Ch t 2 Chapter A di Audio Amplifier p

Introduction y

An audio amplifier is an electronic amplifier that amplifies low-power audio signals (signals composed primarily of frequencies between 20 - 20 000 Hz, the human range of hearing) to a level suitable for driving loudspeakers and is the final stage in a typical audio playback chain. chain

Audio Amplifier Block Diagram Consist of :y y y y

Pre-Amplifiers Tone Control Networks Driver Amplifiers p Power Amplifier

Amplifier Block Diagram

Block Diagram Function y

Input transducer y Microphone - a transducer which converts sound to electrical l i l signal. i l


Pre amplifier : y Amplifies the small audio signal (voltage) from the microphone.


Tone Control amplifier : ◦ Adjust the nature of the audio signal. The tone control adjusts the balance of high and low frequencies. The volume control adjusts the strength of the signal. ◦ Normally has few button such as volume, bass, treble an echo.


Driver amplifier : y Strengthen the signal received from the tone control circuit


Power Amplifier : ◦ Amplify the signal from the driver amplifier to a suitable value, so that it can drive the speaker and produce a perfect sound. sound


Speaker S k ◦ A transducer which convert the electrical audio signal to sound signal

Audio Amplifier Circuit Diagram Pre-amplifier

Tone Control Amplifier

Power Amplifier

Tone Control Amplifier

Power Amplifier Circuit Type y

There are 4 type yp of Power Amplifier p circuit :◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Single g ended Push pull p y symmetry y y Complementary Integrated circuit

Power Amplifier Circuit Type Single g Ended Circuit R Ra Q1

Possible Faults In Push Pull Circuit y y y

Transistor Q1 open/short – no sound/ no power supply. Capacitor C1 open/ short – no input signal Resistor Ra open/short – no sound/ no power supply l

Possible Faults in Push Pull Circuit Push Pull Circuit R1


Push Pull Amplifier y

Transistor TR1 atau TR2 : ◦ pintas-keluaran bererutan amplitud rintangan R1 & R2 terbakar. ◦ terbukat b k bererutan b t amplitud lit d


T1 dan d T2 : ◦ pintas/terbuka – tiada suara


Perintang pincang : ◦ bererutan silang ( cross-over cross over )

Possible Faults in Complementary S Symmetry t Complementary Symmetry Circuit

Analyze Possible Faults in Amplifier Complementary Symmetry y

Transistor keluaran: Sekali imbas kita perhatikan transistor-transistor keluaran di sambung terus dari bekalan melalui rintangan-rintangan g g rendah dan ke bumi.Jika J di beri pincang ,transistor berfungsi penuh iaitu mengalirkan arus maksimum.Ini membebankan transistor keluaran.Oleh itu kerosakan yang paling kerap berlaku ialah pada transistor keluaran. keluaran


Keadaan kerosakan, boleh terbuka atau terpintas.Setengahsetengah rekabentuk litar ini di lindungi oleh fius pada sambungan bekalan ke transistor keluaran.Jika salah satu transistor keluran terpintas atau terbuka ,keluaran menjadi bererutan atau tidak berfungsi langsung.


Public address or PA system is a combination of a set of audio equipment that allows broadcasts over a designated area. area


Often used in schools and office buildings, PA systems can be used f announcements or emergency information for f and d provide d a simple l way to get information out quickly.


P.A System y can be divided by y two parts which is ◦ Low Level System ◦ High Level System


Basic PA systems are consist of :◦ Microphone ◦ Loudspeakers ◦ Amplifier

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