Mount of the Beatitudes on the Sea of Galilee in Israel

A.D. 50 A.D. 30

Jesus preaches in Galilee and Judaea

A.D. 400

A.D. 750

A.D. 312

A.D. 726

Constantine accepts Christianity

Emperor Leo III removes icons from churches

A.D. 1100 A.D. 1054

Orthodox and Catholic Churches separate

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Rise Christianity

The of

Chapter Preview

Chapter Overview Visit

While the Romans built their empire, a group called the Christians spread a new religion called Christianity. Read this chapter to find out how Christianity grew to become one of the major influences on European civilization.

jat.glencoe.com for a preview of Chapter 10.

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The First Christians During the Roman Empire, Jesus of Nazareth began preaching a message of love and forgiveness. His life and teachings led to the rise of Christianity.

The Christian Church The Romans at first persecuted Christians. In time, however, Christianity became the Roman Empire’s official religion. Early Christians organized the church and collected the books that became the Christian Bible.

The Spread of Christian Ideas Church and government worked closely together in the Byzantine Empire. Christians founded new communities and spread their faith through Europe.

Sequencing Information Make this foldable to help you sequence information about the rise of Christianity. Step 1 Fold a piece of paper from top to bottom.

This makes an accordian shape.

Step 4 Fill in important dates as you read like those shown.

A.D.

30

A.D.

64

A.D.

The R ise of Christi anity

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Reading and Writing As you read the chapter, write the important events that occurred in the rise of Christianity.

Jesus begins to preach

The R ise of Christi anity

Step 3 Unfold and label the time line as shown.

Step 2 Then fold back each half to make quarter folds.

A.D.

726

Romans persecute Christians

Constantine’s conversion

Emperor Leo III removes icons

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Sequence Clues

Looking for Sequence Clues When we speak, read, or write, we automatically use clues to tell us what happened when. These clues are called sequence words, and they show us the order in which events occur. Read the following passage about the spread of Christianity. Notice the highlighted sequence words or phrases.

After the fall of Rome, the people of Western Europe faced confusion and conflict. As a result, people were looking for order and unity. Christianity helped to meet this need. It spread rapidly into lands that had once been part of the Roman Empire. uble have tro der u o y n e Wh g the or n i d n a t s under ccur, things o h c i h line w in gh time u o r a e track creat ou keep y p l e d. h to you rea s a s t n e of ev

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—from page 361

Now read the paragraph again and leave out the highlighted sequence words. Do you see how important they are in helping you understand what you are reading?

Finding Clue Words Read this passage and write down any word or phrase that helps you recognize the sequence of events.

Read to Write

Look at the time line that appears at the bottom of page 342. Write a paragraph that uses sequence clues to describe when these events occurred.

Even with all of the hardships, Christianity spread. Over time it even began to draw people from all classes. After A.D. 250, many Romans grew tired of war and feared the end of the empire. They began to admire the faith of the Christians.

—from page 354 The apostle Peter preaching

Choose one section in this chapter and use sequence clues, as well as dates, to help you place events on a time line in chronological order. 341 akg-images/Orsi Battaglini

The

First Christians What’s the Connection? You learned that the Romans ruled many areas of the Mediterranean. In one of these areas, Judaea, a new religion, Christianity, began.

Meeting People Jesus (JEE • zuhs) Peter Paul

Building Your Vocabulary

Focusing on the

• Roman rule of Judaea led some Jews to oppose Rome peacefully, while others rebelled. (page 343)

• Jesus of Nazareth preached of God’s love and forgiveness. According to Christian scriptures, Jesus was crucified and rose from the dead.

messiah (muh • SY • uh) disciple (dih • SY • puhl) parable (PAR • uh • buhl) resurrection

(REH • zuh • REHK • shuhn) apostle (uh • PAH • suhl) salvation (sal •VAY • shuhn)

(page 344)

Reading Strategy

• Jesus’ life and a belief in his resurrection led to a new religion called Christianity. (page 348)

Locating Places

Jerusalem (juh • ROO • suh • luhm) Judaea (ju • DEE • uh) Nazareth (NA • zuh • ruhth) Galilee (GA • luh • LEE)

A.D. 1 Rome

ASIA MINOR

Jesus preaches in Galilee and Judaea

JUDAEA

Jerusalem

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Purposes of Churches

A.D. 50 A.D. 30

ITALY

Summarizing Information Complete a diagram like the one below showing the purposes of early Christian churches.

The Rise of Christianity

A.D. 100 A.D. 66

Jews in Judaea rise up against Rome

A.D. 150 A.D. 132

Romans force Jews out of Jerusalem

Nathan Benn/CORBIS

The Jews and the Romans Roman rule of Judaea led some Jews to oppose Rome peacefully, while others rebelled. Reading Focus Suppose you were separated from your home and could not easily return to it. What effect might this have on you? Read to learn how the Jews were forced to leave their capital city. As you learned earlier, during the 900s B.C., two great kings, David and Solomon, united the Israelites and created the kingdom of Israel. Its capital was Jerusalem (juh • ROO • suh • luhm). This unity did not last long, however. Israel divided into two kingdoms: Israel and Judah. These small kingdoms were later taken over by more powerful neighbors. Israel was destroyed, and its people scattered. But the Jews, the people of Judah, survived.

Roman Rule

In 63 B.C. the Romans took over Judah. At first, they ruled through Jewish kings. Then, in A.D. 6, Emperor Augustus turned Judah into a Roman province called Judaea (ju • DEE • uh). Instead of a king, a Roman governor called a procurator (PRAH • kyuh • RAY • tuhr) ruled the new province on the emperor’s behalf. The Jews argued among themselves over what to do about the Romans. Some favored working with the Romans. Others

opposed Roman rule by closely following Jewish traditions. Still others turned their backs on the Romans. They settled in isolated areas and shared their belongings.

The Jews Rebel

Some Jews believed that they should fight the Romans and take back control of their kingdom. These people, called Zealots, convinced many Jews to take up arms against the Romans in A.D. 66. The rebellion was brutally crushed. The Romans destroyed the temple and killed thousands of Jews. A Jewish general named Josephus (joh • SEE • fuhs) fought in the war but later sided with the Romans. He wrote about the horrors of Jerusalem’s fall in his work History of the Jewish War. The Jews rebelled again in A.D. 132 and were again defeated. This time the Romans forced all Jews to leave Jerusalem and banned them from ever returning to the city. Saddened by the loss of Jerusalem, many Jews found new homes elsewhere. By A.D. 700, the Jews had set up communities as far west as Spain and as far east as central Asia. In later centuries, they settled throughout Europe and the Americas. In their scattered communities, the Jews kept their faith alive by studying and following their religious laws. Explain Why did many Jews leave Judaea after the A.D. 132 revolt?

These ruins are of the mountaintop Jewish fortress at Masada in Israel. Jewish rebels were defeated by Roman troops here in AA.DD. 73. What were the Jewish rebels called?

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The Life of Jesus Jesus of Nazareth preached of God’s love and forgiveness. According to Christian scriptures, Jesus was crucified and rose from the dead. Reading Focus If you could give someone advice on how to behave, what would you tell them? Why? Read to learn how Jesus thought people should behave. During Roman times, many Jews hoped that God would send a messiah (muh • SY • uh), or deliverer. This leader would help them win back their freedom. The Israelite prophets had long ago predicted that a messiah would come. Many Jews expected the messiah to be a great king, like David. They thought the messiah would restore the past glories of the Israelite kingdom. A few decades before the first Jewish revolt against Rome, a Jew named Jesus (JEE • zuhs) left his home in Nazareth

(NA • zuh • ruhth) and began preaching. From about A.D. 30 to A.D. 33, Jesus traveled throughout Judaea and Galilee (GA • luh • LEE), the region just north of Judaea, preaching his ideas. Crowds gathered to hear him preach. He soon assembled a small band of 12 close followers called disciples (dih • SY • puhlz).

What Did Jesus Teach?

According to the Christian Bible, Jesus preached that God was coming soon to rule the world. He urged people to turn from their sins. He also told them that it was important to love God and to love their neighbors. In this way, they would be obeying God, whom Jesus referred to as his Father. The main points of Jesus’ message are given in a group of sayings known as the Sermon on the Mount. In them, Jesus made it clear that a person had to love and forgive

The Teachings of Jesus Jesus traveled throughout the regions of Judaea and Galilee, preaching to all who would listen to his religious message. In the Sermon on the Mount, illustrated below, Jesus described God’s love and how to be a good person. At right, Jesus is shown as the Good Shepherd, a popular image in early Christian art. What did Jesus teach about Jewish religious laws?

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(l)Reunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource, NY, (r)Scala/Art Resource, NY

from the heart and not just go through the motions of following religious laws. Among Jesus’ sayings were “Blessed are the merciful, for they will obtain mercy” and “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called the children of God.” Jesus told his listeners to love and forgive each other because God loves and forgives people. According to Jesus, God’s command was simple. He repeated the ageold Jewish teaching: “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.” Jesus also stressed the Jewish teaching: “Love your neighbor as yourself.” This message of love and forgiveness helped shape the values many people in Europe and America hold today. To present his message, Jesus often used parables (PAR • uh • buhlz). These were stories that used events from everyday life

to express spiritual ideas. In the story of the Prodigal (wasteful) Son, Jesus told how a father welcomed back his reckless son with open arms. He forgave his son’s mistakes. In another parable, he told of a shepherd who left his flock unguarded to go after one lost sheep. Both stories taught that God forgives mistakes and wants all people to turn away from bad deeds and be saved. The parable of the Good Samaritan is one of the best known. In this story, a man is beaten by robbers. A priest and another religious leader passed by the injured man. However, a Samaritan, a member of a group of people who lived in what is now northern Israel, stops to help the victim. He treats the man’s wounds and pays for his stay at an inn. Jesus asked his followers, “Which man do you think truly showed love to his neighbor?”

Jesus used stories, called parables, to describe correct behaviors to his followers. The parables of the Prodigal Son (below) and the Good Samaritan (right) are shown here. What lesson was taught by the parable of the Prodigal Son?

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(l)Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY, (r)Tate Gallery, London/Art Resource, NY

JESUS OF RETH NA.–ZA . . 30 c. 6 B.C

AD

whose life Much of what we know about Jesus, an religion, is and teachings established the Christi New Testament in based on accounts found in the the New Testatment, the Christian Bible. According to the Jesus entering Jerusalem ted Mary, visi el ang An . God by ded gui was h Jesus’ birt ng to have a Jesus’ mother, to tell her she was goi would baby. The angel told Mary her baby ted Joseph, be the Son of God. An angel also visi marry her. Mary’s fiancé, and instructed him to ide barn Jesus was humbly born in a stable, bes —Jesus of Nazareth, John 12:46 Mary and Joseph . hem hle Bet of n tow the in ls, ma ani census ordered by the had traveled there to take part in a sibly princes from Romans. Shepherds and wise men, pos ble. shining star to honor Jesus in the sta htly brig a ed ow foll , ms gdo kin g neighborin birth. Christmas is a celebration of Jesus’ grew up in ut the middle years of Jesus’ life. He The Christian Bible tells very little abo ere he learned the carpenter’s trade Nazareth, a small town in Galilee, wh to share his religious teachings. from Joseph. Later in life, Jesus set out vides many stories of Jesus’ At this point, the Christian Bible pro ed. The accounts of Jesus’ travels and the miracles he perform sight, raising a man from the miracles, such as giving a blind man ught many followers to his dead, and calming a storm at sea, bro m the week before his teachings. When Jesus entered Jerusale wds. One of Jesus’ closest death, he was greeted by cheering cro turned him over to followers, however, betrayed him and ned by Roman officials Roman authorities. Jesus was questio rds, reports that he had and sentenced to death. Soon afterwa new religion—Christianity. risen from the dead would lead to a

“I am the light that has come into the world.”

An early depiction of Jesus on his throne

(t)Elio Ciol/CORBIS, (b)Scala/Art Resource, NY

te? What What event does Christmas celebra related to aspects of Christmas today are not its traditional meaning?

What Is the Crucifixion?

Jesus and his message drew strong responses from people. His followers spoke of instances in which they believed he healed the sick and performed other miracles. They said he was the long-awaited messiah. Other Jews rejected him and said he was a deceiver. Above all, Judaea’s Roman rulers feared the effects of Jesus’ preaching. A person who could spark such strong reactions might threaten law and order. About A.D. 33, Jesus went to Jerusalem to celebrate Passover, an important Jewish holy day. There he was greeted by large, cheering crowds. In an event known as the Last Supper, Jesus celebrated the holy day with his 12 disciples. Fearing trouble, leaders in Jerusalem arrested Jesus. He was

charged with treason, or disloyalty to the government. According to Christian scriptures, Jesus was crucified, or hung from a cross until dead. This was Rome’s way of punishing political rebels and lower-class criminals. After Jesus’ death, his followers made a startling claim. They announced that Jesus had risen from the dead. Christian tradition states that Mary Magdalene, one of Jesus’ followers, was the first to see Jesus alive again. Others, including Jesus’ disciples, reported seeing him as well. The disciples also pointed to his empty tomb as proof that Jesus was the messiah. These reports of Jesus’ resurrection (REH • zuh • REHK • shuhn), or rising from the dead, led to a new religion called Christianity. Describing What were the main ideas Jesus taught during his life?

According to the Bible, just before his death, Jesus gathered his disciples together for a meal known as the Last Supper. Why did the Romans fear Jesus? CHAPTER 10

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Louvre, Paris/Bridgeman Art Library

The First Christians Jesus’ life and a belief in his resurrection led to a new religion called Christianity. Reading Focus Have you ever read news stories about people sacrificing their lives to help others? Read to learn about the sacrifice Christians believe Jesus made for everyone. Jesus’ disciples began to spread the message of Jesus and his resurrection. Small groups in the Greek-speaking cities of the eastern Mediterranean accepted this message. Some were Jews, but others were not.

Sermon on the Mount Jesus encouraged his disciples with the Sermon on the Mount. “Happy are you when men insult you and persecute you and tell all kinds of evil lies against you because you are my followers. Be happy and glad, for a great reward is kept for you in heaven. This is how the prophets who lived before you were persecuted.” —Matthew 5:11–12

Jesus and his followers

Why does Jesus tell his followers to ignore—even rejoice in—persecution?

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The Rise of Christianity

Those who accepted Jesus and his teachings became known as Christians and referred to him as Jesus Christ. The word Christ comes from Christos, a Greek word for “messiah.” The early Christians formed churches, or communities for worship and teaching. They met in people’s houses, many of which were owned by women. At these gatherings, Christians prayed and studied the Hebrew Bible. They also shared in a ritual meal like the Last Supper to remember Jesus’ death and resurrection.

Who Were Peter and Paul?

Apostles (uh • PAH • suhlz), or early Christian leaders who had been chosen by Jesus to spread his message, played an important role in the growth of Christianity. One of the most important was Peter. Simon Peter was a Jewish fisher. He had known Jesus while he was alive and had been one of the original 12 people Jesus had chosen to preach his message. Christian tradition states that he went to Rome after the death of Jesus and helped set up a church there. Today, the leader of Catholic Christians resides in Rome. Paul of Tarsus was another important Christian leader. He was a well-educated Jew and a Roman citizen. Paul at first worked to stop Christian ideas from spreading. The chief Jewish priest in Jerusalem then sent him to Damascus (duh • MAS • kuhs), a city in Syria, to stop Christians in the city from spreading their ideas. While on the road to Damascus, Paul had an unusual experience. According to Christian belief, he saw a great light and heard Jesus’ voice. Paul became a Christian on the spot. He spent the rest of his life spreading Jesus’ message. Paul traveled widely. He founded churches throughout the eastern Mediterranean.

L OF TARSUS PAU . . 10–65 c. A D

ty might not Without the apostle Paul, Christiani st widely have become one of the world’s mo spread the word accepted religions. It was Paul who s, and helped about Jesus to the Gentiles, or non-Jew Paul of Tarsus Jesus gain acceptance as the messiah. a Asi in city jor ma a us, Tars Paul was a Jew from , and his family followed Minor. His father was a Roman citizen a Jewish group that the laws and rules of the Pharisees— s. His parents named their stressed the need to follow Jewish law s. The first trade Saul son Saul after the first king of the Jew 10, he was sent to learned was tent making. Around age —Paul, Acts 20:35 the direction of the famed Jerusalem to attend a school under d a well-rounded Pharisee teacher Gamaliel. Saul receive Greeks. and history of the Romans, Jews, and education. He learned the language ed osed Christians and their newly form When Saul was in his twenties, he opp the spread to Damascus in Syria to try and stop church in Jerusalem. He was on his way . of Jesus led him to accept Christianity of Christian ideas there when a vision He l after his conversion to Christianity. Saul began using the Latin name Pau ny writing to Gentiles. He also wrote ma traveled extensively, preaching and a Minor. to churches in Rome, Greece, and Asi important letters, known as epistles, istian Bible. These letters are included in the Chr e they died as Christians, they would hav Paul convinced many people that if on, with Jesus was supposedly in his visi g etin me y onl l’s Pau ugh tho n Eve . eternal life ed to more Paul visited more places and preach o had known people than most of the apostles wh sionary for Jesus in person. Paul worked as a mis d when the around 35 years. He was probably kille istians in Roman emperor Nero ordered that Chr Rome be arrested and put to death.

“I showed how you should work to help everyone. ”

ple in Can you think of any groups of peo their today’s world who are persecuted for beliefs? A book containing the teachings of Paul

349 (t)Danita Delimont/Ancient Art & Architecture Collection, (b)Victoria & Albert Museum, London/Art Resouce, NY

What Do Christians Believe? From the beginning, Christians taught that Jesus was the Son of God and had come to save people. By accepting Jesus and his teachings, people could gain salvation (sal • VAY • shuhn), or be saved from sin and allowed to enter heaven. Like Jesus, after death they would be resurrected and join God in everlasting life. Because of their faith in Jesus, Christians began to understand God in a new way. Like the Jews, Christians believed in the God of Israel and studied the Hebrew Bible. However, most Christians came to believe that the one God existed in three persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. This idea became known as the Trinity, which comes from a word meaning “three.”

This painting shows the apostle Peter preaching to followers. What was the role of apostles in the spread of Christianity?

Identify Who were Peter and Paul, and why were they important?

Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com

What Did You Learn?

Reading Summary

1. What are parables, and why did Jesus use them?

Review the

• While some Jews opposed Roman rule peacefully, others revolted, leading the Romans to banish Jews from Jerusalem.

• Jesus preached of God’s love and forgiveness. According to Christian scriptures, Jesus was crucified and rose from the dead.

2. What do Christians believe they will gain by accepting Jesus and his teachings?

Critical Thinking 3. Summarize Information Draw a diagram like the one below. Add details to identify some of the Christian beliefs taught by Jesus.

• A new religion, Christianity, based on the teachings of Jesus and a belief in his resurrection, spread in the Mediterranean region.

350 akg-images/Orsi Battaglini

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Christian Beliefs

The Rise of Christianity

4. Analyze Why were the Jews looking for a messiah? Did Jesus fulfill most Jews’ expectations for a messiah? Explain. 5. Explain Why was Jesus put to death? 6. Expository Writing Write an essay explaining why Paul is important to the history of Christianity. 7.

Sequence Clues List five words in this section that serve as sequence clues. Explain how each word provided clues as to when an event occurred.

The

Christian Church What’s the Connection?

Building Your Vocabulary

In the last section, you read about the origins of Christianity. In this section, you will discover how Christianity grew and was organized.

Focusing on the

• Christianity won many followers and eventually became the official religion of the Roman Empire. (page 352)

persecute (PURH • sih • KYOOT) martyr (MAHR • tuhr) hierarchy (HY • uhr • AHR • kee) clergy (KLUHR • jee) laity (LAY • uh • tee) doctrine (DAHK • truhn) gospel (GAHS • puhl) pope

Reading Strategy

• Early Christians set up a church

Organizing Information Complete a diagram like the one below showing reasons for the growth of Christianity.

organization and explained their beliefs. (page 355)

Locating Places Rome

Meeting People

Constantine (KAHN • stuhn • TEEN) Helena (HEHL • uh • nuh) Theodosius (THEE • uh • DOH • shuhs)

Reasons for Growth of Christianity

A.D. 100 A.D. 64

ITALY

Rome

Constantinople

GREECE

Romans begin to persecute Christians

A.D. 300 A.D. 312

Constantine accepts Christianity

A.D. 500 A.D. 392

Christianity becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire

Jerusalem

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A Growing Faith Christianity won many followers and eventually became the official religion of the Roman Empire. Reading Focus Why do you think people like to belong to a community? Read to learn about early Christian communities. During the 100 years after Jesus’ death, Christianity won followers throughout the Roman world. The empire itself helped spread Christian ideas. The peace and order established by Rome allowed people to travel in safety. Christians used well-paved

Roman roads to carry their message from place to place. Since most of the empire’s people spoke either Latin or Greek, Christians could talk with them directly. Why did Christianity attract followers? First, the Christian message gave meaning to people’s lives. Rome’s official religion urged people to honor the state and the emperor. Christianity instead reached out to the poor and the powerless who led very hard lives. It offered hope and comfort. Second, the ideas of Christianity were familiar to many Romans. They already knew about other eastern Mediterranean religions. Like these faiths, Christianity

Spread of Christianity A.D. 325 0°

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Main areas of Christian growth to A.D. 325 Paul’s first journey Paul’s second journey

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Damascus

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Even while facing Roman persecution, the Christian religion continued to grow within the Roman Empire. 1. To what areas did Paul’s journeys take him? 2. Why do you think Christianity spread as it did by A.D. 325?

Antioch

Scala/Art Resource, NY

appealed to the emotions and promised happiness after death. Finally, Christianity gave people the chance to be part of a caring group. Within their churches, Christians not only worshiped together but helped each other. They took care of the sick, the elderly, widows, and orphans. Many women found that Christianity offered them new roles. They ran churches from their homes, spread Jesus’ message, and helped care for those in need.

How Did the Romans Treat Christians? Over time, Roman officials began to see the Christians as a threat. All people were usually allowed to worship freely, but they had to honor the emperor as a god. Christians, like the Jews, believed in one God and refused to do this. Unlike the Jews, they did not belong to a recognized religion. Christians also refused to serve in the army or hold public office. They criticized Roman festivals and games. Thus the Romans saw Christians as traitors who deserved punishment. In A.D. 64 the Roman government began to persecute (PURH • sih • KYOOT), or mistreat, Christians. At this time, the emperor Nero falsely accused Christians of starting a fire that burned much of Rome. Christianity was made illegal, and many Christians were killed. Other persecutions followed. During these difficult times, many Christians became martyrs (MAHR • tuhrz), people willing to die rather than give up their beliefs. At that time, Romans required dead people to be cremated, or burned to ashes. Christians wanted to bury their dead. They were forced to bury their dead outside Rome in catacombs, or underground burial places. Catacombs were also used for religious services during times of persecution.

Christian Catacombs

Christians believed in resurrection, the idea that the body would one day reunite with the soul. For this reason, they would not allow their dead bodies to be burned, which was the Roman custom. Also, Roman law did not allow bodies to be buried aboveground. Therefore, starting in the A.D. 100s, Christians buried their dead beneath the city of Rome in a series of dark, cold, stenchfilled tunnels called catacombs. Each tunnel was about 8 feet (2.4 m) high and less than 3 feet (1 m) wide. Bodies were stacked in slots along the sides of the tunnels. The catacomb walls were painted with images from the Bible or from Greek or Roman mythology. More than five million bodies were buried under Roman streets and buildings. Many of the Christians buried there were martyrs who had been killed for their beliefs. Christian catacombs in Rome

Connecting to the Past

1. Why did Christians bury their dead in catacombs? 2. What skills do you think would be necessary to dig and plan catacombs?

Even with all of the hardships, Christianity spread. Over time it even began to draw people from all classes. After A.D. 250, many Romans grew tired of war and feared the end of the empire. They began to admire the faith of the Christians.

Rome Adopts Christianity

In the early 300s the emperor Diocletian carried out the last great persecution of Christians. It failed, and Roman officials realized that Christianity was too strong to be destroyed. Then, in A.D. 312, the Roman emperor Constantine (KAHN • stuhn • TEEN) accepted Christianity. According to tradition, Constantine saw a flaming cross in the sky as he was about to go into battle. Written beneath the cross were the Latin words that A.D.

meant “In this sign you will conquer.” Constantine won the battle and believed that the Christian God had helped him. In A.D. 313 Constantine issued an order called the Edict of Milan. It gave religious freedom to all people and made Christianity legal. Constantine began giving government support to Christianity. With the help of his mother, Helena (HEHL • uh • nuh), he built churches in Rome and Jerusalem. He also let church officials serve in government and excused them from paying taxes. Constantine’s successor, the emperor Theodosius (THEE • uh • DOH • shuhs), made Christianity Rome’s official religion in A.D. 392. He then outlawed other religions. Explain Why did the Romans see the Christians as traitors?

Constantine’s Conversion Constantine led his troops to victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge after his conversion to Christianity. Constantine’s enemies were defeated as a bridge made of boats collapsed under their weight. The X and P symbols on the shields represented the first two letters of the Greek word for Christ. How did Constantine’s Edict of Milan support Christianity?

The Early Church

Early Church Hierarchy

Early Christians set up a church organization and explained their beliefs. Reading Focus How can good organization make the difference between whether a plan or project fails or succeeds? Read how early Christians organized their churches and chose what to include in the Bible. In its early years, Christianity was loosely organized. Leaders like Paul traveled from one Christian community to another. They tried to unify the scattered groups. In their teaching, they emphasized that all the individual groups of Christians were part of one body called the church. Early Christians, however, faced a challenge. How were they to unite?

Organizing the Church The early Christians turned to a surprising model to organize the church—the Roman Empire itself. Like the Roman Empire, the church came to be ruled by a hierarchy (HY • uhr • AHR • kee). A hierarchy is an organization with different levels of authority. The clergy (KLUHR • jee) were the leaders of the church. They had different roles from the laity (LAY • uh • tee), or regular church members. As the church’s organization grew, women were not permitted to serve in the clergy. However, as members of the laity, they continued to care for the sick and needy. By around A.D. 300, local churches were led by clergy called priests. Several churches formed a diocese (DY • uh • suhs), led by a bishop. A bishop in charge of a city diocese was sometimes also put in charge of an entire region. This made him an archbishop. The five leading archbishops became known as patriarchs (PAY • tree • AHRKS). They led churches in large cities and were in charge of large areas of territory.

Patriarchs Archbishops Bishops Priests Laity

The bishops explained Christian beliefs. They also took care of church business. From time to time, bishops met to discuss questions about Christian faith. Decisions they reached at these meetings came to be accepted as doctrine (DAHK • truhn), or official church teaching.

What Is the New Testament?

Along with explaining Christian ideas, church leaders preserved a written record of the life of Jesus and put together a group of writings to help guide Christians. Jesus himself left no writings. His followers, however, passed on what they knew about him. By A.D. 300, four accounts of Jesus’ life, teachings, and resurrection had become well-known. Christians believed these accounts were written by early followers of Jesus named Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Each work was called a gospel (GAHS • puhl), which means “good news.” Christians later combined the four gospels with the writings of Paul and other early Christian leaders. Together, these works form the New Testament of the Christian Bible. CHAPTER 10

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Matthew wrote one of the four gospels in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. What is the subject of the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John?

Other writings also influenced early Christians. Christian thinkers known as the Church Fathers wrote books to explain church teachings. One leading Church Father was a bishop in North Africa named Augustine. In his writings, Augustine defended Christianity against its opponents. He wrote The City of God—one of the first history books written from a Christian viewpoint. He also wrote a work called

Confessions. It was an account of his personal journey to the Christian faith.

Who Is the Pope?

As the church grew, the bishop of Rome, who was also the patriarch of the West, began to claim power over the other bishops. He believed that he had the authority of Peter, Jesus’ leading disciple. Also, his diocese was in Rome, the capital of the empire. By A.D. 600, the bishop of Rome had gained a special title—pope. The title comes from a Latin word meaning “father.” Latinspeaking Christians accepted the pope as head of the church. Their churches became known as the Roman Catholic Church. Greek-speaking Christians would not accept the pope’s authority over them. You will read in the next section about Christians in the Eastern Roman Empire and their form of Christianity. Identify What are the gospels, and why are they significant?

Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com

What Did You Learn?

Reading Summary

1. What is a martyr? 2. What writings are included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible?

Review the

• After its followers suffered Roman persecution for several hundred years, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire under Emperor Theodosius.

Critical Thinking 3. Organizing Information

• As Christianity grew, the church became more united under a hierarchy of leaders. Christian writings were gathered into the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

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Draw a chart like the one below. Fill in details on the effects each of the emperors listed had on the acceptance and growth of Christianity. Roman Emperors

Diocletian Constantine Theodosius

The Rise of Christianity

Cott Nero DIV f.25v Portrait of St. Matthew/British Library, London/Bridgeman Art Library

4. Analyze Following Jesus’ death, why was Christianity able to attract followers? 5. Analyze Why do you think the Christian church came to be ruled by a hierarchy? 6. Conclude Do you think the Christian religion would have spread so quickly if it had developed in a time other than that of the Roman Empire? 7. Writing Questions Write five questions that a reporter who lived at the same time as Constantine might have asked him about Christianity.

T AUGUSTINE SAIN 354–430 A.D.

in what is today Augustine was born in North Africa, parents. His mother the country of Algeria, to upper-class . His father sent was Christian, but his father was not thage to attend good him to the North African city of Car an outstanding schools. Although he appeared to be made many poor student, Augustine later said that he choices during his time at school. ion, he returned When Augustine finished his educat St. Augustine r again tried to home to teach grammar. His mothe anity, but he had convince him of the truth of Christi critical of Christians. joined a group of people who were mother was According to Augustine’s writings, his that her son saddened until a vision promised her —Saint Augustine, Confessions would eventually accept Christianity. n teaching Augustine moved to several cities, ofte ed up in Milan, Italy. rhetoric (the art of speaking). He end ssages aching, not because he liked his me pre se bro Am op bish s an’ Mil to d There he listene about ke. Slowly, Augustine began to think spo se bro Am way the ired adm he e but becaus . One day the messages of Ambrose’s sermons voice say in A.D. 386, Augustine heard a child’s was a to him, “Take up and read.” Nearby an to read friend’s copy of Paul’s letters. He beg d the the letters and decided that he believe was soon messages of Christianity. Augustine robably baptized and founded a monastery—p rth Africa. the first monastery in his area of No recorded Later Augustine became a bishop. He ions. his life in A.D. 401 in the book Confess

“Even when sad, I remember my times of joy.”

pope St. Augustine being blessed by the

anity has Do research to find out how Christi United influenced the development of the affected States. Provide examples of how it has y. government, society, and the econom

357 (t)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (b)Alinari/Art Resource, NY

The Spread of

Christian Ideas

What’s the Connection? In the last section, you read about the growth of the Christian church. In this section, you will learn how the church underwent a great division and how Christians spread their faith to new lands.

Meeting People

Charlemagne (SHAHR • luh • MAYN) Basil (BAY • zuhl) Benedict (BEH • nuh • DIHKT) Cyril (SIHR • uhl) Patrick

Building Your Vocabulary Focusing on the

• Church and government worked closely together in the Byzantine Empire. (page 359)

• Christians founded new communities and spread their faith to various parts of Europe. (page 361)

Locating Places Byzantine Empire

(BIH • zuhn • TEEN EHM • PYR) Britain (BRIH • tuhn) Ireland (EYER • luhnd)

icon (EYE • KAHN) iconoclast (eye • KAH • nuh • KLAST) excommunicate

(EHK • skuh • MYOO • nuh • KAYT) schism (SIH • zuhm) monastery (MAH • nuh • STEHR • ee) missionary (MIH • shuh • NEHR • ee)

Reading Strategy

Organizing Information Create a diagram to show the reach of Christian missionaries. Missionaries Eastern Europe

A.D. 400

IRELAND BRITAIN GAUL Constantinople SPAIN ITALY Rome ASIA MINOR GREECE Jerusalem AFRICA

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c. A.D. 450

Patrick preaches Christianity in Ireland

The Rise of Christianity

Britain/ Ireland

A.D. 800 A.D. 726

Emperor Leo III removes icons from churches

A.D. 1200 A.D. 1054

Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches separate

The Byzantine Church Church and government worked closely together in the Byzantine Empire. Reading Focus In the United States, religion and government are separated. Read to learn about the relationship between religion and government in the Byzantine Empire. As you learned earlier, the church of Rome survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Its head, the pope, became the strongest leader in Western Europe. Under the pope, the Latin churches of the region became known as the Roman Catholic Church. In the East, however, the Roman Empire continued. It developed into the Byzantine Empire (BIH • zuhn • TEEN EHM • PYR). Like Roman Catholics in the West, the Byzantines developed their own form of Christianity. It was based on their Greek heritage and was known as the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Church and State

Church and government worked closely together in the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines believed their emperor represented Jesus Christ on Earth. The emperor was crowned in a religious ceremony. The emperor also chose the patriarch of Constantinople, the leading church official in the Byzantine Empire. In this way, the emperor controlled the Church as well as the government. Byzantines believed that God wanted them to preserve and spread Christianity. All Church and government officials were united in this goal.

Religious Arguments Many Byzantines, from the emperor down to the poorest farmer, were very interested in religious matters. In homes and shops, they argued about religious questions. For example, Byzantines loved to discuss the exact relationship between Jesus and God. In the A.D. 700s, a major dispute divided the Church in the Byzantine Empire. The argument was over the use of icons (EYE • KAHNZ). Icons are pictures or images of Jesus, Mary (the mother of Jesus), and the saints, or Christian holy people. Many Byzantines honored icons. They covered the walls of their churches with them. A few important icons were even believed to work miracles. Some Byzantines, however, wanted an end to the use of icons. They thought that honoring them was a form of idol worship forbidden by God. Supporters of icons, This gold Byzantine incense burner is in the shape of a church. What was the Christian church that developed in the Byzantine Empire called?

Web Activity Visit jat.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 10—Student Web Activity to learn more about the rise of Christianity.

CHAPTER 10

The Rise of Christianity

359 Scala/Art Resource, NY

Most Byzantines, many church leaders, and even the pope in Rome opposed the emperor’s order. In fact, the dispute over icons damaged ties between the churches of Rome and Constantinople. Over the next 100 years, the argument cooled, and the use of icons became accepted once again. They are still an important part of Eastern Orthodox religious practice.

Conflicts Between Churches

This icon on wood shows the archangel Gabriel, who served as a messenger for God according to the Bible. What reasons were given to support the use of icons?

Byzantine cross

however, claimed that icons were symbols of God’s presence in daily life. These images, they also said, helped explain Christianity to people. Emperor Leo III did not approve of icons. In A.D. 726 he ordered all icons removed from the churches. Government officials who carried out his orders were known as iconoclasts (eye • KAH • nuh • KLASTS), or image breakers. We use this word today to mean someone who attacks traditional beliefs or institutions. 360

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(t)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (b)Michael Holford

The Rise of Christianity

Icons were not the only issue that caused bitterness between the churches of Constantinople and Rome. The most serious argument was about how churches were to be run. The pope claimed that he was the head of all Christian churches. The Byzantines did not accept the pope’s claim. They believed the patriarch of Constantinople and other bishops were equal to the pope. Making matters worse was the fact that each church sometimes refused to help the other when outsiders attacked. In the late A.D. 700s, the Byzantine emperor refused to help the pope when Italy was invaded. The pope turned instead to a Germanic people called the Franks for help. The Franks were Roman Catholics and loyal to the pope. The pope was grateful to the Franks for stopping the invasion. In A.D. 800 he gave the Frankish king, Charlemagne (SHAHR • luh • MAYN), the title of emperor. This angered the Byzantines. They believed the leader of the Byzantines was the only true Roman emperor. This conflict pointed out the differences in how each church felt about relations with the government. In the Byzantine Empire, the emperor was in control, with church leaders respecting his wishes. In the West, however, the pope claimed both spiritual and political power. He often quarreled with kings over church and government affairs.

Finally, after centuries of tension, the pope and the patriarch of Constantinople took a drastic step in their ongoing feud. In A.D. 1054 they excommunicated (EHK • skuh • MYOO • nuh • KAY • tuhd) each other. Excommunication means to declare that a person or group no longer belongs to the church. This began a schism (SIH • zuhm), or separation, of the two most important branches of Christianity. The split between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches has lasted to this day. Describe How did church and government work together in the Byzantine Empire?

Christian Ideas Spread Christians founded new communities and spread their faith to various parts of Europe. Reading Focus Have you ever tried to get someone to believe something you believe? Read to learn how Christians spread their faith across Europe. After the fall of Rome, the people of Western Europe faced confusion and conflict. As a result, people were looking for order and unity. Christianity helped to meet this need. It spread rapidly into lands that had once been part of the Roman Empire. It

Spread of Christianity A.D. 325–1100

In

Motion



North Sea

50 °N

BRITAIN

KEY

Christian areas by A.D. 325 Added by A.D. 400 Added by A.D. 600 Added by A.D. 800 Added by A.D. 1100

ATLANTIC OCEAN GAUL

Black Sea

ITALY

Rome

Sicily

Constantinople

GREECE

ASIA MINOR SYRIA

Damascus

Mediterranean Sea

Nazareth

N

EGYPT

CHAPTER 10

a Se

500 km 0 Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection

S

d

20°E

500 mi.

E

W

Re

0

30°N

Jerusalem

JUDAEA

Alexandria

By the year A.D. 1100, Christianity had spread throughout Western and Eastern Europe, as well as north into Scandinavia. 1. In what time period did Christianity spread throughout Britain? 2. What areas were the last to convert to Christianity?

Antioch

Tarsus

Aegean Sea

AFRICA

ea nS

SPAIN

Ca sp ia

The Rise of Christianity

40°E

361

also brought new ways of thinking and living to these areas.

apart from the temptations of the world. Many also tried to do good deeds and be examples of Christian living. Women soon followed the monks’ example and formed communities of their own. These women were called nuns, and they lived in convents. In the early A.D. 400s, Paula, a Roman widow, gave up her wealth and went to Palestine. There she built churches, a hospital, and a convent. Well-educated, Paula helped a scholar named Jerome translate the Bible from Hebrew and Greek into Latin.

What Are Monasteries?

During the A.D. 300s, a new kind of religious group was born in the Eastern Roman Empire. Men called monks banded together in religious communities called monasteries (MAH • nuh • STEHR • eez). Some monasteries were built near cities, while others arose in isolated areas. One of the earliest monks was Anthony, who founded a monastery in the deserts of Egypt. Monks tried to live a spiritual life

Missionaries Apostles, followers, monks, and nuns spread Christianity throughout western Asia and the Roman Empire. Paul of Tarsus traveled to Greece, Turkey, and Damascus to tell Jews and Gentiles about Christianity. Monks and nuns served as missionaries, in addition to providing community services such as medical care and education.

A Catholic missionary in Senegal

Missionaries of many different religions work around the world today. While sharing their religious message, they also help the poor and the sick. Many are not monks or nuns. Some people volunteer for mission trips that can last for weeks or months. Benedictine monks

362

CHAPTER 10

Would you be interested in doing mission work? Why or why not?

The Rise of Christianity

(l)Galleria dell' Accademia, Florence, Italy/Bridgeman Art Library, (r)PRAT/CORBIS

A bishop called Basil (BAY • zuhl) drew up a list of rules for monks and nuns to follow. This list, called the Basilian (buh • ZIH • lee • uhn) Rule, became the model for Eastern Orthodox religious life. In the West, another set of rules was followed. It was written by an Italian monk named Benedict (BEH • nuh • DIHKT). Monks who followed the Benedictine Rule gave up their belongings, lived simply, and spent their time in work and prayer. Like Basil’s rule in the East, Benedict’s rule became the model for monasteries and convents in the West. Basilian and Benedictine communities still exist today. Monks and nuns began to play important roles in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox life. They ran hospitals and schools and aided the poor. They also helped preserve Greek and Roman writings. One important duty was to serve as missionaries (MIH • shuh • NEHR • eez). Missionaries teach their religion to those who are not followers.

Christianity Spreads North

Among the most successful Byzantine missionaries were two brothers, Cyril (SIHR • uhl) and Methodius. They carried the Christian message to the Slavs, a people of Eastern Europe. About A.D. 863, Cyril invented a new alphabet. He wanted to present the Christian message in the Slavic languages. He believed that people would be more interested in Christianity if they could worship and read the Bible in their own languages. The Cyrillic (suh • RIH • lihk) alphabet was based on Greek letters. It is still used today by Russians, Ukrainians, Serbs, and Bulgarians. Eastern Orthodox missionaries traveled in northern lands that bordered the Byzantine Empire. At the same time, other missionaries from Rome were also busy.

The Cyrillic Alphabet Cyrillic Letter

Written Name

English Sound

beh gey zheh em pey ess ef cheh

B G ZH M P S F CH

Cyril, a Byzantine missionary, developed the Cyrillic alphabet, part of which is shown above. What peoples still use the Cyrillic alphabet today?

Christianity Spreads West

In the West, Christian missionaries looked to the islands of Britain (BRIH • tuhn) and Ireland (EYER • luhnd). In the A.D. 300s, Roman soldiers in Britain were called home to defend the empire against Germanic invaders. When the Romans left, Britain was opened to attack by others. Starting in the A.D. 400s, tribes from what are today Germany and Denmark invaded Britain. These people were the Angles and the Saxons. These groups united to become the Anglo-Saxons. They built settlements and set up several small kingdoms. The southern part of Britain soon became known as Angleland, or England. While invading Britain, the Angles and Saxons pushed aside the people already living there. These people were called the Celts (KEHLTS). Some Celts fled to the mountainous regions of Britain. Others went to Ireland. In the A.D. 400s, a priest named Patrick brought Christianity to Ireland. He set up a number of monasteries and churches. Over CHAPTER 10

The Rise of Christianity

363 C.M. Dixon/Photo Resources

the next centuries, Irish monks played an important role in preserving Christian and Roman learning. The Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Britain were slower than Ireland to accept the new religion. In A.D. 597 Pope Gregory I sent about 40 monks from Rome to take Christianity to England. The missionaries converted Ethelbert, the ruler of the English kingdom of Kent. Ethelbert allowed the missionaries to build a church in his capital city of Canterbury. In about 100 years, most of England was Christian. Today, Canterbury is still an important center of Christianity in England. Analyze Why were Basil and Benedict important? Gregory was a monk before he became Pope Gregory I in the late 500s. How did Gregory impact Christianity in England?

Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com

What Did You Learn?

Reading Summary

1. What are icons, and why was their use controversial?

Review the

2. What roles did monks and nuns play in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox life?

• In the Byzantine Empire, Christianity developed into the Eastern Orthodox Church, which in time split with the Roman Catholic Church in the West.

Critical Thinking 3. Cause and Effect Draw a

• Eastern Orthodox and Catholic missionaries helped spread Christianity to areas such as Eastern Europe, Ireland, and Britain.

diagram to show the causes that led to the schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. Cause: Cause: Cause:

364 Giraudon/Art Resource, NY

CHAPTER 10

The Rise of Christianity

Effect: Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches split

4. Describe How did Cyril make the Christian message available to the Slavs? 5. Explain What role did the Frankish king Charlemagne play in the schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches? 6. Analyze Why do you think the Basilian and Benedictine Rules were put in place for monks? 7. Expository Writing Write a newspaper article that describes the spread of Christianity to Ireland and Britain.

Section

Study anywhere, anytime! Download quizzes and flash cards to your PDA from glencoe.com.

The First Christians

Vocabulary

Focusing on the

messiah disciple parable resurrection apostle salvation

others rebelled. (page 343) • Jesus of Nazareth preached of God’s love and forgiveness. According to Christian scriptures, Jesus was crucified and rose from the dead. (page 344) • Jesus’ life and a belief in his resurrection led to a new religion called Christianity. (page 348)

Section Vocabulary persecute martyr hierarchy clergy laity doctrine gospel pope

Section Vocabulary icon iconoclast excommunicate schism monastery missionary

• Roman rule of Judaea led some Jews to oppose Rome peacefully, while

The Christian Church Focusing on the

• Christianity won many followers and eventually became the official religion of the Roman Empire. (page 352) • Early Christians set up a church organization and explained their beliefs. (page 355)

Saint Matthew

The Spread of Christian Ideas Focusing on the

• Church and government worked closely together in the Byzantine Empire. (page 359)

• Christians founded new communities and spread their faith to various parts of Europe. (page 361)

CHAPTER 10

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365

Cott Nero DIV f.25v Portrait of St. Matthew/British Library, London/Bridgeman Art Library

Review Vocabulary

7. On what is Christianity based?

1. Write a paragraph about the basic beliefs of Christianity using the following words. messiah salvation resurrection gospel Write the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. Then write a sentence for each word not chosen. a. laity e. parables b. missionaries f. schism c. martyrs g. apostle d. iconoclasts h. pope 2. Jesus told symbolic stories called ___. 3. The bishop of Rome was called the ___. 4. The ___ in the Christian churches happened in A.D. 1054. 5. Christians who died for their faith were ___.

Review Main Ideas Section 1 • The First Christians

6. How did Jews react to the Roman rule of Judaea?

Sequence Clues

Section 2 • The Christian Church

8. How did the Roman Empire eventually recognize Christianity? 9. What did early Christians do to organize their religion?

Section 3 • The Spread of Christian Ideas

10. What was the relationship between the church and the government in the Byzantine Empire? 11. How and where did the Christian religion spread?

Critical Thinking 12. Analyze Why do you think Jesus’ followers remembered his teachings more when he used parables? 13. Contrast How did Jews and Christians differ in their belief about Jesus and his message? 14. Predict How would the growth of Christianity have been affected if the emperor Constantine had not become a Christian?

Looking for Sequence Clues

Find the words in each of these sentences that help you identify the order in which events occur. 15. At the same time, many Christians started to accept the empire. 16. While on the road to Damascus, Paul had an unusual experience.

17. It is still used today by Russians, Ukrainians, Serbs, and Bulgarians. 18. The southern part of Britain soon became known as Angleland, or England. 19. After Jesus’ death, his followers made a startling claim. 20. At first, they ruled through Jewish kings. To review this skill, see pages 340–341.

366

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The Rise of Christianity

Self-Check Quiz To help you prepare for the Chapter Test, visit jat.glencoe.com

Geography Skills Study the map below and answer the following questions. 21. Human/Environment Interaction What geographical feature do you think most helped the spread of Christianity? 22. Location By A.D. 325, Christianity had spread to which continents? 23. Region Why do you think the cities of Judaea were all important centers of Christianity?

Spread of Christianity N W

50°N

500 mi.

0

500 km 0 Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection

E S

Rome

Constantinople

40°N

ASIA MINOR

GREECE

Carthage

Sicily

Tarsus

Aegean Sea

Antioch

Medit erranean Sea

Nazareth Jerusalem Alexandria JUDAEA

30°N

AFRICA

26. Reviewing Media Use a video or DVD player to view one of the many films made about the life of Jesus or the impact of Christianity on the people of the Roman Empire. Some examples are Ben Hur, The Robe, The Silver Chalice, and The Greatest Story Ever Told. After you watch the movie, write a review of it. Based on what you have learned about the Roman Empire and Christianity, how accurate is the movie? How does it present Jesus, his early followers, the different Jewish groups in Judaea, and the Romans? Share your review with your classmates.

Linking Past and Present

Black Sea

ITALY

Using Technology

27. Recognizing Patterns Conduct research to find out the number of people worldwide who are Christian, Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu, and Muslim. Also record the countries where people of each religion live. What do you notice about religions in different regions of the world?

EGYPT Re d

KEY

30°E

a Se

Main areas of Christian growth 10°E 20°E to A.D. 325 Areas largely Christian by A.D. 600

Read to Write 24. Creative Writing Rewrite the parable of the Good Samaritan as if the events took place in the present day. Read your parable to your classmates, and explain any changes in the meaning that occurred as you modernized it. Use your foldable 25. Using Your to write three sentences that summarize the main ideas of this chapter. Share your sentences with the class, and listen to their sentences. Then vote for the one you think best summarizes the chapter.

Analyze Benedict wrote of the importance of keeping busy. “Idleness [inactivity] is the enemy of the soul. Therefore should the brethren be occupied at stated times in manual labour, and at other fixed hours in sacred reading.” —Benedict, The Rule, “Of the Daily Manual Labour”

28. What does Benedict mean when he says inactivity is “the enemy of the soul”? 29. What do you think probably follows these lines?

CHAPTER 10

The Rise of Christianity

367

CHAPTER 10.pdf

Romans. persecute. Christians. A.D.. 64. A.D.. 726. Jesus begins. to preach A.D.. 30. A.D.. 312. Constantine's. conversion. Emperor. Leo III. removes icons.

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