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HU118 – ASEAM Politics and Economy

ASEAN MEMBER STATES ECONOMY www.indexmundi.com http://www.indexmundi.com/factbook/fields/economy-overview Economy - overview Home > Topics > Economy Brunei

Brunei has a small well-to-do economy that depends on revenue from natural resource extraction but encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for 60% of GDP and more than 90% of exports. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. For Bruneian citizens the government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level. The government of Brunei has been emphasizing through policy and resource investments it strong desire to diversity its economy both within the oil and gas sector and to new sectors.

Burma

Since the transition to a civilian government in 2011, Burma has begun an economic overhaul aimed at attracting foreign investment and reintegrating into the global economy. Economic reforms have included establishing a managed float of the Burmese kyat in 2012, granting the Central Bank operational independence in July 2013, and enacting a new Anti-corruption Law in September 2013. The government’s commitment to reform, and the subsequent easing of most Western sanctions, has begun to pay dividends. The economy accelerated in 2012 and 2013. And Burma’s abundant natural resources, young labor force, and proximity to Asia’s dynamic economies have attracted foreign investment in the energy sector, garment industry, information technology, and food and beverages. Foreign direct investment grew from US$1.9 billion in FY 2011 to US$2.7 billion in FY 2012. Despite these improvements, living standards have not improved for the majority of the people residing in rural areas. Burma remains one of the poorest countries in Asia - more than one-fourth of the country’s 60 million people live in poverty.

The

previous

government’s

isolationist

policies

and

economic

mismanagement have left Burma with poor infrastructure, endemic corruption, underdeveloped human resources, and inadequate access to capital, which will require a major commitment to reverse. The Burmese government has been slow to address impediments to economic development such as an opaque revenue collection system and antiquated banking system. Key benchmarks of sustained Page 1

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economic progress would include modernizing and opening the financial sector, increasing budget allocations for social services, and accelerating agricultural and land reforms. Cambodia

Since 2004, garments, construction, agriculture, and tourism have driven Cambodia's growth. GDP climbed more than 7% per year between 2010 and 2013. The garment industry currently employs more about 400,000 people and accounts for about 70% of Cambodia's total exports. In 2005, exploitable oil deposits were found beneath Cambodia's territorial waters, representing a potential revenue stream for the government, if commercial extraction becomes feasible. Mining also is attracting some investor interest and the government has touted opportunities for mining bauxite, gold, iron and gems. The tourism industry has continued to grow rapidly with foreign arrivals exceeding 2 million per year since 2007 and reaching over 3 million visitors in 2012. Cambodia, nevertheless, remains one of the poorest countries in Asia and long-term economic development remains

a

daunting

challenge,

inhibited

by

endemic

corruption,

limited

educational opportunities, high income inequality, and poor job prospects. Approximately 4 million people live on less than $1.25 per day, and 37% of Cambodian children under the age of 5 suffer from chronic malnutrition. More than 50% of the population is less than 25 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the impoverished countryside, which also lacks basic infrastructure. The Cambodian Government is working with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs; more than 50% of the government budget comes from donor assistance. The major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance. Indonesia

Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has grown strongly since 2010. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25% and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among

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regions. The government also faces the challenges of quelling labor unrest and reducing fuel subsidies in the face of high oil prices. Laos

The government of Laos, one of the few remaining one-party communist states, began decentralizing control and encouraging private enterprise in 1986. The results, starting from an extremely low base, were striking - growth averaged 6% per year from 1988-2008 except during the short-lived drop caused by the Asian financial crisis that began in 1997. Laos' growth exceeded 7% per year during 2008-13. Despite this high growth rate, Laos remains a country with an underdeveloped infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. It has a basic, but improving,

road

system,

and

limited

external

and

internal

land-line

telecommunications. Electricity is available in 83 % of the country. Laos' economy is heavily dependent on capital-intensive natural resource exports. The labor force, however, still relies on agriculture, dominated by rice cultivation in lowland areas, which accounts for about 25% of GDP and 73% of total employment. Economic growth has reduced official poverty rates from 46% in 1992 to 26% in 2010. The economy also has benefited from high-profile foreign direct investment in hydropower, copper and gold mining, logging, and construction though some projects in these industries have drawn criticism for their environmental impacts. Laos gained Normal Trade Relations status with the US in 2004 and applied for Generalized System of Preferences trade benefits in 2013 after being admitted to the World Trade Organization earlier in the year. Laos is in the process of implementing a value-added tax system. Simplified investment procedures and expanded bank credits for small farmers and small entrepreneurs will improve Laos' economic prospects. The government appears committed to raising the country's profile among investors, but suffered through a fiscal crisis in 2013 brought about by public sector wage increases, fiscal mismanagement, and revenue shortfalls. The World Bank has declared that Laos' goal of graduating from the UN Development Program's list of least-developed countries by 2020 is achievable, and the country is preparing to enter the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015. Malaysia

Malaysia, a middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Under current Prime Minister NAJIB, Malaysia is attempting to achieve high-income status by 2020 and to move farther up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in Islamic finance, high technology industries, biotechnology, and

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services. NAJIB's Economic Transformation Program (ETP) is a series of projects and policy measures intended to accelerate the country's economic growth. The government has also taken steps to liberalize some services sub-sectors. The NAJIB administration also is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand and reduce the economy's dependence on exports. Nevertheless, exports - particularly of electronics, oil and gas, palm oil and rubber - remain a significant driver of the economy. As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia has profited from higher world energy prices, although the rising cost of domestic gasoline and diesel fuel, combined with sustained budget deficits, has forced Kuala Lumpur to begin to address fiscal shortfalls, through initial reductions in energy and sugar subsidies and the announcement of the 2015 implementation of a 6% goods and services tax. The government is also trying to lessen its dependence on state oil producer Petronas. The oil and gas sector supplies about 32% of government revenue in 2013. Bank Negara Malaysia (central bank) maintains healthy foreign exchange reserves, and a well-developed regulatory regime has limited Malaysia's exposure to riskier financial instruments and the global financial crisis. Nevertheless, Malaysia could be vulnerable to a fall in commodity prices or a general slowdown in global economic activity because exports are a major component of GDP. In order to attract increased investment, NAJIB earlier raised possible revisions to the special economic and social preferences accorded to ethnic Malays under the New Economic Policy of 1970, but retreated in 2013 after he encountered significant opposition from Malay nationalists and other vested interests. In September 2013 NAJIB launched the new Bumiputra Economic Empowerment Program (BEEP), policies that favor and advance the economic condition of ethnic Malays. Philippines The economy has weathered global economic and financial downturns better than

its regional peers due to minimal exposure to troubled international securities, lower dependence on exports, relatively resilient domestic consumption, large remittances from four- to five-million overseas Filipino workers, and a rapidly expanding business process outsourcing industry. The current account balance had recorded consecutive surpluses since 2003; international reserves are at record highs; the banking system is stable; and the stock market was Asia's second best-performer in 2012. Efforts to improve tax administration and expenditure management have helped ease the Philippines' tight fiscal situation and reduce high debt levels. The Philippines has received several credit rating upgrades on its sovereign debt, and has had little difficulty tapping domestic and international markets to finance its deficits. Economic growth in the Philippines

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averaged 4.5% during the MACAPAGAL-ARROYO administration, but poverty worsened

during

her

term.

Growth

has

accelerated

under

the

AQUINO

government, but with limited progress thus far in bringing down unemployment, which hovers around 7%, and improving the quality of jobs. Underemployment is nearly 20% and more than 40% of the employed are estimated to be working in the informal sector. The AQUINO administration has been working to boost the budgets for education, health, cash transfers to the poor, and other social spending programs, and is relying on the private sector to help fund major infrastructure projects under its Public-Private Partnership program. Long term challenges include reforming governance and the judicial system, building infrastructure, improving regulatory predictability, and the ease of doing business, attracting higher levels of local and foreign investments. The Philippine Constitution and the other laws continue to restrict foreign ownership in important activities/sectors (such as land ownership and public utilities). Singapore

Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP higher than that of most developed countries. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in consumer electronics, information technology products, pharmaceuticals, and on a growing financial services sector. The economy contracted 0.6% in 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis, but rebounded 15.1% in 2010, on the strength of renewed exports, before slowing to in 2011-13, largely a result of soft demand for exports during the second European recession. Over the longer term, the government hopes to establish a new growth path that focuses on raising productivity. Singapore has attracted major investments in pharmaceuticals and medical technology production and will continue efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia's financial and high-tech hub.

Thailand

With a well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, generally proinvestment policies, and strong export industries, Thailand achieved steady growth due largely to industrial and agriculture exports - mostly electronics, agricultural commodities, automobiles and parts, and processed foods. Unemployment, at less than 1% of the labor force, stands as one of the lowest levels in the world, which puts upward pressure on wages in some industries. Thailand also attracts nearly 2.5 million migrant workers from neighboring countries. The Thai government in 2013 implemented a nation-wide 300 baht ($10) per day minimum wage policy and deployed new tax reforms designed to lower rates on middle-income earners. The Thai economy has weathered internal and external economic shocks in recent years. The Page 5

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global economic recession severely cut Thailand's exports, with most sectors experiencing double-digit drops. In late 2011 Thailand's recovery was interrupted by historic flooding in the industrial areas in Bangkok and its five surrounding provinces, crippling the manufacturing sector. The government approved flood mitigation projects worth $11.7 billion, which were started in 2012, to prevent similar economic damage, and an additional $75 billion for infrastructure over the following seven years. This was expected to lead to an economic upsurge but growth has remained slow, in part due to ongoing political unrest and resulting uncertainties. Spending on infrastructure will require re-approval once a new government is seated. Vietnam

Vietnam is a densely-populated developing country that has been transitioning from the rigidities of a centrally-planned economy since 1986. Vietnamese authorities have reaffirmed their commitment to economic modernization in recent years. Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization in January 2007, which has promoted more competitive, export-driven industries. Vietnam became an official negotiating partner in the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement in 2010. Agriculture's share of economic output has continued to shrink from about 25% in 2000 to less than 20% in 2013, while industry's share increased from 36% to more than 42% in the same period. State-owned enterprises account for about 40% of GDP. Poverty has declined significantly, and Vietnam is working to create jobs to meet the challenge of a labor force that is growing by more than one million people every year. The global recession hurt Vietnam's export-oriented economy, with GDP in 2013 growing at 5%, the slowest rate of growth since 1999. In 2013, however, exports increased by more than 12%, year-on-year; several administrative actions brought the trade deficit back into balance. Between 2008 and 2011, Vietnam's managed currency, the dong, was devalued in excess of 20%, but its value remained relatively stable in 2013. Hanoi has oscillated between promoting growth and emphasizing macroeconomic stability in

recent years. In February 2011, the government shifted from policies aimed at achieving a high rate of economic growth, which had stoked inflation, to those aimed at stabilizing the economy, through tighter monetary and fiscal control. Although Vietnam unveiled a broad, "three pillar" economic reform program in early 2012, proposing the restructuring of public investment, state-owned enterprises, and the banking sector, little perceptible progress has been made. Vietnam's economy continues to face challenges from an undercapitalized banking sector. Non-performing loans weigh heavily on banks and businesses.

Source: CIA World Factbook This page was last updated on June 30, 2015

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GDP - per capita (PPP) Brunei

$54,800 (2013 est.) $54,900 (2012 est.) $55,200 (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Burma

$1,700 (2013 est.) $1,600 (2012 est.) $1,600 (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Cambodia

$2,600 (2013 est.) $2,400 (2012 est.) $2,300 (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Indonesia

Laos

Malaysia

Brunei

Agriculture: 0.7% Industry: 70.9% Services: 28.4% (2013 est.)

Burma

Agriculture: 38% Industry: 20.3% Services: 41.7% (2013 est.)

Cambodia

Agriculture: 34.8% Industry: 24.5% Services: 40.7% (2013 est.)

$5,200 (2013 est.) $5,000 (2012 est.) $4,800 (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Indonesia

Agriculture: 14.3% Industry: 46.6% Services: 39.1% (2013 est.)

$3,100 (2013 est.) $2,900 (2012 est.) $2,700 (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Laos

$17,500 (2013 est.) $17,000 (2012 est.) $16,400 (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Agriculture: 24.8% Industry: 32% Services: 37.5% (2013 est.)

Malaysia

Agriculture: 11.2% Industry: 40.6% Services: 48.1% (2013 est.)

Philippines $4,700 (2013 est.) $4,400 (2012 est.) $4,200 (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars Singapore

Thailand

Vietnam

GDP - composition by sector

$62,400 (2013 est.) $60,800 (2012 est.) $60,400 (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Philippines Agriculture: 11.2% Industry: 31.6% Services: 57.2% (2013 est.) Singapore

$9,900 (2013 est.) $9,600 (2012 est.) $9,100 (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Agriculture: 0% Industry: 29.4% Services: 70.6% (2013 est.)

Thailand

$4,000 (2013 est.) $3,800 (2012 est.) $3,700 (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Agriculture: 12.1% Industry: 43.6% Services: 44.2% (2013 est.)

Vietnam

Agriculture: 19.3% Industry: 38.5% Services: 42.2% (2013 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook

Source: CIA Factbook

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Labor force - by occupation

Population below poverty line Brunei

NA%

Burma

32.7% (2007 est.)

Cambodia

20% (2012 est.)

Indonesia

11.7% (2012 est.)

Laos

22% (2013 est.)

Malaysia

3.8% (2009 est.)

Philippines

26.5% (2009 est.)

Singapore

NA%

Thailand

13.2% (2011 est.)

Vietnam

11.3% (2012 est.)

Brunei

Agriculture: 4.2% Industry: 62.8% Services: 33% (2008 est.)

Burma

Agriculture: 70% Industry: 7% Services: 23% (2001)

Cambodia

Agriculture: 55.8% Industry: 16.9% Services: 27.3% (2010 est.)

Indonesia

Agriculture: 38.9% Industry: 13.2% Services: 47.9% (2012 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook Laos

Agriculture: 73.1% Industry: 6.1% Services: 20.6% (2012 est.)

Labor force Brunei

205,800 (2011 est.)

Burma

34.31 million (2013 est.)

Cambodia

7.9 million (2011 est.)

Indonesia

120 million (2013 est.)

Laos

3.373 million (2013 est.)

Malaysia

13.19 million (2013 est.)

Philippines 41.33 million (2013 est.) Singapore

Malaysia

Industry: 36% Services: 53.5% (2012 est.) Philippines

39.38 million (2013 est.)

Vietnam

52.93 million (2013 est.)

Agriculture: 32% Industry: 15% Services: 53% (2012 est.)

Singapore

Agriculture: 1.3% Industry: 18.6%

3.444 million note: excludes non-residents (2013 est.)

Thailand

Agriculture: 11.1%

Services: 80.1% note: excludes non-residents (2013) Thailand

Agriculture: 38.2% Industry: 13.6% Services: 48.2% (2011 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook Vietnam

Agriculture: 48% Industry: 21% Services: 31% (2012)

Source: CIA Factbook

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Unemployment rate Brunei

2.6% (2011) 2.7% (2010)

Burma

5.2% (2013 est.) 5.4% (2012 est.)

Cambodia

0% (2011 est.) 0.3% (2010 est.)

Indonesia

6.6% (2013 est.) 6.1% (2012 est.)

Laos

1.9% (2010 est.) 2.5% (2009 est.)

Malaysia

3.1% (2013 est.) 3% (2012 est.)

Philippines

7.4% (2013 est.) 7% (2012 est.)

Singapore

1.9% (2013 est.) 2% (2012 est.)

Thailand

0.7% (2013 est.) 0.7% (2012 est.)

Vietnam

1.3% (2013 est.) 3.2% (2012 est.)

GDP (purchasing power parity) Brunei

$22.25 billion $21.93 billion $21.73 billion note: data are dollars

Burma

$111.1 billion (2013 est.) $104 billion (2012 est.) $97.81 billion (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Cambodia

$39.64 billion $37.04 billion $34.52 billion note: data are dollars

Indonesia

$1.285 trillion (2013 est.) $1.22 trillion (2012 est.) $1.149 trillion (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Laos

$20.78 billion $19.18 billion $17.78 billion note: data are dollars

Malaysia

$525 billion (2013 est.) $501.5 billion (2012 est.) $474.7 billion (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Philippines

$454.3 billion $425.3 billion $398.2 billion note: data are dollars

Singapore

$339 billion (2013 est.) $323 billion (2012 est.) $313.3 billion (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Thailand

$673 billion (2013 est.) $654 billion (2012 est.) $614.2 billion (2011 est.) note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Vietnam

$358.9 billion $340.8 billion $323.8 billion note: data are dollars

Source: CIA Factbook

Source: CIA Factbook Page 9

(2013 est.) (2012 est.) (2011 est.) in 2013 US

(2013 est.) (2012 est.) (2011 est.) in 2013 US

(2013 est.) (2012 est.) (2011 est.) in 2013 US

(2013 est.) (2012 est.) (2011 est.) in 2013 US

(2013 est.) (2012 est.) (2011 est.) in 2013 US

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HU118 – ASEAM Politics and Economy

Agriculture - products

Budget Brunei

revenues: $6.992 billion expenditures: $5.366 billion (2013 est.)

Burma

revenues: $2.413 billion expenditures: $4.443 billion (2013 est.)

Cambodia

revenues: $2.685 billion expenditures: $3.1 billion (2013 est.)

Indonesia

revenues: $137.5 billion expenditures: $166 billion (2013 est.)

Laos

revenues: $2.481 billion expenditures: $2.642 billion (2013 est.)

Malaysia

Thailand

Vietnam

rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs

Burma

rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; fish and fish products; hardwood

Cambodia

rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, cassava (manioc, tapioca), silk

Indonesia

rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices

Laos

sweet potatoes, vegetables, corn, coffee, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, tea, peanuts, rice; cassava (manioc, tapioca), water buffalo, pigs, cattle, poultry

Malaysia

Peninsular Malaysia - palm oil, rubber, cocoa, rice; Sabah - palm oil, subsistence crops; rubber, timber; Sarawak - palm oil, rubber, timber; pepper

revenues: $65.72 billion expenditures: $79.4 billion (2013 est.)

Philippines revenues: $38.88 billion expenditures: $43.89 billion (2013 est.) Singapore

Brunei

revenues: $45.67 billion expenditures: $41.83 billion note: expenditures include both operational and development expenditures (2013 est.)

Philippines sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassava (manioc, tapioca), pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish

revenues: $80.91 billion expenditures: $92.9 billion (2013 est.) revenues: $42.82 billion expenditures: $50 billion (2013 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook

Singapore

orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs; fish, ornamental fish

Thailand

rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans

Vietnam

rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; poultry; fish, seafood

Source: CIA Factbook

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HU118 – ASEAM Politics and Economy petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade

Industries Brunei

petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, transportation

Burma

agricultural processing; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; cement, construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; oil and natural gas; garments, jade, gems

Cambodia

tourism, garments, construction, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Indonesia

petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instuments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism

Laos

mining (copper, tin, gold, gypsum); timber, electric power, agricultural processing, rubber, construction, garments, cement, tourism

Malaysia

Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics and semiconductors, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum and natural gas production; Sarawak agriculture processing, petroleum and natural gas production, logging

tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts; world's second-largest tungsten producer and thirdlargest tin producer

Vietnam

food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones

Source: CIA Factbook

Philippines electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing Singapore

Thailand

electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, Page 11

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HU118 – ASEAM Politics and Economy

Exports

Exports - commodities

Brunei

$12.75 billion (2011) $9.88 billion (2010)

Brunei

crude oil, natural gas, garments

Burma

$9.043 billion (2013 est.) $7.82 billion (2012 est.) note: official export figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of timber, gems, narcotics, rice, and other products smuggled to Thailand, China, and Bangladesh

Burma

natural gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice, clothing, jade and gems

Cambodia

clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear

Indonesia

oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber

Laos

wood products, coffee, electricity, tin, copper, gold, cassava

Malaysia

semiconductors and electronic equipment, palm oil, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals, solar panels

Philippines

semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits

Singapore

machinery and equipment (including electronics and telecommunications), pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, refined petroleum products, food and beverages

Thailand

electronics, computer parts, automobiles and parts, electrical appliances, machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rice, rubber

Vietnam

clothes, shoes, electronics, seafood, crude oil, rice, coffee, wooden products, machinery

Cambodia

$6.781 billion (2013 est.) $6.016 billion (2012 est.)

Indonesia

$178.9 billion (2013 est.) $187.3 billion (2012 est.)

Laos

$2.313 billion (2013 est.) $1.984 billion (2012 est.)

Malaysia

$230.7 billion (2013 est.) $227.7 billion (2012 est.)

Philippines $47.45 billion (2013 est.) $46.28 billion (2012 est.) Singapore

$410.3 billion (2013 est.) $408.4 billion (2012 est.)

Thailand

$225.4 billion (2013 est.) $225.8 billion (2012 est.)

Vietnam

$128.9 billion (2013 est.) $114.6 billion (2012 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook

Source: CIA Factbook

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Imports

Exports - partners Brunei

Japan 45.7%, South Korea 15.1%, Australia 9.1%, NZ 6.6%, India 5.8%, Vietnam 4.7% (2012)

Burma

Thailand 40.7%, India 14.8%, China 14.3%, Japan 7.4% (2012)

Cambodia

US 32.6%, UK 8.3%, Germany 7.7%, Canada 7.7%, Singapore 6.6%, Vietnam 5.7%, Japan 4.7% (2012)

Indonesia

Japan 15.9%, China 11.4%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 7.9%, US 7.8%, India 6.6%, Malaysia 5.9% (2012)

Laos Malaysia

Thailand 34%, China 21.5%, Vietnam 12.2% (2012) Singapore 13.6%, China 12.6%, Japan 11.8%, US 8.7%, Thailand 5.4%, Hong Kong 4.3%, India 4.2%, Australia 4.1% (2012)

Malaysia 12.3%, Hong Kong 10.9%, China 10.8%, Indonesia 10.6%, US 5.5%, Japan 4.6%, Australia 4.2%, South Korea 4% (2012)

Thailand

China 11.7%, Japan 10.2%, US 9.9%, Hong Kong 5.7%, Malaysia 5.4%, Indonesia 4.9%, Singapore 4.7%, Australia 4.3% (2012)

Vietnam

US 17.8%, Japan 11.8%, China 11.2%, South Korea 5%, Malaysia 4.1% (2012)

$3.02 billion (2011 est.) $2.73 billion (2010 est.)

Burma

$10.11 billion (2013 est.) $7.998 billion (2012 est.) note: import figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of consumer goods, diesel fuel, and other products smuggled in from Thailand, China, Malaysia, and India

Cambodia

$8.895 billion (2013 est.) $7.965 billion (2012 est.)

Indonesia

$178.6 billion (2013 est.) $178.7 billion (2012 est.)

Laos

$3.238 billion (2013 est.) $2.744 billion (2012 est.)

Malaysia

$192.9 billion (2013 est.) $186.9 billion (2012 est.)

Philippines $63.91 billion (2013 est.) $61.49 billion (2012 est.)

Philippines Japan 19%, US 14.2%, China 11.8%, Singapore 9.3%, Hong Kong 9.2%, South Korea 5.5%, Thailand 4.7% (2012) Singapore

Brunei

Singapore

$373 billion (2013 est.) $379.7 billion (2012 est.)

Thailand

$219 billion (2013 est.) $219.8 billion (2012 est.)

Vietnam

$121.4 billion (2013 est.) $104.7 billion (2012 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook

Source: CIA Factbook

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Imports - commodities Brunei

Burma

Cambodia

Imports - partners

iron and steel, motor vehicles, machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals fabric, petroleum products, fertilizer, plastics, machinery, transport equipment; cement, construction materials, crude oil; food products, edible oil petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products

Indonesia

machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Laos

machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, consumer goods

Malaysia

electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals

Philippines electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic Singapore

Thailand

Vietnam

Brunei

Singapore 26.3%, China 21.3%, UK 21.3%, Malaysia 11.8% (2012)

Burma

China 36.9%, Thailand 20.2%, Singapore 8.7%, South Korea 8.7%, Japan 8.2%, Malaysia 4.6% (2012)

Cambodia

Thailand 27.1%, Vietnam 20.3%, China 19.5%, Singapore 7.1%, Hong Kong 5.8%, South Korea 4.3% (2012)

Indonesia

China 15.3%, Singapore 13.6%, Japan 11.9%, Malaysia 6.4%, South Korea 6.2%, US 6.1%, Thailand 6% (2012)

Laos

Thailand 62.1%, China 16.2%, Vietnam 7.3% (2012)

Malaysia

China 15.1%, Singapore 13.3%, Japan 10.3%, US 8.1%, Thailand 6%, Indonesia 5.1%, South Korea 4.1% (2012)

Philippines US 11.5%, China 10.8%, Japan 10.4%, South Korea 7.3%, Singapore 7.1%, Thailand 5.6%, Saudi Arabia 5.6%, Indonesia 4.4%, Malaysia 4% (2012)

machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs, consumer goods capital goods, intermediate goods and raw materials, consumer goods, fuels machinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and shoe industries, electronics, plastics, automobiles

Source: CIA Factbook

Singapore

Malaysia 10.6%, China 10.3%, US 10.2%, South Korea 6.8%, Japan 6.2%, Indonesia 5.3%, Saudi Arabia 4.5%, UAE 4.1% (2012)

Thailand

Japan 20%, China 14.9%, UAE 6.3%, Malaysia 5.3%, US 5.3% (2012)

Vietnam

China 25.8%, South Korea 13.9%, Japan 10.4%, Singapore 6%, Thailand 5.2%, US 4.3% (2012)

Source: CIA Factbook

Page 14

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