CS-bn 1 Zi-e-£-¯n-e[nIw bqtdm-]y- sc _e-ambn ]nSn-¨p-sIm-­p-t]mbn ASna-I-fm-¡n-sb-¶m-Wv. Cu {InkvX-ym-\n-Isf ]e-t¸mgpÅ sdbvUp-If - n-emWv ]nSn-¨p-sIm-­p-t]m-bX - v. XXv^e-ambn knknen apX tIm¬hmÄ hsc-bpÅ ]«W-§sfÃmw P\-§-fn-emsX iq\-y-am-bn-t¸m-bn. Xoc{]-tZ-i-§-fn ]mÀ¯n-cp¶ Bbn-c-¡-W-¡n\p shÅ¡m-cmb {InkvX-ym-\n-Isf Hmtcm -hÀjhpw ]nSn-¨pIm-­p-t]mbn Ah-cpsS I¸-ep-I-fn X­p-h-en-¡p¶ ASn-a-I-fmbpw, ASn-a-Isf \nb-{´n-¡p¶ bP-am-\-·m122

cpsS sh¸m-«n-I-fmbpw, the-¡m-cm-bpw, ASn-a-s¸-Sp¯n. C¶s¯ samtdm-t¡m, SpWo-j-y, AÄPo-cn-b, en_nb XpS-§nb Øe-§-fn-te-bv¡mWv Ahsc sIm­p-t]mb-Xv. Cä-en, kvs]bn³, s]mÀ«p-KÂ, {^m³kv XpS§nb cmP-y§ - f - psS Xoc-{]-tZ-i§ - f - n-epÅ {Kma-§f - nepw ]«- W - § fnep- a mWv ISp¯ B{I- a Ww D­m- b - X v . F¶m apÉow ASn-a-¡-¨-hS-¡mÀ {_n«¬, AbÀe­v, sFÉmâ v XpS-§nb hnZq-c-{]-tZ-i-§-fn-tebv¡p IS-¶p-I-b-dn-t]mepw P\-§sf ]nSn-¨ps-Im-­p-t]m-bn. asämcp dnt¸mÀ«v A\p-k-cn¨v 1622 \pw 1644 \pw CS-bn 7000 Cw¥ojv k©mcn-Isf ]nSn-¨p-sIm-­pt]m-bn; Ah-cn ]ecpw I¸-ense Poh-\-¡mcpw bm{X¡m-cp-am-bn-cp-¶p. Hmt«m-a³ km{am-P-y-¯nse `c-W-hÀ¤w euInI-kp-J§-fn ap§n PohnXw A[:-]-Xn¨p XpS-§n-bt¸mÄ bqtdm-¸n \n¶pw ASn-a-I-fmbn ]nSn-¨p-sIm­p-t]m-I-s¸« _p²n-am-·m-cmb {InkvXob bphm-¡Ä Syq-«Àam-cmbpw D]-tZ-iI - · - m-cmbpw F©n-\o-bÀam-cmbpw amt\-PÀam-cmbpw aÀ½-{]-[m-\-amb tPmen-IÄ sN¿phm³ \nbp-à-cm-bn. ASn-a-I-fmbn sIm­p-t]mb kv{XoIsf A´:-]p-c§fn ssewKnI hr¯n-¡mbn D]-tbm-Kn-¨p. Nne kv{XoIsf Pmay-¯-S-hp-Im-cmbn \nÀ¯n h³XpI tamN-\-{Z- h-y- ambn Bh- i-y- s¸-« p. 123

s{]m^. tUhokv IW-¡m-¡n-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv 1500 \pw 1800\pw CS-bn 1.25 Zi-e£w bqtdm-]-y³ P\-§sf apÉow ASn-a-¡-¨-h-S-¡mÀ ASn-a-I-fmbn ]nSn-¨p-sIm­p-t]m-bn F¶m-Wv.

bqtdm-]-y³ ASn-a hym-]mcw Ckvemw 7þmw \qäm-­n\pw 15-þmw \qäm­n\pw CS- b n ASn- a - h - y m- ] m- c - ¯ n B[n- ] - Xyw ]peÀ¯n-b-t¸mÄ bqtdm¸pw 1519 \pw 1815 \pw CSbn Cu hym-]-mc-¯n ]¦p-tNÀ¶p. apkvenw ASn-ah-ym-]m-cn-I-fm Gähpw IjvS-\-jvS-§Ä A\p-`-hn¨ bqtdm-]-y³ cmjv{S-§Ä, {]tX-y-In¨pw kvs]bn\pw t]mÀ«p-Kepw bqtdm-]-y³ ASn-a-h-ym-]m-c-¯nsâ ta[mhn-Xzw Gsä-Sp¯p. 1519 hnip-²t- dm-am-km-{am-Py- ¯ - nsâ Ime¯v (Holy Roman Empire) NmÄkv V BWv ASn-a-hym-]m-c-¯n bqtdm-¸nsâ {]th-i-\s¯ BZ-y-ambn A\p-h-Zn-¨-Xv. ASn-a-h-ym-]m-c-¯n {_n«\pw ]¦p tNcp-hm³ BZ-y-ambn A\p-hmZw \evIn-b-Xv 1631  NmÄkv I cmPm-hm-bn-cp-¶p. At±-ls¯ ]n¶oSv ]mÀensa-â v in£n-¡p-Ibpw inc-tOZw sN¿p-I-bp-am-bn-cp¶p. At±-l-¯nsâ ]p{X-\mb NmÄkv II 1672  Hcp cmP-Iob imk-\-¯n-eqsS AXv ]ns¶bpw {]m_-e-y¯n hcp-¯n. l¤v tXmakv cNn¨ ""Z tÉhv t{SUv'' ]d-bp-¶-X\ - p-k-cn¨v GI-tZiw 4 Zi-e£w t]À (35.4%) 124

t]mÀ¨p-Ko-kp-Im-cpsS A[o-\X - b - n-ep-­m-bn-cp¶ {_koen-tebv¡v t]mbn; 2.5 Zi-e£w ASn-a-IÄ (22.1%) sXs¡ Ata-cn-¡-bn-sebpw a[y Ata-cn-¡-bn-sebpw kv]m\njv A[o\ {]tZ-i-§-fn-te-bv¡p-t]mbn; 2 Zie£w ASn-a-IÄ (17.7%) {_n«sâ A[o-\-X-bn-epÅ shÌv C³Uo-kn-tebv¡pw IqSp-X t]À Pssa-¡bn-tebv¡pw t]mbn; 1.6 Zi-e£w t]À (14.1%) {^©v A[o-\-X-bn-epÅ shÌv C³Uo-kn-tebv¡p t]mbn; Ac Zi-e£w (4.4%) t]À hSs¡ Ata-cn-¡b - n-tebv¡p t]mbn.

Ata-cn-¡³ ASnahy]mcw Aäv e mânIv kap- { Z- ¯ n- \ - ¸ p- d - ¯ p- \ n¶v h¶ ASna hym]m-c-¯n 5%þ Ipdhp am{X-amWv hSs¡ Ata-cn-¡-bn \S-¶Xv F¶ hkvXpX Akm-[m-c-Wamw-hn[w ]cn-K-Wn-t¡­ Hcp Imcy-am-bn-«n-cn-¡p-¶p. ASna hym]mcw F¶ Cu hnj-b-¯n Cd-§n-bn«pÅ Ne-¨n-{X-§-fnepw ]pkvX-I-§-fnepw teJ-\-§fnepw FÃmw ASn-a-hym-]mcw Ata-cn¡ am{Xw sNbvX Hcp Akm-[m-cW Imcyw F¶p- tXm-¶p-amdv {][m-\ambpw Ata-cn-¡-bpsS ]¦n-s\-¡p-dn¨v am{Xta {i² sImSp¯p ImWp- ¶ p- Å q. F¶m t]mÀ¨p- K epw kv s ]bn\pw {^m³kpw ASna hym]mc cwK¯v sNbvX hym-]-I-amb CS-]m-Sp-I-sf-¡p-dn¨v Ah-scÃmw 125

hnk-a-cn-¨p-I-f-ª-Xmbn tXm¶p-¶p. AXn-t\-¡mÄ AÛpXw Cu cmPy-§-sfÃmw tNÀ¶v sNbvX-Xmbn ImWp¶ ASna hym]m-c-§-fn DÄs¸-«-Xn-t\-¡mÄ F{Xtbm Cc«n ASn-aI - sf F{Xtbm ZoÀL-Imew a²y]qÀÆ tZi- t¯bv¡ v IS- ¯ nb Ckve manI ASna hym]mcw ]mtS Ah-KW - n¨p If-bp-Ibpw Ncn-{X-¯nse Gä-hp-a-[nIw tKm]y-amb Hcp Imcy-ambn AXns\ ad¨p-sh-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cn-¡p¶p F¶-Xm-Wv.

B{^n-¡³ ASna hym]mcw bqtdm-]y³ ASna hym]m-cn-IÄ B{^n-¡-bnse h\m-´À`mK-§-fn-tebv¡p t]mbn kzX-{´-cmb P\§sf ]nSn-¡p¶p F¶ hn[-¯n-epÅ IY-IÄ tIhew sI«p-I-Y-I-fm-Wv. Ncn-{X-¯nse Gähpw A¼-c-¸n¡p¶ Hcp hkvXpX bqtdm-]yÀ¡v ASn-a-Isf e`n¡p-hm³ Hcp _e-{]-tbm-Khpw \S-t¯-­-Xmbn h¶nà F¶-Xm-Wv. ASn-a-Isf Ah-cpsS Idp-¯-hÀ¤-¡mcmb bP-am-\-·mÀ ""hnäp'' F¶-XmWv hmkvX-hw. ASna- ¡ - ¨ - h - S - ¡ mÀ¡v B{^n- ¡ - b psS h\m- ´ À `mKt¯bv¡p t]mbn X§-fpsS PohnXw \jvS-¯n-emt¡­ Bhiyw H¶pw th­n h¶nÃ; AhÀ kap{Z-Xo-c -§-f n-e pÅ B{^n-¡ ³ apJy-·m- cn \n¶pw apkv e ow ASn- a - ¡ - ¨ - h - S - ¡ m- c n \n¶pw P\- § sf hnebv¡p hm§p-I-bmWv sNbvX-Xv. F¶m ASn-a-126

¡-¨h - -Shpw ASna k{¼-Zm-bhpw FÃm-Im-e¯pw {_n«\nepw Ata-cn-¡-bnepw ITn-\-ambn hnaÀin-¡-s¸-«n-«ps­- ¦ nepw apkv e ow B[n- ] - X y- a pÅ a²y- ] qÀÆ tZit¯m kz´-P-\-§-sfbpw AbÂtZ-i-¯pÅ P\§- s fbpw ASn- a - I - f mbn hnäp- I - f ª B{^n- ¡ ³ tKm{X-§-fpsS CS-bntem Hcn-¡epw A¯-c-¯n-epÅ bmsXmcp hnaÀi-\hpw DbÀ¶p-h-¶n-«n-Ã. AävemânIv kap-{Z-¯n-eqsS IS¯ns¡m-­p-h¶ FÃm B{^n¡³ ASn-a-I-sfbpw Xt¶ B{^n-¡³ `c-Wm-[n-Im-cnIfpw I¨-h-S-¡mcpw ]nSn-s¨-Sp-¯p-hn-än-cp-¶p. GItZiw 600 hÀj-¡ mew, Hmtcm hÀjhpw \q_nb cmPyw (kp-Um³) sIbvtdmbnse apkveow kp¯m\v \nÝnX F®w ASn-a-Isf I¸-ambn F¯n-¨p-sIm-Sp¡p-hm³ \nÀº-Ôn-¡-s¸-«n-cp-¶p.

]e tKm{X-ap-Jy-·mcpw X§-fpsS i{Xp-¡fbpw Ipä-hm-fn-Is - fbpw IS-¡m-scbpw sImÃp-Itbm XS-hn-em-¡p-Itbm sN¿p-¶-Xn-t\-¡mÄ em`-I-cw, Ahsc hn¡p-¶-Xm-sW¶v a\-Ên-em-¡n-bn-cp-¶p. _e-lo-\-cmb Ab tZi-§-fnse tKm{X§sf ]nSn-¨S- ¡ - p-¶h - À [mcm-fa - p-­m-bn-cp-¶p, AhÀ¡v Htc Hcp Dt±-iy-am-bn-cp¶p Cu Imcy-¯n-ep-­m-bn-cp-¶Xv. A§s\ ]nSn¨ P\-§sf ASn-aI - f - mbn hn¡pI, AävemânIv kap-{Z-¯n-\-¸p-d-¯p-\n¶v ASn-a-hym127

]mcw \S-¯n-bh - c - n 3 Xpey-]¦ - m-fn-If - p-­m-bn-cp¶p F¶-XmWv Gähpw A]-am-\-I-c-amb hkvXp-X. 1) A]-cn-jvIr-X-cmb B{^n-¡³ tKm{X-ap-Jy-·mÀ 2) apÉnw Ad_n tZi-¡mÀ 3) {InkvXym-\n-I-fmb bqtdm-]yÀ F¶m {_n«-\nepw Ata-cn-¡b - nepapÅ {Inkv Xym-\n-I-fmWv ASn-a ¯ k{¼-Zm-b -¯n\v AdpXn hcp-¯n-b-Xv. temI-¯n {InkvXp-hn-s\-¡pdn-¨pÅ kphn-tijw th­{X coXn-bn F¯n-t¨cm¯ {]tZ-i§ - f - n-emWv Gähpw tZmj-Ic - -amb `oIc-{]-hr¯n Bcw-`n-¡p-¶Xv F¶ ]c-amÀ°w Hcp bmZr-ÑnI Imcy-am-bn-cn-¡n-Ã.

C´y-bnse sXm«p-Iq-Smbva ASna¯ k{¼-Zm-b-¯nsâ asämcp cq]w sXm«p-Iq-Smbva ]pcm-X\ lnµp-a-X-t¯mSpw kmaq-ly-co-Xn-I-tfmSpw _Ô-s¸«v Bcw-`n¨p h¶Xm-Wv. ]mc-¼-cy-ambn \ne-\n¶ lnµp-a-X-¯nse NmXpÀhÀ®y hyh-Øn-Xn-b-\p-k-cn¨v Hcp a\p-jy³ P\n-¡p-¶Xv IÀ½-¯n-sâbpw ip²n-bp-sSbpw ASnØm-\-¯n \mep PmXn-I-fn GsX-¦nepw H¶n Bbn-cp-¶p. {_mÒ-W-Ip-e-¯n P\n-¡p-¶-hÀ 128

]ptcm-ln-X-·mcpw thZw ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶-h-cp-am-bn-¯ocp-¶p. £{Xn-b-Ip-e-¯n P\n-¡p-¶-hÀ `c-Wm-[nIm-cn-Ifpw ]S-bm-fn-I-fp-ambn amdp-¶p; sshiy-Ipe-¯n P\n-¡p-¶-hÀ I¨-h-S-¡mcpw hym]m-cn-I-fpam-bn-¯o-cp¶p; ip{Z-Ip-e-¯n P\n-¡p-¶-hÀ aäp aq¶p PmXn-¡m-cp-sSbpw Zmky-the sN¿p-¶h - c - mbn amdp-¶p. sXm«p-Iq-Sm-¯h - À A£cmÀ°-¯n PmXnhy-h-Øbv¡v ]pd-¯pÅ {`jvS-cm-bn-cp-¶p. Ahsc lnµp- a - X - ¯ n ]mc- ¼ - c y- a mbn \ne- \ n¶ NmXpÀhÀ®y hyh-Ø-bn AsÃ-¦n PmXn-hy-hØn-Xn-bn DÄs¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. sXm«p-Iq-Sm-¯hÀ asämcp hÀ¤-am-bn-cp-¶p. NmXpÀhÀ®y-hy-h-Øbn DÄs¸-Sm¯ ]©-a-hÀ®-¡mÀ. C´y-bnse GXm­v 200 Zi-e£w (20 tImSn ) BÄ¡msc ""sXm«p-Iq-Sm-¯-hÀ'' F¶ \ne-bn AI-än-\nÀ¯n-bn-cp-¶p. AhÀ X§-fpsS P\-\-him Aip-²cpw a\p-jy-cmbn ]cn-K-Wn-¡p-hm³ kaqlw A\p-h-Zn-¡m-Xn-cp-¶-Xp-amb Hcp PmXn-hyh-Ø-bn s]«-hÀ F¶v ap{Z Ip¯-s¸-«p. Hcp Ime¯v Cu sXm«p-Iq-Sm-¯-hÀ¡v taÂPm-Xn-¡mÀ IpSn-¡p¶ InW-dp-I-fnÂ\n¶v shÅw-Ip-Sn-¡p-hm³ A\p-hm-Z-an-Ãm-bn-cp¶p; AhÀ t]mIp¶ t£{X¯n ChÀ¡p {]th-i-\-an-Ãm-bn-cp¶p; taÂPm-Xn129

¡m-cpsS ap¼n AhÀ sNcn¸v [cn-¡p-hm³ ]mSnÃm-bn-cp-¶p, Htc I¸nÂ\n¶p AhÀ¡p IpSn-¡phm\pw A\p-hm-Z-an-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p. sXm«p- I q- S m- ¯ - h - c mbn KWn- ¡ - s ¸- « n- c p¶ Ahsc Xcw Xmgv¶ tPmen-IÄ sN¿p-hm-\mWv A\ph-Zn-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. taÂPm-Xn-¡mÀ X§sf kmaq-ln-Iambn AXn-{I-an¨p IS-¡m-Xn-cn-¡p-hm³ ]c-ky-ambn Ah-tl-fn-¡p-Itbm \á-cmbn \S-¯n-s¡m-­p-t]mIp-Itbm ASn-¡p-Itbm _em¡mcw sN¿p-Itbm sNbvtX-¡mw. F¶ \nc-´c `b-t¯m-sS-bmWv AhÀ Pohn-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. DbÀ¶ PmXn-¡mÀ ]mÀ¡p¶Xn\-Sp-¯p-IqsS IS-¶p-t]m-Ip-¶Xp Xs¶ Poh\p `oj-Wn-bp-bÀ¯p¶ Hcp Ipä-Ir-Xy-ambn IW-¡m¡n-bn-cp-¶p. 1950  C´y AXnsâ `c-W-L-S\ \nehn h¶-t¸mÄ sXm«p-Iq-Sm-bvasb HutZym-Kn-Ia - mbn \ntcm-[n-¨p-sh-¦nepw IogvPm-Xn-¡m-cpsS t\sc-bpÅ hnth-N-\-§Ä ]ns¶bpw XpSÀ¶p. AXnsâ ^eam-bn-«mWv Kh¬saâ v ""1989 se sImSpw-{Iq-c-X-IfpsS \ntcm-[-\-\n-baw'' (The prevention of Atrocities Act 1989) ]mÊm-¡n-b-Xv. Cu \nb-a-¯n P\-§sf ]c-ky-ambn sXcp-hn-eqsS \á-cmbn \S-¯p-¶-Xpw, Ahsc \nÀ_-Ôn¨v aew Xoän-¡p-¶-Xpw, Ah-cpsS `qan X«n-sb-Sp-¡p-¶-Xpw, Ah-cpsS IpSn-shÅw aen130

\-am-¡p-¶Xpw Ah-cpsS hoSp-I-Ä Xobv sh¨v \in¸n-¡p-¶-Xpw, Ah-cpsS thm«-h-Im-is¯ XS-Ê-s¸Sp-¯p-¶Xpw FÃmw \nb-a-hn-cp-²-ambn {]Jym-]n-¨n«p-­v. F¶n-cp-¶mepw C´y-bpsS DÄ{]-tZ-i-§-fn ta¸-dª kw`-h-§Ä Ct¸mgpw kw`-hn-¡p-¶p­v. sXs¡ C´y-bnse tIc-f¯ - n temI-¯nse Gähpw lo\-amb Abn¯w \ne-\n-¶n-cp-¶p. AXpI- ­ n- « mWv lnµp- k - \ ym- k nbpw kmaq- l y- ] - c njv¡À¯mhpw Nn´-I-\p-am-bncp¶ kzman hnth-Im\-µ³ tIc-fs¯ ""{`m´m-ebw'' F¶p hnfn-¨-Xv. ""Z ^yq¨À Hm^v C´y'' (""C-´y-bpsS `mhn'' ) F¶ Xsâ ]pkvX-I-¯n hnth-Im-\-µ³ ]dªn-cn-¡p-¶Xv t\m¡pI: "" Rm³ ae-_mÀ tZi¯p I­-Xn-t\-¡mÄ t`mj-Xzmb Hcp Imcyw temI¯n thsd Fhn-sS-bmWv ImWm³ Ign-bpI? ]mhs¸« Hcp ]d-b-Pm-Xn-¡m-c\v D¶X PmXn-bn s]« Hcp a\p-jy³ \S-¡p¶ hgn-bn-eqsS \S-¶p-t]m-Iphm³ A\p-hm-Z-an-Ã. F¶m Ah³ Xsâ t]cv GsX-¦nepw Ahn-b ]cp-h-¯n-epÅ Hcp Cw¥ojv t]cm¡n amän-bm Cu ØnXn¡p amäw hcpw; Asæn Ah³ Xsâ t]cv Hcp saml-½-Z³ t]cm¡n amän-bmepw Cu \nb-{´-W-an-Ã. CXp ImWp-t¼mÄ 131

Cu ae-_m-dn-IÄ FÃm-hcpw {`m´-·m-cm-sW¶pw AhÀ ]mÀ¡p-¶Xv ]e-]e {`m´m-e-b-§-fn-ep-amWv Fs¶mcp \nK-a-\-¯n-emWv \n§Ä¡v F¯n-t¨-cphm³ km[n-¡pI. a[y-hÀ¤PmXn-¡m-c-\mb Hcp \mbsc Hcp Iogv PmXn-¡m-c³ sXm«m Ahsâ Xe sh«p-hm³ AbmÄ¡v A[n-Im-c-ap-­m-bn-cp-¶p. \mbÀ hgn \S¶p-t]m-Ip-t¼mÄ hgn-bnÂ\n¶pw Hcp Xo­Â¸m-SIse amdn-\n¡m¯ ASn-a¡pw AtX in£ e`n¡p-am-bn-cp¶p. tIc-f-¯nse ]mc-¼cy k{¼-Zm-b-a\p-k-cn¨v Xmgv¶ PmXn-bnÂs¸« BÄ¡mÀ DbÀ¶ PmXn-bnÂs¸-«-h-cn \n¶v 64 ASn AIse amdn\n¡-W-am-bn-cp-¶p. AsÃ-¦n AhÀ aen-\-cmbn Xocpw F¶m-bn-cp¶p k¦-ev]w. PmXob D¨-\o-N-{Ia-a-\p-k-cn¨v NneÀ 72 ASnbpw NneÀ 32 ASnbpw NneÀ 24 ASnbpw AI-¶p-\n¡-W-am-bn-cp-¶p. Ccp]- Xmw- \q- äm-­nsâ Bcw-`- hÀj-§-fn t]mepw DbÀ¶ PmXn-¡mÀ hgnbnÂ\n¶p amdn \nÂt¡-­Xn\v tlmbv, tlmbv F¶ i_vZw apg-¡n-s¡m-­mWv bm{X sNbvXn-cp-¶-Xv. IogvPm-Xn-¡mÀ¡v X§-fpsS hoSn\p HmSp-sh-bv¡p-hm³ Ah-Im-i-ap-­m-bn-cp-¶nÃ, Ah-cpsS hoSn\p c­mw-\ne ]Wn-bp-hmt\m {]th-i-\-I-hmSw D­m-¡p-hmt\m ]mSn-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p. 132

ap«p-a-d-bv¡m¯ Hcp Hä-ap­v Ac-bn Npäp-I-bÃmsX aäp hkv{X-sam¶pw [cn-¨p-sIm­v IogvPm-Xn¡m-c³ Hcp taÂPm-Xn-¡m-csâ ap¼n sNÃp-hm³ ]mSn-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p. IogvPm-Xn-bnÂs¸« Bsc-¦nepw A_-²h - i - m Hcp \mbÀkv{Xosb sXm«p-t]mbm Ah- f psS _Ôp- ¡ Ä DS³Xs¶ Ah- s fbpw Ahsf sXm« a\p-jy-s\bpw Ahsâ _Ôp-¡sfbpw sIm¶p-I-f-bp-am-bn-cp-¶p. Xmgv¶ PmXnbnÂs¸-«-hÀ DbÀ¶ PmXn-bnÂs¸-«-h-tcmSv kwkmcn-¡p-t¼mÄ Ah-cpsS hmb ssI¯-ew-sIm­v aqSn¸n-Sn-¡-W-am-bn-cp-¶p. A§s\ kwkm-cn-¡p-t¼mÄ kzcw Xmgv¯n hnt[-b-Xz-t¯m-sSbpw hn\bw {]ISn-¸n-¡p¶ imcn-cnI \ne-tbmSpw IqsS am{Xta kwkm-cn-¡p-hm³ A\p-hm-Z-ap-­m-bn-cp-¶p-Åp.

A\ym-b-amb BNm-c-§Ä ]eXpw {_n«ojp-ImÀ \nÀ¯-em¡n ape-¡cw: (Breast Tax) 19þmw \qäm-­n sXs¡ C´y-bnse tIc-f¯n tNÀ¯e F¶ Øe- ¯ p Pohn- ¨ n-c p¶ A[xIr-XP - m-Xn-bnÂs]« Hcp lnµp kv{XobpsS IY tIÄ¡p- I .. tÌäv Kh¬saâ v Xmgv ¶ PmXnbnÂs¸« kv{XoIÄ¡p X§-fpsS amdnSw ad-bv¡p133

¶-Xn\v ape-¡cw sImSp-t¡­ Bhiyw D­m-bncp-¶n-Ã, AhÀ¡v Icw sImSp-¡msX amdnSw ad-bv¡mam-bn-cp-¶p. 2012  tIcf P\X ape-¡cw \nÀ¯em-¡n-b-Xnsâ 200 þmw hmÀjnIw sIm­m-Sn-bncp¶p. Xmsg sImSp-¯n-cn-¡p¶ Imcy-§Ä 2013 HIvtSm-_À 21 \v \n[n kptc-{µ-\mYv Fgp-Xn, "Z lnµp' hn {]kn-²o-I-cn¨ teJ-\-¯nÂ\n-¶m-Wv. 200 hÀj-§Ä¡p ap¼v Be-¸pg PnÃ-bnse tNÀ¯ebn \t§en F¶ kv{Xo Pohn-¨n-cp-¶p. ap¼s¯ Xncp-hn-Xmw-IqÀ \m«p-cmPyw (tI-c-fw) A\ym-b-am-bn, a\p-jy-Xz-c-ln-X-ambn Npa-¯n-bn-cp¶ ape-¡-c-¯nt\m-SpÅ {]Xn-tj-[I - k - q-NI - -ambn Xsâ ape apdn¨p \ÂInb kv{Xo F¶ \ne-bn-emWv AhÄ Ncn-{X¯n CSw ]nSn-¨n-cn¡p-¶-Xv.

Xmgv¶ PmXn-¡mÀ¡v ITn\ D]-{Zhw A¡m- e s¯ cmPm- ¡ - · mÀ Xmgv ¶ PmXn¡msc Iogvs¸-Sp¯n \nÀ¯p-¶-Xn-\mbn Ah-cpsS ta `mcn¨ \nIp-Xn-IÄ Npa-¯n-bn-cp-¶p. temI¯n asäm-cn-S¯pw CÃm¯ hn[-¯n Gähpw \nµy-amb Nne \nIp-Xn-IÄ ]ncn-¨mWv cmPm-¡-·mÀ X§-fpsS km¼-¯nI hfÀ¨ Dd-¸m-¡n-bn-cp-¶-Xv. `q\n-Ip-Xnbpw hnf\nIp-Xnbpw IqSmsX IÀjIÀ 134

B`-cWw [cn-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ Ah-Imiw e`n-¡p-¶Xn\pw ]pcp-j-·mÀ¡p X§-fpsS aoi hfÀ¯p-¶Xn-\pÅ Ah-Imiw e`n-¡p-¶-Xn\pw kv{XoIÄ¡p X§fpsS amdnSw ad-bv¡p-¶-Xn-\p-apÅ Ah-Imiw e`n-¡p-¶-Xn-\p-saÃmw {]tXyIw {]tXyIw \nIpXn sImSp-t¡-­n-h-¶p. C¯-c-¯n-epÅ \qdp IW¡n\p A]-lm-ky-§-fmb \nIp-Xn-IÄ thsd-bp-­mbn-cp-¶p. BZys¯ 3 DbÀ¶ PmXn-IÄ¡p \nIpXn Cf-hp-­m-bn-cp-¶p. tIW tPm¬ a¬tdm km[p¡-fmb Xmgv¶ hÀ¤-¡m-cpsS ta Npa-¯n-bn-cp¶ C¯cw \nIp-Xn-IsfÃmw FSp-¯p-I-f-ªp. FÃm D]-cn-hÀ¤-¡mÀ¡pw \nIpXn Npa-¯p-Ibpw sNbvXp. CXn-s\-Xn-cmbn D¶X PmXn-IÄ tPm¬ a¬tdmbv¡v FXnsc henb {]t£m`w D­m-¡n. Xmgv¶ PmXn-¡m-cpsS ta `mcn¨ \nIpXnIÄ Npa-¯n-bXv Ahsc Ft¶bv¡pw IS-_m-[y-X-bpÅ-h-cmbn \ne-\nÀ¯m-\m-bn-cp-¶p. AtX kabw \nIpXn _m[y-X-bn-Ãm¯ D¶X PmXn-¡mÀ A`nhr²n {]m]n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. apI-fn ]dª \t§en tNÀ¯-e-bn \n¶pÅ Hcp ]mh-s¸« Cughkv{Xo-bm-bn-cp-¶p. Ah-fpsS IpSpw-_-¯n\v Cu \nIpXn sImSp-¡m³ {]m]vXn-bn-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p, AXn\m AhÀ Kh¬saân\v IS-¡m-cm-bn-cp-¶p. A¶p 135

]mÀÆ-XymÀ F¶p hnfn-¨n-cp¶ \nIp-Xn-]n-cnhvImc³ AhfpsS ho«n-se¯n AhÄ amdp ad-¨n-cp-¶-XpsIm­v \nIpXn sImSp-¡ p- h m³ Bh- iy- s ¸-« p. At¸mÄ \t§en Xsâ Hcp ape apdn¨v AXv \nIpXn-]n-cn-hp-Im-c\v sImSp-¯p. \nIpXn ]ncn-hp-Im-c³ `b-t¶m-Sn, \t§en Ah-fpsS ho«p-]-Sn-¡Â acn-¨pho-gp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Cu kw`hw \S-¡p-t¼mÄ AhfpsS `À¯m-hmb I­-¸³ Øe-¯p-­m-bn-cp-¶nÃ. Ah³ Xncn-¨p-h-¶-t¸mÄ \t§ensb Zln-¸n-¡phm³ Hcp-¡n-bn-cp¶ Nn´-bn NmSn Abmfpw acn¨p. s]mXp-P-\-¯nsâ el-fsb `b¶v ]ntä¶p Xs¶ Xncp-hn-Xmw-IqÀ hmWn-cp¶ {ioapew Xncp-\mÄ alm-cm-Pmhv Cu \nIpXn \nbaw ]n³h-en-¨p. tIc-f-¯n {_n«ojv `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bm-bncp¶ tIW a¬tdm tIcf kaq-l-¯n ]cnhÀ¯-\-§Ä hcp-¯n. hn¡n ]oUn-b-bn \n¶pw ""tPm¬ a¬tdm 1778 Pq¬ amk-¯n Snbm-\n-\n¨v (tdm-b t\hn) 7 sâ Iym]vä-\m-bn-cp¶ sPbnwkv a¬tdm-bpsS c­m-as¯ aI-\mbn P\n-¨p.

ssk\nI tkh\w Snbm-\n-\n¨v 9 Â tkh\w A\p-jvTn-¨n-cp¶ 136

tPm¬ a¬tdm hfsc sNdp- ¸ - ¡ m- e - ¯ p- Xs¶ ssk\y-¯n tNcp-Ibpw a{Zm-kn-te¡v Ab-¡s¸-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. AhnsS At±lw {iocw-K-]-«W¯p sh¨p \S¶ bp²-¯n ]¦m-fn-bm-Ip-Ibpw Ipd¨p \mfp- I Ä¡p tijw At±- l - ¯ nsâ ssk\y- Z - f - ¯ n klm- b - t k- \ m- ] - X n- b mbn (Adjustant of his regiment ) \nb-an-¡-s¸-Sp-Ibpw sNbv Xp. B ]Z- hn- bn-e n-c p-¶ p-s Im­v At±lw ssk\nI D¯-c-hm-Zn-¯-§-sf-¡p-dn¨pw IS-a-I-sf¡p-dn¨pw Gsd ]cn-N-bn-¡p-Ibpw Ign-hp-IÄ {]I-Sam-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. tPm¬ a¬tdm AhnsS Hcp \à `mjm hnZ-Kv²-\mbpw Xsâ Ign-hp-IÄ sXfnbn-¨p. At±-l¯ - n\v {^©v, PÀ½³, Cäm-en-b³, Ad_n-Iv, t]Àjy³ F¶o `mj-I-fnepw ]e C´y³ \m«p-`m-jI - -fnepw \¶mbn kwkm-cn-¡p-hm\pw FgpXp-hm\pw km[n¡pam-bn-cp-¶p. tPm¬ a¬tdm ssk\ym-[n-]-cpsS klmbn F¶ \ne-bn ]e Øm\-§fpw hln¨p. At±lw C´y-bn amdn-amdn h¶ ]e kÀÆ ssk\ym-[n-]·m-cp-sSbpw ss{]häv sk{I-«-dnbpw Zzn`m-jn-bp-ambn tkh\w A\p-jvTn-¨p. adm¯ bp²w \S¶ kab¯v tPm¬ a¬tdm shÃnw-KvS¬ {]`p-hm-bn-cp¶ BÀXÀ shÃÉn {]`p-hp-ambn hyàn-]-c-ambn ]cn137

N-b-s¸-Sp-Ibpw At±-l-hp-ambn \nc-´cw I¯n-S-]mSp- I Ä \S- ¯ p- I bpw sNbv Xp. tPm¬ a¬tdm s\ÃqÀ elf ASn-¨-aÀ¯p-¶-Xn kvXpXyÀlyamb ]¦p hln-¡p-Ibpw AXp IW-¡n-se-Sp-¯v-DS³ Xs¶ At±-ls¯ a{Zmkv ssk\y-¯nsâ IzmÀ«À amÌÀ P\-d-embn \nban¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. CXv At±-l¯ - n\v 27 hbÊp am{Xw {]mb-ap-Åt- ¸mÄ Bbn-cp-¶p.

`c-W-]-c-amb t\«-§fpw ss]Xr-Ihpw tIW tPm¬ a¬tdm bp²-cw-K¯v Xsâ hyàn-a p{Z ]Xn-¸n-¡p- Ibpw C´y³P-\- X-bpsS {]iv\-§Ä ssIImcyw sN¿p-¶-Xn henb anIhp {]I-Sn-¸n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. thep-¯¼n Zfh CuÌv C´ym I¼-\nsb B{I-an-¨-t¸mÄ At±lw hfsc kaÀ°-ambn Xncp-hn-Xmw-IqÀ \m«p-cm-Py-¯nse P\§-sfbpw sIm¨n-\m«p cmPy-¯nse P\-§-sfbpw I¼-\n-tbmSp A\p-\-bn-¸n¨p \nÀ¯p-¶-Xn hnPbn-¨-Xn-\m At±-ls¯ Cu \m«p-cm-Py-§-fpsS ta I¼-\n-bpsS sdkn-Uâ v Bbn \nb-an-¡p-hm³ CS-bm-bn. tIW a¬tdm 1812 apX 1818 hsc Xncp-hn-Xmw-IqÀ \m«p-cm-Py-¯nsâ cmP-]-Zhn hln138

¨n-cp¶ dmWn e£van `mbn-bpsSbpw dmWn Kucn ]mÀÆ-Xn-`m-bn-bp-sSbpw Znhm³ F¶ \nebnepw sIm¨n \m«p-cm-Py-¯nsâ cmP-]-Zhn hln-¨n-cp¶ cmPm tIc-f-hÀ½-bp-sS Znhm³ F¶ \ne-bnepw tkh\w A\p-jvTn-¨p. tkh-\-cw-K¯v e`n¨ Cu kzmX{´yw At±-l-¯n\v `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fp-sSbpw P\-§-fp-sSbpw hnizmkw BÀÖn-¡p-hm\pw \oXn\nÀÆ-lW cwK¯v Hcp {_mÒ-Wsâ ASp¯v Hcp {InkvXym\n F¶ \ne-bn Hcp PUvPn-bmbn Ccp-¶p-sIm­v ]e ]cn-jvIm-c-§fpw \S-¸n-em¡m\pw km[n-¨p. Hcp alm-\mb `c-Wm-[n-Imcn F¶ \ne-bn Cu ]Z-hn-bn-en-cp-¶p-sIm­v sN¿m³ Ignª Imcy-§-fmWv At±-l-¯nsâ tkh-\-Imes¯ Gähpw Xnf-¡-amÀ¶ Imcy-§Ä. ZoÀLImew aäp-Å-hÀ¡v ImWm³ Ign-bm-Xn-cp¶ Imc-y§Ä At±-l-¯n\v ImWm³ km[n-¨p. At±-l¯nÂ\n- \¶v ]n¶oSv {_n«o- j p- ImÀ¡pw C´y¡mÀ¡pw bYmÀ° kl- I - c - W - ` - c - W - ¯ nsâ clkyw F´m-sW¶v a\-Ên-em-¡m³ Ign-ªp. hfsc-tbsd ]ptcm-K-a-\m-ß-I-amb ]cn-jvIm-c-§Ä \S¸n-em-¡p¶ Imcy-¯n Cu `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-Isf kzm[o-\n-¡p-hm³ At±-lw Hcp D]-I-c-W-ambn hÀ¯n¨p. At±lw Cu \m«p-cm-Py-§-fpsS Znhm³ 139

F¶ \ne-bn {]hÀ¯n¨ Ime¯v At±lw \oXn\ymb tImS-Xn-I-fn Bh-iy-amb ]cn-jvImcw hcp¯n, \m«p-cm-Py-§-fpsS hcp-am\w hÀ²n-¡p-hm-\mh-iy-amb ]cn-jvIm-c-§Ä \S-¸n-em-¡n, Agn-a-Xnbpw sISp Imcy-Ø-Xbpw XS-ªp. 1812  At±lw ASna¯ k{¼-Zmbw \nÀ¯-em-¡p-hm-\m-h-iy-amb \S- ] - S n- I Ä Bcw- `n- ¨ p. 1835 amÀ¨ 8þmwXo¿Xn a¬tdm Xpcp-¯n ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmbw \nÀ¯em¡n ]n¶oSv 1853 epw 1855 epw Xncp-hn-Xmw-IqÀ alm-cm-Pmhv CXp kw_Ôn¨ cmP-Iob hnfw_cw \ÂIn. tIW tPm¬ a¬tdm kaq-l-¯nse Xmsg X«n-ep-Å-h-cpsS ta Npa-¯n-bn-cp¶ ]e `mcn¨ \nIp-Xn-Ifpw FSp-¯p-I-f-ªp. Cw¥ojv CuÌv C´ym-¡-¼-\n-bpsS dkn-Uâ v Bbn-cp-¶p-sh¦nepw Cw¥ojv CuÌv C´ym I¼-\nbpw Xncp-hnXmw-IqÀ \m«p-cmPyw X½nepw A`n-{]m-b-hy-Xy-k§Ä D­mb kµÀ`- § - f n At±lw FÃmbvt¸mgpw \m«p-cm-Py-§Ä¡v A\p-Iq-eayn hmZn-¨ncp-¶p. At±lw \S-¸n-em-¡p-hm³ ss[cyw ImWn¨ ]e Imcy-§-fp-sSbpw t]cn tIW tPm¬ a¬tdm ISp¯ hnaÀi-\-¯n\v hnt[-b-\m-tI-­nh-¶n-«p-­v. Nne kµÀ`-§-fn At±-ls¯ tae[n-Im-cn-IÄ iIm-cn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-«p-­v. F¶m 140

At±-l-¯nsâ ]²-Xn-IÄ `cn-¡p-¶-hÀ¡pw `cn-¡s¸-Sp-¶hÀ¡pw Hcp-t]mse {]tbm-P-\-I-c-sa¶v {]hÀ¯n-¨p-Im-Wn-¨psImSp-¯-t¸mÄ AXp _p²n]qÀÆ-amb \S-]-Sn-sb¶v sXfn-bn-¡-s¸-«p. apÉnw-§fp-w DbÀ¶ PmXn-bn s]« lnµp-¡fpw {InkvXy³ PUvPn-am-cpsS kXy-k-Ô-Xbpw BßmÀ°-Xbpw {]IoÀ¯n-¡p-¶Xp ImWm³ At±-l-¯n\v km[n¨p. At±-l-¯nsâ Imew apX ]mÝmXy {InkvXobX F´m-sW¶v ]uc-kvXy-P-\-§Ä¡p hymJym\n¨v hni-Zo-I-cn-¨p-sIm-Sp-¡p-hm³ {ian-¨-hÀ¡v At±lw hgn sXfn-¨p-sIm-Sp-¯p. C¡m-c-W-§-fm At±-ls¯ Cu \m«p-cm-Py-§f - n-epÅ P\-§Ä BZc-thm-sS-bmWv I­-Xv. AjvS-ap-Sn-¡m-b-en ØnXn sN¿p¶ 8 Zzo]-k-aq-l-§Ä tNÀ¶ a¬tdm Xpcp¯n\v B t]cp \ÂInbncn-¡p-¶Xv tIW tPm¬ a¬tdm-tbm-SpÅ BZ-c-hnsâ ASn-Øm-\¯ - n-em-Wv. Ncn-{X-¯n tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv tIW tPm¬ a¬tdm Xncp-hn-Xmw-IqÀ, sIm¨n \m«p-cm-Py§- f nse Gähpw kaÀ°cpw P\- k - ½ - X nbmÀÖn¨hcp-amb `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fn Hcm-fm-bncp-¶p-sh-¶m-Wv.'' tIc-f-¯nse sslµh t£{X§Ä Agn-aX - n-bmepw, kzP-\] - £ - ] - m-X¯ - mepw sISpIm-cy-Ø-X-bnepw ]m¸-cmbn henb timN-\o-bm-h141

Ø-bn-em-bn-cp-¶p. 1812  sIm¨n, Xncp-hn-Xmw-IqÀ \m«p-cm-Py-§f - psS Znhm-\mbn \nb-an-¡s - ¸« {_n«ojv dkn-U-\vdmb tIW a¬tdm-bv¡m-bn-cp¶p Cu t£{X-§sf ià-amb Hcp `c-W-¯n³ Iogn sIm­p-h-cm-\pÅ Npa-X-e. FÃm tZhkzw hI kz¯p- ¡ fpw Kh¬saâ nsâ A[o- \ - ¯ n sIm­p-h-c-W-sa¶pw tZhkzw hI hc-hp-I-sfÃmw tÌänsâ s]mXp hc-hn DÄs¸-Sp¯n AXn ebn¸n-¡-W-sa¶pw a¬tdm ip]mÀi sNbvXp. IqSmsX t£{X-§-fpsS \S-¯n¸p sNe-hp-IÄ hln-¡p-¶Xn-\mbn ]Xnhv F¶ Hcp k{¼-Zm-bhpw ip]mÀi sNbvXp. (D-Õh - s - N-eh - p-IÄ XpS-§nb Imcy-§Ä¡v \nÝnX XpI \nÝ-bn-¡p¶ coXn-bm-bn-cp¶p Cu ]Xnhp k{¼-Zm-bw) Cu ip]mÀi-IÄ Xncp-hn-XmwIqÀ, sIm¨n alm-cm-Pm-¡-·mÀ AwKo-I-cn-¨p. 1815  Cu ip]mÀi \S-¸n-em-¡p-¶-Xnsâ hnhn[ hi§-sf-¡p-dn¨v ]Tn-¡p-hm³ Hcp I½nän cq]h¡cn-¨p. Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn alm-dmWn Kucn ]mÀÆ-Xn`m-bn-bpsS `c-W-Im-e¯v t£{X-§-fpsS \S-¯n¸ns\ \nb-{´n-¡p-hm³ Hcp tZhkzw t_mÀUv cq]h¡-cn-¨p-sIm-WSv Hcp cmP-I-ev]\ ]pd-s¸-Sp-hn¨p. Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dnse `qcn-`mKw t£{X-§fpw AXnsâ \nb-{´-W-¯n sIm­p-h-¶p.'' C§s\ 142

t\m¡p-t¼mÄ tPm¬a¬tdm {InkvXob taJ-eI-fn am{X-a-Ã, ]cn-jvIm-c-§Ä sIm­p-h-¶-Xv, lnµp-a-X-¯n\v A`n-hr²n {]m]n-¡p-hm-\pÅ klmb-§fpw sNbvXp. Ata-cn-¡-bn Hcn-¡Â D­m-bn-cp¶ ASn-ak-{¼-Zm-b-¯nsâ t]cn B cmPys¯ Ipä-s¸-Sp¯p-¶-Xn\v ap¼v, temI-¯nse BsI \S-am-Sn-bncp¶ ASn-ak - -{¼-Zm-b-¯nsâ bYmÀ° Ncn{Xw apgph³ ]Tn-¡phm³ {ian-¡p-I. Cu temI-¯n-ep-­mbn-cp¶ Cu sImSpw-Xn-·b - v¡v, AhÀ FÃm-hcpw Hcpt]mse Ipä-¡m-cm-bn-cp-¶p.

Ata-cn-¡³ ASn-a-¯-¯nsâ \·-h-i-§Ä P\-§Ä C¶p tIÄ¡p-hm-\m-{K-ln-¡m¯ Gähpw \nµy-amb c­p hm¡p-If - p-­v.hntZi B[n]Xyw (Colonialism) ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmbw (Slavery) F¶n-h-bmWv B c­p hm¡p-IÄ. \mw FÃm-hcpw a\-Ên-em-¡n-bn-cn-t¡-­-Xmb Hcp {][m-\-s¸« Imcy-ap-­v, c­mw temI-a-lm-bq²-¯nsâ Ah-km\ \mfp-IÄ hsc Cu temIw apgp-h\pw {]mIr-Xk - z-`m-ht- ¯mSp IqSn-bX - m-bn-cp-¶p. Cu temI-hy-h-ØnXn amdp-¶-Xp-h-scbpw Hä-s¸-«143

Xmb Incm-X-Xzhpw arKo-b-kz-`mhhpw temI-a-\pjy-cpsS CS-bn ImW-s¸-Spw. DZm-l-c-W-ambn dphm­-bn \S¶ hwiob Iq«-s¡m-ebpw t]mÄt]m«v It¼m-Un-b-bnse P\-§fn GXm­v ]Ip-Xn-bn-e[nIw t]sc CÃmbva sNbvXXpw, CkvemanI tÌäv `oI-cÀ sNbvXp-sIm-­n-cn-¡p¶ hnh-c-Wm-Xo-Xhpw arKo-b-hp-amb \c-l-Xy-Ifpw \mw I­p-I-gn-ªp. Ata-cn-¡b - nse C¶p Pohn-¨n-cn-¡p¶ Idp¯ hÀ¤¡m-cmb P\-§Ä X§-fpsS kIe Zpcn-X-§Ä¡pw ImcWw ap¼v Ah-cpsS ap³Km-an-IÄ¡v A\p-`-hnt¡-­n-h¶ ASn-a-¯-am-sW¶v ]dªv Ata-cn¡sb Ipä- s ¸- S p- ¯ n- s ¡m- ­n- c n- ¡ p- ¶ p. \ap¡v bYmÀ° Nn{Xw H¶p t\m¡n-Im-Wp-hm³ {ian-¡mw. Ata-cn-¡-bnse ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zm-b-¯n\v Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mÀ bYmÀ°-¯n \µn-bp-Å-h-cm-bn-cn-¡pI-bmWv sNt¿-­-Xv. \qäm-­p-IÄ¡p ap¼v B{^n¡-bn Xs¶ Ign-ªn-cp¶ Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mÀ¡v F´mWv kw`-hn¨-Xv ? B{^n-¡b - n hnhn[ tKm{X§Ä X½n Ft¸mgpw t]mcm«w D­m-bn-cp-¶psh¶v \ap-¡-dn-bmw. B{^n-¡-bnse ]e cmPy-§fnepw B t]mcm«w C¶pw XpS-cp-¶p. Ignª \qäm­p-I-fn t]mj-Im-lm-c-¡p-d-hp-sIm­pw tKm{X§Ä X½n-epÅ t]mcm«w sIm­pw tKm{X-§Ä X½n144

epÅ t]mcm- « w- s Im­pw ac- W - k wJy hfsc DbÀ¶p. t\sc adn¨v B{^n-¡-bnÂ\n¶v Ata-cn¡-bn-te¡v ASn-a-I-fmbn t]mb-hÀ¡pw Ah-cpsS k´-Xn-IÄ¡pw Btcm-Kyhpw ZoÀLm-bpÊpw e`n¨p. s{]m«-Ìâp-Im-cmb bP-am-\-·mÀ X§-fpsS ASna-I-tfmSv Gähpw a\p-jyXz ]c-am-bn-«mWv CS-s]-«ncp-¶-Xv. F¶m aäp-Å-hÀ Ah-cpsS ASn-a-I-tfmSv ITn-\-ambn s]cp-am-dn-bn-cp-¶p F¶Xpw hmkvX-h-amWv. Ncn-{Xm-Xo-X-Imew apXÂXs¶ temI-¯n-seÃm-bn-S¯pw ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmbw \ne-\n-¶n-cp-¶p. C´y-bnse Xmgv¶ PmXn-¡mÀ A\p-`-hn¨ ASn-a¯ coXn-tbmSp Xmc-X-ay-s¸-Sp-¯p-t¼mÄ Ata-cn-¡³ ASn-a¯w Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mÀ¡v Hcp ]nIv\n¡p t]mse-bm-bn-cp¶p F¶p ]d-bmw.

Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡msc hÀ®-hn-th-N-\m-SnØm-\-¯n thÀXn-cn¨v AI-än\nÀ¯p¶p bp.-F-kv.F bn D­m-bn-cp¶ hÀ®-hn-th-N\-coXn F§-s\bpÅ-Xm-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v hn¡n-]o-Unb-bn \n¶p \ap¡v hmbn¨p a\-Ên-em-¡mw. ""Pnw t{Im \nb-a-§Ä'' (Jim Crow Laws) 145

F¶Xv bpss\-äUv tÌänsâ Z£n-W-`m-K-§-fn \S-¸n-em-¡n-bn-cp¶ hwiob thÀXn-cnhv kw_-Ôn¨ tÌän-sâbpw {]mtZ-inI `c-W-Iq-S-§-fp-sSbpw \nba-§-fm-bn-cp-¶p. cmjv{S ]p\À\nÀ½mW Ime-¯n-\ptijw \S-¸n-em¡nb Cu \nb-a-§Ä 1965 hscbpw XpSÀ¶p. Cu \nb-a§ - f - n A\p-im-kn-¨n-cp-¶Xv 1890 apX B{^n-¡³ Ata-cn-¡¡mÀ¡v "{]tXy-I-amb F¦nepw Xpey-amb' kmaq-ly-Øn-Xn, ap¼s¯ Atacn-¡³ tÌäp-I-fpsS kJy tÌäp-I-fn (In States of the former confederate State of America) FÃm s]mXp Øm\-§-fnepw \nb-a-{]-Im-c-apÅ hwiob thÀXn-cnhv (Dejure racial segregation) F¶m- b n- c p¶p. B{^n-¡ ³ Ata- c n- ¡ - ¡ m- c psS ØnXn shÅ-¡m-cmb Ata-cn-¡-¡m-cp-sS-Xn-t\¡mÄ hfsc Xmgv¶ Ah-Ø-bnepw AhÀ¡p e`n-¨ncp¶ km¼-¯n-Im-\p-Iq-ey-§Ä Ah-cp-tS-Xnt\-¡mÄ hfsc Ipd-hp-am-bn-cp-¶p. Cu \nb-aIÀ¯m-¡Ä hf-sc-tbsd km¼-¯nI hnZym-`ym-k, kmaq-lnI t]mcm-bva-Isf Øm]\ h¡-cn-¨p. \nb-a{- ]-Im-ca - pÅ thÀXn-cnhv {][m-\a - mbpw Z£nW bpss\-äUv tÌävkn am{Xta _m[-I-am-bn-cp-¶pÅp. AtX kabw hS-¡³ bpss\-äUv tÌävkn Cu thÀXn-cnhv s]mXpsh bYmÀ°-¯n-epÅ-Xm-bn146

cp-¶p (De facto ). hoSp-IÄ \nÀ½n-¡p-t¼mÄ ]ment¡-­-Xmb amXrIm thÀXn-cn-hn-s\-¡p-dn¨v cl-kyambn At\ym\yw k½-Xn¨ Hcp [mcW \ne-hn-ep­mbn-cp-¶p. _m¦nÂ\n¶p ISw sImSp-¡p-¶-Xns\ kw_- Ôn¨p tPmen Imcy- §- s f- kw_- Ôn¨pw Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mcpw shÅ-¡mcpw X½n thÀXncn-hp-­m-bn-cp-¶p, sXmgn kwL-S-\-I-fnepw _Ôs¸« {]hÀ¯-\-§-fnepw Cu thÀXn-cnhv {]mtbmKn-I-amb \ne-bn D­m-bn-cp-¶p. Pnwt{Im \nb-a-§Ä shÅ-¡mÀ¡pw Idp¯ hÀ¤- ¡ mÀ¡pw {]tXyIw {]tXyIw {]tXyIw ]»nIv kvIqfpIfpw s]mXp-Ø-e-§-fpw, s]mXp KXmKX kwhn-[m-\-§fpw , hn{i-a-ap-dn-Ifpw `£W-im-e-Ifpw IpSn-shÅ kw`-c-Wn-Ifpw D­m-bncn-¡-W-sa¶v \njv¡Àjn-¨n-cp-¶p. bp.-F-kv. anen-«dn kÀÆo-knepw C{]-Imcw thÀXn-cn-hp-­m-bn-cp-¶p, kwbpà tPmen-Ø-e-§-fnepw CXp Xs¶-bm-bncp¶p ØnXn. Z£nW Ata-cn-¡-bnÂ\n¶pw BZyambn {]knU­v ]Z- h n- b n- s e- ¯ nb hqUv t dm hnÂksâ t\Xr-Xz-¯n-emWv 1913  CXv Bcw-`n-¨Xv. DtZym-KmÀ°n-I-tfmSv t^mt«m kaÀ¸n-¡p-hm³ Bh-iy-s¸-«-Xn-eqsS At±-l-¯nsâ `cWw DtZymKØ \nb-a-\I - m-cy-§fnepw hwiob hnth-N\w \S147

¸n-em-¡p-I-bm-bn-cp-¶p. Cu Pnwt{Im \nb-a-§Ä ]n³Xp-SÀ¶Xv 1800 þ 1866 se Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-cpsS \nb-am-h-en-bm-bncp¶p (Black Codes) AXv ap¼v B{^n-¡³ Atacn-¡I - m-cpsS ]ucm-hI - m-i§ - -sfbpw ]uc-kzm-X-{´y§-sfbpw \nb-{´n-¨n-cp-¶p. 1954 se {_u¬ Vs t_mÀUv Hm^v FPyp-t¡-bvj³ tIkn Ata-cn¡-bnse kp{]ow tImSXn tÌäv DS-a-Ø-X-bn-epÅ ]»nIv kvIqfp-Isf X½n hÀ®-hn-th-N-\-¯nsâ t]cn thÀXn-cn-¡p-¶-Xns\ `c-W-L-S-\m-hn-cp²w F¶v {]Jym-]n-¨n-cp-¶p. s]mXp-hmbn ]d-ªm Pnwt{Im \nb-a-§-fn _m¡n-bpÅ hnj-b-§Ä 1964 se knhn ssdävkv BIvSv A\p-k-cn¨pw 1965 se thm«-h-Imi \nba {]Im-chpw (Voting Right Act of 1965) ZpÀ_-e-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp-¶p. F¶n-cp¶mepw Øm]-\-§-tfmSp _Ô-s¸« hnth-N-\-§fpsS Ipcp-¡p-I-f-gn-¡p-hm³ hÀj-§-tfmfw \o­ ]cn-{i-a§ - fpw tImS-Xn-If - psS CS-s]-Se - p-Ifpw Bhiy-ambn h¶p. GXp Xc-¯n-epÅ hnth-N-\hpw sXäm-Wv, ]m]-am-Wv, F¶m C¯-c-¯n temI-¯n \ne\n¶ Cu A\o-Xnsb Xncp-¯n-bXv shÅ-¡m-cmb {InkvXym-\n-I-fmWv F¶-XmWv hmkvX-hw. C¶pw 148

\ap¡v apkvenw cmjv{S-§-fn {]mIr-Xhpw {Iqchp-amb ASn-a-k-{¼-Zmbw ImWm³ km[n-¡pw. 2015  kndn-bb - n-ep-­m-bn-cp¶ P\-kw-Jy-bn GXm­v ]Ip-Xn-bm-fp-IÄ B`y-´-c-bp²w t]Sn¨v Ahn-sS\n¶v ]em- b \w sNbv X p. AhÀ Ft§m- « mWv t]mbXv? a[y-]qÀÆtZis¯ Ad-_n-cm- Py-§Ä hfsc DbÀ¶ km¼-¯nI \ne-bn-epÅ cmPy-§fm-sW¶v \\-ap-¡-dn-bmw. AhÀ¡p [mcmfw `q{]tZ-i§ - fpw Hgn-ªp-In-S-¸p-­v. F¶m Cu apkvenw cmPy-§-fnÂ\n¶p c£-s¸-«p-h¶ A`-bmÀ°n-Ifn HcmÄ¡p t]mepw AhÀ A`bw sImSp-¯n-Ã. `qcn-`mKw Gjy-¡mcpw B{^n-¡-¡mcpw a[y-]qÀÆ tZi-¡mcpw apX-em-fn¯ cmjv{S-§sfbpw shÅ¡m-cmb {InkvXym-\n-I-sfbpw shdp-t¸msS ho£n¡p-¶p-sh-¦nepw AhÀ¡v kzcm-Py¯v kI-eXpw \jvS-am-b-t¸mÄ AhÀ bqtdm-¸n-te¡pw Ata-cn-¡bn-te¡pw t]mIp-hm-\mWv a\Êp sh¨-Xv. AXnsâ AÀ°w Ah-cpsS lrZ-bm-´À`-K¯v Ah-cpsS kz´w apkvenw ktlm-Z-c-·m-sc-¡mÄ \Ã-Xv, shÅ¡m-cmb {InkvXym-\n-If - m-sW¶ t_m[yw AhÀ¡p­m-bn-cp¶p F¶-Xm-Wv. C\n \ap¡v Ata-cn-¡³ ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zmb-s¯-¡p-dn¨v ]cn-tim-[n-¡mw. 149

Ad-_n-IÄ Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-cmb B{^n-¡¡msc Ata-cn-¡bv¡v hne hm§n \ÂIn-b-Xn-\p-tijw B{^n-¡-bn Zi-e-£-¡-W-¡n\v Idp¯ hÀ¤¡mÀ tijn- ¨ n- c p- ¶ p. B{^n- ¡ - b n Ah- c psS ØnXn F§-s\-bm-bn-cp¶p? Cu 21 þmw \qäm-­n t]mepw B{^n-¡-bnse Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-cpsS CSbn tKm{X-§Ä X½n-epÅ t]mcm-«-§Ä hf-scbm-Wv. 400 hÀj-§Ä¡p ap¼v B{^n-¡-bnse ØnXn F´m-bn-cp¶p? B ka-b-§-fn tKm{X-§Ä X½n-epÅ bp²hpw B`y-´c - b - p-²hpw Gähpw `oI-ca - mb coXn.bn CS-bv¡nsS D­m-Ip-am-bn-cp-¶p. B{^n-¡-bn tijn¨ Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-cn `qcn-`mKw t]cpw tKm{X-§Ä X½n-epÅ bp²-¯nepw t]mj-Im-lm-cIp-dh - p-aq-ehpw ITn-\t- cm-K§ - Ä _m[n¨pw a-cn-¨p-t]mbn. AtX-k-abw Atacn¡-bn-te¡v ASn-a-I-fmbn sIm­p-h-c-s¸-«-hÀ¡v ITn-\ambn the sNt¿-­nh-s¶-¦nepw AhÀ¡v Bh-iy-amb `£-Whpw ]mÀ¸n-Shpw e`n-¨p. shÅ-¡mÀ Ahsc Cw¥ojv `mj ]Tn-¸n-¨p, AhÀ¡v kphn-tijw ]d-ªp-sImSp-¯p. AhÀ kzÀ¤ob {]Xym-i-bpÅ ià-cmb {InkvXym-\n-I-fmbn amdn. Ah-cpsS a¡Ä B{^n¡-bn-epÅ kzP-\-¯nsâ a¡-tf-¡mÄ Ignhpw 150

hnZym- ` ym- k - h p- a p- Å - h - c m- b n- ¯ oÀ¶p. AhÀ¡v _Ênsâ ]nd-In-es¯ koän Ccn-t¡-­n-h¶p F¶Xv hmkvX-h-am-Wv. B hnth-N\w icn-bmb Imcy-am-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. F¶m AtX kabw AhÀ¡v Htc _Ên k©-cn-¡p-hm-\pÅ Ah-Im-i-ap-­mbn-cp-¶p. C´y-bn Hcp IogvPm-Xn-¡m-c³ Hcp taÂPm-Xn¡mc³ k©-cn-¡p¶ hgn-bnÂ\n¶pw 60 apX 90 hsc ASn Zqc¯p amdn \nÂt¡-­-Xmb Hcp ØnXn D­m-bn-cp¶p F¶Xv HmÀ¡p-I. Ata- c n- ¡ - b nse Idp¯ hÀ¤- ¡ mÀ¡v {]tXyIw shÅkw- ` - c - W n- b m- W p- ­ m- b n- c p- ¶ Xv F¶Xpw hmkvX-h-am-Wv. F¶m Ata-cn-¡-bn Ah-cpsS PohnXw B{^n-¡b - n Ign-ªncp¶ AhcpsS kzPm-Xn-¡m-cp-sS-Xn-s\-¡mÄ Bbncw aS§p kpc- £n- X- am- bn-cp-¶ p. B{^n-¡- bn AhÀ¡p k©-cn-¡p-hm³ Igp-X-Itfm IpXn-c-Itfm CÃm-bncp-¶p. AhÀ AhnsS shÅhpw Blm-c-hp-an-ÃmsX ZoÀL-Zqcw \S-¶mWv t]mbn-cp-¶-Xv. AtX, Ata-cn¡-bnse shÅ-¡m-cmb {InkvXym-\n-IÄ Ah-cpsS ]m]-§Ä¡v \jvS-]-cn-lmcw hcp-¯n, C¶s¯ Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mÀ ASn-a¯ k{¼-Zm-b¯ - nsâ A\p{K-ls¯ HmÀ¯v \µn-bp-Å-h-cmbncnt¡-­-Xm-Wv. temI-¯nse {]K-Ûc - mb km¼¯nI hnZ-Kv²151

cn Hcmfmb hmÄ«À hneyw-knsâ hm¡p-IÄ ChnsS Ipdn-¡s«. "atäXp tKm{X kaq-l-§-fp-ambn Xmc-X-ay-s¸Sp-¯p-t¼mÄ Ata-cn-¡-bnse Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mÀ Npcp§nb Ime-¯n-\p-Ån hfsc henb Nne XS-Ê-§Ä adn IS¶v hf-sc-tbsd Zqcw apt¼m«v h¶n-cn-¡p-¶p. A`q-X] - qÀÆ-amb Cu ]ptcm-K-Xnsb hnhn[ am\-Z-WvU-§Ä D]-tbm-Kn¨v ]cn-tim-[n¨v Dd¸p hcp-¯m³ Ign-bpw. Ata-cn¡bnse Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡m-cpsS am{Xw k¼mZyw F{X-sb¶v IW¡p Iq«n t\m¡n-bn«v AhÀ Hcp {]tXyI cm{jvS-ambn \ne-sIm-Åp-¶h - c - m-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v k¦-ev]n-¡p-I, 2008  AhÀ k¼m-Zn-¨Xv 726 _nÃy³ tUmf-dm-Wv. AXm-bXv 72600 tImSn tUmfÀ. C{Xbpw DbÀ¶ Hcp hcp-am\w Ahsc temI-¯nse ]Xn-\m-dm-as¯ k¼¶ cmjv { S- a m- ¡ p- a m- b n- c p- ¶ p. Cu Øm\w XpÀ¡n¡v sXm«p ]n¶nepw t]mf- ­ v, s\XÀem³Uvkv, s_ÂPn-b w, kznävkÀem³Uv F¶o cmjv{S-§Ä¡p ap¼n-ep-am-Wv.'' (hmÄ«À C hneyw-kv, "sdbvkv & C¡-tWmanIvkv', lqhÀ C³Ìn-äyq-j³ {]kv, t]Pv 5) Xe-ap-dI - f - mbn Gähpw IqSp-X Hfnw-_nIvkv saU- e p- I Ä t\Sp- ¶ Xv BcmWv ? Ata- c n- ¡ ³ 152

Idp¯ hÀ¤-¡mÀ.

sImtfm-Wn-b-enkw AYhm hntZi B[n-]Xyw 1947  C´y hn`-Pn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶-Xn\v ap¼v {_n«ojv C´y-bpsS `mK-a-ÃmsX \ne-sIm­ 562 sIm¨p-cm-Py-§Ä AYhm \m«p-cm-Py-§Ä C´y-bnep-­m-bn-cp-¶p. Chbpw C´y³ D]-`q-JW - vU¯ - nsâ `mK-§-fm-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¦nepw Chsb {_n«o-jp-ImÀ ]nSn¨S¡p-Itbm X§-fpsS km{am-Py-t¯mSp Iq«ntNÀ¡p-Itbm sNbvXn-cp-¶n-Ã. Ah AXnsâ kJy klmb \m«p-cm-Py-§-fmbn (Subscribing Alliance) \ne \n¶n-cp-¶p. Ncn{Xw ]Tn-¡p-t¼mÄ \ap¡v a\-Ên-em-Ip¶Xv C´y-bnse \pdp-I-W-¡n\v \m«p-cm-Py-§Ä X½n _Ô-an-ÃmsX kzX-{´-ambn \n¶n-cp-¶p-sh¶m-Wv. Cu ØnXn hntZ-in-I-fmb CkvemanI `cW-IÀ¯m-¡Ä¡v C´y-bn-te¡v h¶v Ahsc B{Ian-¡m\pw \qäm-­p-I-tfmfw C´y³P-\-Xsb IogaÀ¯n \nÀ¯p-hm\pw CS-bm-¡n. {_n«o-jp-ImÀ Hcp]-t£, C´y-bn-te¡v h¶n-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¦n CXv ico A¯v \nba§Ä IÀi-\-ambn ]men-¡p¶ 153

kuZn Atd-_ysb t]mse Hcp CkvemanI cmjv{Sambn amdp-am-bn-cp-¶p. {_n«o-jp-ImÀ C´y-bn-te¡v h¶v C´y-bnse ]c-kv]cw _Ô-an-ÃmsX InS¶ \m«p-cm-Py-§sf Hcp `c-W-¯n³ Iogn sIm­phcnIbpw XpSÀ¶v C´y C¶p \mw ImWp-¶-Xpt]mse 21 þmw \qäm-­nse Gähpw ià-amb temIcm-jv{S-§-fn H¶mbn hf-cp-Ibpw sNbvXp. C¶v C´y-bn-emsI Cw¥ojp `mj kwkm-cn-¡p¶ 350 Zi-e £w P\- §-fp-­v . CXv sImtfm- Wn-b-e n-k¯nsâ \à ^e-§-fn-sem-¶m-Wv. sImtfm-Wn-b-enkw AYhm hntZi B[n]Xyw a\p-jysâ Ncn-{X-t¯mfw Xs¶ ]g-¡-apÅ-Xm-Wv. temI-N-cn-{X-¯n Hcp P\-k-aqlw AXnsâ AXnÀ¯n-I-tfmSv tNÀ¶p-In-S-¡p¶ {]tZi-§sf B{I-an¨v Iogvs¸-Sp-¯n. X§-fpsS kz´w P\-§sf AhnsS IpSn-bn-cp-¯p-¶-Xnsâ [mcmfw DZm-lc - W - § - Ä ImWn-¨p-Xc - p-¶p-­v. _m_n-tem-Wycpw, t]Àjy-¡m-cpw, {Ko¡p-Im-cpw, tdmam-¡mcpw temI-Nc - n-{X-¯nsâ hn`n¶ Imebfhp-If - n temI¯nsâ hnhn-[-`m-K§Ä B{I-an¨v Iogvs¸-Sp¯n Ahn-sS-sbÃmw X§-fpsS tImf-\nIÄ Øm]n-¨Xmbn ImWp-¶p-­v. AXn-\m sImtfm-W-b-enkw AYhm hntZi B[n-]Xyw F¶Xv GsX-¦nepw Hcp 154

{]tXyI Ime-L-«-¯n-sâtbm GsX-¦nepw Hcp {]XyIw tZi-¯n-sâtbm am{Xw Imcy-ambn ]cn-anX-s¸-Sp-¯p-hm³ Ign-bp-¶-X-Ã. F¶m ]Xn-\mdmw \qäm-­n I¸Âbm-{Xm-ta-J-e-bn kmt¦-Xn-Ia - mb hfsc henb apt¶-ä-§-fp-­m-¡p-Ibpw temI¯n AXp-hsc Bcpw k©-cn-¡m-Xn-cp¶ DÄ{]tZ-i-§-fn-tebv¡v bm{X sN¿p-hm-\pÅ km[yX sXfn-bp-Ibpw sNbvXtXmSp-IqsS A§s\bpÅ {]tZ-i-§Ä Is­¯n Ahn-sS-sbÃmw tImf-\n-IÄ Øm]n-¡m\pÅ {]h-WX hfsc hÀ²n-¡p-Ib - p-­mbn. thK-¯n k©-cn-¡p¶ I¸-ep-IÄ h¶-tXmSp-IqsS hfsc Zqsc ØnXn sN¿p¶ Xpd-ap-J-§fn F¯n-t¨-cp-hm\pw tImf-\n-Ifpw amXr-cm-Pyhpw X½n ASp¯ _Ôw ]peÀ¯p-hm\pw km[n-¨p. C§s\ kap-{Z-amÀ¤-¯n-eqsS hf-sc-b-[nIw P\§sf tImf-\n-I-fn-te¡v IS-¯ns¡m­pt]m-Iphm\pw `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-ambn P\-§Ä hnZq-c-Ø-e§-fn-epÅ ]e ]e tImf-\n-I-fn-embn NnX-dn-¡n-S¡p-¶p-sh-¦n-epw, Ahn-sS-sbÃmw cmjv{Sob ta[mhnXzw Øm]n-¡p-hm-\papÅ B[p-\nI bqtdm-]y³ tImf\n kYm-]\ ]²-Xn-IÄ Bhn-jv¡-cn-¡-s¸-«p. bqtdm-]y³ cmPy-§Ä C§s\ Ata-cn-¡³ `qJWvU-§fpw Bkvt{S-en-b-bpw, B{^n-¡-bp-sSbpw 155

Gjy-bp-sSbpw Nne `mK-§fpw DÄs¸-sS, temI¯nâ hnhn[ `mK-§f - n-epÅ {]tZ-i§ - f - n {]thin¨v AhnsS kz´w P\-§sf ]mÀ¸n-¡p-Ibpw cmjv{Sob B[n-]Xyw Øm]n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXX - ns\ hni-Za - m-¡p-hm-\mWv sImtfm-Wn-be - nkw AsÃ-¦n hntZi B[n-]Xyw F¶ ]Zw D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶-Xv. tImtfm-Wn-be - nkw Cu temI-¯nse Gähpw henb ]mh- § - f n- s em- ¶ m- b n- c p- ¶ p- s h- ¶ mWv `qcn- ] £w temI-P-\-§fpw hniz-kn-¡p-¶-Xv. bYmÀ°-¯n C¶s¯ temI-¯n C{Xam{Xw imkv{X kmt¦-XnI ]ptcm-KXn D­m-bn-cn¡p-¶Xv sImtfm-Wn-be - nkw F¶ GI Imc-W-¯mem-Wv. C´y-bn FÃm-hcpw ]d-bp-¶-Xv, {_n«o-jpImÀ C´y-bn-te¡v h¶v C´y-bpsS [\-k-¼¯p apgp-h³ sImÅ-b-Sn-¨p-sIm-­p-t]m-bn F¶m-Wv. {_n«ojv B[n-]-Xyhpw `c-Whpw ChnsS Bcw-`n¨Xv GXm­v F.-Un. 1600 t\mS-Sp-¯m-Wv, F.-Un. 1947 hsc AXp XpSÀ¶p. AhÀ C´y-bn-te¡p h¶Xv XoÀ¨-bmbpw X§-fpsS [\-k-¼¯v hÀ²n¸n-¡p-hm-\mWv; [\-k-¼m-Z\w F¶Xv Hmtcm a\pjy-\nepw A´Àeo-\-am-bn-cn-¡p¶ Hcp tamlamWv. 156

ZmZm-`mbv \h-tdm-Pn, Z s_s\-^nävkv Hm^v {_n«ojv dqÄ, 1871 Hcp [nj-Wm-im-enbpw A²ym-]-I\ - pw, hym]mcn-bp-am-bn-cp¶ ZmZm-`mbv \h-tdmPn (1825-þ1917) "C´ybpsS htbm-hr-²³' F¶mWv Adn-b-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. {_n«ojv ]mÀe-aânse P\-{]-Xn-\n[n k`-bn AwKam- b n- c n- ¡ p- I bpw (1892- þ95), C´y³ \mj- W tIm¬{K-Ênsâ Øm]-I-cn-sem-cm-fm-bn-cn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvX \h-tdmPn cmjv{Sob {]hÀ¯-\-§-fnepw 18þmw \qäm-­p-ap-X C´y-bn Øm\-ap-d¸ - n-¨n-cp¶ {_n«o-jp-Im-cp-ambn CS-s]-Sp-¶-Xnepw hfsc ]cnNbw t\Sn. At±lw hln¨ At\I Øm\-§-fn C´y-bnse apwss_-bn am¯-am-änIvkv Bâ v \m¨p- d ^ntem- k^n s{]m^- kÀ, e­- \nse bqWn- t h- g v knän tImtf- P n s{]m^- k À Hm^v emwtKz-Pkv F¶nh DÄs¸-Sp-¶p.

{_n«ojv `c-W-¯m C´ybv¡v e`n¨ t\«-§Ä am\-hnI hnj-b-§-fnÂ: kXnk{¼-Zm-bhpw inip-l-Xybpw \nÀ¯-em-¡n. Xosh-«n-s¡m-Å-¡m157

scbpw(dacoits) X¤v hÀ¤-¡m-cmb IhÀ¨-¡m-scbpw ]n­m-Kn-cn-I-sfbpw C´y³ kaq-l-¯n\v `oj-Wnbm-bn-cp¶ AXp-t]m-se-bpÅ ]e `oIc kwL-§sfbpw AaÀ¨ sNbvXp. lnµp hn[-hI - Ä¡v ]p\Àhnhmlw A\p-h-Zn-¨p-sIm-Sp-¡p-Ibpw £ma-k-a-b-§fn IrXy-amb klm-b-§Ä GÀs¸-Sp-¯p-Ibpw sNbvXp. C¯cw al-¯mb {]hr-¯n-Isf GsXmcp cmjv{Shpw A`n-am-\-]qÀÆw HmÀ¡pw. a\p-jy-N-cn{X-¯n asämcp P\-Xbv¡pw C{Xbpw \sÃmcp `mKyw e`n-¨n-«p-­m-bn-cn-¡p-I-bn-Ã. kwkvI mc ]ptcm- K - a - \ - hn- j - b - § - f nÂ: ]pcp- j ·mÀ¡pw kv{XoIÄ¡pw hnZym-`ymk kuIcyw Hcp¡n-s¡m-Sp-¯p. CXv {ItaW kaql-¯n \ne-\n¶n-cp¶ ]e AÔ-hn-izm-k-§fpw CÃmbva sN¿phm-\pw -[m-cmfw A[mÀ½n-Ihpw kmaq-ln-I-hp-amb tZmj-§Ä XpS¨p \o¡p-hm\pw CS-bm-I¯ - ¡ coXnbn kaq-l-¯n\v KpWw sNbvXp. C´y-bpsS al¯mb kmln-Xy-]m-c-¼-cys¯ ]p\-cp-Öo-hn-¸n-¡pIbpw ]mÝm-Xy-km-ln-Xy-hp-ambn _Ô-s¸-Sp¯n ]cn-jv¡-cn-¡p-Ibpw sa¨-s¸-Sp-¯p-Ibpw k¼-¶a - m¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. cmjv{Sob hnj-b-§-fnÂ: {Ia-k-am-[m-\-\ne sa¨s¸-Sp¯n kam-[m-\-apÅ A´-co£w kwPm-X-am158

¡n. kwkm-ck - zm-X-{´y-hpw ]{X-kzm-X{- ´yhpw Dd¸p hcp-¯n. DbÀ¶ \ne-bn-epÅ cmjv{Sob t_m[hpw D¡Àtj-Ñbpw ]IÀ¶p \ÂIn. \m«p-cm-Py-§fnse `c-Wc - oXn sa¨-s¸-Sp-¯n. P\-§f - psS Poh\pw kz¯n\pw kpc- £ n- X Xzw \ÂIn. tkzÑm- [ n]XnIfmb `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fpsS ZpjvS-em-¡n-\m AYhm AXym-{K-l-¯m kw`-hn-t¨-¡m-hp¶ ZpcnX-§-fnÂ\n¶v P\-§Ä¡v tamN\w \ÂIn. bp²sI-Sp-Xn-I-fp-­m-ImsX kwc-£Ww \ÂIn. a\pjycpw a\p-jycpw X½n-epÅ {]iv\-§-fn Xpey\oXn Dd-¸m-¡n. (\oXn \S-¸m¡p¶ Imcy-¯n Nnet¸mÄ bqtdm-]y³am-tcmSv ]£-]m-Xn¯w ImWn¡p¶ \nµy-amb coXn D­m-bn-cp-¶p). D¶X hnZym`ymk tbmKy-Xb - pÅ `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fpsS tkh\w CXnsâ KpW-^ew F¶ \ne-bn A\p-`-hn-¡m³ km[n-¨p. `uXn-I-amb Imcy-§-fnÂ: sdbnÂthbv¡pw Petk-N-\-¯n\pw hmbv]m-ku-I-cy-§Ä \ÂIn, \oew, Nmb, Im¸n, kn¡v apX-emb Nne hne IqSnb Dev¸-¶-§-fpsS Dev]m-Z\w hÀ²n-¸n-¨p. Ib-äp-a-Xnbn hÀ²-\-hp-­m-bn. sSen-{Km^v kuIcyw hÀ²n¸n-¨p. s]mXp-hmb Imcy-§-fnÂ: ASp¯ Ime-¯mbn 159

C´y-tbmSv \oXn ]qÀÆ-ambn CS-s]-Sp-¶X - n\pw hnizkn-¡p-hm³ sImÅm-hp¶Xp-amb Hcp cmPy-ambn IW-¡m-¡p-¶-Xn-\p-apÅ Hcp B{Klw hfÀ¶p hcp-¶-Xmbn ImWp-¶p-­v. \à Dt±-iy-§Ä Xs¶ Cu `qap-J-¯pÅ Hcp cmjv{S-¯n\pw CXp-t]m-sebpÅ Hcp al-¯mb t\«w D­m-¡p-hm³ Ign-ªn«n-Ã. IW-¡nsâ hc-hp-`m-K¯v Rm³ bmsXmcp A\o-Xnbpw ImWn-¨n-«n-à F¶p Rm³ {]Xym-in-¡p¶p. Rm³ {]m[m-\y-apÅ GsX-¦nepw Imcyw hn«pt]mbn F¶v BÀs¡-¦nepw A`n-{]m-b-ap-s­-¦n AXp Iq«n-t¨À¡p-¶-Xn\v F\n¡v kt´m-j-ta-bpÅp. Cw¥­v C´y¡v sNbvXp-X¶ \·-IÄ Rm³ hne-tb-dn-b-Xmbn ImWp-¶p, Fsâ cmPys¯ P\§fpw A§-s\-X-s¶. {_n«ojv Ic-§-fm am{Xta C´y-bpsS ]p\ÀP-\\w km[n¡q F¶pw F\n-¡dn-bmw.C\n Cu IW-¡nsâ sNehp hi¯v "{_n«ojp-ImÀ¡pw hfsc henb t\«-§Ä D­m-bn-«p­v F¶-Xn\v kwi-b-an-Ã. C´y-sb `cn-¨n-cp-¶Xv 500  A[nIw \m«p-cm-Py-§-fm-bn-cp-¶p.-A-hÀ Hcn¡epw Hcp-an¨p \n¶p {]hÀ¯n-¨n-cp-¶n-Ã. bYmÀ°¯n At\ym\yw Ie-ln-¡p-I-bm-bn-cp¶p ]Xn-hv. C¶v C´y³P-\X B{^n-¡-bnepw Ico-_nb³ Zzo]-ka - q-l§ - f - nepw a[y-]qÀÆ tZi¯pw Ata160

cn¡bnepw [mcm-f-am-bn-«p-­v. C¶s¯ C´y³ Xeap-dbv¡v {_n«ojv sImtfm-Wn-b-en-k-¯nsâ KpW§Ä [mcm-f-ambn e`n-¡p-¶p-­v. [mcmfw C´y¡mÀ Ata-cn-¡-bn-epÅ C´y-¡m-cpsS _p²n-ssh`-hs¯ FSp-¯p-Im-Wn-¨p-sIm­v XpS-sc-¯p-S-scbpÅ Cþ-sa-bn ktµ-i-§fpw s^bvkv _p¡v ktµ-i-§fpw A`n-am-\-]qÀÆw Ab-¡m-dp-­v. Ah-cpsS ktµ-i-§-f-\p-k-cn¨pw aäp ]e kÀtÆ ^e-§fpw A\p-k-cn¨v Xmsg ]d-bp¶ hkvXp-hI-IÄ Ipdn-¡p-¶p.  bp.-F-kn-epÅ tUmIvSÀam-cn 38 iX-am\w C´y-¡m-cm-Wv.  \mk-bnse imkv{X-Ú-·m-cn 36 iX-am\w C´y-¡m-cm-Wv.  ssat{Im- t km^v ä v DtZym- K - Ø - · m- c n 34 ißm\w C´y-¡m-cm-Wv.  sF.-_n.Fw DtZym-K-Ø-cn 28 iX-am\w C´y-¡m-cm-Wv.  Câ I¼\n DtZym-KØ - · - m-cn 17 iX-am\w C´y-¡m-cm-Wv.  bp.-F-kn BsI-bpÅ imkv{X-Ú-·m-cn 12 iX-am\w C´y-¡m-cm-Wv.  B¸nÄ, KqKnÄ, s^bvkv _p¡v F¶o I¼161

\n-I-fn tPmen sN¿p-¶-hcpsS F®w \ap¡v e`n¨n-«nà  KqKnÄ ssat{Im-tkm^väv F¶o I¼-\n-If - nse No^v FIvkn-Iyq-«o-hp-IÄ C´y-¡m-cm-Wv. s^bvkv _p¡v I¼\n AkwJyw t]À C´y-¡msc Poh\-¡m-cmbn \nb-an-¨n-«p-­v.  KqKnÄ I¼-\n-sbbpw ssat{Im-tkm^väv I¼\n-sbbpw \bn-¡p-¶Xv C´y-¡m-cm-Wv. {_n«o-jvImÀ Hcn-¡epw C´y-bn-te¡v h¶nÃm-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¦n C´y-¡mÀ C¶pw AÔ-Im-cbp-K-§-fn Ign-tb-­n-h-cp-am-bn-cp-¶p.

162

Conspiracy Malayalam.pdf

Retrying... Download. Connect more apps... Try one of the apps below to open or edit this item. Conspiracy Malayalam.pdf. Conspiracy Malayalam.pdf. Open.

584KB Sizes 6 Downloads 118 Views

Recommend Documents

pdf-1411\suspicious-minds-why-we-believe-conspiracy-theories-by ...
Connect more apps... Try one of the apps below to open or edit this item. pdf-1411\suspicious-minds-why-we-believe-conspiracy-theories-by-rob-brotherton.pdf.

pdf-12111\the-baby-swap-conspiracy-the-shocking-truth ...
... apps below to open or edit this item. pdf-12111\the-baby-swap-conspiracy-the-shocking-truth- ... babies-switched-at-birth-by-loretta-schwartz-nobel.pdf.

pdf-0216\ufos-mystery-conspiracy-by-iminds.pdf
Conspiracy By IMinds becomes most desired. Page 3 of 6. pdf-0216\ufos-mystery-conspiracy-by-iminds.pdf. pdf-0216\ufos-mystery-conspiracy-by-iminds.pdf.

Download PDF The Watergate Conspiracy Conviction ... | Google Sites
Jun 13, 2017 - and White House aide. Howard Hunt, several of. Hunt s former CIA associates from the Bay of Pigs invasion, and Nixon campaign security chief.