Annales de l’Institut Henri Poincaré - Probabilités et Statistiques 2010, Vol. 46, No. 4, 1055–1079 DOI: 10.1214/09-AIHP342 © Association des Publications de l’Institut Henri Poincaré, 2010

www.imstat.org/aihp

Central and non-central limit theorems for weighted power variations of fractional Brownian motion Ivan Nourdina , David Nualartb,1 and Ciprian A. Tudorc a Laboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Boîte courrier 188, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 5,

France. E-mail: [email protected] b Department of Mathematics, University of Kansas, 405 Snow Hall, Lawrence, KS 66045-2142, USA. E-mail: [email protected] c SAMOS/MATISSE, Centre d’Économie de La Sorbonne, Université de Panthéon-Sorbonne Paris 1, 90 rue de Tolbiac, 75634 Paris Cedex 13,

France. E-mail: [email protected] Received 4 December 2008; revised 15 August 2009; accepted 18 September 2009

Abstract. In this paper, we prove some central and non-central limit theorems for renormalized weighted power variations of order q ≥ 2 of the fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H ∈ (0, 1), where q is an integer. The central limit holds for 1 1 1 2 2q < H ≤ 1 − 2q , the limit being a conditionally Gaussian distribution. If H < 2q we show the convergence in L to a limit which 1 we show the convergence in L2 to a stochastic integral with only depends on the fractional Brownian motion, and if H > 1 − 2q respect to the Hermite process of order q.

Résumé. Dans ce papier, nous prouvons des théorèmes de la limite centrale et non-centrale pour les variations à poids d’ordre q du mouvement brownien fractionnaire d’indice H ∈ (0, 1), pour q un entier supérieur ou égal à 2. Il y a trois cas, suivant la position 1 et 1 − 1 . Si 1 < H ≤ 1 − 1 , nous montrons un théorème de la limite centrale vers une variable aléatoire de H par rapport à 2q 2q 2q 2q 1 , nous montrons la convergence dans L2 vers une limite qui dépend seulement de loi conditionnellement gaussienne. Si H < 2q 1 , nous montrons la convergence dans L2 vers une intégrale stochastique par du mouvement brownien fractionnaire. Si H > 1 − 2q rapport au processus d’Hermite d’ordre q.

MSC: 60F05; 60H05; 60G15; 60H07 Keywords: Fractional Brownian motion; Central limit theorem; Non-central limit theorem; Hermite process

1. Introduction The study of single path behavior of stochastic processes is often based on the study of their power variations, and there exists a very extensive literature on the subject. Recall that, a real q > 0 being given, the q-power variation of a stochastic process X, with respect to a subdivision πn = {0 = tn,0 < tn,1 < · · · < tn,κ(n) = 1} of [0, 1], is defined to be the sum κ(n) 

|Xtn,k − Xtn,k−1 |q .

k=1

1 The work of D. Nualart is supported by the NSF Grant DMS-06-04207.

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I. Nourdin, D. Nualart and C. A. Tudor

For simplicity, consider from now on the case where tn,k = k2−n for n ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . .} and k ∈ {0, . . . , 2n }. In the present paper we wish to point out some interesting phenomena when X = B is a fractional Brownian motion of Hurst index H ∈ (0, 1), and when q ≥ 2 is an integer. In fact, we will also drop the absolute value (when q is odd) and we will introduce some weights. More precisely, we will consider n

2 

f (B(k−1)2−n )(Bk2−n )q ,

q ∈ {2, 3, 4, . . .},

(1.1)

k=1

where the function f : R → R is assumed to be smooth enough and where Bk2−n denotes, here and in all the paper, the increment Bk2−n − B(k−1)2−n . The analysis of the asymptotic behavior of quantities of type (1.1) is motivated, for instance, by the study of the exact rates of convergence of some approximation schemes of scalar stochastic differential equations driven by B (see [7,12] and [13]) besides, of course, the traditional applications of quadratic variations to parameter estimation problems. Now, let us recall some known results concerning q-power variations (for q = 2, 3, 4, . . .), which are today more or less classical. First, assume that the Hurst index is H = 12 , that is B is a standard Brownian motion. Let μq denote the qth moment of a standard Gaussian random variable G ∼ N (0, 1). By the scaling property of the Brownian motion and using the central limit theorem, it is immediate that, as n → ∞: n

2

−n/2

2  

2n/2 Bk2−n

q

 Law   − μq −→ N 0, μ2q − μ2q .

(1.2)

k=1

When weights are introduced, an interesting phenomenon appears: instead of Gaussian random variables, we rather obtain mixing random variables as limit in (1.2). Indeed, when q is even and f : R → R is continuous and has polynomial growth, it is a very particular case of a more general result by Jacod [10] (see also Section 2 in Nourdin and Peccati [16] for related results) that we have, as n → ∞: n

−n/2

2

2 

q  Law   f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2n/2 Bk2−n − μq −→ μ2q − μ2q

k=1



1

f (Bs ) dWs .

(1.3)

0

Here, W denotes another standard Brownian motion, independent of B. When q is odd, still for f : R → R continuous with polynomial growth, we have, this time, as n → ∞: n

2−n/2

2 

q Law  f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2n/2 Bk2−n −→

 0

k=1

1

  f (Bs ) μ2q − μ2q+1 dWs + μq+1 dBs ,

(1.4)

see for instance [16]. Secondly, assume that H = 12 , that is the case where the fractional Brownian motion B has not independent increments anymore. Then (1.2) has been extended by Breuer and Major [1], Dobrushin and Major [5], Giraitis and Surgailis [6] or Taqqu [21]. Precisely, five cases are considered, according to the evenness of q and the value of H : • if q is even and if H ∈ (0, 34 ), as n → ∞, n

2

−n/2

2  

2nH Bk2−n

q

 Law   2 , − μq −→ N 0, σH,q

(1.5)

k=1

• if q is even and if H = 34 , as n → ∞, 2n

 q  Law 1 2 23n/4 Bk2−n − μq −→ N (0, σ3/4,q ), √ 2−n/2 n k=1

(1.6)

Weighted power variations of fBm

1057

• if q is even and if H ∈ ( 34 , 1), as n → ∞, n

2

n−2nH

2  

2nH Bk2−n

q

 Law − μq −→ “Hermite r.v.,”

(1.7)

k=1

• if q is odd and if H ∈ (0, 12 ], as n → ∞, n

2

−n/2

2  

2nH Bk2−n

q

  Law 2 −→ N 0, σH,q ,

(1.8)

k=1

• if q is odd and if H ∈ ( 12 , 1), as n → ∞, n

2

−nH

2  

2nH Bk2−n

q

  Law 2 . −→ N 0, σH,q

(1.9)

k=1

Here, σH,q > 0 denotes some constant depending only on H and q. The term “Hermite r.v.” denotes a random variable whose distribution is the same as that of Z (2) at time one, for Z (2) defined in Definition 7 below. Now, let us proceed with the results concerning the weighted power variations in the case where H = 12 . Consider the following condition on a function f : R → R, where q ≥ 2 is an integer: (Hq ) f belongs to C 2q and, for any p ∈ (0, ∞) and 0 ≤ i ≤ 2q: supt∈[0,1] E{|f (i) (Bt )|p } < ∞. Suppose that f satisfies (Hq ). If q is even and H ∈ ( 12 , 34 ), then by Theorem 2 in León and Ludeña [11] (see also Corcuera et al. [4] for related results on the asymptotic behavior of the p-variation of stochastic integrals with respect to B) we have, as n → ∞: n

−n/2

2

2 



q  Law  f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2nH Bk2−n − μq −→ σH,q

1

f (Bs ) dWs ,

(1.10)

0

k=1

where, once again, W denotes a standard Brownian motion independent of B while σH,q is the constant appearing in (1.5). Thus, (1.10) shows for (1.1) a similar behavior to that observed in the standard Brownian case, compare with (1.3). In contradistinction, the asymptotic behavior of (1.1) can be completely different of (1.3) or (1.10) for other values of H . The first result in this direction has been observed by Gradinaru et al. [9]. Namely, if q ≥ 3 is odd and H ∈ (0, 12 ), we have, as n → ∞: n

2

nH −n

2  k=1

q L2  μq+1 f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2nH Bk2−n −→ − 2



1

f (Bs ) ds.

(1.11)

0

Also, when q = 2 and H ∈ (0, 14 ), Nourdin [14] proved that we have, as n → ∞: n

2H n−n

2

2  k=1

2   L2 1 f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2nH Bk2−n − 1 −→ 4



1

f

(Bs ) ds.

(1.12)

0

In view of (1.3), (1.4), (1.10), (1.11) and (1.12), we observe that the asymptotic behaviors of the power variations of fractional Brownian motion (1.1) can be really different, depending on the values of q and H . The aim of the present paper is to investigate what happens in the whole generality with respect to q and H . Our main tool is the Malliavin calculus that appeared, in several recent papers, to be very useful in the study of the power variations for stochastic processes. As we will see, the Hermite polynomials play a crucial role in this analysis. In the sequel, for an integer q ≥ 2, we write Hq for the Hermite polynomial with degree q defined by Hq (x) =

(−1)q x 2 /2 dq  −x 2 /2  e , e q! dx q

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I. Nourdin, D. Nualart and C. A. Tudor

and we consider, when f : R → R is a deterministic function, the sequence of weighted Hermite variations of order q defined by n

(q) Vn (f ) :=

2 

  f (B(k−1)2−n )Hq 2nH Bk2−n .

(1.13)

k=1

The following is the main result of this paper. Theorem 1. Fix an integer q ≥ 2, and suppose that f satisfies (Hq ). 1 2q .

1. Assume that 0 < H < L2

2nqH −n Vn (f ) −→ (q)

2. Assume that 

−n/2

B, 2

1 2q

Then, as n → ∞, it holds 

(−1)q 2q q!


 Law (q) Vn (f ) −→

1

f (q) (Bs ) ds.

(1.14)

0

1 2q .

Then, as n → ∞, it holds







1

f (Bs ) dWs ,

B, σH,q

(1.15)

0

where W is a standard Brownian motion independent of B and q 1  σH,q = |r + 1|2H + |r − 1|2H − 2|r|2H . q 2 q!

(1.16)

r∈Z

3. Assume that H = 1 −

1 2q .

Then, as n → ∞, it holds



 1 1 −n/2 (q) Law Vn (f ) −→ B, σ1−1/(2q),q f (Bs ) dWs , B, √ 2 n 0

(1.17)

where W is a standard Brownian motion independent of B and



2 log 2 1 q 1 q . 1− 1− σ1−1/(2q),q = q! 2q q 4. Assume that H > 1 −

1 2q .

Then, as n → ∞, it holds

L2

(q)

(1.18)



2nq(1−H )−n Vn (f ) −→

1

(q)

f (Bs ) dZs ,

(1.19)

0

where Z (q) denotes the Hermite process of order q introduced in Definition 7 below.

n (1) (1) Remark 1. When q = 1, we have Vn (f ) = 2−nH 2k=1 f (B(k−1)2−n )Bk2−n . For H = 12 , 2nH Vn (f ) converges  1 (1) 1 in L2 to the Itô stochastic integral 0 f (Bs ) dBs . For H > 2 , 2nH Vn (f ) converges in L2 and almost surely to the 1 1 Young integral 0 f (Bs ) dBs . For H < 12 , 23nH −n Vn(1) (f ) converges in L2 to − 12 0 f (Bs ) ds. Remark 2. After the first draft of the present paper have been submitted, Burdzy and Swanson [2] and, independently, Nourdin and Réveillac [17] have shown, in the critical case H = 14 , that 

B, 2

−n/2



Vn(2) (f )

Law





−→ B, σ1/4,2 0

1

1 f (Bs ) dWs + 8



1





f (Bs ) ds . 0

Weighted power variations of fBm

1059

(The reader is also referred to [16] for the study of the weighted variations associated with iterated Brownian motion, which is a non-Gaussian self-similar process of order 14 .) Later, it has finally been shown by Nourdin and Nualart [15] 1 , that, for any integer q ≥ 2 and in the critical case H = 2q

   Law −n/2 (q) B, 2 Vn (f ) −→ B, σ1/(2q),q 0

1

(−1)q f (Bs ) dWs + q 2 q!





1

f

(q)

(Bs ) ds .

0

Consequently, the understanding of the asymptotic behavior of the weighted Hermite variations of the fractional Brownian motion is now complete. When H is between

1 4

and 34 , one can refine point 2 of Theorem 1 as follows:

Proposition 2. Let q ≥ 2 be an integer, f : R → R be a function such that (Hq ) holds and assume that H ∈ ( 14 , 34 ). Then, as n → ∞,   (q) B, 2−n/2 Vn(2) (f ), . . . , 2−n/2 Vn (f )

 1  1 Law (q) −→ B, σH,2 f (Bs ) dWs(2) , . . . , σH,q f (Bs ) dWs , (1.20) 0

0

where (W (2) , . . . , W (q) ) is a (q − 1)-dimensional standard Brownian motion independent of B and the σH,p ’s, 2 ≤ p ≤ q, are given by (1.16). Theorem 1, together with Proposition 2, allows us to complete the missing cases in the understanding of the asymptotic behavior of weighted power variations of fractional Brownian motion: Corollary 3. Let q ≥ 2 be an integer, and f : R → R be a function such that (Hq ) holds. Then, as n → ∞: 1. When H >

1 2

n

2

−nH

2 

and q is odd,

q L2  f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2nH Bk2−n −→ qμq−1

1 4

2

f (Bs ) dBs = qμq−1

B1

f (x) dx.

(1.21)

0

and q is even,

n

2nH −n



1

0

k=1

2. When H <



2  k=1

q  L2 1  q   f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2nH Bk2−n − μq −→ μq−2 4 2



1

f

(Bs ) ds.

(1.22)

0

(We recover (1.12) by choosing q = 2). 3. When H = 14 and q is even, 

n

B, 2−n/2

2  k=1



1 q  −→ B, μq−2 4 2 Law



 q  f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2n/4 Bk2−n − μq  0

1





1

f (Bs ) ds + σ1/4,q

f (Bs ) dWs ,

(1.23)

0

where W is a standard Brownian motion independent of B and σ1/4,q is the constant given by (1.25) just below. 1 3 4. When 4 < H < 4 and q is even,  B, 2

n

−n/2

2  k=1



 q  Law  nH f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2 Bk2−n − μq −→ B, σH,q 0

1

f (Bs ) dWs ,

(1.24)

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I. Nourdin, D. Nualart and C. A. Tudor

for W a standard Brownian motion independent of B and  

2   q p q  |r + 1|2H + |r − 1|2H − 2|r|2H . p! μ2q−p 2−p σH,q = p p=2

5. When H = 

3 4

(1.25)

r∈Z

and q is even,



 1 2n q  Law  nH 1 −n/2  f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2 Bk2−n − μq −→ B, σ3/4,q f (Bs ) dWs , B, √ 2 n 0

(1.26)

k=1

for W a standard Brownian motion independent of B and  

2



 q q 1 q 1 q 2 log 2p! μ2q−p 1 − . 1− σ3/4,q =  p 2q q p=2

6. When H >

3 4

and q is even,

n

2

n−2H n

2  k=1

q  q  L2  f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2nH Bk2−n − μq −→ 2μq−2 2

 0

1

f (Bs ) dZs(2) ,

(1.27)

for Z (2) the Hermite process introduced in Definition 7. Finally, we can also give a new proof of the following result, stated and proved by Gradinaru et al. [8] and Cheridito and Nualart [3] in a continuous setting: Theorem 4. Assume that H > 16 , and that f : R → R verifies (H6 ). Then the limit in probability, as n → ∞, of the symmetric Riemann sums n

2  1 

f (Bk2−n ) + f (B(k−1)2−n ) Bk2−n 2

(1.28)

k=1

exists and is given by f (B1 ) − f (0). Remark 3. When H ≤ 16 , quantity (1.28) does not converge in probability in general. As a counterexample, one can consider the case where f (x) = x 3 , see Gradinaru et al. [8] or Cheridito and Nualart [3]. 2. Preliminaries and notation We briefly recall some basic facts about stochastic calculus with respect to a fractional Brownian motion. One refers to [18,19] for further details. Let B = (Bt )t∈[0,1] be a fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H ∈ (0, 1). That is, B is a zero mean Gaussian process, defined on a complete probability space (Ω, A, P ), with the covariance function RH (t, s) = E(Bt Bs ) =

 1  2H s + t 2H − |t − s|2H , 2

s, t ∈ [0, 1].

We suppose that A is the sigma-field generated by B. Let E be the set of step functions on [0, T ], and H be the Hilbert space defined as the closure of E with respect to the inner product 1[0,t] , 1[0,s] H = RH (t, s).

Weighted power variations of fBm

1061

The mapping 1[0,t] → Bt can be extended to an isometry between H and the Gaussian space H1 associated with B. We will denote this isometry by ϕ → B(ϕ). Let S be the set of all smooth cylindrical random variables, i.e. of the form F = φ(Bt1 , . . . , Btm ), where m ≥ 1, φ : Rm → R ∈ Cb∞ and 0 ≤ t1 < · · · < tm ≤ 1. The derivative of F with respect to B is the element of L2 (Ω, H) defined by Ds F =

m  ∂φ (Bt , . . . , Btm )1[0,ti ] (s), ∂xi 1

s ∈ [0, 1].

i=1

In particular Ds Bt = 1[0,t] (s). For any integer k ≥ 1, we denote by Dk,2 the closure of the set of smooth random variables with respect to the norm F 2k,2

k 2   2   =E F + E D j F H⊗j . j =1

The Malliavin derivative D satisfies the chain rule. If ϕ : Rn → R is Cb1 and if (Fi )i=1,...,n is a sequence of elements of D1,2 , then ϕ(F1 , . . . , Fn ) ∈ D1,2 and we have Dϕ(F1 , . . . , Fn ) =

n  ∂ϕ (F1 , . . . , Fn )DFi . ∂xi i=1

q

We also have the following formula, which can easily be proved by induction on q. Let ϕ, ψ ∈ Cb (q ≥ 1), and fix 0 ≤ u < v ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ s < t ≤ 1. Then ϕ(Bt − Bs )ψ(Bv − Bu ) ∈ Dq,2 and     q  (a) ⊗(q−a) D q ϕ(Bt − Bs )ψ(Bv − Bu ) = ϕ (Bt − Bs )ψ (q−a) (Bv − Bu )1⊗a [s,t] ⊗1[u,v] , a q

(2.1)

a=0

means the symmetric tensor product. where ⊗ The divergence operator I is the adjoint of the derivative operator D. If a random variable u ∈ L2 (Ω, H) belongs to the domain of the divergence operator, that is, if it satisfies    E DF, u H  ≤ cu E(F 2 ) for any F ∈ S , then I (u) is defined by the duality relationship     E F I (u) = E DF, u H , for every F ∈ D1,2 . For every n ≥ 1, let Hn be the nth Wiener chaos of B, that is, the closed linear subspace of L2 (Ω, A, P ) generated by the random variables {Hn (B(h)), h ∈ H, hH = 1}, where Hn is the nth Hermite polynomial. The mapping In (h⊗n ) = n!Hn (B(h)) provides a linear isometry between the symmetric tensor product Hn (equipped with the modified norm  · Hn = √1  · H⊗n ) and Hn . For H = 12 , In coincides with the multiple Wiener–Itô integral of n! order n. The following duality formula holds      E F In (h) = E D n F, h H⊗n , (2.2) for any element h ∈ Hn and any random variable F ∈ Dn,2 .

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I. Nourdin, D. Nualart and C. A. Tudor

Let {ek , k ≥ 1} be a complete orthonormal system in H. Given f ∈ Hn and g ∈ Hm , for every r = 0, . . . , n ∧ m, the contraction of f and g of order r is the element of H⊗(n+m−2r) defined by f ⊗r g =

∞ 

f, ek1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ ekr H⊗r ⊗ g, ek1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ ekr H⊗r .

k1 ,...,kr =1

r g ∈ H(n+m−2r) . We have the Notice that f ⊗r g is not necessarily symmetric: we denote its symmetrization by f ⊗ n m following product formula: if f ∈ H and g ∈ H then In (f )Im (g) =

n∧m  r=0

r!

nm r

r

r g). In+m−2r (f ⊗

(2.3)

We recall the following simple formula for any s < t and u < v:   1  E (Bt − Bs )(Bv − Bu ) = |t − v|2H + |s − u|2H − |t − u|2H − |s − v|2H . 2

(2.4)

We will also need the following lemmas: Lemma 5. 1. Let s < t belong to [0, 1]. Then, if H < 1/2, one has    E Bu (Bt − Bs )  ≤ (t − s)2H

(2.5)

for all u ∈ [0, 1]. 2. For all H ∈ (0, 1), n

2      E(B(k−1)2−n Bl2−n ) = O 2n .

(2.6)

k,l=1

3. For any r ≥ 1, we have, if H < 1 −

1 2r ,

n

2      E(Bk2−n Bl2−n )r = O 2n−2rH n .

(2.7)

k,l=1

4. For any r ≥ 1, we have, if H = 1 −

1 2r ,

n

2      E(Bk2−n Bl2−n )r = O n22n−2rn .

(2.8)

k,l=1

Proof. To prove inequality (2.5), we just write   1   1 E Bu (Bt − Bs ) = t 2H − s 2H + |s − u|2H − |t − u|2H , 2 2 and observe that we have |b2H − a 2H | ≤ |b − a|2H for any a, b ∈ [0, 1], because H < 12 . To show (2.6) using (2.4), we write n

n

2 2       E(B(k−1)2−n Bl2−n ) = 2−2H n−1 |l − 1|2H − l 2H − |l − k + 1|2H + |l − k|2H  k,l=1

k,l=1

≤ C2 , n

Weighted power variations of fBm

1063

the last bound coming from a telescoping sum argument. Finally, to show (2.7) and (2.8), we write n

n

k,l=1

k,l=1

2 2       E(Bk2−n Bl2−n )r = 2−2nrH −r |k − l + 1|2H + |k − l − 1|2H − 2|k − l|2H r ∞    |p + 1|2H + |p − 1|2H − 2|p|2H r ,

≤ 2n−2nrH −r

p=−∞

and observe that, since the function ||p + 1|2H + |p − 1|2H − 2|p|2H | behaves as CH p 2H −2 for large p, the series in the right-hand side is convergent because H < 1 − 2r1 . In the critical case H = 1 − 2r1 , this series is divergent, and n

2    |p + 1|2H + |p − 1|2H − 2|p|2H r p=−2n



behaves as a constant time n. Lemma 6. Assume that H > 12 . 1. Let s < t belong to [0, 1]. Then    E Bu (Bt − Bs )  ≤ 2H (t − s) for all u ∈ [0, 1]. 2. Assume that H > 1 −

1 2l

for some l ≥ 1. Let u < v and s < t belong to [0, 1]. Then

  E(Bu − Bv )(Bt − Bs ) ≤ H (2H − 1) 3. Assume that H > 1 −

1 2l

(2.9)

2 2H l + 1 − 2l

1/ l (u − v)(l−1)/ l (t − s).

(2.10)

for some l ≥ 1. Then

n

2      E(Bi2−n Bj 2−n )l = O 22n−2ln .

(2.11)

i,j =1

Proof. We have  1   1  E Bu (Bt − Bs ) = t 2H − s 2H + |s − u|2H − |t − u|2H . 2 2 But, when 0 ≤ a < b ≤ 1:  2H 2H b − a = 2H

b−a

(u + a)2H −1 du ≤ 2H b2H −1 (b − a) ≤ 2H (b − a).

0

Thus, |b2H − a 2H | ≤ 2H |b − a| and the first point follows. Concerning the second point, using Hölder inequality, we can write  v t   E(Bu − Bv )(Bt − Bs ) = H (2H − 1) |y − x|2H −2 dy dx u

s

≤ H (2H − 1)|u − v|

(l−1)/ l

 1  0

≤ H (2H − 1)|u − v|

(l−1)/ l

t

2H −2

|y − x|

s



1 t

|t − s|

(l−1)/ l 0

s

l dy

1/ l dx (2H −2)l

|y − x|

1/ l dy dx

.

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I. Nourdin, D. Nualart and C. A. Tudor

Denote by H = 1 + (H − 1)l and observe that H > write H (2H − 1)

1 t

 0

s

1 2

(because H > 1 −

1 2l ).

Since 2H − 2 = (2H − 2)l, we can

 

 |y − x|(2H −2)l dy dx = E B1H BtH − BsH  ≤ 2H |t − s|

by the first point of this lemma. This gives the desired bound. We prove now the third point. We have n

n

i,j =1

i,j =1

2 2       E(Bi2−n Bj 2−n )l = 2−2H nl−l |i − j + 1|2H + |i − j − 1|2H − 2|i − j |2H l

≤2

n−2H nl+1−l

n −1 2

  |k + 1|2H + |k − 1|2H − 2|k|2H l

k=−2n +1

and the function |k + 1|2H + |k − 1|2H − 2|k|2H behaves as |k|2H −2 for large k. As a consequence, since H > 1 − 2l1 , the sum n −1 2

  |k + 1|2H + |k − 1|2H − 2|k|2H l

k=−2n +1

behaves as 2(2H −2)ln+n and the third point follows.



Now, let us introduce the Hermite process of order q ≥ 2 appearing in (1.19). Fix H > 1/2 and t ∈ [0, 1]. The sequence (ϕn (t))n≥1 , defined as [2 t] 1  ⊗q 1[(j −1)2−n ,j 2−n ] , q! n

ϕn (t) = 2

nq−n

j =1

is a Cauchy sequence in the space H⊗q . Indeed, since H > 1/2, we have   1[a,b] , 1[u,v] H = E (Bb − Ba )(Bv − Bu ) = H (2H − 1)

b  v



 s − s 2H −2 ds ds ,

a

u

so that, for any m ≥ n 

 ϕn (t), ϕm (t) H⊗q q  k2−n [2 t] [2 t]  j 2−m   H q (2H − 1)q nq+mq−n−m   s − s 2H −2 ds ds . = 2 q!2 (j −1)2−m (k−1)2−n m

n

j =1 k=1

Hence lim



m,n→∞

=

 ϕn (t), ϕm (t) H⊗q

H q (2H − 1)q q!2

 t 0

0

t

 s − s (2H −2)q ds ds = cq,H t (2H −2)q+2 ,

Weighted power variations of fBm

where cq,H =

H q (2H −1)q . q!2 (H q−q+1)(2H q−2q+1)

(q)

Let us denote by μt

1065

the limit in H⊗q of the sequence of functions ϕn (t). For

any f ∈ H⊗q , we have 

ϕn (t), f

[2 t]  1   ⊗q 1[(j −1)2−n ,j 2−n ] , f H⊗q q! n



= 2

H⊗q

nq−n

j =1

 j 2−n [2 t]  1  2H −2 1 q ds1 ds1 s1 − s1  ··· H (2H − 1)q q! (j −1)2−n 0 n

= 2nq−n

j =1





1

×

dsq 0

j 2−n

dsq |sq − sq |2H −2 f (s1 , . . . , sq )

(j −1)2−n

1 q H (2H − 1)q q!  (q)  = μt , f H⊗q .



−→ n→∞

0

t

ds

 [0,1]q

 2H −2 ds1 · · · dsq s1 − s  · · · |sq − s |2H −2 f (s1 , . . . , sq )

(q)

(q)

Definition 7. Fix q ≥ 2 and H > 1/2. The Hermite process Z (q) = (Zt )t∈[0,1] of order q is defined by Zt (q) Iq (μt ) for t ∈ [0, 1]. (q)

(q)

(q)

=

L2

Let Zn be the process defined by Zn (t) = Iq (ϕn (t)) for t ∈ [0, 1]. By construction, it is clear that Zn (t) −→ Z (q) (t) as n → ∞, for all fixed t ∈ [0, 1]. On the other hand, it follows, from Taqqu [21] and Dobrushin and Major [5], (q) that Zn converges in law to the “standard” and historical qth Hermite process, defined through its moving average representation as a multiple integral with respect to a Wiener process with time horizon R. In particular, the process introduced in Definition 7 has the same finite dimensional distributions as the historical Hermite process. Let us finally mention that it can be easily seen that Z (q) is q(H − 1) + 1 self-similar, has stationary increments and admits moments of all orders. Moreover, it has Hölder continuous paths of order strictly less than q(H − 1) + 1. For further results, we refer to Tudor [22]. 3. Proof of the main results In this section we will provide the proofs of the main results. For notational convenience, from now on, we write ε(k−1)2−n (resp. δk2−n ) instead of 1[0,(k−1)2−n ] (resp. 1[(k−1)2−n ,k2−n ] ). The following proposition provides information (q) 1 on the asymptotic behavior of E(Vn (f )2 ), as n tends to infinity, for H ≤ 1 − 2q . Proposition 8. Fix an integer q ≥ 2. Suppose that f satisfies (Hq ). Then, if H ≤  (q)    E Vn (f )2 = O 2n(−2H q+2) . If

1 2q

≤H <1−

1 2q ,

then (3.1)

then

    (q) E Vn (f )2 = O 2n . Finally, if H = 1 −

1 2q ,

1 2q ,

(3.2)

then

 (q)    E Vn (f )2 = O n2n .

(3.3)

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I. Nourdin, D. Nualart and C. A. Tudor

Proof. Using the relation between Hermite polynomials and multiple stochastic integrals, we have Hq (2nH Bk2−n ) = ⊗q 1 qnH Iq (δk2−n ). In this way we obtain q! 2   (q) E Vn (f )2 n

2 

=

     E f (B(k−1)2−n )f (B(l−1)2−n )Hq 2nH Bk2−n Hq 2nH Bl2−n

k,l=1 n

2   ⊗q   ⊗q   1 = 2 22H qn E f (B(k−1)2−n )f (B(l−1)2−n )Iq δk2−n Iq δl2−n . q! k,l=1

Now we apply the product formula (2.3) for multiple stochastic integrals and the duality relationship (2.2) between the multiple stochastic integral IN and the iterated derivative operator D N , obtaining   (q) E Vn (f )2 q 2n 22H qn    q 2 = r! r q!2 k,l=1 r=0

 ⊗q−r   δ ⊗q−r δk2−n , δl2−n rH ×E f (B(k−1)2−n )f (B(l−1)2−n )I2q−2r δk2−n ⊗ l2−n n

q 2  

= 22H qn

k,l=1 r=0

1 r!(q − r)!2

     ⊗q−r δ ⊗q−r δk2−n , δl2−n rH , ×E D 2q−2r f (B(k−1)2−n )f (B(l−1)2−n ) , δk2−n ⊗ l2−n H⊗(2q−2r) denotes the symmetrization of the tensor product. By (2.1), the derivative of the product where ⊗ 2q−2r (f (B(k−1)2−n )f (B(l−1)2−n )) is equal to a sum of derivatives: D 

  D 2q−2r f (B(k−1)2−n )f (B(l−1)2−n ) =

f (a) (B(k−1)2−n )f (b) (B(l−1)2−n )

a+b=2q−2r

×

 (2q − 2r)!  ⊗a ε ⊗b −n . ε(k−1)2−n ⊗ (l−1)2 a!b!

We make the decomposition  (q)  E Vn (f )2 = An + Bn + Cn + Dn ,

(3.4)

where n

An =

2  22H qn   (q) (q) q q −n )f −n ) ε(k−1)2−n , δk2−n ε(l−1)2−n , δl2−n , E f (B (B (k−1)2 (l−1)2 q!2 k,l=1

Bn = 2

2H qn



n

2 

  E f (q) (B(k−1)2−n )f (q) (B(l−1)2−n ) α(c, d, e, f )

c+d+e+f =2q k,l=1 d+e≥1 f

× ε(k−1)2−n , δk2−n cH ε(k−1)2−n , δl2−n dH ε(l−1)2−n , δk2−n eH ε(l−1)2−n , δl2−n H ,

Weighted power variations of fBm

Cn = 2

n



2H qn

2 

a+b=2q k,l=1 (a,b)=(q,q)

1067

  (2q)! E f (a) (B(k−1)2−n )f (b) (B(l−1)2−n ) 2 q! a!b!

  ⊗a ε ⊗b −n , δ ⊗q−n ⊗ δ ⊗q−n ⊗(2q) , × ε(k−1)2 −n ⊗ (l−1)2 k2 l2 H and Dn = 2

2H qn

q 



n

2 

  E f (a) (B(k−1)2−n )f (b) (B(l−1)2−n )

r=1 a+b=2q−2r k,l=1



⊗a ε ⊗b −n , δ ⊗q−r δ ⊗q−r × ε(k−1)2 ⊗ −n ⊗ (l−1)2 k2−n l2−n

 H⊗(2q−2r)

(2q − 2r)! r!(q − r)!2 a!b!

δk2−n , δl2−n rH ,

for some combinatorial constants α(c, d, e, f ). That is, An and Bn contain all the terms with r = 0 and (a, b) = (q, q); Cn contains the terms with r = 0 and (a, b) = (q, q); and Dn contains the remaining terms. For any integer r ≥ 1, we set   αn = sup  ε(k−1)2−n , δl2−n H , (3.5) k,l=1,...,2n n

2     δk2−n , δl2−n H r , βr,n =

(3.6)

k,l=1 n

2     ε(k−1)2−n , δl2−n H . γn =

(3.7)

k,l=1

Then, under assumption (Hq ), we have the following estimates: |An | ≤ C22H qn+2n (αn )2q , |Bn | + |Cn | ≤ C22H qn (αn )2q−1 γn , |Dn | ≤ C22H qn

q  (αn )2q−2r βr,n , r=1

where C is a constant depending only on q and the function f . Notice that the second inequality follows from the fact that when (a, b) = (q, q), or (a, b) = (q, q) and c + d + e + f = 2q with d ≥ 1 or e ≥ 1, there will be at least a factor of the form ε(k−1)2−n , δl2−n H in the expression of Bn or Cn . In the case H < 12 , we have by (2.5) that αn ≤ 2−2nH , by (2.7) that βr,n ≤ C2n−2rH n , and by (2.6) that γn ≤ C2n . As a consequence, we obtain |An | ≤ C2n(−2H q+2) , |Bn | + |Cn | ≤ C2 |Dn | ≤ C

q 

n(−2H q+2H +1)

(3.8) ,

2n(−2(q−r)H +1) ,

(3.9) (3.10)

r=1

which implies the estimates (3.1) and (3.2). 1 , we have by (2.9) that αn ≤ C2−n , by (2.7) that βr,n ≤ C2n−2rH n , and by (2.6) that In the case 12 ≤ H < 1 − 2q n γn ≤ C2 . As a consequence, we obtain |An | + |Bn | + |Cn | ≤ C2n(2q(H −1)+2) , |Dn | ≤ C

q  r=1

2n((2q−2r)(H −1)+1) ,

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I. Nourdin, D. Nualart and C. A. Tudor

which also implies (3.2). 1 Finally, if H = 1 − 2q , we have by (2.9) that αn ≤ C2−n , by (2.8) that βr,n ≤ Cn22n−2rn , and by (2.6) that n γn ≤ C2 . As a consequence, we obtain |An | + |Bn | + |Cn | ≤ C2n , |Dn | ≤ C

q 

n2nr/q ,

r=1



which implies (3.3). 3.1. Proof of Theorem 1 in the case 0 < H <

1 2q

In this subsection we are going to prove the first point of Theorem 1. The proof will be done in three steps. Set (q) (q) (q) V1,n (f ) = 2n(qH −1) Vn (f ). We first study the asymptotic behavior of E(V1,n (f )2 ), using Proposition 8. Step 1. The decomposition (3.4) leads to  (q)  E V1,n (f )2 = 22n(qH −1) (An + Bn + Cn + Dn ). From the estimate (3.9) we obtain 22n(qH −1) (|Bn | + |Cn |) ≤ C2n(2H −1) , which converges to zero as n goes to infinity 1 since H < 2q < 12 . On the other hand (3.10) yields 22n(qH −1) |Dn | ≤ C

q 

2n(2rH −1) ,

r=1

which tends to zero as n goes to infinity since 2rH − 1 ≤ 2qH − 1 < 0 for all r = 1, . . . , q. In order to handle the term An , we make use of the following estimate, which follows from (2.5) and (2.4): 

−2H n q      ε(k−1)2−n , δk2−n q − − 2 H   2 q−1 

−2H n q−1−s  −2H n   2   s  ε(k−1)2−n , δk2−n − 2 =  ε(k−1)2−n , δk2−n H +  H  2  2 

≤ C k 2H

 − (k − 1)2H 2−2H qn .

s=0

(3.11)

Thus,  4H qn−2n 2n   2  q q  E f (q) (B(k−1)2−n )f (q) (B(l−1)2−n ) ε(k−1)2−n , δk2−n H ε(l−1)2−n , δl2−n H  q!2 k,l=1

 2n  2−2n−2q   (q) (q) − E f (B(k−1)2−n )f (B(l−1)2−n )  ≤ C22H n−n ,  q!2 k,l=1

which implies, as n → ∞: E



 (q) V1,n (f )2 =

n

2  2−2n−2q   (q) E f (B(k−1)2−n )f (q) (B(l−1)2−n ) + o(1). q!2 k,l=1

(3.12)

Weighted power variations of fBm

1069

Step 2: We need the asymptotic behavior of the double product   2n  (q) −n (q) f (B(l−1)2−n ) . Jn := E V1,n (f ) × 2 l=1

Using the same arguments as in Step 1 we obtain n

Jn = 2

2 

H qn−2n

   E f (B(k−1)2−n )f (q) (B(l−1)2−n )Hq 2nH Bk2−n

k,l=1 n

2   ⊗q   1 = 22H qn−2n E f (B(k−1)2−n )f (q) (B(l−1)2−n )Iq δk2−n q! k,l=1 n

2      ⊗q  1 = 22H qn−2n E D q f (B(k−1)2−n )f (q) (B(l−1)2−n ) , δk2−n H⊗q q! k,l=1

2n

q 

= 22H qn−2n

k,l=1 a=0

  1 E f (a) (B(k−1)2−n )f (2q−a) (B(l−1)2−n ) a!(q − a)! q−a

× ε(k−1)2−n , δk2−n aH ε(l−1)2−n , δk2−n H . It turns out that only the term with a = q will contribute to the limit as n tends to infinity. For this reason we make the decomposition n

Jn = 2

2H qn−2n

2   1  (q) q E f (B(k−1)2−n )f (q) (B(l−1)2−n ) ε(k−1)2−n , δk2−n H + Sn , q!

k,l=1

where n

Sn = 2

2 

2H qn−2n

ε(l−1)2−n , δk2−n H

k,l=1

q−1  a=0

  1 E f (a) (B(k−1)2−n )f (2q−a) (B(l−1)2−n ) a!(q − a)! q−a−1

× ε(k−1)2−n , δk2−n aH ε(l−1)2−n , δk2−n H

.

By (2.5) and (2.6), we have |Sn | ≤ C22H n−n , which tends to zero as n goes to infinity. Moreover, by (3.11), we have  2n  22H qn−2n     q E f (q) (B(k−1)2−n )f (q) (B(l−1)2−n ) ε(k−1)2−n , δk2−n H   q! k,l=1

− (−1)

q2

−2n−q

q!

n

2  k,l=1

  (q)  (q) E f (B(k−1)2−n )f (B(l−1)2−n )  ≤ C22H n−n , 

which also tends to zero as n goes to infinity. Thus, finally, as n → ∞: Jn = (−1)

q2

−2n−q

q!

n

2  k,l=1

  E f (q) (B(k−1)2−n )f (q) (B(l−1)2−n ) + o(1).

(3.13)

1070

I. Nourdin, D. Nualart and C. A. Tudor

Step 3: By combining (3.12) and (3.13), we obtain that  2 2n   (−1)q −n  (q)  (q)  E V1,n (f ) − q 2 f (B(k−1)2−n ) = o(1),   2 q! k=1

as n → ∞. Thus, the proof of the first point of Theorem 1 is done using a Riemann sum argument. 3.2. Proof of Theorem 1 in the case H > 1 −

1 2q :

the weighted non-central limit theorem

We prove here that the sequence V3,n (f ), given by n

1 (q) (q) V3,n (f ) = 2n(1−H )q−n Vn (f ) = 2qn−n q!

2 

 ⊗q  f (B(k−1)2−n )Iq δk2−n ,

k=1

1 (q) converges in L2 as n → ∞ to the pathwise integral 0 f (Bs ) dZs with respect to the Hermite process of order q introduced in Definition 7. Observe first that, by construction of Z (q) (precisely, see the discussion before Definition 7 in Section 2), the desired result is in order when the function f is identically one. More precisely: 1 Lemma 9. For each fixed t ∈ [0, 1], the sequence 2qn−n q!

[2n t] k=1

⊗q

Iq (δk2−n ) converges in L2 to the Hermite random

(q)

variable Zt . (q)

Now, consider the case of a general function f . We fix two integers m ≥ n, and decompose the sequence V3,m (f ) as follows: (q)

V3,m (f ) = A(m,n) + B (m,n) , where A

(m,n)

2n

j 2m−n

j =1

i=(j −1)2m−n +1

1 m(q−1)  = f (B(j −1)2−n ) 2 q!

 ⊗q  Iq δi2−m ,

and 2n

B

(m,n)

 1 = 2m(q−1) q!

j 2m−n

j =1 i=(j −1)2m−n +1

 ⊗q  m,n i,j f (B)Iq δi2−m ,

(m,n) and B (m,n) separately. with the notation m,n i,j f (B) = f (B(i−1)2−m ) − f (B(j −1)2−n ). We shall study A Study of A(m,n) . When n is fixed, Lemma 9 yields that the random vector



1 m(q−1) 2 q!

j 2m−n



⊗q  Iq δi2−m ; j

i=(j −1)2m−n +1

converges in L2 , as m → ∞, to the vector 

 (q) (q) Zj 2−n − Z(j −1)2−n ; j = 1, . . . , 2n .

 = 1, . . . , 2

n

Weighted power variations of fBm

1071

L2

Then, as m → ∞, A(m,n) → A(∞,n) , where n

A

(∞,n)

:=

2  j =1

  (q) (q) f (B(j −1)2−n ) Zj 2−n − Z(j −1)2−n .

1 (q) Finally, we claim that when n tends to infinity, A(∞,n) converges in L2 to 0 f (Bs ) dZs . Indeed, observe that the 1 (q) stochastic integral 0 f (Bs ) dZs is a pathwise Young integral. So, to get the convergence in L2 it suffices to show 1 (q) that the sequence A(∞,n) is bounded in Lp for some p ≥ 2. The integral 0 f (Bs ) dZs has moments of all orders, because for all p ≥ 2 

sup

E

0≤s
(q)

(q)

|Zt − Zs | |t − s|γ

p  <∞

and 

sup

E

0≤s
|Bt − Bs | |t − s|β

p  < ∞,

if γ < q(H − 1) + 1 and β < H . On the other hand, Young’s inequality implies    1  (∞,n)    (q)  (q)  A , − f (B ) dZ s s  ≤ cρ,ν Varρ f (B) Varν Z  0

where Varρ denotes the variation of order ρ, and with ρ, ν > 1 such that 1 q(H −1)+1 ,

1 ρ

+

1 ν

the result follows.

This proves that, by letting m and then n go to infinity, A(m,n) converges in L2 to Study of the term B (m,n) : We prove that

> 1. Choosing ρ > 1 0

2  lim sup E B (m,n)  = 0.

1 H

and ν >

(q)

f (Bs ) dZs .

(3.14)

n→∞ m

We have, using the product formula (2.3) for multiple stochastic integrals, j 2m−n

n

2  2  E B (m,n)  = 22m(q−1)

n

2 

2m−n j 

q  l!  q 2 q!2 l

j =1 i=(j −1)2m−n +1 j =1 i =(j −1)2m−n +1 l=0 (m,n)

× bl

δi2−m , δi 2−m lH ,

(3.15)

where (m,n)

bl

 ⊗(q−l)   m,n ⊗(q−l) . = E m,n i,j f (B)i ,j f (B)I2(q−l) δi2−m ⊗ δi 2−m (m,n)

By (2.2) and (2.1), we obtain that bl

(3.16)

is equal to

   ⊗(q−l)  m,n ⊗(q−l) E D 2(q−l) m,n i,j f (B)i ,j f (B) , δi2−m ⊗ δi 2−m H⊗2(q−l) =

2q−2l 

a=0

 2q − 2l   (a) ⊗a ⊗a (a) (B(j −1)2−n )ε(j E f (B(i−1)2−m )ε(i−1)2 −m − f −n −1)2 a

  ⊗(q−l)  ⊗b f (2q−2l−a) (B(i −1)2−m )ε ⊗b

δ ⊗(q−l) ⊗ , δi2−m ⊗ − f (2q−2l−a) (B(j −1)2−n )ε(j .

−1)2−m (i −1)2−m i 2−m H⊗2(q−l)

1072

I. Nourdin, D. Nualart and C. A. Tudor

The term in (3.15) corresponding to l = q can be estimated by  2 1 2m(q−1) sup E f (Bx ) − f (By ) βq,m , 2 q! |x−y|≤2−n where βq,m has been introduced in (3.6). So it converges to zero as n tends to infinity, uniformly in m, because, 1 by (2.11) and using that H > 1 − 2q , we have sup 22m(q−1) βq,m < ∞. m

In order to handle the terms with 0 ≤ l ≤ q − 1, we make the decomposition 4  2q − 2l   (m,n)  2q−2l b ≤ Bh , l a a=0

(3.17)

h=1

where   ⊗a  m,n  ⊗(2q−2l−a) ⊗(q−l) ⊗(q−l) B1 = E m,n i,j f (B)i ,j f (B) ε(i−1)2−m ⊗ ε(i −1)2−m , δi2−m ⊗ δi 2−m H⊗2(q−l) ,    B2 = E f (a) (B(j −1)2−n )m,n i ,j f (B)  ⊗a   ⊗(q−l) ⊗a δ ⊗(q−l) ε ⊗(2q−2l−a) × ε(i−1)2 , δi2−m ⊗ , −m − ε(j −1)2−n ⊗ (i −1)2−m i 2−m H⊗2(q−l)  m,n  B3 = E i,j f (B)f (2q−2l−a) (B(j −1)2−n )    ⊗a ⊗(2q−2l−a)  ⊗(q−l) ε ⊗(2q−2l−a) δ ⊗(q−l) − ε(j −1)2−n , δi2−m ⊗ , × ε(i−1)2 −m ⊗ (i −1)2−m i 2−m H⊗2(q−l)  (a)  B4 = E f (B(j −1)2−n )f (2q−2l−a) (B(j −1)2−n )   ⊗(2q−2l−a)   ⊗a ⊗(2q−2l−a)  ⊗(q−l) ⊗a δ ⊗(q−l) ε

− ε(j −1)2−n , δi2−m ⊗ . × ε(i−1)2 −m − ε(j −1)2−n ⊗ (i −1)2−m i 2−m H⊗2(q−l)

(3.18)

By using (2.9) and the conditions imposed on the function f , one can bound the terms B1 , B2 and B3 as follows: |B1 | ≤ c(q, f, H )

sup

|x−y|≤1/2n ,0≤a≤2q

|B2 | + |B3 | ≤ c(q, f, H )

 2 E f (a) (Bx ) − f (a) (By ) 2−2m(q−l) ,

sup

|x−y|≤1/2n ,0≤a≤2q

  E f (2q−2l−a) (Bx ) − f (2q−2l−a) (By )2−2m(q−l) ,

and, by using (2.10), we obtain that |B4 | ≤ c(q, f, H )2−n(q−1)/q−2m(q−l) . By setting Rn =

 2 1 sup E f (Bx ) − f (By ) sup 22m(q−1) βq,m , q! |x−y|≤2−n m

we can finally write, by the estimate (2.11), E|B (m,n) |2 ≤ Rn + c(H, f, q)22m(q−1)

 sup

|x−y|≤1/2n ,0≤a≤2q

   (2q−2l−a) (q−1)/q  f (Bx ) − f (2q−2l−a) (By ) + 2−n

Weighted power variations of fBm j 2m−n

n

×

2 

j  2m−n

n

2 

q−1 

j =1 i=(j −1)2m−n +1 j =1 i =(j −1)2m−n +1 l=0

≤ Rn + c(H, f, q)22m(q−1)

×

q−1 



sup

|x−y|≤1/2n ,0≤a≤2q

1073

2−2m(q−l) δi2−m , δi 2−m lH   (2q−2l−a)  f (Bx ) − f (2q−2l−a) (By ) + (2−n )(q−1)/q

m

2

−2m(q−l)

2 

δi2−m , δi 2−m lH

i,j =0

l=0

≤ Rn + c(H, f, q)



sup

|x−y|≤1/2n ,0≤a≤2q

   (2q−2l−a) f (Bx ) − f (2q−2l−a) (By ) + (2−n )(q−1)/q

and this converges to zero due to the continuity of B and since q > 1. 3.3. Proof of Theorem 1 in the case

1 2q


1 2q :

the weighted central limit theorem

1 1 < H < 1 − 2q . We study the convergence in law of the sequence V2,n (f ) = 2−n/2 Vn (f ). We Suppose first that 2q fix two integers m ≥ n, and decompose this sequence as follows: (q)

(q)

(q)

V2,m (f ) = A(m,n) + B (m,n) , where j 2m−n

n

(m,n)

A

=2

−m/2

2 

f (B(j −1)2−n )

j =1

  Hq 2mH Bi2−m ,

i=(j −1)2m−n +1

and j 2m−n

2n

(m,n)

B

 1 = 2m(H q−1/2) q!

j =1 i=(j −1)2m−n +1

 ⊗q  m,n i,j f (B)Iq δi2−m ,

and where as before we make use of the notation m,n i,j f (B) = f (B(i−1)2−m ) − f (B(j −1)2−n ). (m,n) Let us first consider the term A . From Theorem 1 in Breuer and Major [1], and taking into account that 1 , it follows that the random vector H < 1 − 2q  −m/2

B, 2

j 2m−n



Hq 2

mH



Bi2−m ; j = 1, . . . , 2

 n

i=(j −1)2m−n +1

converges in law, as m → ∞, to   B, σH,q Wj 2−n ; j = 1, . . . , 2n , where σH,q is the constant defined by (1.16) and W is a standard Brownian motion independent of B (the independence is a consequence of the central limit theorem for multiple stochastic integrals proved in Peccati and Tudor [20]). Since n

2  j =1

f (B(j −1)2−n )Wj 2−n

1074

I. Nourdin, D. Nualart and C. A. Tudor

1 converges in L2 as n → ∞ to the Itô integral 0 f (Bs ) dWs we conclude that, by letting m → ∞ and then n → ∞, we have

 1   (m,n) Law B, A −→ B, σH,q f (Bs ) dWs . 0

Then it suffices to show that 2  lim sup E B (m,n)  = 0.

(3.19)

n→∞ m→∞

We have, as in (3.15), n

2  2  E B (m,n)  = 2m(2H q−1)

j 2m−n

n

2 

2m−n j 

q  l!  q 2 q!2 l

j =1 i=(j −1)2m−n +1 j =1 i =(j −1)2m−n +1 l=0 (m,n)

× bl

δi2−m , δi 2−m lH ,

(3.20)

where bl(m,n) has been defined in (3.16). The term in (3.20) corresponding to l = q can be estimated by  2 1 m(2H q−1) sup E f (Bx ) − f (By ) βq,m , 2 q! |x−y|≤2−n which converges to zero as n tends to infinity, uniformly in m, because by (2.7) and using that H < 1 −

1 2q ,

we have

sup 2m(2H q−1) βq,m < ∞. m

In order to handle the terms with 0 ≤ l ≤ q − 1, we will distinguish two different cases, depending on the value of H . (m,n) as follows: Case H < 1/2. Suppose 0 ≤ l ≤ q − 1. By (2.6), we can majorize bl  (m,n)   ≤ C2−4H m(q−l) . b l As a consequence, applying again (2.7), the corresponding term in (3.20) is bounded by C2m(2H q−1) 2−4H m(q−l) βl,m ≤ C22mH (l−q) , which converges to zero as m tends to infinity because l < q. Case H > 1/2. Suppose 0 ≤ l ≤ q − 1. By (2.9), we get the estimate  (m,n)  b  ≤ C2−2m(q−l) . l As a consequence, applying again (2.7), the corresponding term in (3.20) is bounded by C2m(2H q−1) 2−2m(q−l) βl,m . If H < 1 − 2l1 , applying (2.7), this is bounded by C2m(2H (q−l)−2(q−l)) , which converges to zero as m tends to infinity because H < 1 and l < q. In the case H = 1 − 2l1 , applying (2.8), we get the estimate Cm2m(2H (q−l)−2(q−l)) , which converges to zero as m tends to infinity because H < 1 and l < q. In the case H > 1 − 2l1 , we apply (2.9) and we get 1 . the estimate C2m(2H 2+1−2q) , which converges to zero as m tends to infinity because H < 1 − 2q 1 The proof in the case H = 1 − 2q is similar. The convergence of the term A(m,n) is obtained by applying Theorem 1 in Breuer and Major (1983), and the convergence to zero in L2 of the term B (m,n) follows the same lines as before.

Weighted power variations of fBm

1075

3.4. Proof of Proposition 2 We proceed as in Section 3.3. For p = 2, . . . , q, we set V2,n (f ) = 2−n/2 Vn (f ). We fix two integers m ≥ n, and decompose this sequence as follows: (p)

(p)

(p)

V2,m (f ) = A(m,n) + Bp(m,n) , p where j 2m−n

n

A(m,n) p

=2

−m/2

2 

f (B(j −1)2−n )

j =1

  Hp 2mH Bi2−m ,

i=(j −1)2m−n +1

and j 2m−n

2n

Bp(m,n)

 1 = 2m(Hp−1/2) p!

j =1 i=(j −1)2m−n +1

 ⊗p  m,n i,j f (B)Ip δi2−m ,

and where as before we make use of the notation m,n i,j f (B) = f (B(i−1)2−m ) − f (B(j −1)2−n ). (m,n)

Let us first consider the term Ap 



B, 2

−m/2

j 2m−n



Hp 2

. We claim that the random vector

mH



Bi2−m ; j = 1, . . . , 2

i=(j −1)2m−n +1

 n 2≤p≤q

converges in law, as m → ∞, to     (p) B, σH,p Wj 2−n ; j = 1, . . . , 2n 2≤p≤q , where (W (2) , . . . , W (q) ) is a (q − 1)-dimensional standard Brownian motion independent of B and the σH,p ’s are given by (1.16). Indeed, the convergence in law of each component follows from Theorem 1 in Breuer and Major [1], 1 taking into account that H < 34 ≤ 1 − 2q . The joint convergence and the fact that the processes W (p) for p = 2, . . . , q are independent (and also independent of B) is a direct application of the central limit theorem for multiple stochastic integrals proved in Peccati and Tudor [20]. Since, for any p = 2, . . . , q, the quantity n

2  j =1

(p)

f (B(j −1)2−n )Wj 2−n

1 (p) converges in L2 as n → ∞ to the Itô integral 0 f (Bs ) dWs , we conclude that, by letting m → ∞ and then n → ∞, we have

 1  1   (q) (m,n) (m,n) Law (2) B, A2 , . . . , Aq −→ B, σH,2 f (Bs ) dWs , . . . , σH,q f (Bs ) dWs . 0

1 ,1 − On the other hand, and because H ∈ ( 14 , 34 ) (implying that H ∈ ( 2p

2  lim sup E Bp(m,n)  = 0

n→∞ m→∞

for all p = 2, . . . , q. This finishes the proof of Proposition 2.

0

1 2p )),

we have shown in Section 3.3 that

1076

I. Nourdin, D. Nualart and C. A. Tudor

3.5. Proof of Corollary 3 For any integer q ≥ 2, we have 

2

nH

Bk2−n

q

q q   ⊗p     q q H np − μq = Ip δk2−n = p! μq−p Hp 2nH Bk2−n . μq−p 2 p p p=1

p=1

Indeed, the pth kernel in the chaos representation of (2nH Bk2−n )q is q  1  p  nH = E D 2 Bk2−n p!

q nHp ⊗p μq−p δk2−n . 2 p

Suppose first that q is odd and H > 12 . In this case, we have n

2

−nH

2  k=1

q  q  q (p) f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2nH Bk2−n = p! μq−p 2−nH Vn (f ). p p=1

The term with p = 1 converges in L2 to qμq−1

1 0

1 f (Bs ) dBs . For p ≥ 2, the limit in L2 is zero. Indeed, if H ≤ 1 − 2p ,

(p)

(p)

1 then E(Vn (f )2 ) is bounded by a constant times n2n by Proposition 8. If H > 1 − 2p , then E(Vn (f )2 ) is bounded by a constant times 2−n2(1−H )p+2n by (1.19), with −2(1 − H )p + 2 − 2H = (1 − H )(2 − 2p) < 0. Suppose now that q is even. Then n

2

2nH −n

2  k=1

q  q   q (p) f (B(k−1)2−n ) 2nH Bk2−n − μq = 22nH −n p! μq−p Vn (f ). p p=2

    (2) If H < 14 , by (1.14), one has that 22nH −n × 2 q2 μq−2 Vn (f ) converges in L2 , as n → ∞, to 14 q2 μq−2 ×  1

2nH −n V (p) (f ) converges to zero in L2 . Indeed, if H < 1 , then n 0 f (Bs ) ds. On the other hand, for p ≥ 4, 2 2p (p)

E(Vn (f )2 ) = O(2n(−2Hp+2) ) by (3.1) with −2Hp + 2 + 4H − 2 < 0. If H ≥ by (3.2) with 4H − 1 < 0. Therefore (1.22) holds. In the case 14 < H < 34 , Proposition 2 implies that the vector 

1 2p ,

(p)

then E(Vn (f )2 ) = O(2n )

 (q) B, 2−n/2 Vn(2) (f ), . . . , 2−n/2 Vn (f )

converges in law to

 B, σH,2 0

1

 f (Bs ) dWs(2) , . . . , σH,q

1

(q)

f (Bs ) dWs

,

0

where (W (2) , . . . , W (q) ) is a (q − 1)-dimensional standard Brownian motion independent of B and the σH,p ’s, 2 ≤ p ≤ q, are given by (1.16). This implies the convergence (1.24). The proofs of (1.23) and (1.26) are analogous (with an adequate version of Proposition 2). 1 Finally, consider the case H > 34 . For p = 2, 2n−2H n Vn(2) (f ) converges in L2 to 0 f (Bs ) dZs(2) by (1.19). (p) (p) If p ≥ 4, then 2n−2H n Vn (f ) converges in L2 to zero because, again by (1.19), one has E(Vn (f )2 ) = n(2−2(1−H )p) O(2 ).

Weighted power variations of fBm

1077

3.6. Proof of Theorem 4 We can assume H < 12 , the case where H ≥

1 2

being straightforward. By Taylor’s formula, we have

n

2  1 

f (B1 ) = f (0) + f (Bk2−n ) + f (B(k−1)2−n ) Bk2−n 2 k=1

2n

2n

k=1

k=1

1  (3) 1  (4) − f (B(k−1)2−n )(Bk2−n )3 − f (B(k−1)2−n )(Bk2−n )4 12 24 2n



1  (5) f (B(k−1)2−n )(Bk2−n )5 + Rn , 80

(3.21)

k=1

with Rn converging towards 0 in probability as n → ∞, because H > 1/6. We can expand the monomials x m , m = 2, 3, 4, 5, in terms of the Hermite polynomials: x 2 = 2H2 (x) + 1, x 3 = 6H3 (x) + 3H1 (x), x 4 = 24H4 (x) + 12H2 (x) + 3, x 5 = 120H5 (x) + 60H3 (x) + 15H1 (x). In this way we obtain n

2 

    f (3) (B(k−1)2−n )(Bk2−n )3 = 6 × 2−3H n Vn(3) f (3) + 3 × 2−2H n Vn(1) f (3) ,

(3.22)

k=1 n

2 

  f (4) (B(k−1)2−n )(Bk2−n )4 = 24 × 2−4H n Vn(4) f (4)

k=1

+ 12 × 2

−4H n

Vn(2)



f

(4)



n

+3×2

−4H n

2 

f (4) (B(k−1)2−n ),

(3.23)

k=1 n

2 

  f (5) (B(k−1)2−n )(Bk2−n )5 = 120 × 2−5H n Vn(5) f (5)

k=1

    + 60 × 2−5H n Vn(3) f (5) + 15 × 2−4H n Vn(1) f (5) . (3)

(3)

(3.24)

By (3.2) and using that H > 16 , we have E(Vn (f (3) )2 ) ≤ C2n and E(Vn (f (5) )2 ) ≤ C2n . As a consequence, the first summand in (3.22) and the second one in (3.24) converge to zero in L2 as n tends to infinity. Also, by (3.2), (4) (5) E(Vn (f (4) )2 ) ≤ C2n and E(Vn (f (5) )2 ) ≤ C2n . Hence, the first summand in (3.23) and the first summand in (3.24) (2) 2 converge to zero in L as n tends to infinity. If 16 < H < 14 , (3.1) implies E(Vn (f (4) )2 ) ≤ C2n(−4H +2) ), so that (2) (2) 2−4H n Vn (f (4) ) converges to zero in L2 as n tends to infinity. If 14 ≤ H < 12 , (3.2) implies E(Vn (f )2 ) ≤ C2n so (2) that 2−4H n Vn (f (4) ) converges to zero in L2 as n tends to infinity. Moreover, using the following identity, valid for regular functions h : R → R: n

2  k=1



h (B(k−1)2−n )Bk2−n

2n

1 

= h(B1 ) − h(0) − h (Bθk2−n )(Bk2−n )2 2 k=1

1078

I. Nourdin, D. Nualart and C. A. Tudor

for some θk2−n lying between (k − 1)2−n and k2−n , we deduce that 2−4H n Vn (f (5) ) tends to zero, because H > 16 . In the same way, we have (1)

2

−2H n

Vn(1)



f

(3)



2n

 1 = − 2−2H n f (4) (B(k−1)2−n )(Bk2−n )2 2 k=1 2n

 1 − 2−2H n f (5) (B(k−1)2−n )(Bk2−n )3 + o(1). 6 k=1

We have obtained n

f (B1 ) = f (0) +

2  1 

f (Bk2−n ) + f (B(k−1)2−n ) Bk2−n 2 k=1

2n

+

   1 f (4) (B(k−1)2−n )H2 2nH Bk2−n × 2−4H n 4 k=1

2n

 1 − f (5) (B(k−1)2−n )(Bk2−n )3 + o(1). × 2−2H n 24 k=1

As before 2−4H n Vn (f (4) ) converges to zero in L2 . Finally, by (1.11), (2)

n

2−2H n

2 

f (5) (B(k−1)2−n )(Bk2−n )3

k=1

also converges to zero. This completes the proof. Acknowledgments We are grateful to Jean-Christophe Breton and Nabil Kazi-Tani for helpful remarks. We also wish to thank the anonymous referee for his/her very careful reading. References [1] P. Breuer and P. Major. Central limit theorems for nonlinear functionals of Gaussian fields. J. Multivariate Anal. 13 (1983) 425–441. MR0716933 [2] K. Burdzy and J. Swanson. A change of variable formula with Itô correction term. Preprint, 2008. Available at arXiv:0802.3356. [3] P. Cheridito and D. Nualart. Stochastic integral of divergence type with respect to fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H in (0, 1/2). Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Probab. Statist. 41 (2005) 1049–1081. MR2172209 [4] J. M. Corcuera, D. Nualart and J. H. C. Woerner. Power variation of some integral fractional processes. Bernoulli 12 (2006) 713–735. MR2248234 [5] R. L. Dobrushin and P. Major. Non-central limit theorems for nonlinear functionals of Gaussian fields. Z. Wahrsch. Verw. Gebiete 50 (1979) 27–52. MR0550122 [6] L. Giraitis and D. Surgailis. CLT and other limit theorems for functionals of Gaussian processes. Z. Wahrsch. Verw. Gebiete 70 (1985) 191–212. MR0799146 [7] M. Gradinaru and I. Nourdin. Milstein’s type scheme for fractional SDEs. Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Probab. Statist. (2007). To appear. Available at arXiv:math/0702317. [8] M. Gradinaru, I. Nourdin, F. Russo and P. Vallois. m-order integrals and Itô’s formula for non-semimartingale processes; the case of a fractional Brownian motion with any Hurst index. Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Probab. Statist. 41 (2005) 781–806. MR2144234 [9] M. Gradinaru, F. Russo and P. Vallois. Generalized covariations, local time and Stratonovich Itô’s formula for fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index H ≥ 14 . Ann. Probab. 31 (2001) 1772–1820. MR2016600

Weighted power variations of fBm

1079

[10] J. Jacod. Limit of random measures associated with the increments of a Brownian semimartingale. Preprint. Univ. Paris VI (revised version, unpublished work), 1994. [11] J. León and C. Ludeña. Limits for weighted p-variations and likewise functionals of fractional diffusions with drift. Stochastic Proc. Appl. 117 (2006) 271–296. MR2290877 [12] A. Neuenkirch and I. Nourdin. Exact rate of convergence of some approximation schemes associated to SDEs driven by a fractional Brownian motion. J. Theoret. Probab. 20 (2007) 871–899. MR2359060 [13] I. Nourdin. A simple theory for the study of SDEs driven by a fractional Brownian motion, in dimension one. In Séminaire de Probabilités XLI 181–197. Springer, Berlin, 2008. MR2483731 [14] I. Nourdin. Asymptotic behavior of some weighted quadratic and cubic variations of the fractional Brownian motion. Ann. Probab. 36 (2008) 2159–2175. MR2478679 [15] I. Nourdin and D. Nualart. Central limit theorems for multiple Skorohod integrals. J. Theoret. Probab. (2008). In revision. Available at arXiv:0707.3448. [16] I. Nourdin and G. Peccati. Weighted power variations of iterated Brownian motion. Electron. J. Probab. 13 (2007) 1229–1256 (electronic). MR2430706 [17] I. Nourdin and A. Réveillac. Asymptotic behavior of weighted quadratic variations of fractional Brownian motion: The critical case H = 1/4. Ann. Probab. (2008). To appear. Available at arXiv:0802.3307. [18] D. Nualart. Malliavin Calculus and Related Topics, 2nd edition. Springer, New York, 2005. MR1344217 [19] D. Nualart. Stochastic calculus with respect to the fractional Brownian motion and applications. Contemp. Math. 336 (2003) 3–39. MR2037156 [20] G. Peccati and C. A. Tudor. Gaussian limits for vector-valued multiple stochastic integrals. In Séminaire de Probabilités XXXVIII 247–262. Lecture Notes in Math. 1857. Springer, Berlin, 2005. MR2126978 [21] M. Taqqu. Convergence of integrated processes of arbitrary Hermite rank. Z. Wahrsch. Verw. Gebiete 50 (1979) 53–83. MR0550123 [22] C. A. Tudor. Analysis of the Rosenblatt process. ESAIM Probab. Statist. 12 230–257. MR2374640

Central and non-central limit theorems for weighted ...

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We strip all HTML tags and use only words and numbers as tokens, after converting to .... C.M., Frey, B.J., eds.: AI & Statistics 2003: Proceedings of the Ninth.

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tips to help keep your home life hassle free. Teenagers will still make mistakes, test limits, and cause you worry, but having a reasonable discipline plan in place ...

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2. MODEL SETUP. Consider a linear, possibly non-uniform, array comprising M sen- sors that receives two narrowband time-varying far-field sources s1(t) and ...