IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2014, Pg: 95-101

International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT) www.ijrit.com

ISSN 2001-5569

Case Study of QoS Based Task Scheduling for Campus Grid 1

2

Mr. Jujhar Singh1, Mr. Gaurav Sharma2 M.Tech, Computer Science and Engineering Department, JMIT Radaur, Kurukshetra University Haryana, India [email protected]

Assistant Professor, Computer Science and Engineering Department, JMIT Radaur, Kurukshetra University Haryana, India [email protected]

Abstract The present era represents the era of technology. So, in this technical era we often come across the complex computational problems related to science and engineering. Dealing with such complex problems inevitably requires a very robust platform. So in this scenario a technology known as Grid Computing comes into play. Grid Computing provides the best platform to solve such complex computational problems. There exist many types of Grids based on their applications in different areas. But one important concern for each and every Grid is the task scheduling problem. So QoS based task scheduling approach is clearly a need. In this case study we mainly focus on the QoS based task scheduling for a new type of grid called desktop grid which can be used in college campuses and also we go through the department wise and campus wise approach for the desktop grid.

Keywords: Grid Computing, Task Scheduling, Desktop Grid, Department Wise Approach, Campus Wise Approach.

1. Introduction Grid computing and Grid technologies primarily emerged for satisfying the increasing demand of the scientific computing community for more computing power. Geographically distributed computers, linked through the Internet in a Grid-like manner, are used to create virtual supercomputers of vast amount of computing capacity and which are able to solve complex problems from e- Science in less time than known before. Thus, within the last few years we have witnessed how Grid computing has helped to achieve breakthroughs in meteorology, physics, medicine and other computing-intensive fields. For the majority of Grid systems, scheduling is a very important mechanism. In the simplest of cases, scheduling of jobs can be done in a blind way by simply assigning the incoming tasks to the available compatible resources. Nevertheless, it is a lot more profitable to use more advanced and sophisticated schedulers. Moreover, the schedulers would generally be expected to react to the dynamics of the Grid system, typically by evaluating the present load of the resources, and notifying when new resources join or drop from the system. Additionally, schedulers can be organized in a hierarchical form or can be distributed in order to deal with the large scale of the Grid [1]. Also Grid computing is a system, which provides distributed services that integrates wide variety of resources with different quality of services. The resources must be shared in such a way to ensure behavior conformity. Both the users who submit their jobs to resources and the providers who provide resources must get satisfaction out of the transaction. In grid environment both the user and provider are unknown to

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2014, Pg: 95-101

each other. There must be a system which can evaluate the user and provider before allocating the resource [2]. Scheduling of task on heterogeneous grid resources is known to be a NP-complete problem; therefore, to get a near optimal solution within finite duration, heuristics/meta-heuristics are used instead of exact optimization methods [3]. If we see the implementation of Grid Computing at the campus level we find that a new form of Grid is also emerging in institutions, the so-called Desktop Grids, which use the idle cycles of desktop PCs. Small enterprises and institutions usually, are equipped with hundreds or thousands of desktops, mainly used for office tasks. This amount of PCs is thus a good source for setting up a Grid system for the institution. In this case, the particularity of the Grid system is its unique administrative domain, which makes it easier to manage due to the low heterogeneity and volatility of resources. Of course, the desktop Grid can cross many administrative domains and in this case the heterogeneity and volatility of the resources is an issue, as in a general Grid system setting. In the campuses mainly there are two types of jobs which are implemented a) computational based and b) communicational based. The computational based jobs are like solving scientific computation based problems which require high speed CPU to complete the assigned task in minimum delay of time and the communication based jobs are like transfer a file from one system to another system and which require high bandwidth for its operation. If the computational job is submitted to high bandwidth resource then it will not utilize its bandwidth effectively, similarly if the communication based job is submitted to a resource having high speed CPU and low bandwidth then it does not fully utilize the resource and also increase its job completion time [4]. So, QoS based requirements for the jobs and the resources are very necessary. For Desktop Grids the QoS based requirements for the jobs is to determine whether the job is computational or communicational and the QoS based requirements for the resources are their CPU speed, RAM and MIPS rating etc. This case study has been organized in such a way that section 1 is the basic introduction about the grid computing, task scheduling, QoS based jobs and resources and Desktop Grids. Section 2 is related to the analysis of existing grids and section 3 deals with the department wise and campus wise approach for the Desktop Grids. Section 4 is related to the analysis of case study and section 5 ends up the case study with the conclusion and future scope.

2. An Analysis of Existing Grids The roots of Grid computing can be traced back to the late 1980s and the first concept that laid the basis of today's Grid systems were developed by researchers from distributed supercomputing for numerical and optimization systems. By the late 1990s, the terms Computational Grids and Grid Computing were popularized by Foster et al. [5], who developed the Globus Toolkit as a general middleware for Grid Systems. Since then, Grid systems have advanced very quickly. In the following subsections we briefly review the most important types of Grids that have appeared during recent years.

2.1 Computational Grids Computational Grids are among the first type of Grid systems. They were developed due to the need to solve problems that require processing a large quantity of operations or data. In spite of the fact that the capacity of the computers continues to improve, the computational resources do not respond to the continuous demand for more computational power. Moreover, many statistical studies have shown that computers from companies, administration, etc. are usually underutilized. One of the main objectives of the Computational Grid is, therefore, to benefit from the existence of many computational resources through the sharing [1].

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2.2 Scavenging Grids In such Grids, the politics of ``scavenging'' is applied, according to which, each time a machine remains idle, it reports its state to the Grid node responsible for the management and planning of the resources. Then, this node usually assigns to the idle machine the next pending task that can be executed in that machine. Scavenging normally hinders the owner of the application, since in the event that the idle machine changes its state to be busy with tasks not coming from the Grid system, the application is suspended or delayed. This situation would create completion times not predictable for Grid-based applications. [email protected] project is an example of scavenging Grids [1].

2.3 e-Science Grids Under the name of e-Science Grids are known types of Grids that are primarily devoted to the solution of problems from science and engineering. Such Grids give support to the computational infrastructure (access to computational and data resources) needed to solve many complex problems arising in areas of science and engineering. Representative examples are EGEE Grid Computing, UK e-Science Grid, German D-Grid, BIG GRID (the Dutch e-Science Grid) and French Grid'5000, among others [1].

2.4 Data Grids Data Grids primarily deal with data repositories, sharing, access and management of large amounts of distributed data. Many scientific and engineering applications require access to large amounts of distributed data; however, different data could have their own format. In such Grid systems many types of algorithm, such as replication, are important to increase the performance of Grid-enabled applications that use large amounts of data. Also, data copy and transfer is important here in order to achieve high throughput [1].

2.5 Enterprise Grids Nowadays Grid computing is becoming a significant component of business as well. Indeed, today's ebusiness must be able to respond to increasing consumer demands and adjust dynamically and efficiently to marketplace shifts. Enterprise Grids enable running several projects within one large enterprise to share resources in a transparent way. Enterprise Grids are thus showing great and innovative changes on how computing is used. The Grid offers a large potential to solving business problems by facilitating global access to enterprise computing services and data. Examples of Enterprise Grids are Sun Grid Engine, IBM Grid, Oracle Grid' and HP Grid [1].

3. Scenario of Desktop Grids In this section we go through the scenario involved in the working of Desktop Grids. Desktop Grids are very well defined Grids and are being used predominantly in the field of academics.

3.1 Phases of Resource Selection for Desktop Grids Resource selection is one of the important parts for any type of Grid. The process of resource selection is carried out in three phases which are discussed below. 3.1.1 Resource Discovery/Filtering Phase In this first phase of resource selection we mainly filter out the unwanted resources i.e. the resources which are not useful for the optimum solution for the problem. 3.1.2 Resource Selection Phase Continuing with the first phase we select the best available resources out of all the resources. The best (task, resource) matching is selected according to the ETC model. Mr. Jujhar Singh,

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2014, Pg: 95-101

3.1.3 Job Submission Phase The best (task, resource) pair is implemented in this phase.

Resource Discovery Phase

Resource Selection Phase

Job Submission Phase

Fig.1 Phases of Resource Selection

3.2 Department Wise Approach In this first department wise approach we have mainly taken CSE department into consideration. The reason for this is that most of the computational and communicational jobs are implemented in CSE department. For example for a college campus which uses the Desktop Grid there are 4 labs named as software lab 1,2,3 and research lab in the CSE department. Each lab approximately has 25 machines (PCs). Thus it gives 100 available resources in CSE department. All the resources are defined by their specifications with which they tend to handle the incoming tasks. Suppose if there is computational type of job then it is implemented on the machines available in the research lab and the communicational type of job can be implemented on all the available resources in rest of the 3 software labs. Suppose we have to implement 200 tasks (Programs) in the CSE department. Since program is a computational entity then it will be implemented on the machines available in the research lab only. So, here we have taken into consideration the QoS requirements of the task and as well as the resources. Thus, an ETC matrix of 200*25 is used to run the 200 programs on the 25 available resources. Table 1 Phases of Resource Selection for Department Wise Approach Labs Phases Resource Discovery Phase Resource Selection Phase Job Submission Phase

Research Lab

S/W Lab 1

S/W Lab 2

S/W Lab 3

25 Best (Task, Resource) pair is selected Best (Task, Resource) pair is implemented.

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Note: Similarly for communicational types of jobs an ETC matrix of m*n can be used. Here m represents the communicational types of tasks and n represents the available number of resources in all 3 software labs. Mr. Jujhar Singh,

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2014, Pg: 95-101

3.3 Campus Wise Approach In this second campus wise approach we have mainly taken 4 departments into consideration say CSE, IT, ECE and ME department. Each department has 100 machines available on an average. Suppose resources have been specified in such way that CSE and IT departments can handle only the computational types of jobs and rest of the departments say ECE and ME can handle only the communicational types of jobs. For example for a campus event we have to run 1000 programs (computational task) in the campus. So, based on QoS requirements of the jobs and as well as the resources we have found that these 1000 computational programs can only be implemented in 2 departments only say CSE and IT. While the remaining two departments say ECE and ME can handle only the communicational types of jobs for a campus event. For the given campus wise approach an ETC matrix of 1000*200 is used where 1000 represent the number of programs (computational entity) and 200 represent the number of machines available in the CSE and IT departments. Note: Similarly for communicational types of jobs which can be implemented on the machines available in the ECE and ME departments only an ETC matrix of m*n can be used where m represents the number of communicational type of tasks and n represents the number of machines available in the ECE and ME departments.

Table 2 Phases of Resource Selection for Campus Wise Approach Departments Phases

CSE Department

Resource Discovery Phase

IT Department

ECE Department

ME Department

100

100

X

X

Resource Selection Phase

Best (Task, Resource) pair is selected

Best (Task, Resource) pair is selected

X

X

Job Submission Phase

Best (Task, Resource) pair is implemented.

Best (Task, Resource) pair is implemented.

X

X

Table 3 Heterogeneity and Consistency Combinations in ETC Model

Task

Machine

Consistent

In-consistent

Semi-consistent

high

high

u_c_hihi

u_i_hihi

u_s_hihi

high

low

u_c_hilo

u_i_hilo

u_s_hilo

low

high

u_c_lohi

u_i_lohi

u_s_lohi

low

low

u_c_lolo

u_i_lolo

u_s_lolo

Note: For both the department wise and campus wise approach low task heterogeneity, low machine heterogeneity and consistent instance (u_c_lolo) is considered out of the 12 possible instances because of the fact that all the tasks i.e. computational programs and the machines are similar. Mr. Jujhar Singh,

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2014, Pg: 95-101

3.4 Related Algorithms In this section we discuss the algorithms for the department wise and campus wise approach of the Desktop Grids. 3.4.1 Algorithm for Department Wise Approach Step 1. We divide the resources into four entities like research lab, s/w lab 1, 2 and 3. Step 2. Calculate the job is computational based or communicational based by computing CCR value ( computational to communication ratio ). Step 3. If the job is computation based and requested for high QoS then it is submitted to high priority resources of research lab. Else If the job is computation based and requested for low QoS then it is submitted to low priority resources of research lab. Else If the job is communication based and requested for high QoS then it is submitted to high priority resources of any of the s/w lab 1, 2 and 3. Else the job is submitted to low priority resources of any of the s/w lab 1, 2 and 3. End If Step 4. We apply Min-Min algorithm and computes the completion time of all the jobs on all the resources of that entity i.e. research lab, s/w lab 1, 2 and 3. Step 5. Submit the job to the resource which requires least completion time to execute that job. Note: In this algorithm the high priority resources are the resources which are the first choice to execute the jobs because they don’t handle their local jobs and thus are available for the execution of the incoming jobs. On the contrary the low priority resources are the ones which tend to handle their local jobs and thus rarely become available for the execution of the incoming jobs. 3.4.2 Algorithm for Campus Wise Approach Step 1. We divide the resources into four entities like CSE, IT, ECE and ME departments. Step 2. Calculate the job is computational based or communicational based by computing CCR value (computational to communication ratio). Step 3. If the job is computation based and requested for high QoS then it is submitted to high priority resources of CSE and IT departments. Else If the job is computation based and requested for low QoS then it is submitted to low priority resources of CSE and IT departments. . Else If the job is communication based and requested for high QoS then it is submitted to high priority resources of ECE and ME departments. Else the job is submitted to low priority resources of ECE and ME departments. End If Step 4. We apply Min-Min algorithm and computes the completion time of all the jobs on all the resources of that entity i.e. CSE, IT, ECE and ME departments. Step 5. Submit the job to the resource which requires least completion time to execute that job. Note: Also in this algorithm the meaning of high and low priority resources is the same as in the previous algorithm.

4. An Analysis of Case Study As we have seen this case study mainly takes into consideration the department wise and campus wise approach of the Desktop Grids. The related algorithms for both the approaches are an enhancement of traditional Min-Min algorithm. These algorithms can be used for campus events which primarily use computational and communicational based jobs. For department wise approach this case study mainly takes the CSE department into consideration and for campus wise approach it takes 4 major departments i.e. Mr. Jujhar Singh,

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2014, Pg: 95-101

CSE, IT, ECE and ME into consideration for clear manifestation of the implementation of jobs in them. By following the step by step approach of both the algorithms better computational results can be achieved.

5. Conclusion and Future Scope Task scheduling is one of the well-known problems in distributed computing systems such as Grid environments. In this case study we contemplated on QoS based task scheduling approach which considers QoS requirements of the types of jobs and resources which are commonly used in college campuses i.e. Desktop Grids. The related algorithms are an enhancement of the existing Min-Min algorithm by classifying resources into different entities based upon their QoS parameters. From this case study we conclude that the resources can be used effectively in the college campuses i.e. Desktop Grids because the jobs are submitted to appropriate resources i.e. communication high quality requested jobs are submitted to higher bandwidth (high priority) resources and similarly computational high quality requested jobs are submitted to higher processing speed (high priority) resources for both the department wise and campus wise approach. Also we conclude that by using the above mentioned algorithms for both the approaches the objectives like makespan, resource utilization and load balancing can be achieved. In future some other type of jobs can be explored for the campuses apart from computational and communicational types of jobs and some new scenarios of Desktop Grids can also be contemplated. At the end we can conclude that this case study mainly takes the Desktop Grids and QoS based task scheduling for Desktop Grids into consideration and thus is a step closer to get the optimum solution of the task scheduling problem.

References [1] Fatos Xhafa, Department of Computer Science and Information Systems, Birkbeck, University of London, UK, Ajith Abrahamb, Machine Intelligence Research Labs (MIR Labs), Scientific Network for Innovation and Research Excellence, USA, “Computational models and heuristic methods for Grid scheduling problems”, Future Generation Computer Systems 26 (2010) 608-621, journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/fgcs. [2] Vivekananth.P, Lecturer, Dept of IT, St. Joseph College of Engineering & Technology, Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania, “A Trust Model For Grid Resource Selection” [3] Rajendra Sahu and Anand K Chaturvedi, ABV-IIITM Gwalior, India, “Many-Objective Comparison of Twelve Grid Scheduling Heuristics”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887),Volume 13– No.6, January 2011. [4] Dr. Rajesh Kumar Bawa, Deptt. of Computer Science, Punjabi University Patiala, Punjab, India, Mr. Gaurav Sharma, Deptt. of Computer Engineering, JMIT Radaur, Kurukshetra University ,Haryana, India, “Various Resource Selection Heuristics in Grid”. [5] I. Foster, C. Kesselman, “The Grid_Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure”, Morgan Kaufmann Pub.,1998.

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Case Study of QoS Based Task Scheduling for Campus Grid

Also Grid computing is a system, which provides distributed services that integrates wide variety of resources with ... communication based jobs are like transfer a file from one system to another system and which require high ... Section 4 is related to the analysis of case study and section 5 ends up the case study with the.

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