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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Statement of the Problem and Research Questions The language of advertisements becomes so complex that cannot be understood by the consumers easily. Different figures of speech are used in advertising to draw the attention of the consumers. So, consumers or readers should know about the figures of speech, but how do they know about them? And how do they construct meanings from them? However, understanding the language of advertisements is problematic as a variety of figures of speech are used to draw the consumers‟ attention. Thus, this field is still a very fertile ground for research. And in an attempt to investigate the language of advertisements from a cognitive semantic perspective, the following research questions have been formulated: 1-

What role does conceptual blending play in the figurative language of English written advertisements?

2-

Do all figures of speech follow the same type of blending?

3-

Is conceptual blending a justifiable framework for analyzing figurative language in English written advertisements?

4-

Which type of conceptual blending is the more frequently used in the language of advertisements?

5-

Which figure of speech is more frequently used in the language of advertisements?

1.2 The Aims This study aims at: 1- Investigating the role of conceptual blending in the figurative language of English written advertisements.

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2- Finding out whether or not all figures of speech follow the same type of blending and whether conceptual blending is a justifiable framework for other figures of speech. 3- Investigating how different figures of speech can be analyzed in different types of blending. 4- Identifying which types of conceptual blending and which figures of speech are more frequently used in advertisements.

1.3 Hypotheses Based on the stated problems and research questions, the following research hypotheses are formulated: 1- Conceptual blends play a crucial role in the language of advertisements. 2- The figures of speech do not follow the same pattern of analysis; they go into different types of conceptual blending. 3- Conceptual blending is a justifiable framework for other figures of speech. 4- Some types of conceptual blending are more frequent than the other types. 5- Some figures of speech are dominant in the language of advertising.

1.4 Procedures To investigate conceptual blending in figurative language of English written advertisements, the researcher adopts a qualitative method for analyzing the collected data. The study takes the following steps: 1. Selecting and presenting the model of analysis to be adopted in the data. 2. Randomly selecting samples of English written advertisements from different magazines, from different magazines, newspapers, brochures and billboards. 3. Analyzing data following the qualitative method and in accordance with the adopted model.

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4. Statistically presenting, discussing, and comparing the results of analyses and arriving at some findings. 5. Based on the findings, some conclusions are drawn. 1.5 The Scope and Data The present study is restricted to the investigation of conceptual blending in the figurative language of English written advertisements. Moreover, the framework within which the study is rooted is Cognitive Semantics. The selected samples are taken from print advertisements: magazines, newspapers, brochures and billboards, also, the study depends on linguistic domain rather than paralinguistic domain to avoid the effects of the color or the pictures of the advertisements. The advertisements which are used in this study spanned from February 19, 2016 to September 12, 2016. 1.6 Significance The current study is the first attempt to investigate conceptual blending in the figurative language of English written advertisements. It is hoped to be of value for: 1- Semanticists and those who are interested in creating new meanings from the other words. 2- Linguists who are interested in figurative language and the language of advertisements.

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CHAPTER TWO THEORETICAL BACKGROUND & LITERATURE REVIEW The present chapter provides an introduction and a theoretical background to the topic. The first section of the chapter presents a discussion about theories of meaning then cognitive linguistics and how it is emerged. It sheds light on one of the approaches of cognitive linguistics which is cognitive semantics, its tenets, its approaches, and its theories. Then it shows the differences between classical and cognitive lexical semantics. Moreover, a detailed section is given to blending theory which is the purpose of the study to illustrate it. The chapter ends with a literature review accounting for related studies that have been previously carried out in the field.

2.1 Cognitive Theories of Meaning Within cognitive semantics (henceforth CS), there are three essential theories of meaning: categorization, configuration, and conceptualization. 2.1.1 Categorization Categorization is a process by which things are placed into groups, as Hamawand (2009) states categorization “is the mental act of grouping together the various senses of a given lexical item into one category.” (p. 33). Moreover, Radden and Dirven (2007) state: “a category is the conceptualization of a collection of similar experiences that are meaningful and relevant to us …” (p. 3).The process of categorization is collecting relevant meaning of different things into one category. To know how the process of categorization works, two distinct theories should be taken into account: the first one is the classical theory, according to which categories are defined by necessary and sufficient features. If a

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member fits the definition is included if not it is excluded. The second one is the prototype theory which is the cognitive account. According to prototype theory a category is centered round, an ideal member, called the prototype; the prototype has the key features of the category. The other members which have some but not all featured are called periphery. In this respect, Taylor (2002, pp.9-10), Dirven and Verspoor (2004, p. 31), and Hamawand (2011, p. 42), believe that prototype is the member that holds the salient sense that comes to mind first. From the prototype, some periphery senses are extended. These periphery senses are organized regarding conceptual distance from the prototype. 2.1.2 Configuration Configuration has been treated differently, in classical theory; the meaning of a concept is affected by the other concepts to which it is related. The meaning of a linguistic item derives from the totality of relationship the item has with other items in a language. On the contrary, according to cognitive domain, concepts cannot be understood independently of the domains in which they are embodied. The mental act of grouping together some concepts into a cognitive domain is called configuration. Cognitive domain is a knowledge background on which concepts can be properly described (Hamawand, 2014, p.115). The structure of a domain has a number of facets. A facet is a portion of a domain which is associated with a particular experience. In the mind of the speakers, concepts do not exist in isolation; they gather with other concepts. The concepts are interrelated and linked to the cognitive domains and the particular facets within the domain. Evans (2007, p. 61) confirms that domains give a specific kind of coherent knowledge in which other kinds of conceptual units can be understood. For example, linguistic terms such as hot, cold, the speaker can fully characterize them on the domain of temperature.

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2.1.3 Conceptualization Two theories have addressed this phenomenon; reference theory, and construal theory or conceptualization. According to the first one, the meaning of an expression is defined regarding truth-conditions. The meaning of an expression refers to the relationship between a thing and the object outside the world that exist. This theory cannot make differences between synonymous words, for instance, the linguistic terms, wound, and injury. According to the second one, the meaning of an expression resides not only in its content but in different ways it is expressed. Hamawand (2009) argues conceptualization “refers to the mental act of conceiving or experiencing a situation and choosing the appropriate linguistic structure to express it” (p. 37). One important aspect of construal is perspective, the viewpoint that the speaker takes of a situation. Two linguistic items may share the same content but differ in terms of the perspective (Hamawand, 2011, p. 49), for example; the word observe which is one content with its other forms: observance which means the act of obeying the law and observation which means the act of watching . Moreover, Hamawand (2012) thinks “[a] semantic structure includes both conceptual content and a particular way of construing that content” (p. 148). The meaning of a construction is the meaning of both conceptual content and construal. 2.2 Cognitive Linguistics Cognitive Linguistics (henceforth, CL) is a broad movement within modern linguistics. It investigates the relationship between human language, mind and socio-physical experience (Evans, Bergen & Zinken, 2007, p. 1). CL began to rise in the 1970s and has been expanded since the 1980s. As stated in Nerlich, et al, (2007, pp. 590-591), CL emerged from dissatisfaction with the twentieth-century linguistics, especially Generative Linguistics. The term CL was first used by George Lakoff, around 1975, but he was not the only one who was dissatisfied

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with Generative Linguistics. In 1975, Charles Fillmore was working on his theory of frame semantics, and Ronald Langacker was laying the foundations of his Cognitive Grammar. Around 1972, Leonard Talmy introduced the principles of Gestalt psychology into a linguistic analysis. From 1980 onwards, CL began to develop in the shape of work on metaphorical categorization (Lakoff), image schemata (Johnson), Cognitive Grammar (Langacker), mental spaces and blending (Fauconnier, Turner), and diachronic prototype semantics (Geeraerts). Moreover, CL has two commitments: the generalization commitment and the cognitive commitment. The first one is defined by Lakoff (1990) as “a commitment to characterizing the general principles governing all aspects of human language” (p. 40). This commitment tends to describe common structuring principles that hold across different aspects of language. According to this commitment, CL takes a 'vertical', rather than a 'horizontal' strategy to the study of language, as Geeraerts and Cuyckens (2007) state “Cognitive Linguistics is a building with many rooms” (p. 10). The second one which is the cognitive commitment, it provides principles for language that accord with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines (Evans, Bergen & Zinken, 2007, p. 6). In other words, it shows that language and linguistic organization should reflect other cognitive principles like the principles of philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence and neuroscience rather than cognitive principles that are specific to language (Evans and Green, 2006, pp. 40-41). Likewise, the goal of CL is not to find the similarity between utterances and the world, but rather it is interested in human knowledge of the world, as Radden (2008) says “natural language is a product of the human mind”. Also, he states that “the goal of cognitive linguistics is to explain how the mind works” (p. 1). Each person understands the world differently, and he or she can describe, talk, and

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experience it according to his / her mind. In CL, this phenomenon is called construal. Cognitive linguists treat language differently. They argue that language is not structured arbitrarily. They believe that language is motivated and grounded more or less directly in experience, in a human body, physical, social, and cultural experiences because “we are beings of the flesh” (Johnson 1992, p.

347).

According to Taylor (2002), CL treats language as "an integral facet of cognition which reflects the interaction of social, cultural, psychological, communicative and functional considerations, and which can only be understood in the context of a realistic view of acquisition, cognitive development and mental processing" (p.9). Also, cognitive linguists study much the same kinds of things of other linguistssyntax, morphology, phonology, word meaning, and discourse structure. CL has two approaches: cognitive grammar and cognitive semantics. The concern of this study is only on cognitive semantics.

2.3 Cognitive Semantics CS is a specific approach to studying language within cognitive linguistics. It is concerned with investigating the relationships between experience, the conceptual system and the semantic structure encoded by language. In cognitive semantics, the conceptual structure represents knowledge representation, and conceptualization represents meaning construction (Evans, Bergen & Zinken, 2007, p. 2). CS refers to the relationship between language and humans‟ understanding of the world. Cognitive semantics has been developed from the works of Lakoff (1987), Langacker (1987) and Croft & Cruse (2004). In particular, Geeraerts (2010, p. 182) argues that CS emerged in 1980 as part of CL. CS emerged because the structuralist and generativist approaches theorizing could not deal with the encyclopedic meaning of words; the shortcomings of these

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theories paved the way to the emergence of CS which radically embrace the idea that there are close and inseparable ties between „word knowledge‟ and „world knowledge‟ (Allen, 2013, pp. 572-573). Also, CS appeared as a reaction against the objectivist world-views and related approach truth- conditional semantics, which developed within formal linguistics. A leading cognitive linguist, Sweetser (1990) describes the truth-conditional approach like this: “by viewing meaning as the relationship between words and the world, truth-conditional semantics eliminates cognitive organization from the linguistic system” (p. 4). In contrast, cognitive semantics emphasizes the importance of world experience to the representation of linguistic expressions and recognized the speaker capacity in different ways. While formal linguistics ignored the role of the speaker. Lewis (1972, p. 170) says:

I distinguish two topics: first, the description of possible languages or grammars as abstract semantic systems whereby symbols are associated with aspects of the world; and second, the description of the psychological and sociological facts whereby a particular one of these abstract semantic systems is the one used by a person or population. Only confusion comes of mixing these two topics (cited in (Hamm, Kamp, & Lambalgen, 2006, p. 1).

From Lewis‟ quote above it is clear that semantics is not about psychological or sociological facts concerning the uses of linguistic system to aspects of the world, on the contrary, cognitive semantics relates to the knowledge of psychology, neurology, and biology. Furthermore, the fundamental difference between the two approaches to formal semantics (one realistic and one cognitive) concerns what types of entities the meanings of words. According to the realistic approach to semantics, the meaning

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of an expression is out there in the world; CS identifies meanings of expressions with mental entities (Gardenfors, 1999, p. 19). There are two paradigms for dealing with semantics. First realistic semantics which comes in two flavors:  Extensional: in extensional semantics, language L terms are mapped onto a world W. The aim of extensional is to determine truth conditions for sentences in L against W. Expressions of a language get their meanings via a correspondence representation of the world. Thus, the meaning of an expression is independent of how individual users understand it.  Intentional: in intentional semantics, the language is mapped onto a set of possible worlds instead of only a single world. The aim is to provide truth conditions for the sentences in L. The prediction meaning of a sentence is identified with a set of possible worlds, the set of worlds where a sentence is true (Gardenfors, 1999, p. 19). The second paradigm of semantics is cognitivist or CS. In CS the meanings of sentences are mental. As Gardenfors (1999) illustrates, the prime slogan for cognitive semantics is that “meanings are in the head.” The meanings of any expression are varying as there are different people (p. 21).

2.3.1 Tenets CS is based on four salient assumptions; these assumptions are proposed by Evans and Green (2006). 1. Conceptual structure is embodied: The primary concern for cognitive semantics is the nature of the relationship between conceptual structure and the external world of sensory experience. To build a theory of conceptual structure that is consonant with the ways in which human experience the world. Cognitive semantics is set out to investigate the nature of interaction

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with and awareness of the external world (Ibid). Because of the nature of human bodies, they have a species-specific view of the world. Humans‟ understanding of reality is median. Human can talk about things when can perceive and conceive. Human cannot talk about things that are out of their perception. What human can perceive and conceive drive from embodied experience. A philosophical view for CS is experientialism named by Lakoff. Human understanding of the world based on kinaesthetic image schemas, which are simple structures that constantly recur in their everyday bodily experience (Johnson, 1987 & Lakoff, 1987 cited in Brooks, Robinson, & Ellis, 2008, p. 241). 2. Semantic structure is conceptual structure: The meaning of an expression does not refer to an entity in the outside world but to a concept in the mind of the speaker. Putnam (1988, p. 19 cited in Gardenfors, 1999, p. 27) believes that every word the speaker uses is associated in his mind with a certain mental representation; two words are synonymous (have the same meaning) only when they are associated with the same mental representation by the speakers who use those words; and the mental representation determines what the word refers to (if any). It is clear that there is a difference between the real world and the conceptualized world. These two worlds are not in direct correspondences, and CS explains only the organization of conceptualized world. Semantic structure and conceptual structure are identical; this does not mean that they are equated. Cognitive Semantists think that the meanings associated with words from only a subset of possible concepts (Vyvyan & Green, 2006, p.159). Unquestionably human beings have many more thoughts, ideas, and feelings that cannot be conventionally encoded in language. For this reason, the words that are used

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are only a subset of the full set of concepts in the mind of the speakershearers (Evans, Bergen, and Zinken, 2007, p. 8). 3. Meaning representation is encyclopedic: the meaning of a linguistic unit is very broad. Encyclopedic arises in context of use. It includes both denotation and connotation meanings of a word. Cognitive semanticists think that the conventional meaning associated with a word is just a “prompt” for the process of meaning construction. Consider the word „safe‟ which has many meanings and the meaning of the word „safe‟ is changed in different context use. For example, a child is playing on the beach (Vyvyan & Green, 2006, p.161). Example (1) a. The child is safe. b. The beach is safe. c. The shovel is safe. The interpretation of (1a) is that the child will not come to any harm, and the second one (1b) does not mean that the beach will not come to any harm like the child, but it means that the environment of the beach is good for the child. Likely the shovel also means that it will not cause harm to the child. 4. Meaning construction is conceptualization: the fourth principle guide is that language does not encode meaning. Meaning construction is a dynamic process whereby words serve as prompts for an array of conceptual operations (Hamawand, 2009, p. 13). From this view, it is clear that meaning is a process rather than a discrete thing that can be packaged by language. 2.3.2 Approaches to Cognitive Semantics CS covers a variety of quite different approaches which include the following commitments:  A rejection of a modular approach to language.

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 An identification of meaning with „conceptual structure.'  A rejection of the syntax–semantics distinction.  A rejection of the semantics–pragmatics distinction. Many cognitivists reject modularity that was promoted by Chomsky (1965) and Fodor (1983). Modular research assumes that language is one of a number of independent modules or faculties within cognition, each of which has a structure and principles independent of those at work in other cognitive domains. On a modular vision of the mind, the principles of the language module will be entirely distinct from those of the others, like vision, memory, reasoning or musical cognition. In contrast, Cognitivists like Langacker (1987), Lakoff & Johnson (1980), and Lakoff (1987) reject the modularist idea that language is independent and governed by its own distinctive principles. Cognitivists believe that language has relation to other fields like psychology, sociology and so on. Moreover, meaning as conceptual structure studying linguistic meaning is the same thing as studying the nature of human conceptual structure which covers all the terms for our „thoughts, concepts, perceptions, images, and mental experience in general‟ (Langacker 1987, p. 98). For instance, the meaning of a word such as house simply is the concept man has of houses; any aspect of the knowledge that man has of houses can become linguistically relevant. CS aims to describe the full knowledge structures that are associated with the words of a language. Consequently, cognitivists reject the separation of semantics from syntax. Evans and Green (2006) identify a number of fundamental cognitive principles that do not respect any division between these two domains: prototype effects, polysemy, and metaphor, for example, seem to exist not only in the domain of word meaning but in morphology and syntax as well. CL also rejects “the distinction between a purely semantic level of word meaning and a non-semantic level of language use” (Reimer, 2010, p. 239).

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2.3.3 Theories of Cognitive Semantics 2.3.3.1 Image Schema Image Schema (IS) was first developed within CS. It has become influential in the areas of studies like cognitive and developmental psychology (Evans & Green, 2006, p. 177). In CL Oakley (2007), defines IS as “a condensed redescription of perceptual experience for the purpose of mapping spatial structure onto conceptual structure" (p. 215). According to Johnson (1987), "these patterns „emerge as meaningful structures for us chiefly at the level of our bodily movements through space, our manipulations of objects, and our perceptual interaction‟” (p. 29). Also, Hampe (2006) states that: “image schemas are directly meaningful (“experiential”/ “embodied”), preconceptual structures, which arise from, or are grounded in, human recurrent bodily movements through space, perceptual interactions, and ways of manipulating objects” (p.2). IS was developed by Lakoff and Johnson‟s (1980) conceptual theory of metaphor. Then, IS theory has helped Johnson establish an epistemology and moral philosophy, and has helped Lakoff articulate a theory of categorization (1987). Also, IS theory has played a major role in several areas of study: in psycholinguistic investigations by Gibbs (1994) and Gibbs & Colston (1995), in cognitive development by Mandler (1992), in poetics by Lakoff and Turner (1989) and literary criticism by Turner (1987, 1991), in linguistic theories of grammar by Langacker (1987) and Talmy (1983), in mathematics (Lakoff and Núñez 2000) and in computational modeling by the Neural Theory of Language Group (Oakley, 2007, p. 214). Moreover, ISs are not images or schemas. First they are not specific images, as Mandler (2004) stresses that “image-schemas are not images” (p. 79), but are abstract, this definition by Clausner and Croft (1999) explains that these “image schemas are „abstract‟ in one sense of that word– they are schematic but not

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„abstract‟ in another sense of that word - they are embodied” (P. 14). Images are the representations of things, how making a picture in human mind. For example, the planned form of redecorated kitchen (Young. 2006, p. 2). This example shows that how human can make the facet of the planning form of the kitchen because images are all visual, and they all represent facets of the thinking process (memory, planning, fantasy, judgment, will, association, self-awareness, etc.) It is the capability of human beings to generate mental images all the time. Mental images indicate the internal representations involved in mental imagery, denote the experiences in imagery or even abstract imaginary objects (Block, 1983, p. 506). Images themselves are abstractions, in which one can take in detail or frames new experience. For example, one has the detailed information about a specific library; he or she can differentiate it from the other library. This is because of the experience that serves as an imaginative base for creating a „schematized‟ mental image of a library (Oakley, 2006, p. 216). Second, ISs are not schemas. Schemas are defined by Kant as “schemas are structures of the imagination, and imagination is the mental faculty that mediates all judgment; hence, imagination is the faculty for synthesizing different modes of representation (sensory percepts, images, concepts, and so on) into concepts (Oakley, 2007, P. 215).” As Kant explains schemas are the structures of the imagination, they are not the concepts or the images of the things, but a „fixed templates‟ for generating meaningful representations. He gives this example to illustrate schemas more. Consider Kant‟s example of the schema for the concept dog. He explains that the notion of a schema is neither the concept dog nor a particular image of a dog, even nor the actual furry creature that wags its tail and looks cheerfully up at you. Instead, Kant asserted that the schema for a dog is a procedure of imagination for constructing an image of a certain kind of four-footed furry animal, or the structures for constructing the image of a dog. As a result the

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image manifests all of the features that are specified by the concept of a dog (Kant 1968: A141/B180 cited in Hampe, 2006, p.17). Thus, an image is a representation of specific patterns capable of being rendered schematically. In contrast, a schema is a fixed template for ordering specific information. As a coined notion, Image schemas are no specific no fixed. ISs are not specifying to an actual shape or material. Lack of specificity and content makes ISs highly flexible preconceptual and primitive patterns use for reasoning in an array of contexts (Johnson, 1987, p. 30). The most important ISs are listed as follows:  Space : up-down, front-back, left-right, near-far, center- periphery, contact  Scale: path  Container: containment, in-out, surface, full-empty, content  Force: balance, counterforce, compulsion, restraint, enablement, blockage, diversion, attraction  Unity/multiplicity: merging, collection, splitting, iteration, part- whole, mass-count, link  Identity: matching, superimposition  Existence: removal, bounded space, cycle, object, process (Clausner & Croft, 1999, p. 15) On analysis, the conceptualizations of the library fit an image-schematic profile, like: SOURCE-PATH-GOAL – CONTAINER – COLLECTION – PARTWHOLE – TRANSFER – ITERATION. The library exists as the end point for a path. It also has an inside and an outside, and thus is capable of containing people and objects. The library exploits the notion of collection, which piggybacks on the opposition between part and whole. Physically possessing one of these contained objects in the collection exploits the TRANSFER schema, and its repeatability

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exploits the ITERATION schema. The above profile represents the notion of a library. Moreover, IS transformation arises from embodied experience that is; ongoing ISs can undergo transformations from one IS into another (Evans, 2007, p. 108). As Bennett (1975) (cited in Lakoff, 1987, p. 440) gives many examples of an IS transformation in which the path IS is transformed to the location corresponding to the end of the path, for example, Sam walked over the hill (path) vs. Sam lives over the hill (end of path). 2.3.3.2 Encyclopedic Semantics CS takes some assumptions to adopt the meaning of the words to be encyclopedic; as explained by (Evans, Bergen & Zinken, 2007, p. 16-19): i.

There is no principled distinction between semantics and pragmatics. CS does not make a sharp distinction between semantics and pragmatics. This means that CS talks about both the meanings of the words and how they are used. CS talks about both dictionary and encyclopedic meaning of the words.

ii.

Encyclopedic knowledge is structured. Encyclopedic meaning that a person knows about a word, it does not mean that the knowledge that he has about any word is structured in a disorganized mess, on the other hand, the knowledge that he has is organized as a network.

iii.

Encyclopedic meaning emerges in context. The use of the words is selected by contexts. The context determines which word should be used in which situation.

iv.

Lexical items are points of access to encyclopedic knowledge. Words are not like containers that present previous information; but, they provide access to particular parts of the vast network of encyclopedic knowledge.

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v.

Encyclopedic knowledge is dynamic. The core meaning associated with a word is relatively stable; the encyclopedic knowledge of the word is dynamic. For example, the word night the core meaning is the time after sunset while encyclopedic meaning is changed according to the feeling of each person that has about that word.

There are two theories of encyclopedic semantics. The first is the theory of frame semantics, developed in a series of publications by Charles Fillmore (e.g., 1975, 1977, 1982, 1985; Fillmore & Atkins, 1992). Frame semantics is a schematization of experience which is held in long-term memory. Second theory is the theory of domains developed by Ronald Langacker (e.g., 1987). Domain theory like frame semantics claims that meaning is encyclopedic and that lexical concept cannot be understood independently of larger knowledge structures. 2.3.3.3 Idealized Cognitive Model Idealized Cognitive Model (ICM) is the third important theoretical development within CS. It was developed by George Lakoff in his book (1987) Woman, Fire and Dangerous Things. Lakoff‟s (1987) framework of ICMs is that “we organize our knowledge by means of structures called idealized cognitive models”. “An ICM concept is meant to include not only people‟s encyclopedic knowledge of a particular domain but also the cultural model they are part of” Radden and Kovecses (1999, p.20). Its purpose is to represent reality from a certain perspective that is idealized for the sake of understanding and reasoning (Ibanez & Iniguez 1997, p. 282). The content of an ICM depends on people‟s everyday experience, what they are doing, what knowledge they get from the world. These things are represented in the mind as ICMs. Like, frame semantics which is a theory that relates linguistic semantics to encyclopedic knowledge developed by Charles J. Fillmore. The basic idea is that a person cannot understand the meaning of a single

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word without previous knowledge that relates to that word. For instance, a person would not be able to construe the word sell, if he does not know anything about the situation of selling, buying, goods, and money, and the relations between them, this example is given as an advantage of ICM. Also, an ICM makes use of the following four structuring principles which are taken from Lakoff (1987 p. 68): i.

Propositional structure, as in Fillmore's frames.

ii.

Image-schematic structure, as in Langacker's cognitive grammar.

iii.

Metaphoric mappings, as described by Lakoff and Johnson.

iv.

Metonymic mappings, as described by Lakoff and Johnson.

2.3.3.4 Cognitive Lexical Semantics The importance of Lakoff‟s theory of ICMs is to provide the cognitive semantic treatment of word meaning; this area is known as cognitive lexical semantics (Evans, Bergen, and Zinken, 2006, p. 15). According to cognitive lexical semantics; words are conceptual categories: “a word represents a category of distinct yet related meanings that exhibit typicality effects” (Ibid). Lexical items are not similar in meanings, but they are related because they may share some features. Their meanings are categorized and stored in the mental lexicon in a very complex way. 2.3.3.4.1 Classical vs. Cognitive Lexical Semantics These two lexical-semantic approaches differ in three important respects: 1. Classical lexical semantics deals only with an autonomously linguistic level of word meaning and separates the linguistic-semantic and encyclopedic information in the conceptual content of a word. Cognitive lexical semantics, in contrast, suggests that all conceptual information associated with a lexical item is broadly encyclopedic in that it is part of, and the background knowledge has a significant role for understanding a word.

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2. The classical approach holds that (autonomous) lexical concepts are welldefined entities; for example, sufficient features of one lexical concept are applicable to all the instances in that concept. As a result, all instances are completely identical. But on the cognitive view, instances of a concept may be linked not because they all share the same features, but because they share different sets of features with each other or because they are similar to each other in different respects. For example, the members of one family, what links the different instances of a lexical concept is a resemblance family relationship. 3. While classical lexical concepts are made up of an invariable set of features, all of the features have an equal status in defining the concept, while, some featural information in cognitive concepts may be more salient or prototypical than others (Zelinsky-Wibbelt, 1993, pp. 28-29). 2.3.3.5 Conceptual Metaphor Theory Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) has been influential both within CL and within the cognitive and social sciences. First, it is introduced by Lakoff and Johnson, in their book Metaphors We Live By In 1980. By analyzing everyday language, they uncovered the pervasiveness of metaphorical language, asserting that metaphor is a matter of the mind, not an issue of language. The fundamental claim of CMT is that the human conceptual system is “fundamentally metaphorical in nature” (Lakoff & Johnson, 2003, p. 3). According to Lakoff and Johnson, “the essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another” (Ibid, p. 5). Also they state that the way as humans think, what they experience, and what they can do every day, is very much a matter of metaphor. Metaphor then seems to function at the conceptual level. Kövecses, et al, argue that conceptual metaphor consists of two conceptual domains; conceptual domain A and conceptual domain B, in which one domain

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can be understood in terms of another. A conceptual domain is any coherent organization of experience (2010, p. 4). Furthermore, a conceptual metaphor is a metaphor that exists in the mind of a speaker, and may thus be unconscious. The process of conceptual metaphor consists of two domains; one of them is „source domain‟ from which man draw metaphorical expressions to understand another conceptual domain and the other is „target domain‟, which can be understood in terms of source domain. Furthermore, according to CMT, source concepts are often experientially concrete and possess some kind of „bodily basis‟ (Johnson, 1987), while target concepts are often abstract and cannot be directly experienced or perceived. For example, if someone says: when is the next wave of immigrants going to hit us? (Johansen, 2007, p. 12) The use of the word wave is metaphorical, the target domain is immigration, and the source domain is water; and he or she makes a similarity between the wave of water and an increasing number of immigrant people. Additionally, conceptual metaphors are classified according to the cognitive functions. Cognitive functions could mean the functions of metaphor for ordinary people in thinking about and seeing the world, into three general kinds: structural, ontological, and orientational. In Structural metaphors, the source domain provides a relatively rich knowledge structure for the target concept. The target can be understood by the knowledge or information of the source. The cognitive function of the metaphors is to help speakers to understand target A by means of the structure of source B (Kövecses, et al, 2010, p. 37). For example, time is money, time is the target domain, and money is the source domain. Ontological metaphors provide much less cognitive structuring for target concepts than structural ones do. Individuals can get experience from the things around them in terms of objects, substances, and containers. It can be said that ontological metaphors base on

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existence objects in the world, without specifying exactly what kind of object, substance, and the container is meant. Once individuals get these things, they can refer to them, describe them, and categorize them, anything that they want to do with them (Lakoff & Johnson, 2003, p. 23). For instance, they have the experience of rising prices which can be seen as an entity via the noun inflation. Metaphorically they can talk about inflation like this: inflation is an entity (Ibid, p. 26). Orientational metaphors provide even less conceptual structure for target concepts than ontological ones. Their cognitive job is to make a set of target concepts coherent in human conceptual system. The name derives from the fact that individuals have bodies that represent oreintational metaphors like; up-down, in-out, front-back, on-off, deep-shallow, central-peripheral. For example, more means up; less means down: Speak up, please. Keep your voice down; please speak up (Kovesces, et al. 2010, p. 36). 2.3.3.6 Conceptual Metonymy The discussion of metonymy in CL starts with the publication of the most influential book “Metaphors We Live By” by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson (1980). In the book they believe that metonymy, like metaphor, is a powerful cognitive tool for people that conceptualize of the world, and it is grounded in human experience which involves direct physical or causal associations. Metonymy allows human to conceptualize one thing by means of its relation to something else. Later on, Radden and Kovecses (1999), define metonymy as: “metonymy is a cognitive process in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle, provides mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same idealized cognitive model” (p.21). Metonymy is a mapping between two things one is the vehicle that is substituted to the other thing which is the target within the same area of knowledge. For example, Kirkuk protested against the decision. Kirkuk is the vehicle or substitutes people who live in Kirkuk, which is the target.

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Radden and Kovecses (1999) believe that Lakoff‟s (1987) framework of ICMs may capture metonymic processes best. According to the ICM, metonymies can be classified into two parts: the whole-part metonymic configuration and the partwhole metonymic configuration (p.20). Kovecses (2002) believe that: A conceptual domain, or ICM, can be viewed as a whole that is constituted by parts; more specifically, the conceptual entities, or elements, are the parts that constitute the ICM that is the whole. Giving this way a looking at ICM‟s, metonymies may emerge in two ways: either a whole stands for a part or a part stands for a whole (p.

150 ). Consider these examples, “The U.S.A. elected the new President in October”, and “Texas elected the new President in October.” The first example is an instance of WHOLE FOR PART metonymy since the U.S.A. is seen as a whole of all the states belonging to this country. The second example is an instance of PART FOR WHOLE metonymy since Texas represents a part that stands for the U.S.A (Marcus, 2007, p. 221). 2.3.3.7 Mental Space Theory Mental Space Theory (MST) was developed by Gills Fauconnier (1985, 1994, 1997), as a reaction to the truth-conditional model of sentence meaning adopted in formal semantics. Truth –conditional model from its meaning refers to truth conditions of a sentence: the slate of affairs must exist in the outside world, to be real or hypothetical, for a sentence to be true (Fauconnier, 1994, p. xvii). In contrast, mental space constructions are cognitive. They are not something that can be referred to the world, but rather something that itself can be referred to a real or imagined world. More importantly, the elements of mental space constructions do not have a direct reference in the world (Fauconnier, 1994, p. xxxvi).

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Mental spaces include partial representations of the entities and relationships in a given scenario when the speaker perceived imagined or understood. Mental space is defined as “a partial and temporary representational structure that the speakers construct and when thinking or talking about a perceived, imagined, past, present or future situation ((Fauconnier 1994 [1985] cited in Grady, Oakley & Coulson, 1999, p. 102).” For Fauconnier and Turner (2002) mental spaces are “small conceptual packets that constructed while we think and talk” (p. 40), when a speaker speaks, he or she is going to build mental spaces for local understanding and action.

MST holds that language does not carry meaning, but it guides it.

As Turner (1993, p. 206) argues that: Expressions do not mean; they are prompted for us to construct meanings by working with processes we already know. In no sense is the meaning of an XYZ metaphor or of any utterance "right there in the words." When we understand an utterance, we in no sense are understanding "just what the words say"; the words themselves say nothing independent of the richly detailed knowledge and powerful cognitive processes we bring to bear.

Language by itself cannot give meaning, we as human beings put meaning into the words. Fauconnier (1994) says that: “…, it is the words that carry the meaning: we say what we mean, we put meaning into words.” As a result, the meaning of a word is different from one person to another (p. xviii). Similarly, mental spaces contain partial representations of the entities. The actual meaning can be taken from the context in which it occurs because the meanings of sentences can be exploited according to different contexts. Each person may construct a mental space that is different from the other person‟s mental space. Evans and Green (2006) think that mental spaces are set up by the following (p. 371):

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1. Space Builder Mental spaces are set up by thinking and speaking that are called space builders. Space builders are linguistic units that open the construction of a new mental space or shifts attention to existing mental space (Fauconnier, 1997, p. 40). Space builders can be a variety of grammatical forms like prepositional phrases (in 1966, at the shop, in that story), adverbs (really, actually, probably), subject-verb combinations that are followed by an embedded sentence (Susan believes …, Max hopes…), names (Napoleon, Jack,). What is important in this theory is that it makes the hearer set up a scenario between here and now, whether this scenario reflects past or future (Evans & Green, 2006, p. 371). 2. Elements Mental spaces refer to things or objects in the world, whether they are real or not (Coulson & Okley, 2000, p. 176). Elements can represent each of the discourse entities and simple frames to represent the relationships that exist between them (Coulson & Oakley, 2003, p. 52). For example, may be Romeo is in love with Juliet (Fauconnier, 1997, p. 42). In this example, there are two elements: Romeo and Juliet, the frame that represents the relationships between Romeo and Juliet is love 3. Properties and Relations Properties and relations are also important for the constructing of mental spaces. Properties specified by space builder that assigned the elements and the relations that exist in a single space between two elements (Evans & Green, 2006, p. 372). For example, in that play, Othello is jealous. The expression jealous assigns a property to the element jealous. For the relation consider this example, in the picture, a witch is riding a unicorn. The phrase in the picture is space builder, which set up a mental space, in the picture represent the world inside the picture. The mental space in the figure does not tell everything about the elements witch and unicorn within the picture, for example, it does not tell about the relationship and the nature of the two elements because mental space is partial, not the whole

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conceptual structures. As a result mental spaces set internally by the previous knowledge structure: “frames represent a knowledge structure which relates the lexemes linked with a particular scene. Frames are based on recurring human experience” (Hamawand, 2009, p. 94), and ICM “is a cognitive structure whose purpose is to represent reality from a certain perspective that is idealized for the purpose of understanding and reasoning”(Ibanez, & Iniguez, 1997, p. 1). The internal structure of mental space is providing by the recruitment of ICM frames, the pre-existing knowledge that is a process known as schema induction (Evans, 2007, p. 187). For example, the spaces builder prompts for the recruitment of a frame for the picture, and the elements prompt for recruitment of frames relating to witches as witchcraft and unicorn as mythical creatures. The expression of riding prompts for a riding frame. This knowledge structure provides a relation between the two elements and prompts for the ride frame. Ride frames include the role for a rider and the entity ridden. The rider role is mapped to the expression witch, and the entity ridden is mapped to the expression unicorn (Evans & Green. 2006, p. 373). 4. Mental Space Lattices When a mental space is structured, it is linked to other mental spaces during discourse. One of the spaces is known as the base: is the starting point of a given construction and can always be returned to it throughout the discourse (V. Stadelmann, 2012, p. 10). And it may generate a number of new spaces (Imaze & Benyon, 2007, p. 41). During the discourse, new mental spaces set up within the network or lattice because of schema induction. 5. Counterparts and Connectors To know how two elements in different mental spaces are linked, it should be noted that they are linked by connectors that establish the mappings: “are correspondences between entities inheriting in regions of the conceptual system

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between counterpart elements” (Evans, 2007, p. 130). Evans and Green (2006, p. 373) argue that “counterparts are established by pragmatic function: when two or more elements in different mental spaces have a related pragmatic function, they are counterparts.” In pragmatic function identity is important. In the example of Ian Flaming‟s novels, James Bond is the name of the fictional British spy character, and 007 is the code name used by the British Secret Service (M16) to identify this spy. The element James Bond and the number 007 are coreference. These two expressions refer to the same person and form a chain of reference. Consider this example; James Bond is the top British spy. In the war, 007 was an officer in the Royal Navy. Some elements set up mental spaces while the other not, the element James Bond in the first sentence can prompt for the assignment of an element in the first mental space which is the property top British Spy that is the base space, identifies James Bond not a new entity. In the second sentence, in the war constructs a new war space (anew mental space) because it is the space builder. This mental space prompts for the assignment of the element that is an officer in the Royal Navy in the second mental space. The number 007 prompts for the assignment of the element 007 in the second mental space refers to (he). The pronoun he refers to James Bond, who is an officer in the Royal Navy in a war. This is a background knowledge provides a pragmatic function that serves to establish the two elements as counterparts because of the anaphora he and the antecedent James Bond. The two elements a1 and a2 are linked by an identity connector that provides the counterpart (Evans & Green, 2006, p. 375).

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Figure (1) Linking Counterparts (Ibid, p. 376) 6. Access Principle To identify the elements of James Bond and (he), Fauconnier establishes access principle also called identification principle. This principle states that “an expression that names or describes an element in one mental space can be used to access a counterpart of that element in another mental space” (1997, p. 41). For instance, the element corresponding to the pronoun he serves as the trigger to access the element corresponding to the element James Bond target in the base. The element named or described, a, is the trigger like the anaphora he and the element identified, b, is the target like James Bond. 7. Roles and Values Fauconnier and Turner state that role “is a ubiquitous vital relation” (2002, p. 98), for example, Lincoln was president. Within mental spaces, an element can be a role and can be linked to another element as its value. In the example, the element president is a role for the value Lincoln.

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2.3.3.8 Blending Theory The theory of conceptual blending or integration was originally found by Fauconnier and Turner (1994) and then developed through numerous articles (Fauconnier and Turner 1996, 1998, 1999, 2003 etc.; Turner and Fauconnier 1995, 1999, 2000), with the most comprehensive account to date given in The Way We Think (2002) (Lundmark, 2005, p. 76). In (1994) Fauconnier and Turner introduced a new analytic framework which they call Blending Theory (BT) also called conceptual integration (CI) or conceptual blending theory (CBT) derives from CMT and MST within CS. BT is closely related to MST because of its central concern with dynamic meaning construction and its dependence upon mental spaces for its architecture needs mental space construction. The origins of blending belong to Mark Turner and Gills Fauconnier (Evans & Green, 2006, p. 400). Likewise, Mark Turner defines blending as “is a basic mental operation that works on the conceptual array to produce conceptual integration networks.” (2008, p. 1). The conceptual array provides inputs to the network then selects the elements for CB by the mental operation. For Gills Fauconnier who is the pioneer of conceptual blending describes CI as mental capacity for constructing new meaning in everyday life as he says: CI is a basic mental capacity that leads to new meaning, global insight, and conceptual compressions useful for memory and manipulation of otherwise diffuse ranges of meaning. It plays a fundamental role in the construction of meaning in everyday life, in the arts and sciences, in technological development, and in religious thinking. The essence of the operation is to construct a partial match between input mental spaces and to the selection projection from those inputs into a novel 'blended' mental space, which then dynamically develops emergent structure. (2001, p. 1)

Conceptual blending is a different theory that has been developed to account for the phenomenon that mental spaces theory, and indeed CMT cannot account for.

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BT was developed in order to account for the meaning construction of language. It is central to human thought and imagination, although it is central to human language, also it can be seen in other areas of human activity like in arts, sciences and especially in the social and behavioral sciences. Also Dirk Geeraerts (2010) states that: Blending theory is the blend space, which represents the interaction of the input spaces: in the blended space, knowledge of source and target inputs combines into a coherent information structure that is temporarily activated in the mind of the language user. The fourth space in Fauconnier and Turner‟s analytic schema is the generic space, which contains schematic material shared by the two input spaces (p. 232).

Consequently, the meaning of the blend comes from the input spaces no more no less; no more because it includes the meaning of the inputs. Each of them contains part of the generic meaning. No less because blending space most of the time contains new meaning that does not belong to any inputs. It explains in Dżereń-Głowacka (2012) like this; the two mental spaces work as inputs for the integration. The two spaces are taken from the third spaces that are the generic space that contains the shared meaning and more than of its inputs (p. 195). 2.3.3.8.1 The Framework of Conceptual Blending Theory 1. Blending Network CBT can build the network of mutual mapping mental space, and generate new mental space network in various ways. The basic CI network contains four mental spaces: two input spaces, a generic space and a blend space. Two input spaces connect each other through cross-mappings between the counterparts and project onto the shared space built in this way, which is so called generic space. Moreover, the counterparts between two input spaces also project selectively onto the fourth space called blend space in various ways, generates the emergent structure that

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does not exist before, and lets this structure reflect back to other spaces. Fauconnier & Turner (1998) define Conceptual Blending Network as an array of mental spaces where the processes of conceptual blending unfold. The mental spaces were named input space I, input space II, a generic space and a blended space (which is also called “the blend”) separately. It is in these above four spaces that the CB is finished. That is to say, the four spaces are the basic elements of the blending network. 2. Blending Processes The process of generating a blend can be summarized according to three general steps: i.

Composition: it is a new relation that becomes available in the blending network that does not exist in the inputs. In Fauconnier and Turner‟s (2002) words, “blending can compose elements from the input spaces to provide relations that do not exist in the separate inputs” (p. 48).

ii.

Completion: Completion occurs because of background knowledge that associated with the elements in the input spaces. Such background knowledge may take the form of contextual information or conceptual frames, for example. According to Fauconnier and Turner (2002, p. 48):

We rarely realise the extent of background knowledge and structure that we bring into a blend unconsciously. Blends recruit great ranges of such meaning. We see some parts of a familiar frame of meaning, and much more of the frame is recruited silently but effectively to the blend.

iii.

Elaboration: It is the most important stage in the blending process. It is the “running of the blend”. Fauconnier (1997) states that elaboration “consists in

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cognitive work performed within the blend, according to its emergent logic” (p. 151). Blending can be elaborated imaginatively according to the principles that established for the blend (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002, p. 48). 3. Blending Principles Fauconnier talks about four principles of blending that are simple in operation, but in practice give rise to countless possibilities. The operation happens on the two input spaces for making the third space that is the blend. The blended space takes partial meaning from the input spaces, but it has the emergent structure of its own for completing the meaning (1997, p. 149). These are the four principles which Fauconnier (1997, pp. 149-151) explains them: i.

Cross-Space Mapping: There is a partial mapping of counterparts between the input spaces I1 and I2, as shown in Fig. (2)

ii.

Generic-Space: This generic space reflects some common, usually more abstract, structure and organization shared by the two inputs and defines the core cross-space mapping between them, as in Fig. (3)

Figure (2) Cross-Space Mapping (Fauconnier, 1997)

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Figure (3) Generic-Space

Figure (4) Blend iii.

(Fauconnier, 1997)

Blend: The inputs I1 and I2 are partially projected onto a fourth space, the blend (see Fig. 4).

iv.

Emergent Structure: The blend has an emergent structure not provided by the inputs. The square shape shows the emergent structure in the blend. See (Fig. 5).

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Figure (5) Emergent Structure 2.3.3.8.2 Types of Conceptual Blending Networks Four different kinds of network are proposed by Fauconnier and Turner which account for the “variety creativity and creativity in the way we think” (2002, p. 121). Like: simplex networks, mirror networks, single-scope and double-scope networks. These different kinds of blending networks occur on a continuum of increasing complexity with double-scope networks being the most advanced. 1. Simplex Networks This type is the simplest type of integration that involves two inputs, one that contains a frame with roles and another that contains values. As Turner (2008) argues that “one input space has a familiar abstract frame that is designed to embrace certain kinds of values, and the other input space is a relatively specific situation presenting just such values.” (p. 2). The construction of this integration network is that it gives rise to a blend containing structure that is in neither of the inputs. More apparently, one input contains roles, and the other input contains values. Fauconnier and Turner (2002, p. 120) state that:

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An especially simple kind of integration network is one in which human cultural and biological history has provided an effective frame that applies to certain kinds of elements as values, and that frame is in one input space, and some of those kinds of elements are in the other input space. A readily available frame of human kinship is the family, which includes roles for father, mother, child, and so on. This frame prototypically applies to human beings.

For example: (2) John is the son of Marry.

(Evans & Green, 2006, p. 426)

The expression contains two inputs; one input contains frame with roles that are represented by the family frame; mother, and son, and only this input (input 1) contains frame. The other input contains values that are represented by John and Marry. The integration network compresses the role-value outer space relations into uniqueness in the blend. As a result, John is the son, and Marry is the mother so that John is Mary‟s son. The generic space is the motivation for the cross-space connections which contains female and male. These elements identify potential counterparts in the inputs.

Figure (6) A Simplex Integration Network (Evans & Green, 2006, p. 427)

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2. Mirror Networks According to Fauconnier and Turner, in mirror networks, all the spaces share the common organizing frame, including the blend. A standard example of mirror networks is “Regatta”. Each space contains the frame in which a boat follows a course including the blend, which has the extension meaning of the frame that is the boat racing (Turner, 2008, p. 3). Consider this famous example of blending “the boat race” or “regatta” the clipper ship. Consider the example (3) from a news report in Latitude 38, a sailing magazine (Fauconnier and Turner 2002, p. 64). Example: (3) As we went to press, Rich Wilson and Bill Biewenga were barely maintaining a 4.5 day lead over the ghost of the Clipper Northern Light. This example relates to a 1993 news story in which a modern catamaran Great American II, sailed by Wilson and Biewenga, set out on a route from San Francisco to Boston. A record for this route had been set in 1853 by the Clipper Northern Light, which had made the journey in 76 days and 8 hours. This record still held in 1993. The sentence describes two boats sailing on the same course during the same period in 1993. It blends the event of 1853 and the event of 1993 into a single event. The two distinct events correspond to two input mental spaces, which reflect the significant aspects of each event: the voyage, the leaving of the boats, and arrival points, the period and time of travel, and their positions at various times. The generic space contains schematic information relating to boats and journeys, which motivates matching operations and thus cross-space connections between the two inputs. The events of the inputs have a sharing point that is sailing from San Francisco to Boston; this is “generic space” that connects them. For achieving

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the blend of this example is the selective projection which is the first process to occur from the inputs to the blend. Not all the information in the inputs is projected. For example, information is not projected relating to weather conditions, whether the boats have cargo or not, the nature of the clipper‟s crew, what the crew ate for supper and so on. Instead, information is projected that is sufficient to accomplish the inference. For instance, only the 1993 time frame is projected. Secondly, the structure that is selectively projected into the blend is composed and completed. The schema induction that occurs at the completion stage adds the race frame to the blend and thus provides further structure: in a race there are two or more competitors and the first to complete the course is the winner. Next, upon running the blend, the additional structure emerges that has arisen as a result of composition and completion. In Fig (7), this emergent structure is appended to the blend in the box beneath the blended space. Once this has occurred, human can think of the two boats as competitors in a race (Evans and Green, 2006, p. 411). The emergent structure combines the two boats, the course, their actual positions and times on the course, but not the years „1853 and 1993‟. The blended space contains the two boats that they left at the same starting point „San Francisco‟ on the same day. The completion of the situation is construed as a race as mentioned in the example “the boat race.” In the blend, the „ghost ship‟ is used for running the blend as imaginatively and dynamically. The truth is that the first boat with the second one is just imaginative „ghost‟ but the blend shows an exact specification of truth values (Fauconnier and Turner, 2002, pp. 63-65). In a mirror network, there are no clashes between the inputs at the level of organizing frame, because the frames are the same (Ibid, P. 122). But sometimes there will be clashes at the frame level. For instance in Regatta, the centuries and the kinds of boats in the two spaces clash.

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Figure (7) Boat Race Blend 3. Single-Scope Networks As explained above in simplex network, only one of the inputs is structured by a frame, and in the mirror networks all the spaces share a common frame, but in the single-scope networks the frame of each input space is different and one of the frames is projected to organize the blend (Fauconnier and Turner, 2002, p. 126 ). For instance: (4) Microsoft has finally delivered the knock-out punch to its rival Netscape. There are two input spaces in this sentence, in one of them two business rivals exist, Microsoft and Netscape and Microsoft takes Netscape‟s market share. In the other input, two boxers exist, and the first Boxer knocks out the second Boxer, like

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Microsoft, which takes Netscape. In the blend, the Boxers represent both Microsoft and Netscape, and Microsoft knocks out Netscape. The important thing in single-scope networks is that only one of the frames serves to organize the blend. In this example, only the Boxing frame serves to organize the blend, not the business frame. The elements Boxers represent roles for the values Microsoft and Netscape (Evans & Green, 2006, p. 428). An important function of single-scope networks is to employ pre-existing compression in the framing input (input 1) to arrange diffuse structure from the focus input (input 2). The frame input is itself a blend that contains a number of pre-existing inner-space relations. The pre-existing compression includes time, space, and identity. It is the individual hobby to perform as boxers. When they do business, they are metaphorically called Boxers like this compound metaphor business is boxing. It is important to know that some of the metaphors have blends not all of them (Ibid). Input 1 contains a tightly compressed inner-space relation that includes just two participants, a single boxing space, a limited period of time (for example, ten threeminute rounds), and a specific kind of activity. This inner-space relation, when projected to the blend, provides the structure onto which a range of diffuse activities. In the focus input can be projected: the input relating to a business rivalry between Microsoft and Netscape. The blend compresses the diffuse nature of business rivalry as a result of the properties of the framing input. This function of single-scope networks, in particular, relates directly to one of the main sub-goals of blending. To compress what is diffuse. Figure (8) illustrates this sub-goal (Ibid, p. 429). Single-scope networks form the prototype for certain types of conceptual metaphor, such as compound metaphors and metaphors motivated by perceptual resemblance. In other words, the source-target mapping in a metaphor is part of an

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integration network that results in a blend. From this perspective, many conceptual metaphors may be more insightfully characterized as blends. However, it does not follow that all metaphors are blends. While compound metaphors like business is boxing or the more general mapping business is physical combat may be blended, it is less obvious that primary metaphors are blends (Ibid). According to Fauconnier and Turner (2002), single-scope networks offer a highly visible type of conceptual clash, since the inputs have different frames. They are cases where the clash is dealt with by giving the overall organizational power of the network or only one of the input spaces, the framing input. Moreover; in single-scope networks there are no vital relations of Time, Space, Change, Cause-Effect, and Intentionality that connect the input spaces directly, and no outer-space Identity connections between organizing frame roles or elements below that level of topology in the two different inputs (p. 129).

Figure (8) Microsoft and Netscape (Ibid)

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4. Double-Scope Networks In double-scope networks, both inputs have different frames, when frames are blended, the operation is called double-scope CI, and the result is called a doublescope integration network; the structure of the blend contains some meaning from each of the two input frames that is not shared by the other. Fauconnier and Turner (2002) analyze the way in which CI can blend frames “Frame blending is a basic mental operation for cognitively modern human beings and a basic topic for linguistics, philosophy, and economics.” The important aspect of this type is that the integration of the blend is highly innovative (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002, p.131). Fauconnier and Turner (Ibid) give this example of double-scope networks which does not involve clashes (p. 231): The Computer Desktop interface is a double-scope network. Each input has its own organizing frames: the frame of office work with folders, files, and trashcans, on the one hand, and the frame of traditional computer commands, on the other. The frame in the blend draws from the frame of office work-throwing trash away, opening filesas well as from the frame of traditional computer commands-"find," replace," save," print." Part of the imaginative achievement here is finding frames that, however different, can both contribute to the blended activity in ways that are compatible. "Throwing things in the trash" and "printing" do not clash, although they do not belong to the same frame.

In the above example, there is no clash between the two different frames. Double-scope networks can also operate on strong clashes between the inputs. Consider this example in which the two organizing frames do clash. You are digging your own grave, and this idiomatic expression refers to someone who is doing foolish things and as a result, he will face his failure. For example, a businessman who takes out a loan from his company that stretches his company excessively. He may be warned by his accountant that the business risks collapse.

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The accountant may tell him: you are digging your own financial grave. This example has two input spaces. One of the inputs contains a businessman who takes out a loan, and the other input contains grave digging. In the blend, the loan seems to be excessive, and the company fails; the businessman and his business end up in a financial grave. In this example, the inputs clash regarding causality. “While in the business input, the excessive loan is causally related to the failure, in the grave digging input, digging a grave does not cause death; typically it is a response to death”(Evans & Green, 2006, p. 430). 2.3.3.8.3 Multiple Blending As common knowledge about CB, that it consists of four spaces; generic space, two input spaces, and the blend space. Sometimes more than two mental spaces (output spaces) become input spaces for further blending. The explanation of this point can be clear through the illustration of Fauconnier and Turner;s (2002), example: (5) Grim Reaper In this example, there are three spaces, (1) a Reaper, who uses a scythe to cut down plants; (2) a Killer, who murders a victim; and (3) Death, which brings about the death of an individual; the third Agent is non-human: Death as a metaphoric blend is an abstract Agent; in which Death and Agency have been blended, giving rise to the personification of death, and with two pre-existing spaces like; Human Death and Agency. In the Grim Reaper blend, the Agent is Death, and this agent causes Death by Killing. The manner of killing is Reaping. The reaper is Grim because death is the outcome of his reaping. As Fauconnier and Turner say “we can also activate as an input space the scenario in which a reaper harvests grain. It is easy to connect this scenario to human life because there is already a conventional mapping between stages of plant growth and stages of human life ("He's a young sprout," "He's withering into old age")” (p. 293). The physical

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appearance of the Grim Reaper metonymically represents each of the three main inputs to the blend. The skeleton stands for Death, which is the outcome; the hood that hides the reaper‟s face represents the concealment that often characterizes Killers; and the scythe stands for the manner of killing, deriving from the Reaper input. Finally, the Grim Reaper emerges from the blend rather than from any of the input spaces, look at the following figure:

Figure (9) Death the Grim Reaper

(Evans & Green 2006, p. 432)

2.3.3.8.4Vital Relations and Compressions Vital relation makes a relation between input spaces in a conceptual blending, as Evans and Green (2006) state vital relation “is a link that matches two counterpart elements or properties” (p. 419). Vital Relations link counterpart

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elements from input spaces and establish outer-space relations which happen between two counter elements in different input spaces if the relation happens within the same mental space is called inner-space relation (Ibid, 420). Blending is a remarkable tool of compression over vital relations. Fauconnier and Turner (2002) state that “Human mental life is unthinkable without continual compression and decompression involving identity” (p. 115). One of the important functions of blending is to provide global insight. Blending helps humans to imagine things in their minds in a different way, in order to grasp an idea by understanding it in a new way. According to Fauconnier and Turner (2002) blending achieves this by reducing complexity to human scale which is the scope of human experience. Fauconnier and Turner (2002) provide the following taxonomy of vital relations:  Change: a vital relation that connects one element to another element and sets of elements to other sets.  Identity: a product of complex, unconscious work; despite their differences, mental spaces are connected with relations of personal identity; objective resemblance and shared visible characteristics are not criteria for identity connections across spaces. “Identity across spaces is a stipulated connection”, it is not obligatory for the identity connectors to be one-to-one across spaces.  Time: a vital relation connected to the memory, change, understanding the relationship between cause and effect.  Space: a vital relation that brings the separated inputs into a single physical space within the blended space.

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 Cause–Effect: a vital relation that connects one element which is the cause and another element that counts as its effect.  Part–Whole: a relation that fuses part–whole mappings across spaces into one.  Representation: it is possible for one input to have a representation of the other, but sometimes may be different.  Role: within the conceptual blending one element, as a role, can be connected to another element that is regarded as being its value.  Analogy: a relation that connects two different blended spaces that through blending obtain the same frame structure.  Disanalogy: a relation that is based on Analog.  Property: an inner-space vital relation that links certain elements with their property; an outer–space vital relation of some kind is compressed into an inner space vital relation of Property in the blend.  Similarity: this combines elements that they have properties in common.  Category: an inner-space vital relation that links elements with categories they belong to; Analogy as an outer-space vital relation can be compressed into an inner space vital relation of Category in the blend.  Intentionality: vital relations are connected with hope, desire, fear, memory, etc.; this vital relation is extremely important, because every human action thought, the feeling is based on relations it applies.  Uniqueness:

a crucial, vital relation because many vital relations are

compressed into Uniqueness into the blend. 2.3.3.8.5 Constraining Conceptual Blending Several optimality principles (or constraints) are suggested to constrain the mental operations at work in conceptual blending (Fauconnier and Turner 2002,

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pp. 324-325). Fauconnier and Turner argue that “they are not all-or-nothing constraints on networks. Rather, they characterize strategies for optimizing emergent structure. Such "other things being equal" principles are called "optimality" principles.” These principles include: 1. Integration: the blend must constitute a tightly integrated scene that can be manipulated as a unit. In the blend, every space should have integration; 2. Web: manipulating the blend as a unit must maintain the web of appropriate connections to the input spaces easily; 3. Unpacking: the blend should prompt for the reconstruction of the inputs for the whole networks; 4. Topology: every element has relation in the blend and should have counterpart to match its counterpart in other spaces; 5. Good reason: every element in the blend must be connected to other spaces, and it must have a significant function in running the blend; 6. Metonymic tightening: when elements that are metonymically related are projected to the blend, their metonymic connections decrease the distance between them. 2.4 Literature Review CB has been differently investigated by scholars and researchers since 2002. However, the majority of the previous studies focus on one or two types of figures of speech. Herrero Ruiz (2006) attempted to provide evidence about the role of metaphor, metonymy, and conceptual blending in the understanding of a set of drug-prevention advertisements (henceforth, ad(s)). He carried out a systematic analysis of the ads under study to show how not only conceptual blending but also

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metaphor and metonymy have a crucial role in dreving the central implicature of the ad. He tried to explain the role of metaphor and metonymy in ads. Joy, Sherry and Deschenes (2009) tried to find similarities and differences between metaphor and blending and examine their occurrence in three types of blending networks in ads. They explored that consumers can create temporary and dynamic mental spaces and construct meanings through the conceptual blending. Although CMT provides a wealth of information about the way people think, BT goes further accounting for the constructing meanings; they argued “BT helps identify those images and words that have an immediate impact on consumers and inspire them to act” (p. 39). Despite showing the differences between CMT and BT, they believe that they are complementary. They focus only on the understanding of the participants not the analysis of the ads. Eder (2009) brought more attention to similarities between CB and conceptual metaphor. As he stated about his work: “This study has highlighted similarities on different stages of the implementation between them” (p. 24). He lacks showing that CB more appropriate than conceptual metaphor because conceptual metaphor cannot analyze some examples of ads while CB can. Cichmińska (2012) discussed the importance of local context in conceptual integration networks. He analysed the headline of an article which is (The Beauties and the Beasts). He questioned whether understanding a particular meaning of an expression depends on local context or outside context. He argued that the blend may also be understood depending on the local context; it may happen in the kind of magazine and also a country and language in which it would appear. Thus, he believed blending has its limitation, although it is easy to imagine blends which are understood without any particular local context, in many cases it cannot be fully understood without context. His work lacks on analyzing many examples for

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providing what he believes, he just focuses on one article. He ignores the analysis of the headline of the other ads. Abusaeedi, Ahangar, Sarani and Kangan (2012) compared conceptual metaphor and CB to find their effectiveness in explaining the metaphoric ads of some Iranian family journals. They chose only five metaphoric ads from the journals. The ads were shown to 30 college students. They were asked to identify the metaphor used in the ads and to explain why the advertiser had used such a metaphor. They found that CMT cannot explain metaphoric ads completely, and conceptual blending should be used to explain metaphoric ads as well. Petäjäaho (2012) made a comparison between American and Finnish beer commercials. He used BT (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002) to gain the understanding of how consumers construct (metaphorical) meanings in commercials. Through the analyses, he found that a model based on BT can provide fruitful results for a cross-cultural comparison of commercials. Again he focuses on metaphor. Both of the above articles focus only on metaphor, ignoring the other figures of speech which are used in CB. Berberović (2013) showed that BT can be used for analyzing some expressions which CMT cannot do. He believed conventional metaphors can be stretched through CB because it can produce instances of creative figurative language. He applied CB in American political discourse. He used CB to achieve rhetorical goals in political discourse. He focused on the speech of the politician, not ads. Džanić (2013) addressed the applicability of CB in the study of political cartoons and shows the role of modified idiomatic expressions in the process of cartoon appreciation. He argued that modified idiomatic expressions are the crucial components producing humorous effects. He concluded that CB can successfully explain the creation of humor. He analyzed the examples of political cartoons

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according to forms of idiom depending on the type of the modification they exhibit not according to types of blending. Pálinkás (2014) discussed metaphor and irony and the differences between them. He applied CB for making a comparison between metaphor and irony. He argued that both metaphor and irony are understood differently although they involve conceptual integration. Showing the differences between different types of figurative language is not only about metaphor and irony. Figar (2014) explored the ability of conceptual metaphors to provoke an emotional response in the context of the political discourse of daily newspapers. He used CB to provide a detailed account of the conceptual basis that underlies metaphor usage, and the way the emotional appeal of metaphors influences the online process of meaning construction. He discovered that metaphor presents itself as a salient element of the political discourse of daily newspapers, with its ability to stir emotional reactions as one of the prominent mechanisms that can influence readers‟ perception of political issues. He explained CB through the metaphoric examples to show the influences of metaphor on the online process of meaning construction. None of the researchers tackled the recent phenomenon of CB in the figurative language of English written advertisements in the region of Kurdistan (Iraq). Most of the other researchers discussed only metaphor in BT; the other types of figurative language have not been tackled. As a result, this study attempts to show that CB is a justifiable framework in an analysis of the understanding of metaphor and other figures of speech. Also, it tries to find out how different figures of speech occur in different types of CB.

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CHAPTER THREE BLENDING IN FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE AND ADVERTISEMENTS This chapter will be devoted to presenting and discussing figurative language as it stands against literal language; figurative blending and figurative grammar; blending theory and conceptual metaphor theory; blending in figurative language; advertisements, history of advertising, types of advertising, types of print advertising, elements of a written advertisements, language of advertisement and linguistic means in advertising language 3.1 Figurative Language Various terms are used in literature to capture the wide variety of contexttriggered adjustments in word meanings including non-literal language. However, the term FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE (henceforth FL) will be thoroughly adopted as using the term non-literal implies a two-stage interpretation process in which the hearer initially arrives at an apparently false interpretation and then infers the speaker‟s intended meaning through a process (Sikos et al., 2008). FL is a form of language that uses concrete, literal images as a base to create something new that they are not concrete or literal images (Newmonic, 2010). It is characterized by figures of speech which are literary devices used to create a special effect or feeling by making some interesting or creative comparison.

3.1.1 Literal vs. Figurative Language There are many reasons to separate the parameters of conventionality and everyday usage from the distinction between literal and FL. One of the reasons is a historical change in meaning: historical linguists have long recognized that some meaning change is metaphoric or metonymic. For example, the sense of the word

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see has come to mean know or understand, such as I see what you mean. It has metaphoric meanings, and the original literal vision uses (Dancygier & Sweetser, 2014). It is clear that if the metaphoric meanings of the words are repeatedly used, then they become transparent to everyone through time; as a result, they come to have literal meaning as Lakoff (1993) cited in (Katz, Cacciari, Gibbs, & Turner, 1998) reviews what he calls the classical assumptions underlying human understanding of language; as follows: 1. All conventional language is literal; none is metaphorical. 2. All subject matter can be comprehended literally, without metaphor; all definitions in the lexicon of a language are literal. 3. Only literal language can be true or false. For example; this knowing is seeing metaphor is productive and becomes conventional but the expression sheds light on remains metaphoric not conventional. In the case of saying that conventional usages are not metaphoric, it is better to separate them completely from less entrenched or conventional uses which show the same metaphoric meaning relationship: if a person says: they have examined a candidate‟s record with a magnifying glass, probably there is no a dictionary entry for magnifying glass listing this usage. Consequently, some expressions which lose their metaphoric meanings like see the others maintain their metaphoric meanings like sheds light on, it can be said that metaphor helps motivate innovative uses (Dancygier & Sweetser 2014, P. 4). It is possible for the figurative speech; metaphor or metonymy to motivate conventionally or entrenched meanings of the words– and figurative links which are widely used in this way shape the vocabularies of the relevant languages. Then, it might be said that figurative speech means that when a usage is prompted by a metaphoric or metonymic relationship to some other usage, that a usage might be

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labeled literal. And literal does not mean „everyday, normal usage‟ but „a meaning which is not dependent on a figurative extension from another meaning (Ibid).‟ 3.1.2 Figurative Blending and Figurative Grammar There are two major areas to broaden the understanding of figurative relationships: one area is certain classes of blending, and the other is figurative uses of grammatical constructions. As an example of a figurative blend, consider the boat race as it is explained in chapter two. The Great America II, a modern catamaran sailing around South America from San Francisco to Boston in 1993, trying to do better than the record sailing time for that route set by a cargo bearing clipper ship called Northern Light in 1853. News coverage said that the catamaran was barely maintaining a 4.5 day lead over the ghost of the Clipper Northern Light. This example illustrates figurative meaning in blending. The other area is the extended meanings of grammatical constructions. When it is thought about Ditransitive Construction, it might be believed that they have the possibility of both literal and figurative meanings. For example, Line‟s sister knitted her a sweater, meaning not only that Line‟s sister knitted the sweater (created it by knitting) but also that she did so with the intent that Line would be the recipient to whom she would give the sweater. Goldberg (1995) argues that this meaning of „giving something to a recipient‟ is a characteristic of the English Ditransitive Construction (here very loosely defined as Verb Object-1 Object-2), rather than of any of the words in the sentence (certainly not the verb knit). But Goldberg noted that this construction is equally applicable to metaphoric “exchanges” such as linguistic communication, where there is nothing given or received. Grammatical constructions, also like words, have networks of related meanings and also the relationships between conventional meanings and novel extensions to new uses (Dancygier & Sweetser 2014, pp. 6-7).

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Finally, the question arises as to how various kinds of FL serve human purposes. Linguists are aware that language is a multilectal phenomenon; each person speaks and writes differently depending on his or her social group, audience, setting, and other contextual factors. If the expression becomes familiar because of everyday usages, it loses metaphoric meaning. Figurative cognition and language are pervasive not in literature but also in Religious and Political Language, and in Scientific Discourse (Ibid). 3.2 Blending Theory and Conceptual Metaphor Theory 3.2.1 Domains vs. Mental Spaces In the CMT framework, metaphors are analyzed as having two conceptual domains and systematic relationships between them. In this metaphorical expression: (6) The committee has kept me in the dark about this matter. The language and conceptual structure from the 'source' domain of vision are used to describe a situation of knowledge and understanding in the 'target' domain. Elements of the source and target domains are taken out through a combination of the source domain language used ("in the dark") and the relevant conceptual metaphor, a 'mapping' - stored as a knowledge structure in long-term memory which tells show how elements in the two domains adjust with each other. As Evans (2007, p. 130) states that: Mappings are Correspondences between entities inhering in regions of the conceptual system. Some mappings are relatively stable and persist in long-term memory while others are temporary associations set up due to dynamic processes of meaning-construction. Mappings which hold in long-term memory are most commonly associated with Conceptual Metaphor Theory and are known as crossdomain mappings.

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In this metaphor, knowledge structures which concern vision have been put into correspondence with structures concerning knowledge and awareness. Because the mapping is principled, ignorance is associated with the sight of darkness (Grady, Oakley, & Coulson, 1999, p.102). In short, the speaker says: the committee has kept me in the dark about this matter; it means that the speaker is separated from knowing the matter by using a metaphoric expression in the dark. In BT, by contrast, the mental space is the basic unit of a cognitive organization, not the domain (Fauconnier, 1994). Mental space is a partial and temporary representational structure which speakers build when thinking or talking about a perceived, imagined, past, present, or future situation (Ibid). Mental spaces are not equivalent to domains, but, they depend on them: spaces represent special scenarios which are structured domains. For example, a BT account of example, one would involve a space in which the agent is standing in the dark. This representation appeals to the knowledge of visual experience, what is known is only a small subset of knowledge of that domain (Grady, Oakley, & Coulson, 1999, p.102). Mental space is an on-line process which is informed by the more general knowledge structures that are associated with a particular domain. 3.2.2 Two Domains vs. Four Spaces In CMT, the source domain maps to the target domain. While, in BT there are four spaces: the generic space that contains common elements between the two input spaces, input space 1, input space 2, and the blended space, which is an emergent structure between the two input spaces. Emergence is where blending creates new emergent meaning through a juxtaposition of familiar material (Grady, Oakley, & Coulson, 1999, p. 103; Lakoff, 2008, p. 32 and Fauconnier & Turner, 2008, p. 54). A BT account of example (6) includes the following spaces: an input space is deriving from the domain of vision, in that domain a person (A) is in darkness;

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another input space, is derived from the domain of intellectual activity, in which a committee has kept information from an individual (A'); a mapping between these two spaces, specifying that A and A' are to be taken as one person, that the person's inability to see corresponds to unawareness, and so forth; a generic contains common meanings, for example; 'a person who has no access to a particular stimulus; and the blended space, in which a committee is causing an individual to remain in the dark. In blending the emergent structure is projected from both the source and target space; this contrasts with the projection posited by CMT, in which mappings are from source to target (Grady, Oakley, & Coulson, 1999, p. 103). This provides that CMT has only two inputs while BT has four inputs. 3.2.3 Emergent Structure The four-space model in BT can account for phenomena that are not explicitly addressed by mechanisms of the two-domain model (Ibid). For instance; (7) This surgeon is a butcher. The metaphor can be explainable in terms of direct projection from the source domain to the target domain (from butchery to surgery), also by a series of counterpart mappings: "butcher" onto "surgeon"; "animal" (cow) maps onto "human being"; "commodity" onto "patient"; "cleaver" onto "scalpel"; and so forth. This analysis of the cross-domain relationships cannot by itself explain the meaning of the element, the surgeon as incompetent. A butcher, less prestigious than a surgeon, is competent at what he does and may be respected. The word incompetent is not being projected from source to target (V. Oakley, 1998, pp. 326-327). 3.2.4 On-Line Processing and Entrenchment Imagine if someone is observing an apprentice butcher at work, he was taking too much time and being as tentative as he cut up a piece of meat. He might comment:

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(8) He's not a butcher; he's a surgeon. This sentence might be understood as a negative evaluation of the butcher's competence. Imagining him as a surgeon highlights the incongruity between his methods and those appropriate to a butcher. Since the blend is novel at the time it is uttered, this example illustrates the conception of blending as an on-line process that creates new meaning through the juxtaposition of familiar material. Example (7) draws on conventional associations with the word butcher, and the blending analysis may be an account of the previous knowledge of such usages. But example (8), which depends on a very similar conceptual integration network, calls more strongly for explanation in terms of online processing. CMT has been concerned with identifying regular, conventional patterns of metaphorical conceptualization. BT concerns with novel and unique examples which do not arise from entrenched cross-domain relationships or regular, conventional metaphoric expressions like CMT (Grady, Oakley, & Coulson, 1999, p. 106). CMT is based on conventional and stable expressions in long-term memory, while, BT is based on the online processing. It does not mean that they are different because BT comes as a completion to CMT. What CMT cannot analyze BT can do. 3.3 Blending in Figurative Language 3.3.1 Blending in Metaphor It is known that CMT provides a wealth of information about the way people think, using BT is for a further accounting of the processes by which people create temporary and dynamic mental spaces and construct meanings from them. BT helps identify those images and words that have an immediate impact on people or consumer and inspire them to act. The term “metaphor” has its aspects of

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conceptualization which is different from “blending”, but, it is arguing that they are complementary (Joy, Sherry & Deschenes 2009, p. 39). BT and metaphor theory share many aspects, For instance; both approaches treat metaphor as a conceptual rather than a purely linguistic phenomenon (Grady, Oakley & Coulson 1999, p. 101). Also, Fauconnier (1997, p. 168) believes that: Metaphor is a salient and pervasive cognitive process that links conceptualization and language. It depends crucially on a cross-space mapping between two inputs (the Source and the Target). This makes it a prime candidate for the construction of blends, and indeed we find that blended spaces play a key role in metaphorical mappings.

However, there are also important differences between them. CMT allows two mental representations while BT allows more than two; the definition of CMT for metaphor is different from BT. CMT defines metaphor as a strictly directional phenomenon, while BT has not; and, CMT concerns with entrenched conceptual relationships, while BT focuses on novel conceptualizations which may be shortlived (Grady, Oakley & Coulson 1999) Moreover; “While CMT can describe regularities in figurative language use, BT might be better suited to account for the novel insights emerging from figurative language comprehension” (Zinken, 2007, p. 265). It is still argued that they are complementary, not contrary. For instance, in the example this surgeon is a butcher; CMT cannot explain this example by using mapping from one domain to another domain and gives the word incompetent for butcher; BT can give the word incompetent because of having more than two mental spaces. BT comes to complete the things that CMT cannot, as Grady et al. (1999) argue; BT complements CMT, as it accounts for data that are not easily accommodated in a two-domain framework.

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For explaining what have been said above Grady, Oakley and Coulson (1999) give an overview of the BT framework and the CMT framework focusing on their similarities and differences between them. Metaphors can feed the inputs of blending by establishing links between the elements of different domains and spaces. The elements of the spaces can be linked by different types of counterparts like Cross-space counterparts; in the example of an individual "kept in the dark" by a committee, the counterpart relationship between the persons is two inputs in one input, he is in darkness and in the other input, he is kept uninformed. These two inputs of the same person are based on Identity. The same individual exists in each input space, and these two inputs of the same person are linked, in a way that helps guide the construction and interpretation of the blend (Grady, Oakley, & Coulson, 1999, pp. 110-111). The other counterpart is role-value like the example of chapter two. Conventional metaphors can also provide the counterpart mappings to launch blends. For example, the metaphorical association between nations and ships is thoroughly conventional. When an expression is used so many times and it becomes clear to everyone; that expression becomes conventional or entrenched. Consequently, the metaphorical mapping between the elements, the ship and the nation, the ship's course over the sea and the nation's history, is now stored in long-term memory and provides a trigger that allows CB to proceed, including the kinds of creative conceptual manipulation (Ibid). The other way that metaphors feed the elements of the blending is by complex metaphor blend. It is important to know how metaphor maps from source to target and how blending combines two ideas together. Metaphors can be the source for a target. One can build up layers of meanings that have been transferred, or mapped, to a new place. This entire complex can then be used in a blend (Ibid, p. 112).

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Consider this example which is taken from (Grady, Oakley, & Coulson, 1999): for example: (9) The ship of state. This fragment taken from a piece of political commentary illustrates the common conceptualization of a nation or society as a ship: With Trent Lott as Senate Majority Leader, and Gingrich at the helm in the House, the list to the Right could destabilize the entire Ship of State. Think how the expression the ship of state is and how the conventional mapping it builds upon. The Nation-as-Ship metaphor includes the following cross-domain correspondences: Nation → Ship National policies/actions → Ship's course Determining national policies/actions → Steering the ship National success/improvement → Forward motion of the ship National failures/problems → Sailing mishaps (e.g., foundering Circumstances affecting the nation (e.g. on the political or economic levels)



Sea conditions Also, these examples illustrate the expression the ship of state; (10) Without the consent of our fellow citizens, we lose our moral authority to steer the ship of state. (11) The [Sri Lankan] ship of state needs to alter radically course; weather the stormy seas ahead and enter safe harbor. Here the harbor stands for stable political and economic circumstances. While the Nation-as-Ship is a conventional conceptualization, it is related to fundamental metaphorical mappings, such as circumstances are weather, states are locations (Ibid).

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Conventional metaphors motivate the framing of a nation and history of a nation as a ship plying the seas. The blending framework offers elements for those elements of the Nation-as-ship image that have no particular counterparts in the target space of nations and politics. For example, ships have very particular shapes and are made of particular materials. These aspects of the ships in the target domain of nations have no conventional counterparts, but they figure nonetheless in any projection of the metaphor of the ship frame. Within the blending framework, this fact is accounted in terms of pattern completion. Metaphorically speaking; moving society like a container and political events are determined by the weather. The ship image in the blend integrates a number of metaphorical understandings of the society. When it is evoked, it may become as elaborate as human imaginations will allow, and like other conceptualization it may have the potential to become conventional (Grady, Oakley, & Coulson, 1999, pp. 108-109). The Nation-as-Ship example also explains the way in which multiple simple metaphors can be relevant within a single complex blend. As Lakoff and Johnson (1999) claim “Complex metaphors are formed from primary ones through conventional conceptual blending…” (p. 53). It is important to know that how each notion is derived, below is the explanation: Ship‟s forward motion → Nation moving toward goals Safe Harbor → Metaphorical understanding of circumstances in locations and surroundings Look-out (not in a conventional ship metaphor, but it can be linked) →

Foresight (Based on metaphor of VISION IS THOUGHT or KNOWING IS

SEEING) Furthermore, metaphoric blends sometimes may contain figurative links that are not, themselves, metaphoric. For example, when death is personified as a skeleton

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carrying a sickle, it is a metaphorical image, but one which has been elaborated more is not derived from a metaphoric mapping. The relationship between skeletons and death is not metaphorical but metonymic; skeletons figure literally in scenarios involving death. According to Metonymic Tightening, the skeleton becomes even more closely associated with death in the blend than it is in the source input (Grady, Oakley, & Coulson, 1999, p. 113). The relationship between death and skeletons is explained in chapter two in detail in the expression of a grim reaper. 3.3.2 Blending in Metonymy Antonio Barcelona, Zoltan Kövecses, George Lakoff, and other linguists discovered long ago that metaphors achieve motivation through metonymy. Metaphoric motivation is another way to describe the basis of a metaphor. Metonymy is a cognitive process that provides access to a “mental vehicle” opening up relationships to unexpected domains. Each mapped property of a source target must first have a metonymic relationship to that source. Metonymy is often at the heart of metaphor (Croft & Cruse, 2004, pp. 217-218). Barcelona supposes that all metaphorical mappings include metonymic referencing, which serves as the foundation for the metaphor (Barcelona, 2003, p. 31). This also holds true for CB; like the example of Grim Reaper. Metonymy bases its connections on the concept of contiguity rather than similarity. Contiguity means that something is near another entity, but not necessarily like that entity. One of the most important functions of metonymy is the ability to compress information; a small part or ideogram can stand for a complete world, making it possible to create conceptual blends. It is not necessary to align structural information present because of the metonymy; in this case, it is present but not there. Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner (2003) write about the importance of information compression in CB. The name for this process is metonymic

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tightening. When one attributes of an entity represents the complete object or concept that is an example of compression (p. 180). An example of metonymy in blending in ad would be like this: (12) Let us be your London Bridge. “London Bridge” can be divided into two units (London – a grand and civilized city; and Bridge, the connector) then combined them together as a famous structure of the world which everyone knows. The focus is on Air Asia airline which helps you connect to other places which used to be impossible. The metonymy is that the concept „link‟ is realized here as „London Bridge,‟ serves as a connector to different places.

Figure (10) London Bridge (Lian & Tonawanik , 2011, p. 222) 3.3.3 Blending in Polysemy FL usage is a ubiquitous aspect of everyday communication. It can be the metaphor, metonymy, idiom, polysemy and so forth. When it is said that BT in FL;, it means that BT has the possibility of existing in most of the types of FL. Except metaphor, metonymy, and idiom, BT can also be found in polysemy and so on.

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Polysemy is a type of FL; it is defined as: “it refers to a word having different senses that are in some way related” (Peters, 2004, p. 6). Fauconnier and Turner (2003, pp. 5-6) give the following principles to guide the development of polysemy. They explain how do various kinds of polysemy occur as a result of blending? Furthermore, they argue that most polysemy cannot be seen clearly in blending. The principles consist of four points: 1. Through selective projection, expressions applied to an input can be projected to apply to counterparts in the blend. In this way, blends harness existing words in order to express the new meanings that arise in the blend. 2. Combinations of expressions from the inputs may be appropriate for picking out structure in the blend even though those combinations are inappropriate for the inputs. In consequence, grammatical but meaningless phrases can become grammatical and meaningful for the blend. 3. Terminology that naturally applies to the blended space ends up, through connections in the integration network, to pick out meaning that it could not have been used to pick out if the blend had not been built. 4. Blending provides a continuum for polysemy effects. Polysemy is an inevitable and routine outcome of blending, but it is only rarely noticed. The noticeability of polysemy is a function of the availability of certain frames either through defaults or contexts or culture. Coulson (1997) analyzes the following example of blending in polysemy (13) Caffeine Headache. Example (13) has two conventional readings, one in which a headache is caused by caffeine, the other in which a headache is caused by lack of caffeine. More clearly, a scenario can be made in which a person with a headache has had no caffeine, and an imaginative scenario in which someone has had caffeine and so has no headache. In the blend, the particular person with a headache has had no

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caffeine, the lack of caffeine is the cause of a headache, and the term "caffeine" has been projected from a scenario which is made by desirable counterfactual in which there is no headache. The expression "caffeine headache" has more than one meaning, being polysemous, because more than one blending can be made. 3.3.4 Blending in Hyperbole Consider this example; it is taken from an ad; (14) Get the Full Impact of Full HD with Toshiba‟s Superior Power Meta Brain Technology The images are quite clear since the match between the TV and the football players is clear. One can watch the detail and could see if the players have committed a foul. The Toshiba plasma television is shown as the best in the market as the words “SUPERIOR” and “META BRAIN” indicated “highest and undefined intelligence.” The viewers could fully “indulge themselves” and “feel the feelings” due to the maximum impact endowed by clear HD images. The construction of meaning is shown in Fig (11).

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Figure (11) Toshiba’s Television (Lian & Tonawanik, 2011, p. 221) 3.3.5 Blending in Personification The following example illustrates how personification occurs in blending; (15) Where flavours collide. The word “collision” refers to two vehicles or people crash into each other. The strong impact is fabricated and it is used here to explain how the flavours “collide” and hit each other. The word “flavours” can be associated to a positive “awesomeness” in the completion process. With the plural form, it indicates many flavours, rendering it “awesome”. The word “collide” refers to both the taste of whisky and another flavour of the “mixture”. This particular mixture would be irresistible and everybody would want it because of its awesome taste, as it is explained in Fig (12).

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Figure (12) Flavors Collide (Lian & Tonawanik, 2011, pp. 223-224) 3.3.6 Blending in Pun The below example shows blending in pun: (16) Usually, ironing leaves me a little flat. This example is an ad for Moulinex irons. Here, it is the word flat that forms the basis of the pun and leads to the two input spaces. In the source space, ironing causes clothes to be "flat" (although the word smooth is used when talking about clothes that have been ironed). The target space contains a person who is left feeling flat, in the metaphorical sense of lacking energy, as a result of activity. In the blend, the person is seen as being physically flat in a non-metaphorical sense as a result of having been ironed. The person is no longer the agent as in the target but has now taken on the role of the clothes in the source space (Lundmark, 2005, pp. 16-17).

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Figure (13) Moulinex ad (Marie Claire, January 2000) (Ibid) 3.3.7 Conceptual Blending in Euphemism Application of CB in euphemism would be like this example which is taken from a personal account of a visit to the Arizona-Mexico border by the Chinese American writer Maxin Hong Kingston, given at a debate at the University of California. This one of the excerpt of the debate which Kingston wants to understand (Brzozowska & Chlopicki, 2015, pp. 130-137): (17) Each set of remains is labeled “UBC”. That stands for “Undocumented Border Crosser”. And the human rights people are saying, “Can we change that name? Let‟s call them Unidentified Immigrants” but the government doesn‟t want that the connotation of „immigrate' has a motif of immigrating, or side of the border they are on when they are immigrating. They want this border crosser.

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In the example euphemism is used to mask reality, to manipulate the public, to corrupt the language. The phrase the „border crosser‟ refers to someone who lives close to the border and is entitled to cross it whenever necessary for legitimate reasons. This situation activates the mental schema of a person who tried to cross the border and died in the process. What is striking here is the assertion by some official, that the government doesn‟t want to tell these people illegal immigrants and then given reasons. Therefore, the government chooses to corrupt the language, to hide the truth, to conceal the facts from the public. In short, the government uses euphemism; the government says „border crosser‟ instead of saying illegal „immigrants.‟ Generic Space Patient Status Safe Input Space 1 Patient- an individual living close to the border Status- normally has to cross the border frequently for legitimate purposes State- alive

Input Space 2 Patient- an individual at the Arizona-Mexico border Status- tried to cross the border, was not easy, weather, animals, fence Safe- dead, in parts, packed in bags, undocumented

Conceptual Integration Undocumented Border Crosser at the Arizona- Mexico border Emergent Structure A dead person tried to cross the border, not successful, in parts - weather, animals, packed in a bag, labeled UBC

Figure (14) Schematic Representation of the Conceptual Integration of (Undocumented Border Crosser)

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3.3.8 Conceptual Blending in Simile It is so difficult to find CB that has been applied to simile. An application of CB in simile from ads may not be found so far. It may be because of little interest of CB in simile; if it is compared to CB in metaphor. As a result, the researcher takes an example in the Book of Hosea by Pohlig (2006), as Pohlig also says (2006) “But if we do not try to apply conceptual blending to simile, we will never know for sure whether it can be done…” (p. 44), the researcher takes this example in order to show that CB can be applied to simile. Moreover, the researcher excludes the syntactic consideration of the example. Example (18) I had seen her once before at a Royal Academy private view, hopping like a raven in a black feathered hat from one gallery to another. (Ibid) The example can be diagrammed like this:

Figure (15) I had seen her once before at a Royal Academy private view, hopping like a raven in a black feathered hat from one gallery to another

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It is important to note concepts that are implied but are not explicitly represented by the simile‟s lexical items. In this diagram the attribution of delicate, suggested by raven, and light, quick action, suggested by the raven‟s hopping. In each case, these elements are metaphorically projected to their targets: delicate is projected to the lady in question, and light, quick action is projected to the lady‟s hopping (Ibid).

3.3.9 Conceptual Blending in Idiom Idioms like the other figures of speech can provide the frame to which other input spaces can project other elements of knowledge ((Brdar, Omazić, & Takač, 2009, p. 206). The example of CB to idiom would be “Nokia cell phone” from Persian ads. The advertising is for two models of Nokia: X3-02 and C3-01. The explanation is given for a Persian idiom which is used recurrently by Persian speakers: „one arrow and two targets‟ (to hit two birds with one stone). This idiom is written in the upper part of the ad, making it the first phrase of the advertising. But, what is the arrow and what are the two targets? The other sentences written below the idiom and the picture inserted in the middle of the ad. Example (19) Touch easily and type fast. – With the touch board and the keyboard, access your favorite pictures, messages, and applications. From these phrases and the pictures, it can be understood that the arrow is the cell phone and the targets are its two usages, i.e., the touch board and the keyboard. How can be arrived at this result? The answer is that by creating a blend or a double-scope network, as shown in Fig (16)

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Figure (16) Touch Easily and Type Fast (Abusaeedi, Ali Ahangar, Sarani, & Kheiri Kangan, 2012, pp. 172-174) 3.4 Advertisements In the modern world advertising is such a common phenomenon that it may seem odd to ask what an ad is. The Scholars defines it in different ways, for instance;

(Taylor 1978 as cited in Jafari & Mahadi, 2014) advertising “is at the

obverse of conveying the proper message to customers and prospective customers” (p. 10). The matter of advertisers is to attract the consumers to buy their products. Advertising intends to influence customers that a company's services or products are the best. Also, it is defined as “Description or presentation of a product, idea, or organization, in order to induce individuals to buy, support, or approve of it” (WebFinance, 2016). The ad is a message printed in a newspaper or billboard broadcast on TV or radio to inform everyone about what they can do for them. All these definitions show that advertising provides a promotion of the product, idea, or organization on the market in order to inform the customer and satisfy them to take an action.

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3.4.1 History of Advertising Ad is as old as humankind. The word “advertising” goes back to the Latin word “advertere,” which means to direct attention towards (Cohen, 1987, p.129). This is the first step in what ads attempt and challenge to accomplish. When an ad directs attention toward itself, it can initiate its true target, that is, to persuade. Before the invention of writing, word of mouth was used as ads. Then Egyptians found Papyrus to create sales messages and wall posters. Advertising in English began with an advertising supplement appeared in the London Gazette in 1966. In the course of time, people tried to differentiate their products to be more different from the others and began to find out new ways of presenting. They started to accentuate the visual aspect of the ad. 3.4.2 Types of Advertising There are different approaches to the classification of ads. For instance, Hermerén Lars (1999 cited in Pilátová, 2015) divides advertising according to three criteria: the first one is according to the geographical area – local, national, international or global. Another criterion is related to the medium that carries the advertisement - print or electronic. The last division is whether the purpose is to make a profit as a result of the advertising, therefore, commercial or noncommercial (p. 8). While, Geoffrey Leech (1972 cited in Lapsanská, 2006) talks about the most frequent and important type of the advertising which is one type of commercial advertising: “„commercial consumer advertising‟: advertising directed towards a mass audience with the aim of promoting sales of a commercial product or service. It is the kind which uses the most money, professional skill, and advertising space in this country” (p.15). (by „This country‟, he means: Great Britain). The other type of commercial advertising is „prestige advertising‟. Here the name or the advantages of the company are advertised rather than a product or a

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service. Commercial advertising is further divided into „trade advertising‟ where a company advertises its products or services to other firms, so the communication that happens between both parties is equal. They have special interest about product or service that is advertised (Lapsanská, 2006, p. 16). The division of non-commercial advertising refers to associations and societies whether their purposes are the charity or political propaganda (Ibid). Advertising also according to the type of medium: TV, radio, brochures, leaflets, magazines, newspapers and other printed material advertising, the Internet and Direct Mail advertising, outdoor advertising, etc. Advertising also can be divided according to medium as Hermerén Lars mentions print and electronic. Print advertising like: magazines, newspapers, brochures, fliers or billboards. And the other types of advertising like: TV, radio or online advertising, direct mail advertising, also advertising that started to predominant only recently smart phone or niche advertising (Pilatova, 2015, p. 9). 3.4.3Types of Print Advertising There are four types of advertising according to Hermerén Lars cited in Pilatova (2015) as they are shown below: 1. A magazine: is "a publication that is issued periodically. It contains essays, stories, poems, articles, fiction, recipes, images, etc. (“Definition of magazine, characteristics of magazines, difference between a newspaper and a magazine, basics of magazine writing, magazine writing styles, history of magazines, types of magazines, content of magazine, future of magazines, significant learning Outco,” 2015). Magazines are often appeared on a weekly or monthly basis. It is known that the word "magazine" is taken from Arabic word makhazin or "storehouse" It can contain a collection of facts and fiction, all bundled together in one package. The word's first magazine is considered to be Gentlemen's Magazine which is found in 1731. Then the

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other magazines appeared like The Economist, Collier's, The Saturday Evening Post, National Geographic, Time, The New Yorker, Life, People, etc. (Ibid). 2. A newspaper: is "a serial publication which contains news on current events of special or general interest" (The Australian Newspaper Plan, 2006). It usually appears once a week but sometimes fortnightly or monthly. Newspapers are printed on papers, and usually, they do not have covers. Moreover, electronic newspapers are serial publications containing news on current events of special or general interest (Ibid). 3. A brochure: is “a small, thin book or magazine that usually has many pictures and information about a product, a place, etc.” (Merriam-Webster, 2015). It is like a pamphlet or booklet which contains pictures and information on a product or a company. 4. Billboard: is “a very large board on which advertisements is shown, especially at the side of a road” (Cambridge Dictionary, 2016). Consumers spend so much time on their cars when they are driving on the road, and billboards are there to attract them whether they are on the freeway or alongside the main road. Williams (2009) cited in (Thomas, 2015, p. 7) noted in his study how billboards are ultimately the last method of communication consumers‟ fathom before taking action. It is likely for consumers to see the same billboard more than once a day in various locations. Moreover, nowadays most billboards are put in electronic billboards. 3.4.4 Elements of Written Advertisements The important part of the ad is the elements within it. Bovée and Arens (1992, p. 291 cited in Ştiinţifică, L. 2010) argue that the key elements of a written ad are the following (p. 4):

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 The headline: is the most salient element in a print ad. It refers to those words that appear in the leading position of the ad or those words that the readers read first or that are positioned to draw the most attention. Therefore, headlines are usually written in larger type than other portions of the ad. The role of the headline is to attract the reader.  Subheads: are little headlines, and they are smaller than the headline but larger than the body copy or text type size. Their purpose is to reinforce the headline and ad theme.  The body copy: is also called the text which is set in smaller type than headlines or subheads and it is the logical continuation of them. The text should explain how the product being advertised and it satisfies the consumer‟s need. Also, it may concentrate on one or several benefits of the product or service as they relate specifically to the target audience.  Slogans: are the successful headlines, which, through continuous use, become standard statements not only in advertising but also for the public. Effective Slogans should be short, simple, easy to repeat and helpful in differentiating the product from its competitors.  Logos and signature cuts: are unique designs of the advertiser‟s company name or product name. They appear in all company ads and are like trademarks because of giving the product individuality and providing quick recognition. 3.4.5 Language of Advertisement The language of ads becomes so significant for the companies or products to persuade the consumers. The ad is the tool used by many companies in order to inform the customer about their products and services. Advertising is flooded in the world. It can be seen in the car, on the metro or walking through the town or

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everywhere. Human mind often first work with visual stimulation, such as pictures, colors and then with letters, words and the messages, therefore messages used in advertising needs to be short and unique to be remembered. The language that is used in ads becomes the interest of linguists because they want to know how particular language works in this type of discourse, and which strategies of language can make the ads more powerful; as it is apparent from the number of textbooks in the field (e.g., Cook, 2001; Goddard, 1998; Hermerén, 1999; Myers, 1994, 1998; Vestergaard & Schrøder, 1985 cited in Piller, 2003, p. 173). The high adaptability of the English language makes the advertising be written in English (Lapsanská, 2006, p. 11). The English language is more common in advertising than the other languages both in quantitative and in qualitative terms. Moreover, English is the most frequently used language in advertising messages in non- English-speaking countries (besides the local language, of course). English enables the creators of ads to use word puns, FL and to mix individual styles and types of texts. Advertising can unify language, pictures, music; the information of advertising invokes emotions and imaginations. It is a major tool for advertisers to create amazing advertising that can persuade everyone and as the best way to communicate to the customers. Grasping FL is recognized as a major task of linguists. Zhang (2008) comments that "many theories related to metaphorical comprehension have been proposed: Interaction Theory by Richards, (1965) and Black (1962), Mapping Theory by Lakoff (1987), and the recent Blending Theory by Fauconnier (1997)” (p. 86). Almost all the ads are written in a FL like metaphor, metonymy, pun, and so on. The purpose of linguists is to construe these FLs by analyzing them through many theories. The very recent theory is BT, which is also the purpose of this study to analyze the headlines of written texts of ads.

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For the purpose of this thesis the language of advertising is discussed from the linguistic point of view rather than from the point of graphic features. Linguistic means like; phonological, lexical, syntactic as well as semantic aspects. In order to sell the product, copywriters must create phrases that get the attention of the reader. Therefore, they use uncommon phrases that very often do not follow grammatical structures. Commonly they use linguistic devices and figures of speech in advertising. 3.4.6 Linguistic Means in Advertising Language The main purpose of the advertising is to persuade people to buy the product. A producer attempts to construct an ad that will fully attract the attention of the potential purchaser and have persuasive effects, because of this, he or she makes full use of every word to draw readers‟ attention and arouse their interest. He wants to show that his product is different from the rest. He is seeking to find new techniques of ad. Also, the ad texts must be more attractive and more unexpected. They must catch consumer‟s eyes. Copywriters create uncommon, surprising, attractive, interesting texts with catchy slogans or phrases. The reader or listener must give it some thought, and the result is manipulation with him in order to buy the product. Leech sets three principles of advertising texts: Attention value, Readability (by means of simple, personal, and colloquial style), Memorability (most important in the process of advertising is to remember the name of the product) and Selling power (Leech 1972:, p. 27 cited in Lapsanská, 2006, p. 26). The last principle is crucial. In this regard, Ogilvy (1985) says: “I do not regard advertising as entertainment or an art form but as a medium of information. When I write an advertisement, I don‟t want you to tell me that you find it „creative.' I want you to find it so interesting that you buy the product” (p. 7). The most commonly used figures of speech that relate to semantic aspects in print advertising are listed from the following sections.

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3.4.6.1 Metaphor Metaphor is defined in so many ways; Lakoff and Johnson in their book (Metaphors We Live By, 1980) define metaphor as statements or pictures which cause a receiver to experience one thing in terms of another thing, for example: clearly, Mother Nature is romantic. 3.4.6.2 Metonymy Metonymy substitutes one word or phrase for another which is closely related to the original one. For instance, the press uses the Crown‟ for the British monarchy. 3.4.6.3 Polysemy Polysemy comes from „poly‟ which means many and „semy‟ which means meaning. As a result, it can be said that it is a lexeme with two or more multiple, related meanings, so the connection is not only phonological but also semantic. An example for polysemy would be the body parts, for instance, head is either a body part or it can be head of the family, company. In advertising, the word bright is used so commonly. Also, it is better to mention homonymy, when talking about polysemy. Homonymy is a word that has the same spelling (homograph: words having the same spelling but different pronunciation and meanings, like tear - to rip/a drop of water from the eye) and pronunciation (homophones: words having the same pronunciation but different meanings or spelling, like: new, knew) but different meaning and origin (Wales, 2001, p. 188 cited in Pilátová, 2015, p. 27). For instance, tire means car wheel also it means fatigue. When the words have nearly meanings or different meanings but with the same sound can be used in making fun and humor to create a pun. The pun is a humorous use of a word in such a way as to predict not the same meanings or applications of words having the same sound or nearly the same sound but different meanings: a play on words. Consider this example, ask for more. More

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refers to an American cigarette brand, “More” and “more” has the same pronunciation and different meaning; the consumer will connect “More” with the meaning of “much, more” when they heard the advertising. The polysemous word helps the brand promote itself and guide consumers to buy their product. 3.4.6.4 Hyperbole Hyperbole is “the deliberate use of overstatement or exaggeration to achieve emphasis. Businessmen and manufacturers use the figure of speech to advertise their goods in as attractive way as possible.” (Thirumalai, 2005). For example, the best just got bigger. It means that to be as maximally productive. 3.4.6.5 Personification Personification is “the description of an object or an idea as if it had human characteristics” (Cambridge, 2016) There are many examples in the advertising as readers do not usually recognize them as personification. Companies are trying to personalize their slogans and ads to be better memorized. They try to create their brands into something real that would help consumers to personalize their brands with the real life figure. For instance: Get the door. It‟s Domino‟s (Domino‟s Pizza). Obviously, behind the door would not be standing anyone whose name is Domino‟s but a person who would bring pizza from Domino‟s. 3.4.6.6 Pun Some words have more than one meaning. These various meanings of the same word make ambiguity. According to Attardo (1994), the two senses of a pun must be present at the same time and be in conflict with each other, although one is usually introduced before the other. This allows advertisers to manipulate with words. For example; for a few pounds, you can lose a few. This example of an ad is used for a slimming course. “Pound” is both a unit of weight and a unit of money (pp. 133-136).

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3.4.6.7 Euphemism It is from Greek word means „good sounding.' It is the use of pleasant words instead of unpleasant words. The copywriters try to avoid harsh or unpleasant words or phrases and substitute them with mild and pleasant words. For instance, on the streets instead of homeless. 3.4.6.8 Simile A simile is defined as “a direct, expressed comparison between two things essentially unlike each other, but resembling each other in at least one way.” (Dictionary, 1350). A simile is a comparison between two things which are imaginatively compared. They are marked by use of the words „like‟, „than‟, „as‟ or „as if‟. For instance; the internet is an information highway, as big as an elephant. 3.4.6.9 Idiom An idiom is a figure of speech whose meaning cannot be understood from the literal meaning of the words; it has a separate meaning which cannot be understood from its constituents. Each language has its own idiom; it cannot be easily translated from one language to another. For instance “raining cats and dogs” refers to heavy rain.

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CHAPTER FOUR THE MODEL, METHOD AND DATA FOR ANALYSIS This chapter is concerned with previewing the adopted model for the analysis in this study. The method of analysis is presented in details to clarify the way and method of analysis of this study. This is then followed by the procedures of data collection to show how, when and where data are collected, and how many texts are used in this analysis. Analyses and results of the selected data are presented in figures and tables. 4.1 Model of Analysis This study includes CB for analyzing the language of ads because CB is a justifiable framework in an analysis of the understanding of metaphor and other figures of speech. The adopted model of analysis of this study will follow Fauconnier and Turners‟ model for CB; because they are the founder of CB, and no one else after them could find another model for CB. Moreover, they investigate CB in many figures of speech; while the others mostly talked about metaphors. Blending is an operation that takes place over conceptual integrations networks. Conceptual integration networks often involve many mental spaces. Blending can occur at many different sites in the network. A blended space can have multiple input spaces. For simplicity, the static diagrams that Fauconnier and Turner use in CB involve only a few mental spaces. The aim of these diagrams is to clarify the principles of blending. In these diagrams, the mental spaces are represented by circles, elements by points (or sometimes icons) in the circles, and connections between elements in different spaces by lines. The frame structure recruited to the mental space is represented either outside in a rectangle or iconically inside the circle. These diagrams and mental spaces become the central features of the network model of conceptual integration as illustrated below:

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Figure (17) The Model of the Study from Fauconnier and Turner (1998)  Mental spaces: are small conceptual packets constructed as human think and talk, for purposes of local understanding and action. The circles in Fig (17) represent mental spaces which involve: the two inputs, the generic, and the blend. Mental spaces contain elements and structured by frames and cognitive models.  Input spaces: there are at least two input spaces to a blend as it is shown in fig (17) (Fauconnier & Turner 1998).  Cross-space mapping of counterpart connections: in CB, there are partial counterpart connections between input spaces. The cross-space mapping connects counterparts in the input spaces. The solid lines in Fig (17) represent counterpart connections. Such counterpart connections are of many

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kinds: connections between frames and roles in frames; connections of identity or transformation or representation; metaphoric connections, etc.  Generic space: the generic space maps onto each of two inputs. It contains what those two inputs have in common at any moment in the development of the conceptual integration network.  Blend: in blending, structure from at least two input mental spaces is projected to a third space, the “blend”. Blended spaces are related to generic spaces: blends sometimes capture structure from generic space, and sometimes contain more specific structure, but also can contain structure that is impossible for the inputs.  Selective projection: the projection from the inputs to the blend is typically partial. Blending is not projected from all the elements of the inputs; the projection of structure to the blend is selective. Constructing the blend involve three operations: composition, completion, and elaboration. i.

Composition: blending composes elements from the input spaces, providing relations that do not exist in the separate inputs. Fusion is one kind of composition. Counterparts may be brought into the blend as separate elements or as a fused element. Fig (17) represents one case in which counterparts are fused in the blend and one case in which counterparts are brought into the blend as distinct entities (Ibid).

ii.

Completion: it brings additional structure to the blend. Background knowledge and familiarity with the frame supply the completion. There is no encounter in the generic space or either of the inputs, but there is an encounter in the blend, Blends recruit a great range of background conceptual structure and knowledge without recognizing it consciously.

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iii.

Elaboration: it develops the blend through imaginative according to principles and logic in the blend.

 Emergent structure: in the blend, composition, completion, and elaboration lead to the emergent structure; the blend contains structure that is not the same as the structures of the inputs. In Fig (17), the square inside the blend represents emergent structure. Sometimes, only emergent structure is explained without referring to composition, completion and elaboration. After analyzing the corpus according to the model of CB, it is important to identify different types of blending in different FL of ads. Types of blending as advanced features of the model of blending are the best way to show the differences between different figures of speech by showing that they have different frames and they are different in constructing the blend. Different kinds of network are proposed by Fauconnier and Turner and propose a continuum that relates integration networks of various kinds. Like: simplex networks, mirror networks, single-scope and double-scope networks as mentioned in chapter two. The researcher will find the types of blending in different types of FL which are used in ads. The construction types of blending according to Fauconnier and Turner will be a model of this study, these are the types: 1. A simplex network consists of two inputs: one that contains a frame with roles and another that contains values. Each element in one input corresponds to a role in the frame of the other input. Frames are provided by human culture and biology; an organizing frame could be the biological frame of family, with roles for a father, mother, daughter or son. The construction of this type is that it gives rise to a blend containing structure that is in neither of the inputs (Fauconnier &Turner, 2002, p. 120).

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2. Mirror networks, according to Fauconnier and Turner, in mirror networks, all the spaces share the common organizing frame, including the blend. That organizing frame connects all the spaces; the generic space, input space 1, input space 2 and the blend. In mirror networks all the spaces mirror each other. There is no different frame in this type, and clashes would not be happen, but in rare case clashes would be happen between the inputs. 3. Single-scope networks, in the single-scope networks the frame of each input spaces is different and one of the frames is projected to organize the blend. Single-scope networks are the prototype of highly conventional sourcetarget metaphors. The input that provides the organizing frame to the blend, the framing input, is often called the „source‟. The input that is the focus of understanding, the focus input, is often called the „target‟ (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002, pp. 126-127).

Single-scope networks offer a highly visible

type of conceptual clash, since the inputs have different frames (Ibid, p. 129). 4. Double-scope networks have two inputs with different frames. Double-scope networks integrate the different frames of the inputs to produce a blend with a new organizing structure and an emergent meaning of its own. Both frames contribute equally to the blend even though they may clash. The structure of the blend contains some meaning from each of the two input frames that is not shared by the other (Fauconnier &Turner, 2002, p. 46). The following table shows types of CB networks and their inputs and the construction of blending. The researcher is looking for types of blending according to this table: The researcher adopts the model presented in table (1) below. Analysis of the selected ads will be according to features contained in the model of CB and according to types of blending.

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Idiom

Simile

Euphemism

Pun

Single-

Personification

3

Hyperbole

Mirror

Polysemy

2

Metonymy

Simplex

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual Blending Metaphor

Types of Conceptual

1

Blending Networks

Advertisement

Table (1) the Model of this Study (based on features of the model of CB and its types)

Scope 4

DoubleScope

4.2 Method of Analysis This study tries to recognize different types of figures of speech in written ads and analyze them according to the model of CB and its different types. The data for this study are collected from various magazines, newspapers, brochures and billboards. The researcher is going to analyze the corpus to explain figures of speech in CB according to mental spaces, input spaces, cross-space mapping of counterpart connections, generic space, blend, selective projection and emergent structure, and the spaces will be explained by circles and also identify them in simplex networks, mirror networks, single-scope networks and double-scope networks. The identification of types of CB and types of FL in CB will be shown in tables. More clearly, the researcher follows two models one is the figure (17) for

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constructing the blend and table (1) for finding the frequencies of types of blending and types of figures of speech. Thus, the researcher adopts the qualitative method for analysis of the collected data because it answers the questions of how conceptual blending constructed and which figures of speech occur in which types of blending and how many times they occur in each types of blending. After the analysis of the selected data, their results will be in the form of numbers and statistics, and they are arranged in tables. The selected written ads will be arranged in number; each example is preceded by a number to distinguish it in the analysis. The given example will be described and analyzed; the researcher relies on the information of the product or company, and also relies on Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary and www.thefreedictionary.com for analyzing the examples. Through the analysis the types of blending in each figure of speech will be identified. The results of the analysis will be viewed in table and represented by asterisk signs as shown below. The table of analysis consists of three columns. The first column contains the ads numbers; the number of ads will be listed in this column. The second column shows types of CB networks; it tells the reader which type of networks is used in the ad. The third column shows types of figures of speech in CB. In the last column more than one result might be found, but only the most salient one will be chosen in the analysis of this study. 4.3 Data Collection The corpus for analysis used is formed by some ads selected from magazines, newspapers, brochures and billboard in 2016. Written texts were chosen instead of others (television ads, radio ads, etc.) because broadcast advertising on TV or radio contain a wider variety of modes due to the inclusion of movement, sound effects, music or song and other features that could enrich the message they seek to transmit, the amount of information contained in them, while ads from magazines,

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newspapers, brochures, and billboard or flyers frequently combine textual and pictorial modes in a limited space. They are also embedded in a social context that provides extra information about the product. Moreover, they contain information about the target public for that product; the viewer is intended to make the sight of the ads, and other considerations that need to be taken into account when analyzing them. The corpus of the study is taken from four types of print ads: magazines, newspapers, brochures, and billboard. The texts from the ads are used in this study spanned from February 19, 2016 to September 12, 2016. The numbers of choosing ads from each type of print ads will be like the following: 1- Ads from 1 to 10 are taken from different magazines. Five ads are taken from New York magazine; the other five ads are taken from women‟s health. 2- Ads from 10 to 20 are taken from two newspapers. Five ads are taken from the Eagle, and in Nydaily news five ads are taken. 3- Ads from 20 to 30 are taken from two brochures; Trafalgar and Tupperware, five ads are taken from each of them.. 4- Ads from 30 to 40 are taken from different billboards or flyers from ten billboards.

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CHAPTER FIVE DATA ANALYSIS This chapter is the practical side of the work where the selected data will be analyzed in accordance with the adopted model and method of analysis. Analysis will be shown in the form of figures followed by tables. The tables present the frequencies of the types of CB and figures of speech in question. Then, comparison and discussion of the results will be carried out to arrive at findings. 5.1 Data Analysis 5.1.1 Analysis of Magazine Advertisements Ad. (1) Make Home Your Favorite Destination.

(Glenwood, 2016)

The ad presents a luxury hall for sitting which seems calm with a long list of amenities to please families. In the generic space which contains the elements: place, living, direction; these elements cause the hall to be a luxury hall. In input one the elements: destination, desire, future refer to the frame of destination. In input two the elements within it refer to the frame of a luxury hall. Both of the frames construct the blend which becomes a comfortable and relax hall (Glenwood). The blend is double-scope type. Generic Space Place Living Direction

Input 1

Input 2

Destination

Home

Desire

Aim

Future

Comfortable & Relax

Figure (18) Glenwood

Comfortable & Relax Glenwood

Blend

Frame: Place Destination Home Living in Comfortable place

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Ad. (2) Life. Inside and Out.

(The Durst Organization, 2016).

This idiom means the part that is usually facing out hugely. The expression is used for advertising a new modern residence, just below the ad is written now is leasing elegant modern residence. Input 1 which shows the living inside frame refers to living inside of human being while input 2 refers to living outside of human being. Only the frame of living outside constructs the blend and the blend becomes a flourishing elegant residence. As a result, for constructing the blend only the elements of one input participate, this shows that Fig (19) is single-scope networks. Generic Space

Life System of human Sustaining

Input 1

Input 2

Inside

Out

Dying system

Flourishing system

Unsustainable

Sustainable

Figure (19) Elegant Modern Residence

Frame: Living inside

Future Flourishing Comfortable & Blend Elegant modern Relax Residence

Living outside

Blend

91

Ad. (3) Hello Gorgeous Nails & Hair.

(Natrol, 2016)

The advertiser uses personification by saying hello gorgeous nails and hair, as if he is talking with humans. He advertises Natrol Biotin which promotes healthy hair growth and strong nails. The generic space refers to both frames of Medical treatment for hair and nails and Weak nails & unhealthy hair one input shows the frame of weak nails and the other input refers to the strong nails which can be got it by „Natrol Biotin‟ as medical treatment. The blend space is constructed only by one input space which leads the blend to be single-scope type. Generic Space

Saluting Medicine

Input 1

Input 2

Human being

Body parts

Weak nails

Strong nails

&

&

Unhealthy hair

Healthy hair

Future Natrol Biotin for Comfortable & having strong Relax Blend nails & healthy hair

Blend Figure (20) Natrol Biotin

Frame: Medical treatment for hair and nails Weak nails & unhealthy hair

92

Ad. (4) Your Hood, Etched In Wood.

(Neighborwoodmaps, 2016)

The polysemous word hood can give the meaning of stamps or neighbor. Below is the description of the advertiser: Celebrate your favorite city with these engraved cedar coasters. Each set includes 4 coasters, showing different neighborhood areas. Comes ready to party in a stamped canvas drawstring bag. Makes a great gift for friends, family, bosses, and neighbors. The construction of blend is shown in fig (21). The elements of the spaces mirror each other even the blend. So, the blend becomes mirror type. Generic Space

Relations Border

Input 1

Input 2

Wood

Hood

Coaster

Neighborhood areas

Frame: Borders of the country

Neighborwood maps Cedar coaster

Blend Figure (21) Neighborwood Maps

93

Ad. (5) World‟s Best Deodorant 100% Pure & Natural.

(deodorantstones, 2016)

In ad (5) the product uses the word best and the rate 100%, these expressions show that hyperbolic expressions are used for advertising of the ad. Our hypo-allergenic all natural deodorant crystals contain no chemical additives, oils, alcohol, propellents or aluminum chlorhydrates. Kills odor causing bacteria. These deodorant stones are the safest and most effective on the planet! In the generic space the element of perfume shows a sharing knowledge between other deodorant and Thai deodorant. The other element in the generic space which is the ingredients also shows the sharing information between the ingredients of other and Thai deodorants. The elements of input 1 refer to other deodorant while the elements of input 2 refer to Thai deodorants. The elements of both inputs have relations to each other by sharing knowledge of the elements of generic space. The elements of input 2 lead to the construction of the blend, so the blend becomes single-scope type. Generic Space

Perfume Ingredients

Input 1

Input 2

Other deodorants

Thai deodorant

Chemical additives, oils, alcohol, and propellent

No chemical additives, oils, alcohol, and propellent

Figure (22) Thai Deodorant

Having the best deodorant 100% Pure & Natural

Blend

Frame: Bad and good deodorant

94

Ad. (6) The Best Skin of your Life Starts Here.

(Paul‟s Choice Skincare, 2016)

The product in ad (6) uses the exaggeration expression the best skin of your life starts here. Reveal youthful-looking, radiant skin overnight with Skin Perfecting 2% BHA Liquid Leave-on Exfoliant. This unique, non-abrasive formula exfoliates skin while unclogging pores, diminishing the appearance of wrinkles and improving skin tone. See healthier, smoother skin every day. In the generic space the elements: beauty, age and dream have sharing information between the frames of the inputs. The frame of input 1 refers to being young in life and the frame of input 2 refers to beautiful skin. Both of the frames construct the meaning of the blend which shows Paul‟s choice that gives youthfulness, looking healthy and smooth skin. Generic Space

Beauty Age Dream

Input 1

Input 2 Life

Skin

Youthful looking

Youthful looking

Having bright skin

Getting bright skin

Figure (23) Paula’s Choice

Paul‟s Choice Gives youthfulness looking, healthy and smooth skin

Blend

Frame: Being young in life Beautiful skin

95

Ad. (7) The Only Water with Enough Electrolyte to put back what you lose in Sweat. (Propel, 2016) The product uses the hyperboles that propel is the only water to put back humans‟. People may not get all the electrolyte after drinking propel and propel may not be enough to put back all the losing water in sweat. The elements of input 1 refer to „water‟ that comes out of human body. The elements of input 2 refer to „water‟ that replaces the wasting water. The elements of generic space refer to the elements of both inputs. There are two frames: sweat and water, sweat as a wasting water and water indicates Propel Electrolyte Water. Only the elements of input 2 construct the blend, so the blend is single-scope type. Generic Space

Input 1

Sweat Losing (N+, K+, Ca2+) By running Getting Hypernatremia and Hyponatremia & Hyperkalemia and Hypokalemia People will be ill by unbalancing in Na+, K+, Ca2+ and getting irregular heart beating, bone disorder

Water Ingredient (sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+…) Cause Body Fluid Effect

Input 2

Propel water Putting back (N+, K+, Ca2+) By drinking Avoid getting hypernatremia … People will be healthy by balancing in n+…. and getting regular heart beating… PropelDesire electrolyte Future water with enough Comfortable & Electrolytes to put Relax back what you lose in sweat.

Figure (24) Propel Electrolyte Water

Blend

Frame: Sweat Water

96

Ad. (8) Last year 15 million people chose turkey. One bite and you‟ll see why. (Jennie.O, 2016) The advertiser uses metaphoric expression; 15 million people chose turkey is compared to 15 million people ate turkey as in the next sentence says „one bite‟ means when it is eaten, it gives the taste. The elements of generic space have common information between the frames of the inputs. The expression consists of two frames: birds and people; birds that are eaten by people. Both of the frames make the construction of the blend and lead the blend to be double-scope type. Generic Space

Animate Meat Pros

Input 1

Input 2

People Eat Getting iron, zinc….

Turkey Meat A source of iron, zinc, potassium and phosphorus.

People eat turkey Future Comfortable meat which & is Relax tasty and has many pros

Figure (25) Turkey Blend

Frame: Birds People

97

Ad. (9) Have you ever brewed iced tea at home? It‟s like that. (Unilever Group, 2016) The word „like‟ is used in the expression, it compares hot tea and iced tea by using the expression „it is like that‟. This shows that it is like iced tea not hot tea. As a result the expression is simile. The elements of the spaces: generic, input 1and 2 even the blend space mirror each other. The ad contains one frame which is the making iced tea. First the tea is boiled then it is iced. This shows that the elements indicate only one frame and that frame constructs the blend. The blend shows its mirror type. Generic Space

Tea Method Place

Input 1

Input 2

Hot tea

Iced tea

Boiling

Boiling then chilling

Home

Home

Figure (26) Iced Tea

Frame: Making

Iced tea by boiling and chilling at home

Iced tea

Blend

98

Ad. (10) Achieve greatness on and off the field.

(RodaleWellness, 2016)

The advertiser uses idiom for the ad „on and off‟ which means now and again. The ad shows a book on which is written the champion‟s comeback. The word „field‟ in the ad refers to sport: champion. In the ad, there is only one frame which is the sport. The elements of generic space mirror the elements of input 1, the elements of input 2 and the also the blend. The elements of input 1 mirror the elements of input 2. The frame „sport‟ constructs the blend. The blend has the meaning of the Champions who they are coming back and they are psyched. Generic Space

Input 1

Field Athlete Sick Method Mental game

Input 2 Champion Great athlete Coming back Strategy by great coming back Psyched for competition

Sport Good athlete Injured Bad strategy No psyched

The champion„s coming back Getting psyched for competition, rebound after a loss, and overcome injuries.

Frame: Sport

Blend Figure (27) The Champion’s Coming Back

99

Idiom

Simile

Euphemism

Pun

Personification

Hyperbole

Polysemy

Metonymy

Metaphor

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual Blending Types of Conceptual Blending Networks

Advertisement Number

Table (2) Analysis of the Selected Advertisements in Magazines



1

Double-scope

2

Single-scope

3

Single-scope

4

Mirror

5

Single-scope



6

Double-scope



7

Single-scope



8

Double-scope

9

Mirror

10

Mirror

  

  

100

5.1.2 Analysis of Newspaper Advertisements Ad. (11) Green Teams is growing.

(Green Teams, 2016)

The word „green‟ in the expression makes the sentence polysmuos because green is commonly used for color while here it is used for the teams. The team consists of Landscape Construction Manager, Landscape Manager, and Irrigation Technician. The generic space indicates relative relations between the elements of the inputs. Input 1 has the family relations. Input 2 contains the family relationships as aunt and uncle. Input 2 contains the name of the family and its relatives as Green Teams and its parts landscape, Construction Manager,…. The family frame constructs the blend. The blend contains the family name with its parts. Generic Space

Relative relations Relatives

Input 1

Input 2

Relatives Aunt, uncle,….

Figure (28) Green Teams

Green Teams Landscape Construction Manager Landscape Manager Irrigation Technician

Green Teams Landscape Construction Manager Landscape Manager Irrigation Technician

Frame: Family;

Blend

Green Teams

101

(CICI‟s pizza, 2016)

Ad. (12) Fast! Fresh! Express.

The product uses polysemy for advertising CICI‟s pizza. At the top of the ad, it is written: Fast! Fresh! Express; the word „express‟ has two related meanings, one means fast food while the other means serving food. Below is the analysis. Here, the fast food is indicated by the four spaces: generic, input 1, input 2 and the blend. That „fast food‟ frame leads to the construction of the blend. The blend gives the meaning of CICI‟ pizza as a serving fast, fresh pizza. As a result, Fig (29) shows mirror types of blending because each element mirrors the other. Generic Space

Express Food

Input 1

Input 2

Fast

Serving

Food

CICI‟s pizza

Desire CICI‟s pizza serving fast fresh Future pizza

Figure (29) CICI’s Pizza

Comfortable & Relax

Blend

Frame: Fast food

102

Ad. (13) No job is too small or too big.

(Copy Corner, 2016)

The use of this metaphoric expression by a company or product is not about scaring off the customers that they cannot handle big projects. Otherwise, by saying yes to everything, they may lose the chance to focus on what they do best. So, the truth is most businesses are not good at both “big” and “small.” They may be in the middle. The element „work‟ in generic space sharing by the meanings of the elements of „job‟ and „Copy Corner‟. The „business‟ element is shared by the meanings of the elements of „big or small‟ and „not too big or small.‟ Each input has its frames: quality of work and business. Only the elements of input 2 make the blend, so, Fig (30) shows single-scope blending. Generic Space

Work Business

Input 1

Input 2

Job

Copy Corner

Big or small

No too big or small

Frame: Quality of work

Copy Corner Mediocre

Figure (30) Copy Corner

Business

Blend

103

Advertisement (14) Taking care of each other is what community is all about. (Hacker Agency - Sci Dignity, 2016) The ad contains a picture of some people who are going together. Metaphoric expression is used for making people take care of each other. When people give a helping hand to each other, they make a good community. The elements of the inputs indicate the family frame. Society is like a family for people and its relations within people. As a result, Fig (31) is simplex types of blending; society is like a family for people, they can have the value of helping each other. Generic Space

Society Relations

Input 1

Input 2

Family

Community

People

Taking care of each other

Making a good community

Blend Figure (31) Community

Frame: Family

104

Ad. (15) Taste of home.

(House Retail, 2016)

The expression taste of home is an idiom, which means things that are like your own country, for example, food, clothes…. The expression „taste of home‟ is written at the top of the ad, and also, „come early and shop‟ is written in the right side of the ad. The elements of generic space share the knowledge of „taste, place and clothing.‟ The elements of input 2 refer to the frame „shopping‟. Both of the frames construct the blend. This figure is double-scope type of blending; the elements of the inputs participate in constructing the blend. Generic Space

Taste Place Clothing

Input 1

Input 2

Home

House-retail

A place for living

A place for shopping

According to your country

Similar to home clothing

House-retail for home clothing

Frame: Home Shopping

Figure (32) House-retail

Blend

105

Ad. (16) The best tomato.

(Brooklyn Wholesale Market, 2016)

The expression „the best tomato‟ is written at the top of the ad. In the middle of the ad is written „no all tomatoes are the same, our tomatoes are all pulp, have very little seeds, and no water is creating meatier, thicker, richer and better tasting sauce.‟ The product uses hyperbole for advertising their product. They compare their tomatoes with the other tomatoes, and they show that their tomatoes are the best. The elements of the inputs mirror each other even the blend. There is only one frame „tasting tomato‟ which constructs the blend. This diagrams shows mirror network; the elements of the inputs mirror each other. Generic Space frutdwe Fruit Ingredient

Input 1

Input 2

Brooklyn tomato

The rest tomatoes

Thicker, very little seeds, no water creating the meatier and better tasting sauce

Thick, seeds, water creating the meatier and tasting sauce

Brooklyn tomato is the best Frame: Tasting tomato

Blend Figure (33) Brooklyn Tomato

106

Ad. (17) House Calls. (EssenMED House Calls, 2016) House Calls are a group of doctors who are coming at home for curing sick people. They bring the office to home and they do „primary care, care management, transition of care, home delivery of medication and in home diagnosing test.‟ They use metaphoric expression „house calls‟ they mean treatment at home. In the ad is written Essen MED house calls as the name of the ads. Then it is written their goals like doing: primary care, care management, transition of care, home delivery of medication and in home diagnosing test. At the bottom of the ad is written „we bring the doctor‟s office to you.‟ See fig (34) below. The elements of generic space serve a sharing knowledge between the inputs. The elements of input 1 indicate the frame of „doctors at home‟ while the elements of input 2 indicate the frame of „doctors at home‟. Only the frame of „doctors at home‟ makes the blend; o, the blend is single-scope type. Generic Space

Serving Office Curing Goal

Input 1

Input 2 House calls at home Office at home Sick people Doing primary care, care management, transition of care, home delivery of medication and in home diagnosing test

Hospital Office in hospital Sick people

Taking care of sick people House Calls for curing sick people at home

Frame: Doctors in hospital Doctors at home

Blend Figure (34) House Calls

107

Ad.(18) Sylvia‟s Restaurant.

(Sylvia‟s Restaurant, 2016)

At the top of the ad is written Sylvia and under that word is written „queen of soul food.‟ The metaphoric expression of „soul of food‟ dates back to 1492. In the days of slavery, slave masters would give (to the slaves) cuts of meat for which they had no use or desire. These cuts included pig feet, ham hocks, chicken gizzards, chicken wings, turkey necks, and pork fat. Little did the slave masters (or the slaves– for that matter) know that these „undesirable‟ foods would one day reach the masses worldwide, to be revered, appreciated, and much-desired. Now, those dishes are much desired and most people like them. As a result the wellknown restaurant of Sylvia is called „the soul of food‟. The ad contains two frames: „slaves‟ and „Sylvia‟s restaurant‟. The construction of blending is by the elements of one input or the blend consists of one frame. The blend is single-scope type. Generic Space

Input 1

Food History Deliver Ingredient Desire Delights

Input 2 Sylvia 1962 Free people Potato salad… Desired Delights

Soul 1492 Slaves Pig feet, ham hocks… Undesired No delights Sylvia‟s queen of soul food for delighting the soul of people

Blend Figure (35) Sylvia’s Restaurant.

Frame: Slave‟s dishes Sylvia‟s restaurant

108

Ad (19) The nicest way from Yonge to Bay… Cummberland Terrace . (The Bay Terrace, 2016) The ad shows that the best way for shopping is the Bay Terrace which consists of 70 shops and restaurants. At the Bay Terrace, everything can be found. This is a hyperbolic expression. The word „Bay Terrace‟ is like a family with its relatives. The relatives of the „Bay Terrace‟ are the parts within it. This figure is simplex network; the bay Terrace is like a family for the other shops. Generic Space

Relative relations Relations

Input 1

Input 2 Bay Terrace

Relations

Shopping and restaurant

Aunt, uncle

Bay Terrace is the best for shopping; it includes 70 shops and restaurants.

Blend Figure (36) the Bay Terrace

Frame: Shopping

109

Ad. (20) Open House.

(Open House, 2016)

The metaphoric expression of „open house‟ is used for high school which is open for all visitors. Also, it is divided in to three pictures and written on them these expressions: academically rigorous, artistically nourished and physically grounded. The elements of generic space represent the sharing knowledge between the elements of the inputs. The elements of input 1 represent the frame of „open house‟ which can be sold and visited by buyers. The elements of input 2 represent the frame of „high school‟ (Waldorf School) which can be visited by academic people and it is a place for learning. The meaning of the blend is constructed by the elements of input 2 construct the blend, the blend becomes single-scope. Generic Space

Open house Visiting Goal

Input 1

Input 2

A house or apartment for sale

Waldorf School Visiting by academic people

Visiting by buyers

Inspire lives of learning and delights the future and academically rigorous, …

Inspire buyers

Figure (37) Waldorf School

Waldorf School as Desire an open house for Future inspiring learning and beginning&the Comfortable Relax and future, academically rigorous, …

Frame: Open House

Blend

High School

110

Advertisement

Types of Conceptual Blending Networks

Table (3) the Analysis of the Selected Advertisements in Newspapers

11

Simplex



12

Mirror



13

Single-scope



14

Simplex



15

Double-scope

16

Mirror

17

Single-scope



18

Single-scope



19

Simplex

20

Single-scope

Idiom

Simile

Euphemism

Pun

Personificati on

Hyperbole

Polysemy

Metonymy

Metaphor

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual Blending

 

 

111

5.1.3 Analysis of Brochure Advertisements Ad. (21) Experience Every Destination like a Local.

(Trafalgar, 2016)

The ad is about advising tourists to have experience like local people. Tourists can have the same experience about culture and traditions of the place that they travel to.

Trafalgar as travel agents give travel advice, information and

reservations or if travellers need a helping hand. The generic space has the elements of common knowledge for both of the inputs. Input 1 has the frame of „travelling‟. Input 2 has the frame of „local experience‟.

Only the frame of

„travellers‟ constructs the blend, so, this is a single-scope type of blending. Generic Space Trips Trips Sharing Breaking bread Discovering

Input 1

Input 2 Experience like local people

People in their countries

Having the same culture and traditions Be my guest Secret spots and traditions

Culture and traditions Local family Local specialists

Figure (38) Travellers

Travellers can have Desire the same experience Future Comfortable & Relax of local people, having the same (Culture, Traditions, experience)

Frame: Travelling Local experience

Blend

112

Ad.(22) Taste the Culture.

(Trafalgar, 2016)

The common use of taste is used for the sense of food while in ad the word taste used differently; this shows that taste has many related meanings. As a result the ad is polysemy. The elements of: „the sense of recognizing foods & drinks‟ and „have short experience of foreign travel‟ can give the meaning of the element in generic space: „taste the culture‟. Also the other elements of the inputs can give the meaning of „likeness‟ in the generic space. The meanings of the elements of input 1 can be condensed within the meaning of the frame of „sense‟. The meanings of the elements of input 2 can be condensed within the meaning of the frame of „experience‟. The frames of sense and experience construct the blend; when two frames make the blend, the blend is double-scope. Generic Space

Taste the culture Likeness

Input 1

Input 2 The sense of recognizing foods and drinks

Have a short experience of foreign travel

A person tries to know what a food or drink is like

What a person likes or prefers

Figure (39) Taste the Culture

The person will have the sense of different things

Frame: Sense

Blend

Experience

113

Ad.(23) Always the Right Hotels.

(Trafalgar, 2016)

Using the expression „always the right hotels‟ at the top of the ad is exaggeration; travellers may not always get the right hotels. The right hotels are located in the midst of stunning countryside, or close to a major sight. The ad becomes hyperbolic expression. The elements of the inputs mirror each other including the blend, and they have one frame which is „the location for travellers‟. As a result, the blend is mirror type. Generic Space

The right location Location

Input 1

Input 2

Right hotels

Very fine and enjoyable

In the midst of stunning country side or close to a major sight

Location

The right hotels Comfortable & which are very Relax fine and located in the comfortable place

Blend Figure (40) the Right Hotels

Frame: The location for travellers

114

Ad. (24) Trails of Liberty.

(Trafalgar, 2016)

The expression is written above White House‟s picture to show that it is US not the other places. Below trails of liberty is written „Exciting moments in U.S. history are uncovered in this East Coast family encounter, from the Declaration of Independence to the Battle of Gettysburg.‟ The expression of trails of liberty as a metonymic figure of speech comes from America‟s Revolution. Trails of liberty refer to America‟s Revolution. The elements of the generic space have common information of the elements of the inputs. The elements of input 1 have correspondences with the elements of input 2. Input 1 represents ‘history’ frames, input 2 represents ‘tourist attraction’ frame. The construction of the blend includes both of the frames and the blend becomes double-scope type. Generic Space

History Historic sites Effect

Input 1

Input 2

America‟s Revolution

Trails of Liberty

Most Freedom Trail sites

Boston Common, Faneuil Hall,… Exiting moments in US history and attract visitors to go through Liberty of Trails

Tour sites

Figure (41) Trails of

Trails of Liberty go back to America‟s Revolution which attract travellers

Frame: History

Liberty

Blend Tourist attraction

115

Ad. (25) Conquistadors, Sacred Valleys and Inca Mysteries. (Trafalgar, 2016) This ad likes ad (24) the places are famous because they have a history behind their names, also they are wonderful; the names of the places refer to historic events. Under the title is written „the history of the Sacred Valley, Machu Picchu and „City of Kings‟, mixed with the thrill of white water rafting and sand buggy rides: there‟s plenty of family fun on this trip to Peru.‟ The elements of the inputs represent two frames: „historic events‟ and „tourist places‟. The two frames construct the blend. As a result, in fig (42) frames, historic events and tourist places lead to the emergent of the blend. The Blend becomes a double-scope network. Generic Space

History Location Effect

Input 2

Input 1

Input 2 Conquistadors, sacred valleys and Inca mysteries (Sacred Valley)

Spanish soldiers, Inca‟s feeling, their feeling of the power of God

Peru Amazing attraction to visit by the visitors

South of America Mixed with the thrill of water rafting and sand buggy rides Conquistadors, Future Sacred Comfortable & Mysteries Relax Valleys and Inca have historic names to attract visitors and they are the most amazing valleys

Frame: Historic events Tourist places

Blend

Figure (42) Conquistadors, Sacred Valleys and Inca Mysteries

116

Ad. (26) Power Chef System.

(Tupperware, 2016)

The ad is about food processor, the expression „power chef system‟ metaphorically is used for its parts, and each part is used for different purposes. Below the title is written: Our most efficient food processor blends, mixes, emulsifies and chops with the easy pull of a cord. It also cleverly integrates with the Chop ‟N Prep Chef. Power chef system is like a family for its relatives: blends, mixes, emulsifies and chops. The „food processor‟ in the ad is like a family. The family consists of many relatives and relations within its members. The name of the family which is the „power chef system‟ with its members constructs the blend. So, the figure shows simplex type of blend, the example has a family and relations. Generic Space

Relative relations Relatives

Input 1

Input 2

Relations

Power chef system

Aunt, uncle, …

Blends, mixes

Figure (43) Power Chef System

Power chef system includes blends, mixes, …

Blend

Frame: Food processor

117

Ad. (27) Chef Series II Cookware.

(Tupperware, 2016)

Chef series II cookware includes so many types which are given below the ad title, for example; Dutch Oven with Stainless Steel Cover, Fry Pan Griddle, Saucepan. The title metaphorically is used, it is not only about one thing; it refers to its parts and food cook. The explanation of this is like ad (26). So, the figure shows simplex type of blending. Chef Series II Cookware is like a family which has relations to its parts like aunt and uncle. Generic Space

Relative relations Relatives

Input 1

Input 2

Chef Series II Cookware

Relatives Aunt, uncle,…

Dutch oven, fry pan,...

Chef Series II Cookware includes Dutch oven, fry pan,...

Blend Figure (44) Chef Series II Cookware

Frame: Family;

Chef Series II Cookware

118

Ad. (28) Kids.

(Tupperware, 2016)

The word „kids‟ is written above a picture of a child who is two to three years old and he is playing with a plastic train, below the title these expressions are written: „Trusted, durable products specially designed to support child growth and development. Kid tested and approved so you can savor the small moments together.‟ The word „kids‟ is metonymically used instead of writing toys because the purpose of the product is toys but for attracting children they write kids. The product advertises set of plastic toys which increase the growth and development of kids. The elements of the inputs mirror each other and have the same frame which is „playing with plastic toys‟. So, this figure is mirror type of blend because the elements mirror each other. Generic Space

Set of plastic Effect

Input 1

Input 2

Playing with complete set of plastic toys

Children are exciting and happy

Support child growth and development

Child growth and Development

Set of plastic toys support child growth and development

Blend Figure (45) Plastic Toys

Frame: Playing with plastic toys

119

Ad. (29) Cut Waste and Save Money.

(Tupperware, 2016)

The expression is given for advertising modular mates containers. The expression metaphorically is used between food and money, and it shows that how to save money by cutting food waste. Modular mates containers have so many shapes: oval, square, super oval and rectangular. Also, it is written that those containers can save time and help you store more with organization. Each element in the space mirrors its correspondence in the other space. For example; „human needs‟ mirror the elements of „food‟ in input 1 and „money‟ in input 2. All the elements mirror their correspondences. They have only one frame which is about „food‟ so; the elements of the inputs mirror each other; as a result the blend is mirror network type of blending. Generic Space

Human needs Reduce waste Store solution

Input 1 Food

Input 2

Money

Cut waste

Save money and food

Keep food

Modular mates containers

Figure (46) Modular Mates Containers

Modular mates containers cut waste food, save money and time

Blend

Frame: Food Money

120

Ad. (30) Join us With Tupperware, Dreams are Within Reach Directors. (Tupperware, 2016) Idiomatic expression is used to advertise Tupperware cars by the words „within reach‟ under the picture of the car these expressions are written: Branded cars are a great way to advertise your business and, depending on your team‟s sales, you could qualify to drive cars ranging from the Chevrolet Trax to the Mercedes-Benz GLS. The elements of the inputs have different frames: „business cars‟ and „having business cars‟, as shown in the blend that the blend is constructed by both frames of business cars and having those cars by people. Generic Space

Tupperware cars Branded cars

Input 1

Input 2

Chevrolet Trax to the Mercedes-Benz GLS

Within reach Possible or available

A great way to advertise business

cars Branded cars to advertise business are available

Frame: Business Cars Having business cars

Blend Figure (47) Tupperware Cars

121

Advertisement

Types of Conceptual Blending Networks

Table (4) Analysis of the Selected Advertisements in Brochures

21

Single-scope

22

Double-scope

23

Mirror

24

Double-scope



25

Double-scope



26

Simplex



27

Simplex



28

Mirror

29

Double-scope

30

Double-scope

Idiom

Simile

Euphemism

Pun

Personification

Hyperbole

Polysemy

Metonymy

Metaphor

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual Blending

  

  

122

5.1.4 Analysis of Billboard Advertisements Ad. (31) Moving to Canada, we can sell your home. (Landro Fox Cities Realty, 2016) The ad belongs to a marketing company which sells houses. The ad features side-by-side portraits of Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton above the company's name and phone number. Moreover, the company says "We put both candidates up there, and we're not endorsing one candidate or the other." The company combines political issues with their marketing for taking advantages of the wild election cycle in an attempt to expand their businesses reach. The generic space has common information for the elements of input 1 and input 2. The element „moving‟ has common information for the element „leaving places‟ in input 1 and the element „Canada‟ in input 2. The element of „leaving places‟ has correspondence relationship with „Canada‟, because when it is said that „leaving places‟ it means leaving places from anywhere in America to Canada. Also, the other elements of generic have common information for the elements of input 1 and input 2. Also, the other elements of input 1 have correspondence relationship with the other elements of input 2. The blend is constructed by the frames of politics and marketing. It shows double-scope network. Generic Space Moving Landro Fox Cities Realty Fan Purpose

Input 1

Canada Helping for people‟s homes It is not the fan of Hillary or Trump Expand their business

Leaving places Selling home 50% for Hillary 50% for Trump Taking advantage

Figure (48) Landro Fox Cities Realty

Input 2

Hearing of US people if so and so gets elected, we are moving to Canada

Frame: Politics

Blend

Marketing

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Ad. (32) Make America hite again.

(Rick Tayler for Congress.com, 2016)

"Make America Great Again." The word „white‟ in the expression does not refer to as a white color, but Trump means white skin people who have been in America and they have achieved more in the way of technology, culture and innovation than the nonwhite civilizations of history. The inputs have two different frames: „speech of Trump‟ and „America‟s future‟. The blend is constructed by the frames of speech of Trump and America‟s future. It shows double-scope network. So, the blend is double-scope. Generic Space

Input 1

America‟s Candidate Color Race Purpose Restoration of America

White people White skin Christian Taking America back to 1959 Ruin everything with color

Donald Trump No black skin No Muslim Fans of Trump Life was in black and white

Figure (49) Make America Great Again

Input 2

Trump wants racism, make America white, and avoid Muslim immigration

Frame: Speech of Trump

Blend

America‟s future

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Ad. (33) Text and Drive.

(Walthan Funeral Home, 2016)

On the billboard is written Text and drive, under that is written Walthan Funeral Home. The billboard is delivering a dark advertisement for a funeral home but there's more to it than meets the eye. The campaign metaphorically uses text and drive which appears to be urging drivers to engage in the dangerous act of texting while driving to drum up business for Walthan Funeral Home, the billboard it is actually a public service announcement in disguise. Below is the true nature of the campaign. "If you're here, you've probably seen our "Text and Drive" billboard. And if you have, you probably came to this website to tell us what horrible people we are for running an ad like that. And you'd be right. “It is a horrible thing for a funeral home to do. “But we're not a funeral home. “We‟re just trying to get Canadians to stop texting and driving, which is projected to kill more people in Ontario this year than drinking and driving. That's right. More. And while most people wouldn't even think about drinking and driving, over half of Ontario drivers admit to reading texts while behind the wheel. That's more than half of the drivers on the road today risking their lives, their passengers‟ lives and the lives of their fellow motorists and pedestrians. "Which should make you even madder than our billboard did. The frame „text‟ is represented by the elements of input 1 and the frame „drive‟ is represented by the elements of input 2. The frames of „text‟ and „drive‟ make the construction of the blend; the blend is double-scope type of blend.

125

Generic space

Driving Killing Purpose Destination

Input 1

Input 2 Drive Busy while behind the wheel Stop texting during driving Going to Walthan Funeral Home

Text Reading texts or emails Safe people Texting while driving They are not funeral home but want to reduce the risk of people‟s lives

Blend Figure (50) Text and Drive

Frame: Text Drive

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Ad. (34) Size matters.

(Renuance Cosmetic Surgery Center, 2016)

The ad shows two cups of coffee, the smaller one labeled B and the bigger one labeled D with the caption, "size matters." Women say the message is anti-woman and they are speaking out against it. They think, it's offensive because they don't think size matters. Dr. Brian Eichenberg as a board-certified plastic surgeon, he says he didn't mean to offend anyone. Instead he says his work is all about empowering women. Dr. Eichenberg said, "The billboard is meant to be a joke or satire and it's meant to promote discussion. We don't want women to honestly think that size matters or their breasts should be bigger or smaller." Input 1 show the frame of „big breast‟ which is indicated by the elements of input 1, and it has relationships with the frame of „small breast‟ which is indicated by the elements of input 2. The elements of one input construct the blend and it becomes single-scope. Generic Space

Input 1

Size Matters Understanding Purpose

Input 2

Big No matter Just joking Empowering women

Small No matter Offensive Encourage women

Size matters for empowering women and make them feel great

Frame: Big breast Small breast

Blend Figure (51) Size Matters

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Ad.(35) Where White People Meet.

(Where White People Meet, 2016)

Utah billboard advertising is for joining white people by the website „where white people meet. com‟. The website campaign says „We believe that dating is about choices‟ also they say „You should be able to choose what dating sites you join based on your likes and preferences.‟ They use metaphoric expression by asking question where white people meet. They want to join only white people not the other skin color. The explanation of this is like ad (34). Only the frame of white skin color constructs the blend; the blend is single-scope. Generic Space Skin color Rules Liberty and happiness Preference

Input 1

Black color Rules

Input 2

White skin color Agree to abide by the rules Find the perfect partner Join where white people meet for dating

Find the perfect partner Choose black skin

Where white people meet for joining white people to choose liberty and happiness

Frame: White people Black people

Blend Figure (52) Where White People Meet

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Ad. (36) Lincoln Park. (Snapchat, 2016) Snapchat has been running 50 static billboard ads that cleverly wink and nod at its users in several cities. In each case, the ephemeral app's main image for the roadside billboards represents a geofilter for that specific area. (Geofilters allow Snapchatters to overlay a graphic on their photos, transforming such images with more color while letting users share their location with followers.) The billboards do not include the Snapchat logo, making them sneakily fun for users in those cities, as non-users will be left in the dark. The creative in each instance is the work of Snapchat users via the platform's Community Geofilters. In this billboard the expression Lincoln Park is written on it with the effect of snapchat app. The elements of the generic space have the same correspondences with the elements of the inputs. Each element in input1 has cross-space correspondence with the element of input 2, their relationships is showed by the solid lines. The inputs have different frames: „App‟ and „users‟, both of them participate for the construction of the blend. Fig (53) is double scope network; both frames app and users construct the blend. Generic Space

Snapchat Effect Information Input

Input 1

Input 2

Users

App

Add geofilters

Pictures, videos

Users have information

Non users are in the dark

Figure (53) Snapchat

Snapchat is a fun messaging app. users can take a photo or a video with it, then add a caption or doodle or lens graphic over top, and send it to a friend.

Blend

Frame: App Users

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Ad. (37) They are coming when they are coming they will take the fat ones first! (Fit4less, 2016) On the billboard is written „they are coming when they are coming they will take the fat ones first!‟ also, there is a picture of the aliens beside the written form. The billboard for a gym in England is scientifically improvable claim that when aliens invade our planet, "they'll take the fat ones first." People think about the ad as offensive about fat people while the gym, Fit4Less claim by saying that it wasn't meant to be offensive and "we all know how hard it is to lose weight. Sometimes humor helps make things easier, and can even be motivational." The explanation of this is like ad (36).This Figure is double-scope networks. Generic Space

Input 1

People Alien Tactic Fit4less

Input 2

Slim Take the slim ones second or third Use improvable science to lose weight To be slim

Fat Take fat ones first No alien Lose weight Fit4less uses humor to make things easier and be motivational for fat people to lose their weight

Blend Figure (54) Fit4less

Frame: Fat Slim

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Ad.(38) Muslims to Muslims: see something say something. (Muslim Group, 2016) The following message is displayed on separate billboards: “Muslims to Muslims: See Something. Say Something. Save Innocent Lives.” Chicago Muslim group combats Islamophobia with the billboard. The elements of the inputs mirror each other and they make the blend be mirror network. Generic Space Islam See something Say something Purpose

Input 1

Input 2

Muslims

Pure and peaceful

Seeing strange person

Alert the authority

Telling what they have seen

Protecting human bodies

Spreading peace

Condemn all violence

Muslims are peaceful and condemn all violence in order to keep human and nation safe

Blend Figure (55) Muslims

Frame: The nature of Muslim

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Ad.(39) Quit plan. com.

(Clear Way Minnesota, 2016)

On the billboard is written quit plan.com and the pole of the billboard becomes a crumpled cigarette butt. The billboard shows a visual pun while verbal form is euphemism because it does not refer smoking as an unpleasant or embarrassing thing. It has a plan to avoid smoking by writing quit plan, quit plan to practice, and decide to give up. When you decide to become tobacco-free, figuring out where to start can seem a little overwhelming. Quit Plan Services want to help in any way possible, whether using their free tools or not. That‟s why they have pulled together a lot of information on different ways to help people quit. No matter how people do it, they are in peoples‟ corner. The elements of the inputs mirror each other, also the elements of the blend mirror the other elements; the blend is mirror type. Generic Space

People Quit plan

Input 1

Input 2

Cigarettes

Smoking

Supporting people

People will be tobacco-free

Quit plan supports people to become Tobacco-free

Blend Figure (56) Quit plan

Frame: Giving up smoking

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Ad. (40) Hate Cops. (Gibson, 2016) The billboard is about police who killed African-American men. People see the billboard as a “discriminatory.” These expressions are written on it “Hate cops? The next time you need help call a crackhead.” African-American men use metaphoric expression by saying hate cops, they mean that they hate cops not all people. The frames: „protecting‟ and „killing‟ are represented by the elements of the inputs. The elements of input 1 represent the frame of „protecting‟. The elements of input 2 represent the frame of „killing‟. The elements of input 1 have cross-space correspondences with the elements of input 2 which are showed by the solid lines. Both of the frames construct the blend. So, the figure shows that the blend is double-scope type of blend. Generic Space

Hate Cops Black men Discriminatory Need help

Input 1

Input 2 Protect people

Killing people Killed by the cops They will hate each other For helping next time

Feeling hatred Different classes Call crack head

Figure (57) Hate Cops

Hate cops comes after killing some African-American men in a protest

Frame: Protecting Killing

Blend

133

Advertisement

Types of Conceptual Blending Networks

Table (5) Analysis of the Selected Advertisements in Billboards

31

Double-scope

32

Double-scope

33

Double-scope



34

Single-scope



35

Single-scope

36

Double-scope



37

Double-scope



38

Mirror

39

Mirror

40

Double-scope

 



  

Idiom

Simile

Euphemism

Pun

Personification

Hyperbole

Polysemy

Metonymy

Metaphor

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual Blending

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5.2 Results Analysis The following tables show the results of the analysis

Table (6) Frequency and Percentage of Types of Blending and Types of

Types of Blending

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual

0

1

3

Percentage 0

30

40

30

20

0

10

%

%

%

%

%

%

% Total

10 (100%)

Idiom

Hyperbole

2

Simile

Polysemy

3

Euphemism

Metonymy

4

Pun

Metaphor

3

Personification

Double-scope

Frequency 0

Simplex

Single-scope

Blending

Mirror

Advertisement in Magazine

Figurative Language in the advertisements of Magazine

1

0

0

1

2

30 10

0

0

10

20

%

%

%

%

%

%

10 (100%)

Table (6) shows that one of the dominant types of blend which is used in the ads of magazine is single-scope; it takes 40% of the ads in FL. The frequent figure of speech which is used in magazine is hyperbole; it takes 30% of the ads while metaphor and idiom have the same percentage 20% of the ads in magazine.

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Table (7) Frequency and Percentage of Types of Blending and Types of Figurative Language in the Advertisements of Newspaper Types of Blending

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual

Mirror

Single-scope

Double-scope

Metaphor

Metonymy

Polysemy

Hyperbole

Personification

Pun

Euphemism

Simile

Idiom

2

4

1

5

0

2

2

0

0

0

0

1

30 20

40

10

50

0

20% 20 0

0

0

0

10

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Frequency

3

Percentage

Newspaper

Simplex

Advertisement in

Blending

Total

%

10 (100%)

%

%

10 (100%)

Table (7) shows the results of types of CB in types of FL of newspaper ads. The single-scope type of blend takes the dominant type than the other types of blend; it takes 40% while simplex takes 30%, mirror takes 20% and double-scope takes 10%. The more frequent use of FL in newspaper ads is metaphor; it takes 50%, this shows that half of the ad in newspaper is metaphor.

136

Table (8) Frequency and Percentage of Types of Blending and Types of

Types of Blending

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual

Double-scope

Metaphor

Metonymy

Polysemy

Hyperbole

Personification

Pun

Euphemism

Simile

Idiom

Frequency 2

2

1

5

3

3

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

Percentage 20

20

10

50

30

30

10

10 0

0

0

10 10

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Total

Simplex

Single-scope

Blending

Mirror

Advertisement in Brochure

Figurative Language in the Advertisements of Brochure

10 (100%)

%

%

10 (100%)

In table (8) the frequent type of blend is double-scope which takes half of the ads of brochure, while simplex and mirror have the same percentage which is 20% of ads in brochure. The figures of speech metaphor and metonymy have the same percentage which is 30% of ads in brochure.

137

Table (9) Frequency and Percentage of Types of Blending and Types of Figurative Language in the Advertisements of Billboard

Advertise

Types of Blending

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual

ment in

Blending

Metonymy

Polysemy

Hyperbole

Personification

Pun

6

3

1

0

0

0

5

Percentage 0

20

20

60

30

10

0%

0

0

50 10

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

% Total

10 (100%)

Idiom

Metaphor

2

Simile

Double-scope

2

Euphemism

Single-scope

Frequency 0

Simplex

Mirror

Billboard

1

0

0

0%

0%

%

10 (100%)

Table (9) shows the double-scope type of CB takes more than half of billboard ads, while the other types of CB take a small amount of billboard ads. The most used of figures of speech in billboard ads is pun; it takes half percentage of billboard ads.

138

Types of Conceptual Blending Networks

Table (10) the Frequency of Figurative Language in Simplex Type of Conceptual Blending

0 0

0 0

0 0

Idiom

Simile

1 1

Euphemism

1 1

Pun

0 0

Personification

Hyperbole

3 3

Polysemy

Simplex Frequency Total

Metonymy

Metaphor

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual Blending

0 0

0 0

5

In table (10) metaphor is found in simplex type of CB more than the other types of FL.

Mirror Frequency Total

1 1

1 1

2 2

2 2

0 0

0 0

1 1

Idiom

Simile

Euphemism

Pun

Personification

Hyperbole

Polysemy

Metonymy

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual Blending

Metaphor

Types of Conceptual Blending Networks

Table (11) Frequency of Figurative Language in Mirror Type of Conceptual Blending

1 1

1 1

9

Table (11) shows that the dominant figures of speech in mirror type of CB are polysemy and hyperbole, they have the same frequencies 2.

139

Single-scope Frequency Total

5 5

0 0

0 0

2 2

1 1 11

1 1

0 0

Idiom

Simile

Euphemism

Pun

Personification

Hyperbole

Polysemy

Metonymy

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual Blending

Metaphor

Types of Conceptual Blending Networks

Table (12) the Frequency of Figurative Language in Single-scope Type of Conceptual Blending

1 1

1 1

In table (12) metaphor occupies half of ads in single-scope type of CB, this shows that metaphor is more frequently used in single-scope type of blend.

Double-scope Frequency Total

4 4

3 3

1 1

1 1

0 0 15

4 4

0 0

0 0

Idiom

Simile

Euphemism

Pun

Personification

Hyperbole

Polysemy

Metonymy

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual Blending

Metaphor

Types of Conceptual Blending Networks

Table (13) the Frequency of Figurative Language in Double-scope Type of Conceptual Blending

2 2

Table (13) shows that metaphor is the dominant type of FL of ads in doublescope type of CB.

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Tables 10, 11, 12, and 13 show the frequencies of each figure of speech in each type of CB. Table (14) Frequency and Percentage of Types of Blending and Types of Figurative Language in Advertisements Types of Blending

Types of Figures of Speech in Conceptual

Single-scope

Double-scope

Metaphor

Metonymy

Polysemy

Hyperbole

Personification

Pun

Euphemism

Simile

Idiom

Frequency 5

Mirror

Simplex

All the Advertisements

Blending

9

11

15

13

4

4

6

1

5

1

2

4

Percentage 12.5 22.5 27.5 37.5 32.5 10 % Total

%

40 (100%)

%

%

%

%

10 % 15 %

2.5 12.5 2.5 5

10

%

%

%

%

%

40 (100%)

This table shows the results of all the ads that are taken in this study for finding different types of FL in different types of CB. First different types of blending are shown, the most dominant type of CB is double-scope 37.5%, and then followed by single-scope 27.5, after that mirror 22.5%, and simplex type of blend which takes the lowest rate 12.5%.Column three shows different types of figures of speech in conceptual blending. It begins with metaphor as the dominant use 32.5%, second hyperbole 15%, third pun 12.5%, fourth metonymy, polysemy and idiom have the same rate 10%, fifth simile 5%, and the last ones are personification and euphemism which have the same and the lowest rate 2.5%.

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5.3 Findings Based on the results analysis and discussion, the following findings have been arrived at: 1. In simplex type of CB, metaphor is more frequent. This shows that simplex type of CB can be found in metaphor rather than the other types of FL of ads. 2. The figures of speech: polysemy and hyperbole have the dominant rate in mirror type of CB. Mirror type of CB in FL of ads mostly happens in polysemy and hyperbole. 3. In single-scope type of CB, the most frequent type of FL of ads is metaphor 50%. It occupies half of figures of speech of ads in single-scope type of blend. 4.

In double-scope type of CB, metaphor occupies 40% of the rate. This shows that metaphoric expression of ads have two frames to construct blending in metaphor.

5. Double-scope type of blend is the dominant type in FL of ads with 37.5% among the other types of blend. This implies that FL of ads has two frames and both of the frames lead to construct the blend. 6. Metaphor in the language of ads is the more dominant than the other types of FL of ads.

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CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 6.1 Conclusions In the light of the previous discussion of results and the findings arrived at, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Conceptual blending is constructed by four mental spaces; two input spaces, generic space, and blended space. The figurative language of written advertisements should contain four mental spaces. 2. The language of written advertisements is full of figures of speech. Each figure of speech constructs the blend differently. When the construction of the blend is different; the blend goes into its different types: simplex, mirror, single-scope and double-scope. This verifies that the figurative language of written advertisements does not follow one type of blend. 3. The figures of speech of written advertisements involve mappings between elements in two distinct domains and integration of information from these two domains, while conceptual blending has more than two spaces for the analysis of those figures of speech which have more than two domains. 4. All the types of CB have been found in the figurative language of written advertisements. One of the most dominant types of CB which has been found is double-scope. Most of the figures of speech have two frames and both of the frames or the elements of the two inputs lead to the construction of the blended space. 5. The language of written advertisements has varied rates in the analysis of conceptual blending; metaphor as the figurative language of written advertisements has the highest rate. This can account for the reasons

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companies rely on metaphoric language rather than the other types of figurative language. 6. Metaphoric language occurs more frequently in the single-scope type of conceptual blending rather than in the other types of blending. 7. In simplex type of CB, metaphor is more frequent. This shows that simplex type of CB can be found in metaphor rather than the other types of FL of ads. 8. The figures of speech: polysemy and hyperbole have the dominant rate in mirror type of CB. Mirror type of CB in FL of ads mostly happens in polysemy and hyperbole. 9.

In double-scope type of CB, metaphor occupies 40% of the rate. This shows that metaphoric expression of ads have two frames to construct blending in metaphor.

9.2 Suggestions for Further Research The following topics are suggested for further research: 1. Investigating conceptual blending in Kurdish and English. 2. Investigating conceptual blending in different advertisements modes. 3. Investigating figurative language in multiple blending.

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APPENDICES Appendix (A) Magazine Advertisements from (New York Magazine, 11 July 2016 and Women's Health USA, 28 June 2016).

Fig (18) Gleanwood

Fig (19) Elegant Modern Residence

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Fig (20) Natrol Biotin

Fig (21) Neighborwood Maps

Fig (22) Thai Deodorant

Fig (23) Paula‟s Choice

159

Fig (24) Propel Electrolyte Water

Fig (25) Turkey

Fig (26) Iced Tea

160

Fig (27) The Champion‟s coming

Appendix (B) Newspaper’s Advertisements from (The Eagle. 7 August 2016 and Nydailynews, 18 August 2016).

Fig (28) Green Teams

161

Fig (29) CICI‟s Pizza

Fig (30) Copy Corner

Fig (31) Community

Fig (32) House- Retail

162

Fig (33) Brooklyn Tomato

Fig (34) House Calls

Fig (35) Sylvia‟s Restaurant

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Fig (36) the Bay Terrace

Fig (37) Waldorf School

Appendix (C) Brochure Advertisements from (Trafalgar, 3 September 2016 and Tupperware, 12 September 2016).

164

Fig (38) Travellers

Fig (39) Taste of Culture

Fig (40) the Right Hotels

Fig (41) Trails of Liberty

165

Fig (42) Conquistadors, Sacred Valleys and Inca

Fig (43) Power Chef System

166

Fig (44) Chef Series II Cookware

Fig (45) Plastic Toys

Fig (46) Modular Mates Containers

Fig (47) Tupperware Cars

167

Appendix (D) Billboard Appendix in 2016 from ((Landro Fox Cities Realty, Rick Tayler for Congress.com, Walthan Funeral Home, Renuance Cosmetic Surgery Center, Where White People Meet, Snapchat, Fit4Less, Muslim Group, and Quit plan .com).

Fig (48) Landro Fox Cities Realty

Fig (49) Make America Great Again

Fig (50) Text and Drive

168

Fig (51) Size Matters

Fig (52) Where White People Meet

Fig (53) Snapchat

Fig (54) Fit4less

169

Fig (55) Muslims

Fig (56) Quit plan

Fig (57) Hate Cops

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